WorldWideScience

Sample records for all-sky earth occultation

  1. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850-2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Yokohata, T.; Kawase, H.

    2012-06-01

    The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280-315 nm) radiation through 1850-2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N-60° N and 120° E-150° E), where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70%) dominates the total UV-B change.

  2. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites.…

  3. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, with a single instrument, a wide-field spectral imager. SPHEREx will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power in two deep fields located near the ecliptic poles. Following in the tradition of all-sky missions such as IRAS, COBE and WISE, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey. SPHEREx will create spectra (0.75 – 4.2 um at R = 41; and 4.2 – 5 um at R = 135) with high sensitivity making background-limited observations using a passively-cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps that will serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community. With over a billion detected galaxies, hundreds of millions of high-quality stellar and galactic spectra, and over a million ice absorption spectra, the archive will enable diverse scientific investigations including studies of young stellar systems, brown dwarfs, high-redshift quasars, galaxy clusters, the interstellar medium, asteroids and comets. All aspects of the instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the

  5. All-Sky Monitoring of Variable Sources with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Pater; Rodi, James C.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the monitoring of variable sources with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It reviews the use of the Earth Occultation technique, the observations of the Crab Nebula with the GBM, and the comparison with other satellite's observations. The instruments on board the four satellites indicate a decline in the Crab from 2008-2010.

  6. Fluctuations of radio occultation signals in sounding the Earth's atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the relationships that link the observed fluctuation spectra of the amplitude and phase of signals used for the radio occultation sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, with the spectra of atmospheric inhomogeneities. Our analysis employs the approximation of the phase screen and of weak fluctuations. We make our estimates for the following characteristic inhomogeneity types: (1 the isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and (2 the anisotropic saturated internal gravity waves. We obtain the expressions for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of radio occultation signals as well as their estimates for the typical parameters of inhomogeneity models. From the GPS/MET observations, we evaluate the spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations in the altitude interval from 4 to 25 km in the middle and polar latitudes. As indicated by theoretical and experimental estimates, the main contribution into the radio signal fluctuations comes from the internal gravity waves. The influence of the Kolmogorov turbulence is negligible. We derive simple relationships that link the parameters of internal gravity waves and the statistical characteristics of the radio signal fluctuations. These results may serve as the basis for the global monitoring of the wave activity in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  7. The all-sky 408 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, C.G.T.; Salter, C.J.; Stoffel, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline of the results of this survey is presented. The 408 MHz All-sky Survey has been made from four radio continuum surveys observed between 1965 and 1978, using the Jodrell Bank MKI telescope (Haslam et al., 1970), the Effelsberg 100 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1974) and the Parkes 64 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1975). A detailed description of the survey data reduction and calibration methods, with preliminary astronomical results will soon be published (Haslam et al., 1980a) and a second paper will give an atlas of maps at the full survey resolution of 51' arc between half power points (Haslam et al., 1980b). A map, smoothed to a gaussian beam with resolution between half power poitns of 3 0 , is presented. (Auth.)

  8. Reflective all-sky thermal infrared cloud imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Brian J; Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Clark, R Trevor; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2018-04-30

    A reflective all-sky imaging system has been built using a long-wave infrared microbolometer camera and a reflective metal sphere. This compact system was developed for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of clouds and their optical depth in support of applications including Earth-space optical communications. The camera is mounted to the side of the reflective sphere to leave the zenith sky unobstructed. The resulting geometric distortion is removed through an angular map derived from a combination of checkerboard-target imaging, geometric ray tracing, and sun-location-based alignment. A tape of high-emissivity material on the side of the reflector acts as a reference that is used to estimate and remove thermal emission from the metal sphere. Once a bias that is under continuing study was removed, sky radiance measurements from the all-sky imager in the 8-14 μm wavelength range agreed to within 0.91 W/(m 2 sr) of measurements from a previously calibrated, lens-based infrared cloud imager over its 110° field of view.

  9. An All-Sky Portable (ASP) Optical Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Eric Wim

    2017-06-01

    This optical catalogue combines the all-sky USNO-B1.0/A1.0 and most-sky APM catalogues, plus overlays of SDSS optical data, into a single all-sky map presented in a sparse binary format that is easily downloaded at 9 Gb zipped. Total count is 1 163 237 190 sources and each has J2000 astrometry, red and blue magnitudes with PSFs and variability indicator, and flags for proper motion, epoch, and source survey and catalogue for each of the photometry and astrometry. The catalogue is available on http://quasars.org/asp.html, and additional data for this paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.4225/50/5807fbc12595f.

  10. The WATCH All-Sky Monitor for the Granat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Rao, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Watch X-ray all-sky monitor, which is designed to localize strong X-ray sources and follow their development, is examined, focusing on the addition of four Watch units to the Granat satellite project. The components of the Watch instrument are described and the capabilities and potential...... scientific returns of the Granat project are discussed. The applications of the Watch monitor are given, including the study of time variations of known sources and the detection and localization of new, transient sources....

  11. 2MASS - The 2 Micron All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new sky survey to be carried out in three wavebands, J(1.25 m), H(1.65 m), and K(2.2 m). The limiting sensitivity of the survey, 10 sigma detection of point sources with K not greater than 14 mag, coupled with its all-sky coverage, were selected primarily to support studies of the large-scale structure of the Milky Way and the Local Universe. The survey requires construction of a pair of observing facilities, one each for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Operations are scheduled to begin in 1995. The data will begin becoming publicly available soon thereafter.

  12. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  13. Detecting TLEs using a massive all-sky camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnung, M. B.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) are large-scale optical events occurring in the upper-atmosphere from the top of thunderclouds up to the ionosphere. TLEs may have important effects in local, regional, and global scales, and many features of TLEs are not fully understood yet [e.g, Pasko, JGR, 115, A00E35, 2010]. Moreover, meteor events have been suggested to play a role in sprite initiation by producing ionospheric irregularities [e.g, Qin et al., Nat. Commun., 5, 3740, 2014]. The French Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network (FRIPON, https://www.fripon.org/?lang=en), is a national all-sky 30 fps camera network designed to continuously detect meteor events. We seek to make use of this network to observe TLEs over unprecedented space and time scales ( 1000×1000 km with continuous acquisition). To do so, we had to significantly modify FRIPON's triggering software Freeture (https://github.com/fripon/freeture) while leaving the meteor detection capability uncompromised. FRIPON has a great potential in the study of TLEs. Not only could it produce new results about spatial and time distributions of TLEs over a very large area, it could also be used to validate and complement observations from future space missions such as ASIM (ESA) and TARANIS (CNES). In this work, we present an original image processing algorithm that can detect sprites using all-sky cameras while strongly limiting the frequency of false positives and our ongoing work on sprite triangulation using the FRIPON network.

  14. The Sondrestrom Research Facility All-sky Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.; Grill, M.; Gudmundsson, E.; Stromme, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility is located near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, just north of the Arctic Circle and 100 km inland from the west coast of Greenland. The facility is operated by SRI International in Menlo Park, California, under the auspices of the U.S. National Science Foundation. Operating in Greenland since 1983, the Sondrestrom facility is host to more than 20 instruments, the majority of which provide unique and complementary information about the arctic upper atmosphere. Together these instruments advance our knowledge of upper atmospheric physics and determine how the tenuous neutral gas interacts with the charged space plasma environment. The suite of instrumentation supports many disciplines of research - from plate tectonics to auroral physics and space weather. The Sondrestrom facility has recently acquired two new all-sky imagers. In this paper, we present images from both new imagers, placing them in context with other instruments at the site and detailing to the community how to gain access to this new data set. The first new camera replaces the intensified auroral system which has been on site for nearly three decades. This new all-sky imager (ASI), designed and assembled by Keo Scientific Ltd., employs a medium format 180° fisheye lens coupled to a set of five 3-inch narrowband interference filters. The current filter suite allows operation at the following wavelengths: 750 nm, 557.7 nm, 777.4 nm, 630.0 nm, and 732/3 nm. Monochromatic images from the ASI are acquired at a specific filter and integration time as determined by a unique configuration file. Integrations as short as 0.5 sec can be commanded for exceptionally bright features. Preview images are posted to the internet in near real-time, with final images posted weeks later. While images are continuously collected in a "patrol mode," users can request special collection sequences for targeted experiments. The second new imager installed at the Sondrestrom

  15. Gaia , an all sky astrometric and photometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaia space mission includes a low resolution spectroscopic instrument to classify and parametrize the observed sources. Gaia is a full-sky unbiased survey down to about 20th magnitude. The scanning law yields a rather uniform coverage of the sky over the full mission. The data reduction is a global one over the full mission. Both sky coverage and data reduction strategy ensure an unprecedented all-sky homogeneous spectrophotometric survey. Certainly, that survey is of interest for future on-ground and space projects (LSST, PLATO, EUCLID, ...). This work addresses the exploitation of the Gaia spectrophotometry as standard photometry reference through the discussion of the sky coverage, the spectrophotometric precision and the expected uncertainties of the synthetic photometry derived from the low resolution Gaia spectra and photometry.

  16. Using All-Sky Imaging to Improve Telescope Scheduling (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Automated scheduling makes it possible for a small telescope to observe a large number of targets in a single night. But when used in areas which have less-than-perfect sky conditions such automation can lead to large numbers of observations of clouds and haze. This paper describes the development of a "sky-aware" telescope automation system that integrates the data flow from an SBIG AllSky340c camera with an enhanced dispatch scheduler to make optimum use of the available observing conditions for two highly instrumented backyard telescopes. Using the minute-by-minute time series image stream and a self-maintained reference database, the software maintains a file of sky brightness, transparency, stability, and forecasted visibility at several hundred grid positions. The scheduling software uses this information in real time to exclude targets obscured by clouds and select the best observing task, taking into account the requirements and limits of each instrument.

  17. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a set of methods to detect meteor light traces captured by all-sky CCD cameras. Operating at small automatic observatories (stations), these cameras create a network spread over a large territory. Image data coming from these stations are merged in one central node. Since a vast amount of data is collected by the stations in a single night, robotic storage and analysis are essential to processing. The proposed methodology is adapted to data from a network of automatic stations equipped with digital fish-eye cameras and includes data capturing, preparation, pre-processing, analysis, and finally recognition of objects in time sequences. In our experiments we utilized real observed data from two stations.

  18. All-sky photogrammetry techniques to georeference a cloud field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispel, Pierre; Roberts, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we present a novel method of identifying and geolocalizing cloud field elements from a portable all-sky camera stereo network based on the ground and oriented towards zenith. The methodology is mainly based on stereophotogrammetry which is a 3-D reconstruction technique based on triangulation from corresponding stereo pixels in rectified images. In cases where clouds are horizontally separated, identifying individual positions is performed with segmentation techniques based on hue filtering and contour detection algorithms. Macroscopic cloud field characteristics such as cloud layer base heights and velocity fields are also deduced. In addition, the methodology is fitted to the context of measurement campaigns which impose simplicity of implementation, auto-calibration, and portability. Camera internal geometry models are achieved a priori in the laboratory and validated to ensure a certain accuracy in the peripheral parts of the all-sky image. Then, stereophotogrammetry with dense 3-D reconstruction is applied with cameras spaced 150 m apart for two validation cases. The first validation case is carried out with cumulus clouds having a cloud base height at 1500 m a.g.l. The second validation case is carried out with two cloud layers: a cumulus fractus layer with a base height at 1000 m a.g.l. and an altocumulus stratiformis layer with a base height of 2300 m a.g.l. Velocity fields at cloud base are computed by tracking image rectangular patterns through successive shots. The height uncertainty is estimated by comparison with a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer located on the site. The uncertainty on the horizontal coordinates and on the velocity field are theoretically quantified by using the experimental uncertainties of the cloud base height and camera orientation. In the first cumulus case, segmentation of the image is performed to identify individuals clouds in the cloud field and determine the horizontal positions of the cloud centers.

  19. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Th.; Freyberg, M. J.; Trümper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. Methods: We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4° × 6.4° sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the variable point-spread function (PSF) across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. X-ray control images showing the source and background extraction regions were generated, which were visually inspected. Simulations were performed to assess the spurious source content of the 2RXS catalogue. X-ray spectra and light curves were extracted for the 2RXS sources, with spectral and variability parameters derived from these products. Results: We obtained about 135 000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5, as adopted in the 1RXS faint source catalogue. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spurious detections. A more conservative likelihood threshold of 9, on the other hand, yields about 71 000 detections with a 5% spurious fraction. We recommend thresholds appropriate to the scientific application. X-ray images and overlaid X-ray contour lines provide an additional user product to evaluate the detections visually, and we performed our own visual inspections to flag uncertain detections. Intra-day variability in the X-ray light curves was quantified based on the

  20. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  1. Dusty WDs in the WISE all sky survey ∩ SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Sara D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: barber@nhn.ou.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    A recent cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 White Dwarf Catalog with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm performed by Debes et al. resulted in the discovery of 52 candidate dusty white dwarfs (WDs). However, the 6'' WISE beam allows for the possibility that many of the excesses exhibited by these WDs may be due to contamination from a nearby source. We present MMT+SAO Wide-Field InfraRed Camera J- and H-band imaging observations (0.''5-1.''5 point spread function) of 16 of these candidate dusty WDs and confirm that four have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) consistent with a dusty disk and are not accompanied by a nearby source contaminant. The remaining 12 WDs have contaminated WISE photometry and SEDs inconsistent with a dusty disk when the contaminating sources are not included in the photometry measurements. We find the frequency of disks around single WDs in the WISE ∩ SDSS sample to be 2.6%-4.1%. One of the four new dusty WDs has a mass of 1.04 M {sub ☉} (progenitor mass 5.4 M {sub ☉}) and its discovery offers the first confirmation that massive WDs (and their massive progenitor stars) host planetary systems.

  2. Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Peele, A. G.; Nugent, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    We set forth a conceptual design for x-ray all-sky monitor based on lobster-eye wide-field telescopes. This instrument, suitable for a small satellite, would monitor the flux of objects as faint as 2x10 -15 W/m 2 (0.5-2.4 keV) on a daily basis with a signal-to-noise of 5. Sources would be located to 1-2 arc-minutes. Detailed simulations show that crosstalk from the cruciform lobster images would not significantly compromise performance. At this sensitivity limit, we could monitor not just x-ray binaries but fainter classes of x-ray sources. Hundreds of active galactic nuclei, coronal sources, and cataclysmic variables could be tracked on a daily basis. Large numbers of fast transients should be visible, including gamma-ray bursts and the soft x-ray breakout of nearby type II supernovae. Long-term x-ray measurements will advance our understanding of the geometries and perhaps masses of AGN, and coronal energy sources in stars

  3. Current Status of The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis; Creighton, Teviet; Jenet, Fredrick; Dolch, Timothy; Boehler, Keith; Bres, Luis; Cole, Brent; Luo, Jing; Miller, Rossina; Murray, James; Reyes, Alex; Rivera, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of cross-dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 10 to 88 MHz. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual- polarization dipole antenna stands. The primary science goals of LoFASM will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients, a high priority science goal as deemed by the National Research Council’s ASTRO2010 decadal survey. The data acquisition system for the LoFASM antenna array uses Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to implement a real time full Stokes spectrometer and data recorder. This poster presents an overview of the LoFASM Radio Telescope as well as the status of data analysis of initial commissioning observations.

  4. A prototype for the PASS Permanent All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Belmonte, J. A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, L. R.

    2004-10-01

    A prototype system for the Permanent All Sky Survey (PASS) project is presented. PASS is a continuous photometric survey of the entire celestial sphere with a high temporal resolution. Its major objectives are the detection of all giant-planet transits (with periods up to some weeks) across stars up to mag 10.5, and to deliver continuously photometry that is useful for the study of any variable stars. The prototype is based on CCD cameras with short focal length optics on a fixed mount. A small dome to house it at Teide Observatory, Tenerife, is currently being constructed. A placement at the antarctic Dome C is also being considered. The prototype will be used for a feasibility study of PASS, to define the best observing strategies, and to perform a detailed characterization of the capabilities and scope of the survey. Afterwards, a first partial sky surveying will be started with it. That first survey may be able to detect transiting planets during its first few hundred hours of operation. It will also deliver a data set around which software modules dealing with the various scientific objectives of PASS will be developed. The PASS project is still in its early phase and teams interested in specific scientific objectives, in providing technical expertise, or in participating with own observations are invited to collaborate.

  5. All-Sky Interferometry with Spherical Harmonic Transit Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.Richard [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Sigurdson, Kris [British Columbia U.; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Stebbins, Albert [Fermilab; Sitwell, Michael [British Columbia U.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope, a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics that allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-Loeve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor twenty below the 21cm signal even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the angle-frequency mode mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints compared to hypothetical foreground-free measurements. Beyond providing a natural real-world data analysis framework for 21cm telescopes now under construction and future experiments, this formalism allows accurate power spectrum forecasts to be made that include the interplay of design constraints and realistic experimental systematics with twenty-first century 21cm science.

  6. Gaia, an all-sky survey for standard photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J. M.; Weiler, M.; Jordi, C.; Fabricius, C.

    2017-03-01

    Gaia ESA's space mission (launched in 2013) includes two low resolution spectroscopic instruments (one in the blue, BP, and another in the red, RP, wavelength domains) to classify and derive the astrophysical parameters of the observed sources. As it is well known, Gaia is a full-sky unbiased survey down to about 20th magnitude. The scanning law yields a rather uniform coverage of the sky over the full extent (a minimum of 5 years) of the mission. Gaia data reduction is a global one over the full mission. Both sky coverage and data reduction strategy ensure an unprecedented all-sky homogeneous spectrophotometric survey. Certainly, that survey is of interest for current and future on-ground and space projects, like LSST, PLATO, EUCLID and J-PAS/J-PLUS among others. These projects will benefit from the large amount (more than one billion) and wide variety of objects observed by Gaia with good quality spectrophotometry. Synthetic photometry derived from Gaia spectrophotometry for any passband can be used to expand the set of standard sources for these new instruments to come. In the current Gaia data release scenario, BP/RP spectrophotometric data will be available in the third release (in 2018, TBC). Current preliminary results allow us to estimate the precision of synthetic photometry derived from the Gaia data. This already allows the preparation of the on-going and future surveys and space missions. We discuss here the exploitation of the Gaia spectrophotometry as standard reference due to its full-sky coverage and its expected photometric uncertainties derived from the low resolution Gaia spectra.

  7. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schweitzer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We

  8. IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K s band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h -1 ). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the ΛCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1σ confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h -1 . By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h -1 is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h -1 (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the ΛCDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only ∼80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate β ≡ Ω m 0.55 /b. The result is β = 0.38

  9. Examining Dense Data Usage near the Regions with Severe Storms in All-Sky Microwave Radiance Data Assimilation and Impacts on GEOS Hurricane Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Jin, Jianjun; McCarty, Will; El Akkraoui, Amal; Todling, Ricardo; Gelaro, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Many numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers assimilate radiances affected by clouds and precipitation from microwave sensors, with the expectation that these data can provide critical constraints on meteorological parameters in dynamically sensitive regions to make significant impacts on forecast accuracy for precipitation. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center assimilates all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave sensors such as all-sky GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), which includes the GEOS atmospheric model, the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) atmospheric analysis system, and the Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS). So far, most of NWP centers apply same large data thinning distances, that are used in clear-sky radiance data to avoid correlated observation errors, to all-sky microwave radiance data. For example, NASA GMAO is applying 145 km thinning distances for most of satellite radiance data including microwave radiance data in which all-sky approach is implemented. Even with these coarse observation data usage in all-sky assimilation approach, noticeable positive impacts from all-sky microwave data on hurricane track forecasts were identified in GEOS-5 system. The motivation of this study is based on the dynamic thinning distance method developed in our all-sky framework to use of denser data in cloudy and precipitating regions due to relatively small spatial correlations of observation errors. To investigate the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance on hurricane forecasts, several hurricane cases selected between 2016-2017 are examined. The dynamic thinning distance method is utilized in our all-sky approach to understand the sources and mechanisms to explain the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave radiance sensors like Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit

  10. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  11. LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Low-Frequency All- Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is an innovative new radio astronomy observatory. Designed and built by...Feb-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and

  12. ATLAS: A High-cadence All-sky Survey System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, J. L.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A. N.; Stalder, B.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Weiland, H. J.; Rest, A.

    2018-06-01

    Technology has advanced to the point that it is possible to image the entire sky every night and process the data in real time. The sky is hardly static: many interesting phenomena occur, including variable stationary objects such as stars or QSOs, transient stationary objects such as supernovae or M dwarf flares, and moving objects such as asteroids and the stars themselves. Funded by NASA, we have designed and built a sky survey system for the purpose of finding dangerous near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). This system, the “Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System” (ATLAS), has been optimized to produce the best survey capability per unit cost, and therefore is an efficient and competitive system for finding potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) but also for tracking variables and finding transients. While carrying out its NASA mission, ATLAS now discovers more bright (m day cadence. ATLAS discovered the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst independent of the high energy trigger and has released a variable star catalog of 5 × 106 sources. This is the first of a series of articles describing ATLAS, devoted to the design and performance of the ATLAS system. Subsequent articles will describe in more detail the software, the survey strategy, ATLAS-derived NEA population statistics, transient detections, and the first data release of variable stars and transient light curves.

  13. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 mu m data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a good repr...

  14. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  15. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  16. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  17. Comparison of auroral ovals from all-sky camera studies and from satellite photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, F.R.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made of the statistical auroral ovals determined by all-sky camera photographs with DMSP photographs for different degrees of geomagnetic activity. It is shown that the agreement between them is excellent. (author)

  18. All-sky radiance simulation of Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used as input to the RTTOV model to simulate cloud-affected SAPHIR radiances. ... All-sky radiance simulation; Megha tropiques; microwave SAPHIR sensor; radiative transfer; data ... versions of these non-linear processes (Ohring and.

  19. Association between substorm onsets in auroral all-sky images and geomagnetic Pi2pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T.; Ieda, A.; Teramoto, M.; Kawashima, T.

    2017-12-01

    Substorms are explosive disturbances in the magnetosphere and ionosphere of Earth. Substorm onsets are often identified usingsudden auroral brightenings (auroral breakup) or geomagnetic Pi2 pulsations. These auroral brightenings and Pi2 pulsations aresupposed to occur simultaneously within approximately 1 min of each other. However, as auroral brightenings typically includea two-stage development, this simultaneity is not straightforward. In this study, we clarify the correspondence between Pi2 pulsations and auroral brightenings, including the two-stage development.The first stage of the development is the sudden brightening of an auroral arc near the midnight (initial brightening)and the second stage is the poleward expansion of the auroral arc. We compared all-sky images (3 s resolution) in Canada andgeomagnetic observations (0.5-1 s resolution) in North and Central America, using data from the THEMIS project. In this study,we examined three substorms events that exhibit evidence of the two-stage auroral development. In the first event (4 March 2008), an auroral initial brightening occurred at 0533:57 UT and a poleward expansion was observedat 0538:12 UT (4 min after the initial brightening) in Gillam (magnetic latitude:66.0 °, longitude:333 °, MLT:22.9). In contract,the Pi2 pulsation started at 0539:30 UT, which is closer to the time of the poleward expansion, in Carson City (magnetic latitude:45.0 °, longitude:304 °). and San Juan (magnetic latitude:27.9 °, longitude:6.53 °). Thus, we consider this Pi2 pulsation ascorresponding to the poleward expansion rather than the initial brightening. This correspondence was also seen in the other twoevents, suggesting that it is not exceptional. We interpret that the Pi2 pulsation corresponds to the poleward expansion becauseboth are caused by the magnetic field dipolarization, which is a drastic change that propagates from low- to high-latitude fieldlines.

  20. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.

  1. Review of all-sky camera data for the period Sep. 1 to Dec. 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The auroral and cloud conditions are presented in the form of a numerical code, in coordinate tables, the coordinates representing the date and universal time respectively. The compilation is intended to be a guide to available all-sky camera films, copies of which are supplied at self-cost prices by the Auroral Observatory. (JIW)

  2. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, E; Riles, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)

  3. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1. V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinberg, V.; Hell, N.; Pottschmidt, K.; Böck, M.; Nowak, M.A.; Rodriguez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Case, G.L.; Hanke, M.; Kühnel, M.; Markoff, S.; Pooley, G.G.; Rothschild, R.E.; Tomsick, J.A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme for determining the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). Determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different

  4. All-sky search for short gravitational-wave bursts in the first Advanced LIGO run

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.C.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Galiana, A. Fernandez; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, R.G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, H.C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath Hoareau, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, F.A.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerner, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J.R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Torya, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results from an all-sky search for short-duration gravitational waves in the data of the first run of the Advanced LIGO detectors between September 2015 and January 2016. The search algorithms use minimal assumptions on the signal morphology, so they are sensitive to a wide range of

  5. Planck early results. VIII. The all-sky early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This early SZ (ESZ) sample is comprised of 189 candidates, which have a high signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 6 to 29. Its ...

  6. Application of simple all-sky imagers for the estimation of aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Nikitidou, Efterpi; Salamalikis, Vasileios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Aerosol optical depth is a key atmospheric constituent for direct normal irradiance calculations at concentrating solar power plants. However, aerosol optical depth is typically not measured at the solar plants for financial reasons. With the recent introduction of all-sky imagers for the nowcasting of direct normal irradiance at the plants a new instrument is available which can be used for the determination of aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths. In this study, we are based on Red, Green and Blue intensities/radiances and calculations of the saturated area around the Sun, both derived from all-sky images taken with a low-cost surveillance camera at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain. The aerosol optical depth at 440, 500 and 675nm is calculated. The results are compared with collocated aerosol optical measurements and the mean/median difference and standard deviation are less than 0.01 and 0.03 respectively at all wavelengths.

  7. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey view of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Denner, K.; Kahabka, P.; Pakull, M.; Schaeidt, S.

    1996-01-01

    During the Rosat all sky survey, centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 516 X-ray sources were detected. The field was covered from July 1990 to January 1991. The X-ray parameters of the sources, involving position, count rates, hardness ratios, extent, and time variability during the observations, are discussed. Identifications with objects from optical, radio and infrared wavelength allow the LMC candidates to be separated from the foreground stars and the background objects.

  8. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    CERN Document Server

    Abergel, A; Aghanim, N; Alina, D; Alves, M I R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Grenier, I A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Joncas, G; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 857, 545 and 353 GHz, and IRAS 100 micron data. Using a modified black-body fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a tight representation of the data at 5 arcmin. It shows variations of the order of 30 % compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, tau_353/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_obs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at HI column densities lower than...

  9. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  10. WATCHDOG: A COMPREHENSIVE ALL-SKY DATABASE OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (∼40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ∼20 years. Our findings suggest that this “hard-only” behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these “hard-only” outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population

  11. Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10342 cold sources...... dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K...

  12. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  13. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR), SGR1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15 (Kouveliotou et al. 1998). Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6 deg segment of a narrow (19") annulus (Hurley et al. 1999; Woods et al. 1998). We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5'...

  14. Assimilating All-Sky Himawari-8 Satellite Infrared Radiances: A Case of Typhoon Soudelor (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takumi; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Lien, Guo-Yuan; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yoshida, Ryuji; Adachi, Sachiho A.; Terasaki, Koji; Okamoto, Kozo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Bessho, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Japan’s new geostationary satellite Himawari-8, the first of a series of the third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites includingGOES-16, has been operational since July 2015. Himawari-8 produces highresolution observations with 16 frequency bands every 10 min for full disk, and every 2.5 min for local regions. This study aims to assimilate all-sky every-10-min infrared (IR) radiances from Himawari-8 with a regional numerical weather prediction model and to investigate its impac...

  15. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  16. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  17. Imaging and mapping the impact of clouds on skyglow with all-sky photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Kolláth, Zoltán; Ribas, Salvador J; Spoelstra, Henk; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C M

    2017-07-27

    Artificial skyglow is constantly growing on a global scale, with potential ecological consequences ranging up to affecting biodiversity. To understand these consequences, worldwide mapping of skyglow for all weather conditions is urgently required. In particular, the amplification of skyglow by clouds needs to be studied, as clouds can extend the reach of skyglow into remote areas not affected by light pollution on clear nights. Here we use commercial digital single lens reflex cameras with fisheye lenses for all-sky photometry. We track the reach of skyglow from a peri-urban into a remote area on a clear and a partly cloudy night by performing transects from the Spanish town of Balaguer towards Montsec Astronomical Park. From one single all-sky image, we extract zenith luminance, horizontal and scalar illuminance. While zenith luminance reaches near-natural levels at 5 km distance from the town on the clear night, similar levels are only reached at 27 km on the partly cloudy night. Our results show the dramatic increase of the reach of skyglow even for moderate cloud coverage at this site. The powerful and easy-to-use method promises to be widely applicable for studies of ecological light pollution on a global scale also by non-specialists in photometry.

  18. Observation of the Coma cluster of galaxies with ROSAT during the all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, U. G.; Henry, J. P.; Boehringer, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Coma cluster of galaxies was observed with the position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) during the ROSAT all sky survey. We find evidence for substructure in this cluster. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected from the regions of the NGC 4839 and 4911 subgroups at 6 percent and 1 percent of the total cluster emission respectively. There may be emission associated with the NGC 4874 and 4889 subgroups as well. The NGC 4839 group appears to be in the process of merging with the cluster. These X-ray data show that at least some of the groups previously found in projection are in fact physical objects possessing potential wells deep enough to trap their own X-ray gas. Because of the unlimited field of view of the all sky survey and the low background of the PSPC, we were able to measure the azimuthally averaged surface brightness of Coma out to approximately 100 arcmin, twice as far as was previously possible. Given the validity of our mass models, these new X-ray data imply that within 5/h(50) Mpc the binding mass of the Coma cluster is 1.8 +/- 0.6 x 10 exp 15/h(50) solar mass, and the fraction of cluster mass contained in hot gas is 0.30 +/- 0.14h(50) exp -3/2. Furthermore, the binding mass is more centrally concentrated than is the X-ray gas.

  19. All-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Desjacques, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    We perform an all-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum using the well-developed spherical Fourier decomposition. Spherical Fourier analysis expresses the observed galaxy fluctuation in terms of the spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions that are angular and radial eigenfunctions of the Helmholtz equation, providing a natural orthogonal basis for all-sky analysis of the large-scale mode measurements. Accounting for all the relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, we compute the spherical power spectrum and its covariance matrix and compare it to the standard three-dimensional power spectrum to establish a connection. The spherical power spectrum recovers the three-dimensional power spectrum at each wave number k with its angular dependence μk encoded in angular multipole l, and the contributions of the line-of-sight projection to galaxy clustering such as the gravitational lensing effect can be readily accommodated in the spherical Fourier analysis. A complete list of formulas for computing the relativistic spherical galaxy power spectrum is also presented.

  20. SPHEREx: Probing the Physics of Inflation with an All-Sky Spectroscopic Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Olivier; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA’s astrophysics division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. These themes are addressed by a single survey, with a single instrument.In this poster, we describe how SPHEREx can probe the physics of inflationary non-Gaussianity by measuring large-scale structure with galaxy redshifts over a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-redshift surveys optimized to constrain dark energy.SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra. In particular, it will measure the redshifts of over 500 million galaxies of all types, an unprecedented dataset. Using this catalog, SPHEREx will reduce the uncertainty in fNL -- a parameter describing the inflationary initial conditions -- by a factor of more than 10 compared with CMB measurements. At the same time, this catalog will enable strong scientific synergies with Euclid, WFIRST and LSST

  1. SCANDI – an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky Fabry-Perot Interferometer called the Scanning Doppler Imager (SCANDI was built and installed at Longyearbyen in December 2006. Observations have been made of the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadening of the 630 nm airglow and aurora, from which upper thermospheric winds and temperatures are calculated. SCANDI allows measurements over a field-of-view (FOV with a horizontal radius of nearly 600 km for observations at an altitude of 250 km using a time resolution of 8 min. The instrument provides the ability to observe thermospheric spatial structure within a FOV which overlaps that of the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS SuperDARN radars. Coordinating with these instruments provides an important opportunity for studying ion-neutral coupling. The all-sky image is divided into several sectors to provide a horizontal spatial resolution of between 100–300 km. This is a powerful extension in observational capability but requires careful calibration and data analysis, as described here. Two observation modes were used: a fixed and a scanning etalon gap. SCANDI results are corroborated using the Longyearbyen single look direction FPI, and ESR measurements of the ion temperatures. The data show thermospheric temperature gradients of a few Kelvins per kilometre, and a great deal of meso-scale variability on spatial scales of several tens of kilometres.

  2. Improved analysis of all-sky meteor radar measurements of gravity wave variances and momentum fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Andrioli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using a composite day analysis for all-sky interferometric meteor radars when measuring mean winds and tides are widely known. On the other hand, problems arise if this technique is applied to Hocking's (2005 gravity wave analysis for all-sky meteor radars. In this paper we describe how a simple change in the procedure makes it possible to use a composite day in Hocking's analysis. Also, we explain how a modified composite day can be constructed to test its ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wave fields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the modified composite day allows characterization of monthly mean profiles of the gravity wave momentum fluxes, with good accuracy at least at the altitudes where the meteor counts are large (from 89 to 92.5 km. In the present work we also show that the variances measured with Hocking's method are often contaminated by the tidal fields and suggest a method of empirical correction derived from a simple simulation model. The results presented here greatly increase our confidence because they show that our technique is able to remove the tide-induced false variances from Hocking's analysis.

  3. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin; Kuzin, Sergey; Pertsov, Andrey; Berghmans, David; Dominique, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO) satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA) and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the extinction coefficients

  4. GASS: THE PARKES GALACTIC ALL-SKY SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION, GOALS, AND INITIAL DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Calabretta, M. R.; Ford, H. Alyson; Newton-McGee, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) emission in the Southern sky covering declinations δ ≤ 1 0 using the Parkes Radio Telescope. The survey covers 2π steradians with an effective angular resolution of ∼16', at a velocity resolution of 1.0 km s -1 , and with an rms brightness temperature noise of 57 mK. GASS is the most sensitive, highest angular resolution survey of Galactic H I emission ever made in the Southern sky. In this paper, we outline the survey goals, describe the observations and data analysis, and present the first-stage data release. The data product is a single cube at full resolution, not corrected for stray radiation. Spectra from the survey and other data products are publicly available online.

  5. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  6. Noctilucent cloud particle size determination based on multi-wavelength all-sky analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Galkin, Alexey A.; Pilgaev, Sergey V.; Roldugin, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the analysis of color distribution in noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the sky based on multi-wavelength (RGB) CCD-photometry provided with the all-sky camera in Lovozero in the north of Russia (68.0°N, 35.1°E) during the bright expanded NLC performance in the night of August 12, 2016. Small changes in the NLC color across the sky are interpreted as the atmospheric absorption and extinction effects combined with the difference in the Mie scattering functions of NLC particles for the three color channels of the camera. The method described in this paper is used to find the effective monodisperse radius of particles about 55 nm. The result of these simple and cost-effective measurements is in good agreement with previous estimations of comparable accuracy. Non-spherical particles, Gaussian and lognormal distribution of the particle size are also considered.

  7. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling....... The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  8. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Bradt, H. V.; Levine, A. M.

    1999-09-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR), SGR 1627--41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15 (Kouveliotou et al. 1998). Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6(deg) segment of a narrow (19('') ) annulus (Hurley et al. 1999; Woods et al. 1998). We report on two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5(') long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3(') of the supernova remnant (SNR) G337.0--0.1. The probability that a SNR would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~ 5%.

  9. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-07-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15. Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6° segment of a narrow (19") annulus. We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5' long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3 arcmin of the supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. The probability that a supernova remnant would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~5%.

  10. First low-frequency Einstein@Home all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.-F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Anderson, D. P.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1 /√{Hz }] . At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of 1.8 ×1 0-25. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of 3.9 ×1 0-24. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than 1 0-5 within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of 1038 kg m2 .

  11. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  12. THE 22 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Holland, S.; Ajello, M.; Beardmore, A.; Evans, P.; Godet, O.; Brandt, W. N.; Burrows, D.; Grupe, D.; Chincarini, G.; Campana, S.; Cusumano, G.; Fenimore, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in the first 22 months of data from the hard X-ray survey (14-195 keV) conducted with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded mask imager on the Swift satellite. The catalog contains 461 sources detected above the 4.8σ level with BAT. High angular resolution X-ray data for every source from Swift-XRT or archival data have allowed associations to be made with known counterparts in other wavelength bands for over 97% of the detections, including the discovery of ∼30 galaxies previously unknown as active galactic nuclei and several new Galactic sources. A total of 266 of the sources are associated with Seyfert galaxies (median redshift z ∼ 0.03) or blazars, with the majority of the remaining sources associated with X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This ongoing survey is the first uniform all-sky hard X-ray survey since HEAO-1 in 1977. Since the publication of the nine-month BAT survey we have increased the number of energy channels from four to eight and have substantially increased the number of sources with accurate average spectra. The BAT 22 month catalog is the product of the most sensitive all-sky survey in the hard X-ray band, with a detection sensitivity (4.8σ) of 2.2 x 10 -11 erg cm -2 s -1 (1 mCrab) over most of the sky in the 14-195 keV band.

  13. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations. We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%. This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The advantages of ASCs, compared to the space-born imagers, are

  14. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; hide

    2018-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 90% of the sky and 7.24 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 50% of the sky in the 14-195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14-195 keV band above the 4.8 sigma significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (z < 0.2). The majority of the remaining identified sources are X-ray binaries (7%, 31) and blazars/BL Lac objects (10%, 43). As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  15. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Evans, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8σ, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 50% of the sky and 1.34 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site

  16. Multifrequency observations of KAZ 102 during the ROSAT all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Fink, H. H.; Malkan, M.; Wilkes, B. J.; Baganoff, F.; Heidt, J.; Pian, E.; Sadun, A.; Schaeidt, S.; Bonnell, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    The bright quasar Kaz 102, which lies in the vicinity of the North Ecliptic Pole, was monitored during the ROSAT All Sky Survey for 121.5 days from 1990 July 30 to 1991 January 25. In the course of the survey, optical photometry with various filters was peformed at several epochs, together with UV (IUE) and optical spectrophotometry. The spectral energy distribution in the 3 x 10(exp 14) -3 x 10(exp 17) Hz range is obtained simultaneously among the various frequencies to less than or = 1 day. No clear case of variability can be made in the X-rays, while in the optical and UV variability of 10%-20% is apparent. An analysis of IUE and Einstein archives indicates a doubling timescale of years for the UV and soft X-ray flux. The X-ray photon index, which in 1979 was rather flat (Gamma = 0.8(+0.6 -0.4), in 1990/1991 was found to be Gamma = 2.22 +/- 0.13, a typical value for radio-quiet quasars in this energy range. The overall energy distribution and the variability are discussed.

  17. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, P. A., E-mail: whbaumga@alum.mit.edu [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group/Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8{sigma}, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 50% of the sky and 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site.

  18. H I Clouds in the Lower Halo. I. The Galactic All-Sky Survey Pilot Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H. Alyson; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Calabretta, M. R.; Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J.; Bailin, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Murphy, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have detected over 400 H I clouds in the lower halo of the Galaxy within the pilot region of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS), a region of the fourth quadrant that spans 18 deg. in longitude, 40 deg. in latitude, and is centered on the Galactic equator. These clouds have a median peak brightness temperature of 0.6 K, a median velocity width of 12.8 km s -1 , and angular sizes ∼ -1 . A sample of clouds likely to be near tangent points was analyzed in detail. These clouds have radii on the order of 30 pc and a median H I mass of 630 M sun . The population has a vertical scale height of 400 pc and is concentrated in Galactocentric radius, peaking at R = 3.8 kpc. This confined structure suggests that the clouds are linked to spiral features, while morphological evidence that many clouds are aligned with loops and filaments is suggestive of a relationship with star formation. The clouds might result from supernovae and stellar winds in the form of fragmenting shells and gas that has been pushed into the halo rather than from a galactic fountain.

  19. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1. V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, V.; Hell, N.; Pottschmidt, K.; Böck, M.; Nowak, M. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Case, G. L.; Hanke, M.; Kühnel, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Pooley, G. G.; Rothschild, R. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Wilms, J.

    2013-06-01

    We present a scheme for determining the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). Determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate states, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when data in the soft X-rays (probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85% in the hard state and larger than 75% in the soft state. Intermediate states are short lived, with a 50% probability that the source leaves the intermediate state within three days. Reliable detection of these potentially short-lived events is only possible with monitor data that have a time resolution better than 1 d.

  20. Planck 2013 results. XXI. All-sky Compton parameter power spectrum and high-order statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\\ell 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\theta \\lesssim 3.0^{\\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to ...

  1. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; Ricci, Claudio; Lien, Amy; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2018-03-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 90% of the sky and 7.24× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 50% of the sky in the 14–195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14–195 keV band above the 4.8σ significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (zBAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  2. Tomographic local 2D analyses of the WISExSuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Xavier, H. S.; Marques, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    The recent progress in obtaining larger and deeper galaxy catalogues is of fundamental importance for cosmological studies, especially to robustly measure the large scale density fluctuations in the Universe. The present work uses the Minkowski Functionals (MF) to probe the galaxy density field from the WISExSuperCOSMOS (WSC) all-sky catalogue by performing tomographic local analyses in five redshift shells (of thickness δz = 0.05) in the total range of 0.10 methodology reveals 1 - 3 regions of the GNC maps in each redshift shell with an uncommon behaviour (extreme regions), i.e., p-value < 1.4%. Indeed, the resulting MF curves show signatures that suggest the uncommon behaviour to be associated with the presence of over- or under-densities there, but contamination due to residual foregrounds is not discarded. Additionally, even though our analyses indicate a good agreement among data and simulations, we identify 1 highly extreme region, seemingly associated to a large clustered distribution of galaxies. Our results confirm the usefulness of the MF to analyse GNC maps from photometric galaxy datasets.

  3. Full band all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the O1 LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H. Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciecielag, P.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, E. T.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorosh, O.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pisarski, A.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadroźny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0 ,+0.1 ] ×1 0-8 Hz /s . Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our Galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational-wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low-frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 is ˜4 ×1 0-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range, we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3 ×1 0-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ˜1.5 ×1 0-25.

  4. All-sky brightness monitoring of light pollution with astronomical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaza, O; Galadí-Enríquez, D; Estrella, A Espín; Dols, F Aznar

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a mobile prototype and a protocol to measure light pollution based on astronomical methods. The prototype takes three all-sky images using BVR filters of the Johnson-Cousins astronomical photometric system. The stars are then identified in the images of the Hipparcos and General Catalogue of Photometric Data II astronomical catalogues, and are used as calibration sources. This method permits the measurement of night-sky brightness and facilitates an estimate of which fraction is due to the light up-scattered in the atmosphere by a wide variety of man-made sources. This is achieved by our software, which compares the sky background flux to that of many stars of known brightness. The reduced weight and dimensions of the prototype allow the user to make measurements from virtually any location. This prototype is capable of measuring the sky distribution of light pollution, and also provides an accurate estimate of the background flux at each photometric band. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiband photometry and spectroscopy of an all-sky sample of bright white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, R.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Pala, A. F.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Chote, P.; Hollands, M. A.; Henden, A.; Catalán, S.; Geier, S.; Koester, D.; Munari, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2017-12-01

    The upcoming NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will obtain space-based uninterrupted light curves for a large sample of bright white dwarfs distributed across the entire sky, providing a very rich resource for asteroseismological studies and the search for transits from planetary debris. We have compiled an all-sky catalogue of ultraviolet, optical and infrared photometry as well as proper motions, which we propose as an essential tool for the preliminary identification and characterization of potential targets. We present data for 1864 known white dwarfs and 305 high-probability white dwarf candidates brighter than 17 mag. We describe the spectroscopic follow-up of 135 stars, of which 82 are white dwarfs and 25 are hot subdwarfs. The new confirmed stars include six pulsating white dwarf candidates (ZZ Cetis), and nine white dwarf binaries with a cool main-sequence companion. We identify one star with a spectroscopic distance of only 25 pc from the Sun. Around the time TESS is launched, we foresee that all white dwarfs in this sample will have trigonometric parallaxes measured by the ESA Gaia mission next year.

  6. ASHI: An All Sky Heliospheric Imager for Viewing Thomson-Scattered Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Bisi, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed, and are now making a detailed design for an All-Sky Heliospheric Imager (ASHI), to fly on future deep-space missions. ASHI's principal long-term objective is acquisition of a precision photometric map of the inner heliosphere as viewed from deep space. Photometers on the twin Helios spacecraft, the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) upon the Coriolis satellite, and the Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) upon the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, all indicate an optimum instrument design for visible-light Thomson-scattering observations. This design views a hemisphere of sky starting a few degrees from the Sun. Two imagers can cover almost all of the whole sky. A key photometric specification for ASHI is 0.1% differential photometry: this enables the three dimensional reconstruction of density starting from near the Sun and extending outward. SMEI analyses have demonstrated the success of this technique: when employed by ASHI, this will provide an order of magnitude better resolution in 3-D density over time. We augment this analysis to include velocity, and these imagers deployed in deep space can thus provide high-resolution comparisons both of direct in-situ density and velocity measurements to remote observations of solar wind structures. In practice we find that the 3-D velocity determinations provide the best tomographic timing depiction of heliospheric structures. We discuss the simple concept behind this, and present recent progress in the instrument design, and its expected performance specifications. A preliminary balloon flight of an ASHI prototype is planned to take place next Summer.

  7. A multi-sensor data-driven methodology for all-sky passive microwave inundation retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Takbiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-sensor Bayesian passive microwave retrieval algorithm for flood inundation mapping at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The algorithm takes advantage of observations from multiple sensors in optical, short-infrared, and microwave bands, thereby allowing for detection and mapping of the sub-pixel fraction of inundated areas under almost all-sky conditions. The method relies on a nearest-neighbor search and a modern sparsity-promoting inversion method that make use of an a priori dataset in the form of two joint dictionaries. These dictionaries contain almost overlapping observations by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F17 satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. Evaluation of the retrieval algorithm over the Mekong Delta shows that it is capable of capturing to a good degree the inundation diurnal variability due to localized convective precipitation. At longer timescales, the results demonstrate consistency with the ground-based water level observations, denoting that the method is properly capturing inundation seasonal patterns in response to regional monsoonal rain. The calculated Euclidean distance, rank-correlation, and also copula quantile analysis demonstrate a good agreement between the outputs of the algorithm and the observed water levels at monthly and daily timescales. The current inundation products are at a resolution of 12.5 km and taken twice per day, but a higher resolution (order of 5 km and every 3 h can be achieved using the same algorithm with the dictionary populated by the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI products.

  8. A multi-sensor data-driven methodology for all-sky passive microwave inundation retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takbiri, Zeinab; Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-06-01

    We present a multi-sensor Bayesian passive microwave retrieval algorithm for flood inundation mapping at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The algorithm takes advantage of observations from multiple sensors in optical, short-infrared, and microwave bands, thereby allowing for detection and mapping of the sub-pixel fraction of inundated areas under almost all-sky conditions. The method relies on a nearest-neighbor search and a modern sparsity-promoting inversion method that make use of an a priori dataset in the form of two joint dictionaries. These dictionaries contain almost overlapping observations by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F17 satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. Evaluation of the retrieval algorithm over the Mekong Delta shows that it is capable of capturing to a good degree the inundation diurnal variability due to localized convective precipitation. At longer timescales, the results demonstrate consistency with the ground-based water level observations, denoting that the method is properly capturing inundation seasonal patterns in response to regional monsoonal rain. The calculated Euclidean distance, rank-correlation, and also copula quantile analysis demonstrate a good agreement between the outputs of the algorithm and the observed water levels at monthly and daily timescales. The current inundation products are at a resolution of 12.5 km and taken twice per day, but a higher resolution (order of 5 km and every 3 h) can be achieved using the same algorithm with the dictionary populated by the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) products.

  9. The taxonomic distribution of asteroids from multi-filter all-sky photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeo, F. E.; Carry, B.

    2013-09-01

    The distribution of asteroids across the main belt has been studied for decades to understand the current compositional distribution and what that tells us about the formation and evolution of our Solar System. All-sky surveys now provide orders of magnitude more data than targeted surveys. We present a method to bias-correct the asteroid population observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) according to size, distance, and albedo. We taxonomically classify this dataset consistent with the Bus and Binzel (Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. [2002]. Icarus 158, 146-177) and Bus-DeMeo et al. (DeMeo, F.E., Binzel, R.P., Slivan, S.M., Bus, S.J. [2009]. Icarus 202(July), 160-180) systems and present the resulting taxonomic distribution. The dataset includes asteroids as small as 5 km, a factor of three in diameter smaller than in previous work such as by Mothé-Diniz et al. (Mothé-Diniz, T., Carvano, J.M.Á., Lazzaro, D. [2003]. Icarus 162(March), 10-21). Because of the wide range of sizes in our sample, we present the distribution by number, surface area, volume, and mass whereas previous work was exclusively by number. While the distribution by number is a useful quantity and has been used for decades, these additional quantities provide new insights into the distribution of total material. We find evidence for D-types in the inner main belt where they are unexpected according to dynamical models of implantation of bodies from the outer Solar System into the inner Solar System during planetary migration (Levison, H.F., Bottke, W.F., Gounelle, M., Morbidelli, A., Nesvorný, D., Tsiganis, K. [2009]. Nature 460(July), 364-366). We find no evidence of S-types or other unexpected classes among Trojans and Hildas, albeit a bias favoring such a detection. Finally, we estimate for the first time the total amount of material of each class in the inner Solar System. The main belt’s most massive classes are C, B, P, V and S in decreasing order. Excluding the four most massive

  10. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ALL-SKY LIRG SURVEY: COMPARISON OF ULTRAVIOLET AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Justin H.; Armus, Lee; Surace, Jason A.; Petric, Andreea; Bridge, Carrie; Haan, Sebastian; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Chan, Ben H. P.; Madore, Barry F.; Evans, Aaron S.; Kim, Dong-Chan; Sanders, David B.; Appleton, Phil; Frayer, David T.; Lord, Steven; Schulz, Bernhard; Bothun, Greg; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Melbourne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of a complete sample of 202 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The galaxies span the full range of interaction stages, from isolated galaxies to interacting pairs to late stage mergers. We present a comparison of the UV and infrared properties of 135 galaxies in GOALS observed by GALEX and Spitzer. For interacting galaxies with separations greater than the resolution of GALEX and Spitzer (∼2''-6''), we assess the UV and IR properties of each galaxy individually. The contribution of the FUV to the measured star formation rate (SFR) ranges from 0.2% to 17.9%, with a median of 2.8% and a mean of 4.0% ± 0.4%. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the GOALS sample is extremely high, with a median value (3.9 x 10 -10 yr -1 ) that is comparable to the highest SSFRs seen in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample. We examine the position of each galaxy on the IR excess-UV slope (IRX-β) diagram as a function of galaxy properties, including IR luminosity and interaction stage. The LIRGs on average have greater IR excesses than would be expected based on their UV colors if they obeyed the same relations as starbursts with L IR 11 L sun or normal late-type galaxies. The ratio of L IR to the value one would estimate from the IRX-β relation published for lower luminosity starburst galaxies ranges from 0.2 to 68, with a median value of 2.7. A minimum of 19% of the total IR luminosity in the RBGS is produced in LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies with red UV colors (β>0). Among resolved interacting systems, 32% contain one galaxy which dominates the IR emission while the companion dominates the UV emission. Only 21% of the resolved systems contain a single galaxy which dominates both wavelengths.

  11. Point source detection using the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet on simulated all-sky Planck maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielva, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Gallegos, J. E.; Toffolatti, L.; Sanz, J. L.

    2003-09-01

    We present an estimation of the point source (PS) catalogue that could be extracted from the forthcoming ESA Planck mission data. We have applied the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet (SMHW) to simulated all-sky maps that include cosmic microwave background (CMB), Galactic emission (thermal dust, free-free and synchrotron), thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and PS emission, as well as instrumental white noise. This work is an extension of the one presented in Vielva et al. We have developed an algorithm focused on a fast local optimal scale determination, that is crucial to achieve a PS catalogue with a large number of detections and a low flux limit. An important effort has been also done to reduce the CPU time processor for spherical harmonic transformation, in order to perform the PS detection in a reasonable time. The presented algorithm is able to provide a PS catalogue above fluxes: 0.48 Jy (857 GHz), 0.49 Jy (545 GHz), 0.18 Jy (353 GHz), 0.12 Jy (217 GHz), 0.13 Jy (143 GHz), 0.16 Jy (100 GHz HFI), 0.19 Jy (100 GHz LFI), 0.24 Jy (70 GHz), 0.25 Jy (44 GHz) and 0.23 Jy (30 GHz). We detect around 27 700 PS at the highest frequency Planck channel and 2900 at the 30-GHz one. The completeness level are: 70 per cent (857 GHz), 75 per cent (545 GHz), 70 per cent (353 GHz), 80 per cent (217 GHz), 90 per cent (143 GHz), 85 per cent (100 GHz HFI), 80 per cent (100 GHz LFI), 80 per cent (70 GHz), 85 per cent (44 GHz) and 80 per cent (30 GHz). In addition, we can find several PS at different channels, allowing the study of the spectral behaviour and the physical processes acting on them. We also present the basic procedure to apply the method in maps convolved with asymmetric beams. The algorithm takes ~72 h for the most CPU time-demanding channel (857 GHz) in a Compaq HPC320 (Alpha EV68 1-GHz processor) and requires 4 GB of RAM memory; the CPU time goes as O[NRoN3/2pix log(Npix)], where Npix is the number of pixels in the map and NRo is the number of optimal scales needed.

  12. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project No.284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  13. First low-frequency Einstein@Home all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Anderson, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO.

  14. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched w...

  15. TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG: A COMPREHENSIVE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CENSUS OF THE WHOLE SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Steward, Louise; Peacock, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Key cosmological applications require the three-dimensional (3D) galaxy distribution on the entire celestial sphere. These include measuring the gravitational pull on the Local Group, estimating the large-scale bulk flow, and testing the Copernican principle. However, the largest all-sky redshift surveys—the 2MASS Redshift Survey and IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey—have median redshifts of only z = 0.03 and sample the very local universe. All-sky galaxy catalogs exist that reach much deeper—SuperCOSMOS in the optical, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-IR, and WISE in the mid-IR—but these lack complete redshift information. At present, the only rapid way toward larger 3D catalogs covering the whole sky is through photometric redshift techniques. In this paper we present the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) containing one million galaxies, constructed by cross-matching Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC), WISE, and SuperCOSMOS all-sky samples and employing the artificial neural network approach (the ANNz algorithm), trained on such redshift surveys as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 6dFGS, and 2dFGRS. The derived photometric redshifts have errors nearly independent of distance, with an all-sky accuracy of σ z = 0.015 and a very small percentage of outliers. In this way, we obtain redshift estimates with a typical precision of 12% for all the 2MASS XSC galaxies that lack spectroscopy. In addition, we have made an early effort toward probing the entire 3D sky beyond 2MASS, by pairing up WISE with SuperCOSMOS and training the ANNz on GAMA redshift data currently reaching to z med ∼ 0.2. This has yielded photo-z accuracies comparable to those in the 2MPZ. These all-sky photo-z catalogs, with a median z ∼ 0.1 for the 2MPZ, and significantly deeper for future WISE-based samples, will be the largest and most complete of their kind for the foreseeable future

  16. The GNSS polarimetric radio-occultation technique to sense precipitation events: a new concept to be tested aboard PAZ Low Earth Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Cardellach, Estel; Rius, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) experiment, to be conducted aboard the Spanish PAZ satellite, consists of a radio occultation (RO) mission provided with dual-polarization capabilities. The research with polarimetric RO data has the goal of assessing the capabilities and limitations of this technique to infer profiles of heavy precipitation. The technique aims to provide vertical profiles of precipitation simultaneously to the vertical profiles of thermodynamic parameters (standard RO products) perfectly collocated both in space and time. If successful, the polarimetric RO will represent the first technique able to provide these complementary information on precipitation. This is a relevant input for studies on heavy and violent rainfall events, which being poorly represented by the current-generation of Numerical Weather Prediction and General Circulation Models appear to be difficult to forecast on all time-scales. The Low Earth Orbiter hosting this experiment, to be launched in 2013, will orbit at 500 km altitude in a near-Polar orbit. The Radio Occulation payload includes a RO GNSS receiver and a dual polarization (H/V) limb oriented antenna to capture the signals of setting GNSS transmitters. NOAA and UCAR participate in the ground-segment of the radiometric experiment to enable near-real time dissemination of the level-1 standard RO products. The space-based GNSS RO technique scans the atmosphere vertically at fine resolution (close to 300 meter in the troposphere) by precisely measure the delay between a GNSS transmitter and a GNSS receiver aboard a Low Earth Orbiter, when the former is setting below or rising above the Earth limb. The standard, thermodynamical, products are extracted from the excess delay induced by the atmosphere at different layers. This presentation will not focus on this well-established application, but a novel concept using polarimetry to also retrieve rain information. The precipitation-measurement principle is

  17. Data analysis of gravitational-wave signals from spinning neutron stars. IV. An all-sky search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astone, Pia; Borkowski, Kazimierz M.; Jaranowski, Piotr; Krolak, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    We develop a set of data analysis tools for a realistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational-wave signals and we test our tools against simulated data. The aim of the paper is to prepare for an analysis of the real data from the EXPLORER bar detector; however, the methods that we present apply both to data from the resonant bar detectors that are currently in operation and the laser interferometric detectors that are in the final stages of construction and commissioning. With our techniques we shall be able to perform an all-sky coherent search of 2 days of data from the EXPLORER detector for a frequency bandwidth of 0.76 Hz in one month with 250 Mflops computing power. This search will detect all the continuous gravitational-wave signals with the dimensionless amplitude larger than 2.8x10 -23 with 99% confidence, assuming that the noise in the detector is Gaussian

  18. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.; Malkan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed the ''S IX '' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S IX 95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S IX 2 , permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  19. A LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS DETECTED IN THE ROSAT ALL-SKY-SURVEY BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Letcavage, Ryan; Shevchuk, Andrew S. H.; Fox, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Using new and archival observations made with the Swift satellite and other facilities, we examine 147 X-ray sources selected from the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) to produce a new limit on the number of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the RASS/BSC, the most constraining such limit to date. Independent of X-ray spectrum and variability, the number of INSs is ≤48 (90% confidence). Restricting attention to soft (kT eff < 200 eV), non-variable X-ray sources-as in a previous study-yields an all-sky limit of ≤31 INSs. In the course of our analysis, we identify five new high-quality INS candidates for targeted follow-up observations. A future all-sky X-ray survey with eROSITA, or another mission with similar capabilities, can be expected to increase the detected population of X-ray-discovered INSs from the 8-50 in the BSC, to (for a disk population) 240-1500, which will enable a more detailed study of neutron star population models.

  20. An Examination of the Change in the Earth's Rotation Rate From Ancient Chinese Observations of Lunar Occultations of the Planets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, James L; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Ciyuan, Liu

    1992-01-01

    ...., a period with no other known observations useful for Earth rotation studies. The observations are compared to topocentric ephemerides computed using Bretagnon's planetary theories VSOP82 and the Chapront-Touze lunar theory ELP2000-85...

  1. Case study of inclined sporadic E layers in the Earth's ionosphere observed by CHAMP/GPS radio occultations: Coupling between the tilted plasma layers and internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubenko, Vladimir N.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Kirillovich, I. A.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2018-04-01

    We have used the radio occultation (RO) satellite data CHAMP/GPS (Challenging Minisatellite Payload/Global Positioning System) for studying the ionosphere of the Earth. A method for deriving the parameters of ionospheric structures is based upon an analysis of the RO signal variations in the phase path and intensity. This method allows one to estimate the spatial displacement of a plasma layer with respect to the ray perigee, and to determine the layer inclination and height correction values. In this paper, we focus on the case study of inclined sporadic E (Es) layers in the high-latitude ionosphere based on available CHAMP RO data. Assuming that the internal gravity waves (IGWs) with the phase-fronts parallel to the ionization layer surfaces are responsible for the tilt angles of sporadic plasma layers, we have developed a new technique for determining the parameters of IGWs linked with the inclined Es structures. A small-scale internal wave may be modulating initially horizontal Es layer in height and causing a direction of the plasma density gradient to be rotated and aligned with that of the wave propagation vector k. The results of determination of the intrinsic wave frequency and period, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase speeds, and other characteristics of IGWs under study are presented and discussed.

  2. A Method for Deriving All-Sky Evapotranspiration From the Synergistic Use of Remotely Sensed Images and Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Tang, Ronglin; Gao, Mao-Fang

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water and energy cycle. The present study develops a practical approach for generating all-sky ET with the synergistic use of satellite images and meteorological data. In this approach, the ET over clear-sky pixels is estimated from a two-stage land surface temperature (LST)/fractional vegetation cover feature space method where the dry/wet edges are determined from theoretical calculations. For cloudy pixels, the Penman-Monteith equation is used to calculate the ET where no valid remotely sensed LST is available. An evaluation of the method with ET collected at ground-based large aperture scintillometer measurements at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station (YCES) in China is performed over a growth period from April to October 2010. The results show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and bias over clear-sky pixels are 57.3 W/m2 and 18.2 W/m2, respectively, whereas an RMSE of 69.3 W/m2 with a bias of 12.3 W/m2 can be found over cloudy pixels. Moreover, a reasonable overall RMSE of 65.3 W/m2 with a bias of 14.4 W/m2 at the YCES can be obtained under all-sky conditions, indicating a promising prospect for the derivation of all-sky ET using currently available satellite and meteorological data at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  3. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  4. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  5. A new method of derived equatorial plasma bubbles motion by tracing OI 630 nm emission all-sky images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Yu, T.; Chunliang, X.; Zuo, X.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A new method for estimating the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) motions from airglow emission all-sky images is presented in this paper. This method, which is called 'cloud-derived wind technology' and widely used in satellite observation of wind, could reasonable derive zonal and meridional velocity vectors of EPBs drifts by tracking a series of successive airglow 630.0 nm emission images. Airglow emission images data are available from an all sky airglow camera in Hainan Fuke (19.5°N, 109.2°E) supported by China Meridional Project, which can receive the 630.0nm emission from the ionosphere F region at low-latitudes to observe plasma bubbles. A series of pretreatment technology, e.g. image enhancement, orientation correction, image projection are utilized to preprocess the raw observation. Then the regions of plasma bubble extracted from the images are divided into several small tracing windows and each tracing window can find a target window in the searching area in following image, which is considered as the position tracing window moved to. According to this, velocities in each window are calculated by using the technology of cloud-derived wind. When applying the cloud-derived wind technology, the maximum correlation coefficient (MCC) and the histogram of gradient (HOG) methods to find the target window, which mean to find the maximum correlation and the minimum euclidean distance between two gradient histograms in respectively, are investigated and compared in detail. The maximum correlation method is fianlly adopted in this study to analyze the velocity of plasma bubbles because of its better performance than HOG. All-sky images from Hainan Fuke, between August 2014 and October 2014, are analyzed to investigate the plasma bubble drift velocities using MCC method. The data at different local time at 9 nights are studied and find that zonal drift velocity in different latitude at different local time ranges from 50 m/s to 180 m/s and there is a peak value at

  6. DISCOVERY OF A HALO AROUND THE HELIX NEBULA NGC 7293 IN THE WISE ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Kwok, Sun

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extended halo (∼40' in diameter) around the planetary nebula NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) observed in the 12 μm band from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. The mid-infrared halo has an axisymmetric structure with a sharp boundary to the northeast and a more diffuse boundary to the southwest, suggesting an interaction between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium (ISM). The symmetry axis of the halo is well aligned with that of a northeast arc, suggesting that the two structures are physically associated. We have attempted to fit the observed geometry with a model of a moving steady-state stellar wind interacting with the ISM. Possible combinations of the ISM density and the stellar velocity are derived from these fittings. The discrepancies between the model and the observations suggest that the stellar mass loss has a more complicated history, including possible time and angle dependences.

  7. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a wide parameter-space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semicoherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-400 Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational-wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is 4.43x10 -23

  8. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Malkan, M., E-mail: rickedelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We have developed the ''S{sub IX}'' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S{sub IX} < 0 have a {approx}>95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S{sub IX} < 0. Only 2209 of these sources are currently in the Veron-Cetty and Veron (VCV) catalog of spectroscopically confirmed AGNs, indicating that the W2R sample contains nearly 2000 new, relatively bright (J {approx}< 16) AGNs. We utilize the W2R sample to quantify biases and incompleteness in the VCV catalog. We find that it is highly complete for bright (J < 14), northern AGNs, but the completeness drops below 50% for fainter, southern samples and for sources near the Galactic plane. This approach also led to the spectroscopic identification of 10 new AGNs in the Kepler field, more than doubling the number of AGNs being monitored by Kepler. The W2R sample contains better than 1 bright AGN every 10 deg{sup 2}, permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  9. A new all-sky map of Galactic high-velocity clouds from the 21-cm HI4PI survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral or ionized gas clouds in the vicinity of the Milky Way that are characterized by high radial velocities inconsistent with participation in the regular rotation of the Galactic disc. Previous attempts to create a homogeneous all-sky H I map of HVCs have been hampered by a combination of poor angular resolution, limited surface brightness sensitivity and suboptimal sampling. Here, a new and improved H I map of Galactic HVCs based on the all-sky HI4PI survey is presented. The new map is fully sampled and provides significantly better angular resolution (16.2 versus 36 arcmin) and column density sensitivity (2.3 versus 3.7 × 1018 cm-2 at the native resolution) than the previously available LAB survey. The new HVC map resolves many of the major HVC complexes in the sky into an intricate network of narrow H I filaments and clumps that were not previously resolved by the LAB survey. The resulting sky coverage fraction of high-velocity H I emission above a column density level of 2 × 1018 cm-2 is approximately 15 per cent, which reduces to about 13 per cent when the Magellanic Clouds and other non-HVC emission are removed. The differential sky coverage fraction as a function of column density obeys a truncated power law with an exponent of -0.93 and a turnover point at about 5 × 1019 cm-2. H I column density and velocity maps of the HVC sky are made publicly available as FITS images for scientific use by the community.

  10. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that merging occurs in multiple

  11. X-RAY-EMITTING STARS IDENTIFIED FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY AND THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Newsom, Emily R.; Anderson, Scott F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Covey, Kevin R.; Posselt, Bettina; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) was the first imaging X-ray survey of the entire sky. Combining the RASS Bright and Faint Source Catalogs yields an average of about three X-ray sources per square degree. However, while X-ray source counterparts are known to range from distant quasars to nearby M dwarfs, the RASS data alone are often insufficient to determine the nature of an X-ray source. As a result, large-scale follow-up programs are required to construct samples of known X-ray emitters. We use optical data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 709 stellar X-ray emitters cataloged in the RASS and falling within the SDSS Data Release 1 footprint. Most of these are bright stars with coronal X-ray emission unsuitable for SDSS spectroscopy, which is designed for fainter objects (g > 15 [mag]). Instead, we use SDSS photometry, correlations with the Two Micron All Sky Survey and other catalogs, and spectroscopy from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope to identify these stellar X-ray counterparts. Our sample of 707 X-ray-emitting F, G, K, and M stars is one of the largest X-ray-selected samples of such stars. We derive distances to these stars using photometric parallax relations appropriate for dwarfs on the main sequence, and use these distances to calculate L X . We also identify a previously unknown cataclysmic variable (CV) as a RASS counterpart. Separately, we use correlations of the RASS and the SDSS spectroscopic catalogs of CVs and white dwarfs (WDs) to study the properties of these rarer X-ray-emitting stars. We examine the relationship between (f X /f g ) and the equivalent width of the Hβ emission line for 46 X-ray-emitting CVs and discuss tentative classifications for a subset based on these quantities. We identify 17 new X-ray-emitting DA (hydrogen) WDs, of which three are newly identified WDs. We report on follow-up observations of three candidate cool X-ray-emitting WDs (one DA and two DB (helium) WDs); we have not

  12. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: kimmo.lehtinen@nls.fi [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  13. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Belhorma, B.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Diaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; De Bonis, G.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Navas, S.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10 55 erg for a E -2 spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  14. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) Light Curve Server v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Shields, J. V.; Will, D.; Britt, C.; Perzanowski, D.; Pojmański, G.

    2017-10-01

    The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is working toward imaging the entire visible sky every night to a depth of V˜ 17 mag. The present data covers the sky and spans ˜2-5 years with ˜100-400 epochs of observation. The data should contain some ˜1 million variable sources, and the ultimate goal is to have a database of these observations publicly accessible. We describe here a first step, a simple but unprecedented web interface https://asas-sn.osu.edu/ that provides an up to date aperture photometry light curve for any user-selected sky coordinate. The V band photometry is obtained using a two-pixel (16.″0) radius aperture and is calibrated against the APASS catalog. Because the light curves are produced in real time, this web tool is relatively slow and can only be used for small samples of objects. However, it also imposes no selection bias on the part of the ASAS-SN team, allowing the user to obtain a light curve for any point on the celestial sphere. We present the tool, describe its capabilities, limitations, and known issues, and provide a few illustrative examples.

  15. Simultaneous observation of auroral substorm onset in Polar satellite global images and ground-based all-sky images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Akimasa; Kauristie, Kirsti; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Frey, Harald U.; Juusola, Liisa; Whiter, Daniel; Nosé, Masahito; Fillingim, Matthew O.; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil C.; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Miura, Tsubasa; Kawashima, Takahiro; Machida, Shinobu

    2018-05-01

    Substorm onset has originally been defined as a longitudinally extended sudden auroral brightening (Akasofu initial brightening: AIB) followed a few minutes later by an auroral poleward expansion in ground-based all-sky images (ASIs). In contrast, such clearly marked two-stage development has not been evident in satellite-based global images (GIs). Instead, substorm onsets have been identified as localized sudden brightenings that expand immediately poleward. To resolve these differences, optical substorm onset signatures in GIs and ASIs are compared in this study for a substorm that occurred on December 7, 1999. For this substorm, the Polar satellite ultraviolet global imager was operated with a fixed-filter (170 nm) mode, enabling a higher time resolution (37 s) than usual to resolve the possible two-stage development. These data were compared with 20-s resolution green-line (557.7 nm) ASIs at Muonio in Finland. The ASIs revealed the AIB at 2124:50 UT and the subsequent poleward expansion at 2127:50 UT, whereas the GIs revealed only an onset brightening that started at 2127:49 UT. Thus, the onset in the GIs was delayed relative to the AIB and in fact agreed with the poleward expansion in the ASIs. The fact that the AIB was not evident in the GIs may be attributed to the limited spatial resolution of GIs for thin auroral arc brightenings. The implications of these results for the definition of substorm onset are discussed herein.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Behnke, B; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Cardoso, V; Caride, S; Casebolt, T; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cepeda, C; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cokelaer, T; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Cornish, N; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cutler, R M; Danzmann, K; Daudert, B; Davies, G; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harstad, E D; Haughian, E; Hayama, K; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Holt, K; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamat, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kocsis, B; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Kozhevatov, I; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lormand, M; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Miller, A; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohanty, S D; Moreno, G; Mors, K; Mossavi, K; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perraca, A; Petrie, T; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Reed, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schediwy, S W; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, L C; Strain, K A; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Sluys, M V; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J D; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zur Mühlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2009-03-20

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5 x 10{-9}-0 Hz s{-1}. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semicoherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitted by any unknown isolated rotating neutron stars within the search range. Strain limits below 10{-24} are obtained over a 200-Hz band, and the sensitivity improvement over previous searches increases the spatial volume sampled by an average factor of about 100 over the entire search band. For a neutron star with nominal equatorial ellipticity of 10{-6}, the search is sensitive to distances as great as 500 pc.

  17. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [Universite de Haute Alsace - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, GRPHE, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Belhorma, B. [National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques, Rabat (Morocco); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, Bucharest (Romania); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Celli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Diaz, A.F. [University of Granada, Department of Computer Architecture and Technology/CITIC, Granada (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, UCA, CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); De Bonis, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Haren, H. van [Utrecht University, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (NL); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (DE); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (FR); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Navas, S. [University of Granada, Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y C.A.F.P.E., Granada (ES); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Collaboration: The ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10{sup 55} erg for a E{sup -2} spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  18. A catalogue of clusters of galaxies identified from all sky surveys of 2MASS, WISE, and SuperCOSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.; Yang, F.

    2018-03-01

    We identify 47 600 clusters of galaxies from photometric data of Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and SuperCOSMOS, among which 26 125 clusters are recognized for the first time and mostly in the sky outside the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) area. About 90 per cent of massive clusters of M500 > 3 × 1014 M⊙ in the redshift range of 0.025 < z < 0.3 have been detected from such survey data, and the detection rate drops down to 50 per cent for clusters with a mass of M500 ˜ 1 × 1014 M⊙. Monte Carlo simulations show that the false detection rate for the whole cluster sample is less than 5 per cent. By cross-matching with ROSAT and XMM-Newton sources, we get 779 new X-ray cluster candidates which have X-ray counterparts within a projected offset of 0.2 Mpc.

  19. The role of the eROSITA all-sky survey in searches for sterile neutrino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandanel, Fabio; Weniger, Christoph; Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: f.zandanel@uva.nl, E-mail: c.weniger@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    We investigate for the first time the potential of angular auto- and cross-correlation power spectra in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter in the cosmic X-ray background. We take as reference the performance of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources against sterile neutrino decays are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. While sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the auto-correlation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution such as galaxies in the 2MASS catalogues. We show that the planned four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will provide a large enough photon statistics to potentially yield very stringent constraints on the decay lifetime, enabling to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. However, we also show that in order to fully exploit the potential of eROSITA for dark matter searches, it is vital to overcome the shot-noise limitations inherent to galaxy catalogues as tracers for the dark matter distribution.

  20. All-sky search for gravitational-wave bursts in the first joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chatterji, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from an all-sky search for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO, GEO 600 and Virgo detectors between November 2006 and October 2007. The search is performed by three different analysis algorithms over the frequency band 50-6000 Hz. Data are analyzed for times with at least two of the four LIGO-Virgo detectors in coincident operation, with a total live time of 266 days. No events produced by the search algorithms survive the selection cuts. We set a frequentist upper limit on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts impinging on our network of detectors. When combined with the previous LIGO search of the data collected between November 2005 and November 2006, the upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational-wave bursts in the 64-2048 Hz band is 2.0 events per year at 90% confidence. We also present event rate versus strength exclusion plots for several types of plausible burst waveforms. The sensitivity of the combined search is expressed in terms of the root-sum-squared strain amplitude for a variety of simulated waveforms and lies in the range 6x10 -22 Hz -1/2 to 2x10 -20 Hz -1/2 . This is the first untriggered burst search to use data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors together, and the most sensitive untriggered burst search performed so far.

  1. Intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux in the mesopause region observed with an all-sky airglow imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-01-01

    The intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux (MF) near the OH airglow layer (˜87 km) in the mesopause region is investigated for the first time using observation of all-sky airglow imager over Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W), and Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W). At both sites, the probability density function (pdf) of gravity wave MF shows two distinct distributions depending on the magnitude of the MF. For MF smaller (larger) than ˜16 m2 s-2 (0.091 mPa), the pdf follows a lognormal (power law) distribution. The intermittency represented by the Bernoulli proxy and the percentile ratio shows that gravity waves have higher intermittency at Maui than at Cerro Pachón, suggesting more intermittent background variation above Maui. It is found that most of the MF is contributed by waves that occur very infrequently. But waves that individually contribute little MF are also important because of their higher occurrence frequencies. The peak contribution is from waves with MF around ˜2.2 m2 s-2 at Cerro Pachón and ˜5.5 m2 s-2 at Maui. Seasonal variations of the pdf and intermittency imply that the background atmosphere has larger influence on the observed intermittency in the mesopause region.

  2. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  3. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  4. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  5. Dust Abundance Variations in the Magellanic Clouds: Probing the Life-cycle of Metals with All-sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Bot, Caroline; Chastenet, Jeremy; Gordon, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Observations and modeling suggest that dust abundance (gas-to-dust ratio, G/D) depends on (surface) density. Variations of the G/D provide timescale constraints for the different processes involved in the life cycle of metals in galaxies. Recent G/D measurements based on Herschel data suggest a factor of 5-10 decrease in dust abundance between the dense and diffuse interstellar media (ISM) in the Magellanic Clouds. However, the relative nature of the Herschel measurements precludes definitive conclusions as to the magnitude of those variations. We investigate variations of the dust abundance in the LMC and SMC using all-sky far-infrared surveys, which do not suffer from the limitations of Herschel on their zero-point calibration. We stack the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at 100, 350, 550, and 850 microns from IRAS and Planck in intervals of gas surface density, model the stacked SEDs to derive the dust surface density, and constrain the relation between G/D and gas surface density in the range 10-100 M ⊙ pc-2 on ˜80 pc scales. We find that G/D decreases by factors of 3 (from 1500 to 500) in the LMC and 7 (from 1.5× {10}4 to 2000) in the SMC between the diffuse and dense ISM. The surface-density-dependence of G/D is consistent with elemental depletions, and with simple modeling of the accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains. This result has important implications for the sub-grid modeling of galaxy evolution, and for the calibration of dust-based gas-mass estimates, both locally and at high redshift.

  6. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L. [Department of Astronomy And Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ogle, P. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Balog, Z., E-mail: yshipku@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  7. The first all-sky view of the Milky Way stellar halo with Gaia+2MASS RR Lyrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, G.; Belokurov, V.; Erkal, D.; Koposov, S. E.; Nipoti, C.; Fraternali, F.

    2018-02-01

    We exploit the first Gaia data release to study the properties of the Galactic stellar halo as traced by RR Lyrae. We demonstrate that it is possible to select a pure sample of RR Lyrae using only photometric information available in the Gaia+2MASS catalogue. The final sample contains about 21 600 RR Lyrae covering an unprecedented fraction ( ˜ 60 per cent) of the volume of the Galactic inner halo (R < 28 kpc). We study the morphology of the stellar halo by analysing the RR Lyrae distribution with parametric and non-parametric techniques. Taking advantage of the uniform all-sky coverage, we test halo models more sophisticated than usually considered in the literature, such as those with varying flattening, tilts and/or offset of the halo with respect to the Galactic disc. A consistent picture emerges: the inner halo is well reproduced by a smooth distribution of stars settled on triaxial density ellipsoids. The shortest axis is perpendicular to the Milky Way's disc, while the longest axis forms an angle of ˜70° with the axis connecting the Sun and the Galactic Centre. The elongation along the major axis is mild (p = 1.27), and the vertical flattening is shown to evolve from a squashed state with q ≈ 0.57 in the centre to a more spherical q ≈ 0.75 at the outer edge of our data set. Within the radial range probed, the density profile of the stellar halo is well approximated by a single power law with exponent α = -2.96. We do not find evidence of tilt or offset of the halo with respect to the Galaxy's disc.

  8. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien; Butler, Nathaniel R.

    2012-01-01

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  10. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  11. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. II. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF DIFFUSE O VII AND O VIII EMISSION INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-sky catalog of diffuse O VII and O VIII line intensities, extracted from archival XMM-Newton observations. This catalog supersedes our previous catalog, which covered the sky between l = 120° and l = 240°. We attempted to reduce the contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission by excluding times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering, we were able to extract measurements from 1868 observations. With this filtering, nearly half of the observations became unusable, and only 1003 observations yielded measurements. The O VII and O VIII intensities are typically ∼2-11 and ∼ –2 s –1 sr –1 (line unit, L.U.), respectively, although much brighter intensities were also recorded. Our data set includes 217 directions that have been observed multiple times by XMM-Newton. The time variation of the intensities from such directions may be used to constrain SWCX models. The O VII and O VIII intensities typically vary by ∼ 10 L.U. were observed. We compared our measurements with models of the heliospheric and geocoronal SWCX. The heliospheric SWCX intensity is expected to vary with ecliptic latitude and solar cycle. We found that the observed oxygen intensities generally decrease from solar maximum to solar minimum, both at high ecliptic latitudes (which is as expected) and at low ecliptic latitudes (which is not as expected). The geocoronal SWCX intensity is expected to depend on the solar wind proton flux incident on the Earth and on the sightline's path through the magnetosheath. The intensity variations seen in directions that have been observed multiple times are in poor agreement with the predictions of a geocoronal SWCX model. We found that the oxygen lines account for ∼40%-50% of the 3/4 keV X-ray background that is not due to unresolved active galactic nuclei, in good agreement with a previous measurement. However, we found that this fraction is not easily explainable by a

  12. Temporal-spatial structure of magnetic merging at the magnetopause inferred from 557.7-nm all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that high-resolution 557.7-nm all-sky images are useful tools for investigating the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Analysis of ground and satellite measurements leads us to conclude that high-latitude merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 30s to 3min. Variations of 557.7nm emissions were observed at a 10s cadence at Ny-Ålesund on 19 December 2001, while significant changes in the IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. The optical patterns are consistent with a scenario in which merging occurs around the rim of the high-latitude cusp at positions dictated by the IMF clock angle. Electrons energized at merging sites represent plausible sources for 557.7nm emissions in the cusp. Polar observations at the magnetopause have directly linked enhanced fluxes of ≥0.5keV electrons with merging. Spectra of electrons responsible for some of the emissions, measured during a DMSP F15 overflight, exhibit "inverted-V" features, indicating further acceleration above the ionosphere. SuperDARN spectral width boundaries, characteristic of open-closed field line transitions, are located at the equatorward edge of the 557.7nm emissions. Optical data suggest that with IMF BY>0, the Northern Hemisphere cusp divides into three source regions. When the IMF clock angle was ~150° structured 557.7-nm emissions came from east of the 13:00 MLT meridian. At larger clock angles the emissions appeared between 12:00 and 13:00 MLT. No significant 557.7-nm emissions were detected in the prenoon MLT sector. MHD simulations corroborate our scenario, showing that with the observed large dipole-tilt and IMF clock angles, merging sites develop near the front and eastern portions of the high-altitude cusp rim in the Northern Hemisphere and near the western part of the cusp rim in the Southern Hemisphere.

  13. Results of the deepest all-sky survey for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO S6 data running on the Einstein@Home volunteer distributed computing project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acemese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwa, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Arker, Bd.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Be, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitoss, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Boutfanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, O.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, C.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreyer, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Egizenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholel, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, O.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Far, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.M.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, J. -D; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritsche, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garuti, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gi, K.; Glaetke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Granta, A.; Gras, S.; Cray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonsta, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howel, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, O.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Lyer, B. R.; Fzumi, K.; Jaccimin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Wads, k; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keh, M. S.; Keite, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kimbre, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kisse, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringe, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Liick, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ivia, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; Maclnnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magafia-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magafia; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Manse, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matiehard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mende, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Miche, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecehia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Hang, S.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Ram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, . J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powel, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, .; Punturo, M.; Purrer, PuppoM.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, RosiliskaS.; Ruggi, RiidigerP.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabe, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Sielleez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazus, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sunil, Suns; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepariczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tomasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Tome, C.; Tot, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifire, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozz, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Valente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bake, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; Van Heilningen, J. V.; Van Vegge, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vaslith, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Vvang, G.; Wang, O.; Wang, X.; Wiang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Wiarner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weliels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; WilIke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Whinkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; De Witte, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the S6 LIGO science run. The search was possible thanks to the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home distributed computing project. We find no significant

  14. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope,

  15. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column dens...

  16. Dwarfs Cooler Than M: The Definition of Spectral Type L Using Discoveries from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J.; Reid, I.; Liebert, J.; Cutri, R.; Nelson, B.; Beichman, C.; Dahn, C.; Monet, D.; Gizis, J.; Skrutskie, M.

    1998-01-01

    Before the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) began, only six objects were known with spectral types later than M9.5 V. In the first 371 sq. deg. of actual 2MASS survey data, we have identified another twenty such objects spectroscopically confirmed using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS) at the W.M. Keck Observatory.

  17. Occultations from an Active Accretion Disk in a 72-day Detached Post-Algol System Detected by K2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, G.; Rappaport, S.; Nelson, L.

    2018-01-01

    Disks in binary systems can cause exotic eclipsing events. MWC 882 (BD –22 4376, EPIC 225300403) is such a disk-eclipsing system identified from observations during Campaign 11 of the K2 mission. We propose that MWC 882 is a post-Algol system with a B7 donor star of mass in a 72-day orbit around...... an A0 accreting star of mass . The disk around the accreting star occults the donor star once every orbit, inducing 19-day long, 7% deep eclipses identified by K2 and subsequently found in pre-discovery All-Sky Automated Survey and All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae observations. We coordinated...

  18. Measurement of stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Whenever an asteroid occults a star, we have the opportunity to study that asteroid in great detail. As frequently shown in the past, amateur astronomers1 have the necessary equipment to measure such events successfully2. Combined with the dense net of amateur observatories and online coordination tools3 for movable stations, they can create fine grids to detect even small bodies. The analysis of these events gives us the possibility to receive high precision astrometry data, to determine the asteroids size and shape (and therefore its albedo), and even to collect information on the star itself.4 While usually a set of several light curves is required to do so, a single recording5 of (10734) Wieck's occultation of HIP 22157 on 2008 Feb 08 was sufficient to retrieve the necessary data6. 1 Observation campaigns are organized by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA), http://www.iota-es.de/ 2 for results see e.g. euraster.net by E. Frappa, http://www.euraster.net/ 3 Occult Watcher by H. Pavlov, http://www.hristopavlov.net/OccultWatcher/OccultWatcher.html 4 see K. Miyashita's analysis of the observation of the occultation of TYC 1886-01206-1 by Kalliope and Linus, http://www005.upp.so-net.ne.jp/k miyash/occ02/kalliope/doublestar en.html 5 recording obtained by H. Michels, MPC Station Code 240 6 using Limovie by K. Miyashita

  19. Five years of Project META - An all-sky narrow-band radio search for extraterrestrial signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Sagan, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We have conducted a five-year search of the northern sky (delta between 30 and 60 deg) for narrow-band radio signals near the 1420 MHz line of neutral hydrogen, and its second harmonic, using an 8.4 x 10 exp 6 channel Fourier spectrometer of 0.05 Hz resolution and 400 kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing Doppler signature for narrow-band signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 6 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels searched, we have found 37 candidate events exceeding the average detection threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m, none of which was detected upon reobservation. The strongest of these appear to be dominated by rare processor errors. However, the strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the Galactic plane. We describe the search and candidate events, and set limits on the prevalence of supercivilizations transmitting Doppler-precompensated beacons at H I or its second harmonic. We conclude with recommendations for future searches, based upon these findings, and a description of our next-generation search system.

  20. THE PPMXL CATALOG OF POSITIONS AND PROPER MOTIONS ON THE ICRS. COMBINING USNO-B1.0 AND THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY (2MASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, S.; Demleitner, M.; Schilbach, E.

    2010-01-01

    USNO-B1.0 and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) are the most widely used all-sky surveys. However, 2MASS has no proper motions at all, and USNO-B1.0 published only relative, not absolute (i.e., on the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRS), proper motions. We performed a new determination of mean positions and proper motions on the ICRS system by combining USNO-B1.0 and 2MASS astrometry. This catalog is called PPMXL (VO access to the catalog is possible via http://vo.uni-hd.de/ppmxl), and it aims to be completed from the brightest stars down to about V ∼ 20 all sky. PPMXL contains about 900 million objects, some 410 million with 2MASS photometry, and is the largest collection of ICRS proper motions at present. As representative for the ICRS, we chose PPMX. The recently released UCAC3 could not be used because we found plate-dependent distortions in its proper motion system north of -20 0 declination. UCAC3 served as an intermediate system for δ ≤ -20 0 . The resulting typical individual mean errors of the proper motions range from 4 mas yr -1 to more than 10 mas yr -1 depending on observational history. The mean errors of positions at epoch 2000.0 are 80-120 mas, if 2MASS astrometry could be used, 150-300 mas else. We also give correction tables to convert USNO-B1.0 observations of, e.g., minor planets to the ICRS system.

  1. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ∼13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ≥M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup –1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ≥M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  2. On the influence of cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Min; Zhang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability influence the all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). We focus on the southeast Atlantic region where transported smoke is often observed above low-level water clouds during burning seasons. We use the CALIOP observations to derive the optical properties of aerosols. We developed two diurnal cloud fraction variation models. One is based on sinusoidal fitting of MODIS observations from Terra and Aqua satellites. The other is based on high-temporal frequency diurnal cloud fraction observations from SEVIRI on board of geostationary satellite. Both models indicate a strong cloud fraction diurnal cycle over the southeast Atlantic region. Sensitivity studies indicate that using a constant cloud fraction corresponding to Aqua local equatorial crossing time (1:30 PM) generally leads to an underestimated (less positive) diurnal mean DARF even if solar diurnal variation is considered. Using cloud fraction corresponding to Terra local equatorial crossing time (10:30 AM) generally leads overestimation. The biases are a typically around 10–20%, but up to more than 50%. The influence of sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on DARF is studied utilizing the cloud optical thickness histogram available in MODIS Level-3 daily data. Similar to previous studies, we found the above-cloud smoke in the southeast Atlantic region has a strong warming effect at the top of the atmosphere. However, because of the plane-parallel albedo bias the warming effect of above-cloud smoke could be significantly overestimated if the grid-mean, instead of the full histogram, of cloud optical thickness is used in the computation. This bias generally increases with increasing above-cloud aerosol optical thickness and sub-grid cloud optical thickness inhomogeneity. Our results suggest that the cloud diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud variability are important factors

  3. INTEGRAL observations of the cosmic X-ray background in the 5-100 keV range via occultation by the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Revnivtsev, M.

    2007-01-01

    by the Earth atmosphere and the Earth auroral emission. Results. The spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in the energy band 5-100 keV is obtained. The shape of the spectrum is consistent with that obtained previously by the HEAO-1 observatory, while the normalization is similar to 10% higher....... This difference in normalization can ( at least partly) be traced to the different assumptions on the absolute flux from the Crab Nebulae. The increase relative to the earlier adopted value of the absolute flux of the CXB near the energy of maximum luminosity (20-50 keV) has direct implications for the energy...

  4. Occult spinal dysraphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paediatricians, paediatric neurosurgeons, urologists, orthopaedic surgeons, occupational ... Occult spinal dysraphism refers to a diverse group of congenital abnormalities resulting from varying degrees of disordered neuro- embryogenesis. Several terms have .... can image the whole spine. T1-weighted sagittal and axial ...

  5. The Fermi All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  6. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: allafort@stanford.edu, E-mail: rolf.buehler@desy.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 Degree-Sign and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  7. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jáuregui García, José Miguel; López-Cruz, Omar, E-mail: tcv@andrew.cmu.edu [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica (INAOE), Coordinación de Astrofísica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  8. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  9. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Eric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants, in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  10. First Study on the Occurrence Frequency of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles over West Africa Using an All-Sky Airglow Imager and GNSS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Daniel; Rabiu, Babatunde; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Segun, Bolaji; Falayi, Elijah; Onwuneme, Sylvester; Kaka, Rafiat

    2017-12-01

    This is the first paper that reports the occurrence frequency of equatorial plasma bubbles and their dependences of local time, season, and geomagnetic activity based on airglow imaging observations at West Africa. The all-sky imager, situated in Abuja (Geographic: 8.99°N, 7.38°E; Geomagnetic: 1.60°S), has a 180° fisheye view covering almost the entire airspace of Nigeria. Plasma bubbles are observed for 70 nights of the 147 clear-sky nights from 9 June 2015 to 31 January 2017. Differences between nighttime and daytime ROTIs were also computed as a proxy of plasma bubbles using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers within the coverage of the all-sky imager. Most plasma bubble occurrences are found during equinoxes and least occurrences during solstices. The occurrence rate of plasma bubbles was highest around local midnight and lower for hours farther away. Most of the postmidnight plasma bubbles were observed around the months of December to March, a period that coincides with the harmattan period in Nigeria. The on/off status of plasma bubble in airglow and GNSS observations were in agreement for 67.2% of the total 768 h, while we suggest several reasons responsible for the remaining 32.8% when the airglow and GNSS bubble status are inconsistent. A majority of the plasma bubbles were observed under relatively quiet geomagnetic conditions (Dst ≥ -40 and Kp ≤ 3), but there was no significant pattern observed in the occurrence rate of plasma bubbles as a function of geomagnetic activity. We suggest that geomagnetic activities could have either suppressed or promoted the occurrence of plasma bubbles.

  11. Occult Macular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Sayman Muslubaş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occult macular dystrophy is an inherited macular dystrophy characterized by a progressive decline of bilateral visual acuity with normal fundus appearance, fluorescein angiogram and full-field electroretinogram. This case report presents a 20-year-old female patient with bilateral progressive decline of visual acuity for six years. Her visual acuity was 3-4/10 in both eyes. Anterior segment and fundus examination, fluorescein angiogram and full-field electroretinogram were normal. She could read all Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates. Fundus autofluorescence imaging was normal. There was a mild central hyporeflectance on fundus infrared reflectance imaging in both eyes. Reduced foveal thickness and alterations of the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction were observed by optical coherence tomography in both eyes. Central scotoma was also found by microperimetry and reduced central response was revealed by multifocal electroretinogram in both eyes. These findings are consistent with the clinical characteristics of occult macular dystrophy

  12. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  13. Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, John N.

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms ...

  14. Occult pneumothorax, revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Mangar Devanand; Abdelmalak Hany; Omar Hesham R; Rashad Rania; Helal Engy; Camporesi Enrico M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of preventable death following chest wall trauma where a simple intervention can be life saving. In cases of trauma patients where cervical spine immobilization is mandatory, supine AP chest radiograph is the most practical initial study. It is however not as sensitive as CT chest for early detection of a pneumothorax. "Occult" pneumothorax is an accepted definition of an existing but usually a clinically and radiologically silent disturbance that i...

  15. GAMBARAN RADIOLOGIS PADA OCCULT PNEUMOTHORAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Aditha Satya Putra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of death in chest wall trauma. Radiological examination is the key factor to establish the existence of a pneumothorax. Occult pneumothorax is pneumothorax that undiagnosed clinically and with thoracic x-ray, but it can be tolerated while other more urgent trauma. Occult pneumothorax can be detected by CT (Computed tomography. Occult pneumothorax may progress to tension pneumothorax in certain circumstances. Missing in diagnosed pneumothorax will cause death. This literature will discuss radiological examination for diagnosing, early detection, and management of occult pneumothorax. If thoracic x-ray examination did not reveal the occult pneumothorax, it can be dangerous if existence of pneumothorax was not known. In this case, the examination of thoracic CT-Scan is gold standard for determining the presence of occult pneumothorax and can provide appropriate care.

  16. GAMBARAN RADIOLOGIS PADA OCCULT PNEUMOTHORAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Aditha Satya Putra; Nyoman Srie Laksminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of death in chest wall trauma. Radiological examination is the key factor to establish the existence of a pneumothorax. Occult pneumothorax is pneumothorax that undiagnosed clinically and with thoracic x-ray, but it can be tolerated while other more urgent trauma. Occult pneumothorax can be detected by CT (Computed tomography). Occult pneumothorax may progress to tension pneumothorax in certain circumstances. Missing in diagnosed pneumothorax will cause deat...

  17. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Wisconsin soft X-ray diffuse background all-sky Survey (McCammon+ 1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, D.; Burrows, D. N.; Sanders, W. T.; Kraushaar, W. L.

    1997-10-01

    The catalog contains all-sky survey of the soft X-ray diffuse background and the count-rate data from which the maps were made for the ten flights included in the survey. It contains 40 files in the machine-readable version and includes documentation and utility subroutines. The data files contain different band maps (B, C, M, M1, M2, I, J, 2-6 keV) in a 0 degree-centered Aitoff projection, in a 180-degree-centered Aitoff projection, in a north polar projection, and in a south polar projection. Lookup tables in the form of FITS images are provided for conversion between pixel coordinates and Galactic coordinates for the various projections. The bands are: B = 130-188eV C = 160-284eV M1 = 440-930eV M2 = 600-1100eV I = 770-1500eV J = 1100-2200eV 2-6keV = 1800-6300eV (51 data files).

  19. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Alan M.; Bradt, Hale V.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Harris, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  20. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Combined A-Train Observations - Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Burton, S. P.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (2009). For the first time, we present comparisons of our multi-sensor aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates to values derived from a subset of models that participated in the latest AeroCom initiative. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  1. The All Sky Automated Survey. The Catalog of Bright Variable Stars in the I-band, South of Declination +28o

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, M.; Pojmański, G.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of our extensive search for the bright variable stars in approximately 30 000 square degrees of the south sky in the I-band data collected by 9o×9o camera of the All Sky Automated Survey between 2002 and 2009. Lists of over 27 000 variable stars brighter than 9 mag at maximum light, with amplitudes ranging from 0.02 mag to 7 mag and variability time-scales from hours to years, as well as corresponding light curves are provided. Automated classification algorithm based on stellar properties (period, Fourier coefficients, 2MASS J, H, K, colors, ASAS V-band data) was used to roughly classify objects. Despite low spatial resolution of the ASAS data (≍15'') we cross-identified all objects with other available data sources. Coordinates of the most probable 2MASS counterparts are provided. 27 705 stars brighter than I=9 mag were found to be variable, of which 7842 objects were detected to be variable for the first time. Brief statistics and discussion of the presented data is provided. All the photometric data is available over the Internet at http://www.astrouw.edu.pl/ gp/asas/AsasBrightI.html

  2. Ground-based search for the brightest transiting planets with the Multi-site All-Sky CAmeRA: MASCARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, Ignas A. G.; Stuik, Remko; Navarro, Ramon; Bettonvil, Felix; Kenworthy, Matthew; de Mooij, Ernst; Otten, Gilles; ter Horst, Rik; le Poole, Rudolf

    2012-09-01

    The Multi-site All-sky CAmeRA MASCARA is an instrument concept consisting of several stations across the globe, with each station containing a battery of low-cost cameras to monitor the near-entire sky at each location. Once all stations have been installed, MASCARA will be able to provide a nearly 24-hr coverage of the complete dark sky, down to magnitude 8, at sub-minute cadence. Its purpose is to find the brightest transiting exoplanet systems, expected in the V=4-8 magnitude range - currently not probed by space- or ground-based surveys. The bright/nearby transiting planet systems, which MASCARA will discover, will be the key targets for detailed planet atmosphere observations. We present studies on the initial design of a MASCARA station, including the camera housing, domes, and computer equipment, and on the photometric stability of low-cost cameras showing that a precision of 0.3-1% per hour can be readily achieved. We plan to roll out the first MASCARA station before the end of 2013. A 5-station MASCARA can within two years discover up to a dozen of the brightest transiting planet systems in the sky.

  3. Seasonal Variations of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed with an Airglow All-sky Camera at Mt. Bohyun, Korea (36° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ha Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out all-sky imaging of OH Meinel, O2 atmospheric and OI 557.7 nm airglow layers in the period from July of 2001 through September of 2005 at Mt. Bohyun, Korea (36.2° N, 128.9° E, Alt = 1,124 m. We analyzed the images observed during a total of 153 clear moonless nights and found 97 events of band-type waves. The characteristics of the observed waves (wavelengths, periods, and phase speeds are consistent with internal gravity waves. The wave occurrence shows an approximately semi-annual variation, with maxima near solstices and minima near equinoxes, which is consistent with other studies of airglow wave observations, but not with those of mesospheric radar/lidar observations. The observed waves tended to propagate westward during fall and winter, and eastward during spring and summer. Our ray tracing study of the observed waves shows that majority of the observed waves seemed to originate from mesospheric altitudes. The preferential directions and the apparent source altitudes can be explained if the observed waves are secondary waves generated from primary waves that have been selected by the filtering process and break up at the mesospheric altitudes.

  4. Candidate isolated neutron stars and other optically blank x-ray fields identified from the rosat all-sky and sloan digital sky surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueros, Marcel A.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Margon, Bruce; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; /Garching,; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-11-01

    Only seven radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) emitting thermal X rays are known, a sample that has yet to definitively address such fundamental issues as the equation of state of degenerate neutron matter. We describe a selection algorithm based on a cross-correlation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that identifies X-ray error circles devoid of plausible optical counterparts to the SDSS g {approx} 22 magnitudes limit. We quantitatively characterize these error circles as optically blank; they may host INSs or other similarly exotic X-ray sources such as radio-quiet BL Lacs, obscured AGN, etc. Our search is an order of magnitude more selective than previous searches for optically blank RASS error circles, and excludes the 99.9% of error circles that contain more common X-ray-emitting subclasses. We find 11 candidates, nine of which are new. While our search is designed to find the best INS candidates and not to produce a complete list of INSs in the RASS, it is reassuring that our number of candidates is consistent with predictions from INS population models. Further X-ray observations will obtain pinpoint positions and determine whether these sources are entirely optically blank at g {approx} 22, supporting the presence of likely isolated neutron stars and perhaps enabling detailed follow-up studies of neutron star physics.

  5. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  6. Crosslink Radio Occultation for the Remote Sensing of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Asmar, S.; Edwards, C. D.; Kahan, D. S.; Paik, M.; Pi, X.; Williamson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Radio occultation utilizing deep space telecommunication signals has been used with great success in the profiling of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres since the 1960s. A shortcoming of this technique, however, is the limited temporal and spatial sampling that it provides. We consider a different approach where radio occultation measurements are taken between two spacecraft orbiting an extra-terrestrial body. Such "crosslink" radio occultations between the Global Positioning System satellites and low-earth orbiting spacecraft have been routinely acquired to provide global observations of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere that are used for weather forecast, climate analysis, and space weather applications. The feasibility of applying this concept to other planets has recently been demonstrated for the first time, where crosslink occultation measurements have been acquired between the Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. These measurements leverage the proximity link telecommunication payloads on each orbiter, which are nominally used to provide relay communication and navigation services to Mars landers and rovers. In this presentation, we will describe the Mars crosslink experiments and the corresponding data analysis in detail. In addition, we will discuss how the crosslink occultation concepts can be effectively applied in future space exploration missions.

  7. Characterization and evolution of distant planetary atmospheres using stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.

    2008-09-01

    Ground-based or near-Earth (e.g., HST) stellar occultations of every atmosphere in our solar system has been observed: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, and Pluto [1]. These observations probe the atmospheres at roughly 0.1 to 100 microbar. I will talk about three aspects of stellar occultations: one-dimensional vertical profiles of the atmosphere, two- or three-dimensional atmospheric states, and the time evolution of atmosphere. In all three, I will draw on recent observations, with an emphasis on Pluto. Occultations are particularly important for the study of Pluto's atmosphere, which is impossible to study with imaging, and extremely difficult to study with spectroscopy. It was discovered by stellar occultation in 1988 [2]. No subsequent Pluto occultations were observed until two events in 2002 [3]. Pluto is now crossing the galactic plane, and there have been several additional occultations observed since 2006. These include a high signal-to-noise observation from the Anglo Australian Observatory in 2006 [4] (Fig 1), densely spaced visible and infrared observations of Pluto's upper atmosphere from telescopes in the US and Mexico in March, 2007 [5] (Fig. 2), and a dualwavelength central flash observation from Mt. John in July, 2007 [6] (Fig 3). The flux from a star occulted by an atmosphere diminishes primarily due to the increase in refraction with depth in the atmosphere, defocusing the starlight, although absorption and tangential focusing can also contribute. Because the atmospheric density, to first order, follows an exponential, it is feasible to derive a characteristic pressure and temperature from isothermal fits to even low-quality occultation light curves. Higher quality light curves allow fits with more flexible models, or light curve inversions that derive temperatures limited by the resolution of the data. These allow the derivation of one-dimensional profiles of temperature and pressure vs. altitude, which are critical

  8. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  9. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  10. Imaging Polarimeter for a Sub-MeV Gamma-Ray All-sky Survey Using an Electron-tracking Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, S.; Takada, A.; Mizumura, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Mizumoto, T.; Nakamasu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Oda, M.; Parker, J. D.; Sonoda, S.; Tanimori, T.; Tomono, D.; Yoshikawa, K. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kurosawa, S. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8579 (Japan); Miuchi, K. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, 658-8501 (Japan); Sawano, T., E-mail: komura@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    X-ray and gamma-ray polarimetry is a promising tool to study the geometry and the magnetic configuration of various celestial objects, such as binary black holes or gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, statistically significant polarizations have been detected in few of the brightest objects. Even though future polarimeters using X-ray telescopes are expected to observe weak persistent sources, there are no effective approaches to survey transient and serendipitous sources with a wide field of view (FoV). Here we present an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) as a highly sensitive gamma-ray imaging polarimeter. The ETCC provides powerful background rejection and a high modulation factor over an FoV of up to 2 π sr thanks to its excellent imaging based on a well-defined point-spread function. Importantly, we demonstrated for the first time the stability of the modulation factor under realistic conditions of off-axis incidence and huge backgrounds using the SPring-8 polarized X-ray beam. The measured modulation factor of the ETCC was 0.65 ± 0.01 at 150 keV for an off-axis incidence with an oblique angle of 30° and was not degraded compared to the 0.58 ± 0.02 at 130 keV for on-axis incidence. These measured results are consistent with the simulation results. Consequently, we found that the satellite-ETCC proposed in Tanimori et al. would provide all-sky surveys of weak persistent sources of 13 mCrab with 10% polarization for a 10{sup 7} s exposure and over 20 GRBs down to a 6 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} fluence and 10% polarization during a one-year observation.

  11. Finding counterparts for all-sky X-ray surveys with NWAY: a Bayesian algorithm for cross-matching multiple catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, M.; Buchner, J.; Budavári, T.; Dwelly, T.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Rau, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Nandra, K.

    2018-02-01

    We release the AllWISE counterparts and Gaia matches to 106 573 and 17 665 X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT 2RXS and XMMSL2 surveys with |b| > 15°. These are the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, but their position uncertainties and the sparse multi-wavelength coverage until now rendered the identification of their counterparts a demanding task with uncertain results. New all-sky multi-wavelength surveys of sufficient depth, like AllWISE and Gaia, and a new Bayesian statistics based algorithm, NWAY, allow us, for the first time, to provide reliable counterpart associations. NWAY extends previous distance and sky density based association methods and, using one or more priors (e.g. colours, magnitudes), weights the probability that sources from two or more catalogues are simultaneously associated on the basis of their observable characteristics. Here, counterparts have been determined using a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) colour-magnitude prior. A reference sample of 4524 XMM/Chandra and Swift X-ray sources demonstrates a reliability of ∼94.7 per cent (2RXS) and 97.4 per cent (XMMSL2). Combining our results with Chandra-COSMOS data, we propose a new separation between stars and AGN in the X-ray/WISE flux-magnitude plane, valid over six orders of magnitude. We also release the NWAY code and its user manual. NWAY was extensively tested with XMM-COSMOS data. Using two different sets of priors, we find an agreement of 96 per cent and 99 per cent with published Likelihood Ratio methods. Our results were achieved faster and without any follow-up visual inspection. With the advent of deep and wide area surveys in X-rays (e.g. SRG/eROSITA, Athena/WFI) and radio (ASKAP/EMU, LOFAR, APERTIF, etc.) NWAY will provide a powerful and reliable counterpart identification tool.

  12. Operation of the Radio Occultation Mission in KOMPSAT-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoo Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea multi-purpose satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5 is a low earth orbit (LEO satellite scheduled to be launched in 2010. To satisfy the precision orbit determination (POD requirement for a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image of KOMPSAT-5, KOMPSAT-5 has atmosphere occultation POD (AOPOD system which consists of a space-borne dual frequency global positioning system (GPS receiver and a laser retro reflector array. A space-borne dual frequency GPS receiver on a LEO satellite provides position data for the POD and radio occultation data for scientific applications. This paper describes an overview of AOPOD system and operation concepts of the radio occultation mission in KOMPSAT-5. We showed AOPOD system satisfies the requirements of KOMPSAT-5 in performance and stability.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  14. Beamsteerable GNSS Radio Occultation ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an integrated RF ASIC to enable high quality radio occultation (RO) weather observations using the Global Navigations System Satellite (GNSS)...

  15. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  16. Occult Phenomena in Sherlock Holmes the Movie

    OpenAIRE

    NAMAZCARRA, CHRIESHER

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Occult phenomena, Sherlock Holmes, movie. Lately, it is not difficult for people to find occult practices. There are many television programs and movie which air mystical programme aggressively to raise the rating and attract the viewers. A movie that raise occultism theme is Sherlock Holmes, the Movie. This movie tells about the struggle of detective Sherlock Holmes to fight the black magic power of Lord Blackwood.To carry out the study, the theories of Occultism such as the secrec...

  17. Sensing Water Vapon via Spacecraft Radio Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. Robert; Hajj, George A.

    2000-01-01

    The radio occultation technique has been used to characterize planetary atmospheres since the 1960's spanning atmospheric pressures from 16 microbars to several bars. In 1988, the use of GPS signals to make occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere was realized by Tom Yunck and Gunnar Lindal at JPL. In the GPS to low-Earth-orbiter limb- viewing occultation geometry, Fresnel diffraction yield a unique combination of high vertical resolution of 100 m to 1 km at long wavelengths (approx. 20 cm) insensitive to particulate scattering which allows routine limb sounding from the lower mesosphere through the troposphere. A single orbiting GPS/GLONASS receiver can observe - 1000 to 1400 daily occultations providing as many daily, high vertical resolution soundings as the present global radiosonde network, but with far more evenly distributed, global coverage. The occultations yield profiles of refractivity as a function of height. In the cold, dry conditions of the upper troposphere and above (T less than 240 K), profiles of density, pressure (geopotential), and temperature can be derived. Given additional temperature information, water vapor can be derived in the midddle and lower troposphere with a unique combination of vertical resolution, global distribution and insensitivity to clouds and precipitation to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 g/kg. At low latitudes, moisture profiles will be accurate to 1-5% within the convective boundary layer and better than 20% below 6 to 7 km. Accuracies of climatological averages should be approx. 0. 1 g/kg limited by the biases in the temperature estimates. To use refractivity to constrain water vapor, knowledge of temperature is required. The simplest approach is to use the temperature field from an analysis such as the 6 hour ECMWF global analysis interpolated to the locations of each occultation. A better approach is to combine the temperature and moisture fields from such an analysis with the occultation refractivity in a weighting

  18. Pluto-Charon Stellar Occultation Candidates: 1990-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E. W.; McDonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    We have carried out a search to identify stars that might be occulted by Pluto or Charon during the period 1990-1995 and part of 1996. This search was made with an unfiltered CCD camera operated in the strip scanning mode, and it reaches an R magnitude of approximately 17.5-about 1.5 mag fainter than previous searches. Circumstances for each of the 162 potential occultations are given, including an approximate R magnitude of the star, which allows estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for observation of each occultation. The faintest stars in our list would yield an S/N of about 20 for a 1 S integration when observed with a CCD detector on an 8 m telescope under a dark sky. Our astrometric precision (+/- 0.2 arcsec, with larger systematic errors possible for individual cases) is insufficient to serve as a final prediction for these potential occultations, but is sufficient to identify stars deserving of further, more accurate, astrometric observations. Statistically, we expect about 32 of these events to be observable somewhere on Earth. The number of events actually observed will be substantially smaller because of clouds and the sparse distribution of large telescopes. Finder charts for each of the 91 stars involved are presented.

  19. First light of an external occulter testbed at flight Fresnel numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjong; Sirbu, Dan; Hu, Mia; Kasdin, Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Harness, Anthony; Shaklan, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Many approaches have been suggested over the last couple of decades for imaging Earth-like planets. One of the main candidates for creating high-contrast for future Earth-like planets detection is an external occulter. The external occulter is a spacecraft flown along the line-of-sight of a space telescope to suppress starlight and enable high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets. The occulter is typically tens of meters in diameter and the separation from the telescope is of the order of tens of thousands of kilometers. Optical testing of a full-scale external occulter on the ground is impossible because of the long separations. Therefore, laboratory verification of occulter designs is necessary to validate the optical models used to design and predict occulter performance. At Princeton, we have designed and built a testbed that allows verification of scaled occulter designs whose suppressed shadow is mathematically identical to that of space occulters. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a pupil plane suppression of better than 1e-9 with a corresponding image plane contrast of better than 1e-11. The occulter testbed uses a 77.2 m optical propagation distance to realize the flight Fresnel number of 14.5. The scaled mask is placed at 27.2 m from the artificial source and the camera is located 50.0 m from the scaled mask. We will use an etched silicon mask, manufactured by the Microdevices Lab(MDL) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory(JPL), as the occulter. Based on conversations with MDL, we expect that 0.5 μm feature size is an achievable resolution in the mask manufacturing process and is therefore likely the indicator of the best possible performance. The occulter is illuminated by a diverging laser beam to reduce the aberrations from the optics before the occulter. Here, we present first light result of a sample design operating at a flight Fresnel number and the experimental setup of the testbed. We compare the experimental results with simulations

  20. Progress on the occulter experiment at Princeton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Eric; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Carr, Michael; Dickie, Matthew; Echternach, Pierre; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, Jeremy; Laftchiev, Christian; McElwain, Michael; Sirbu, Dan; Vanderbei, Robert; White, Victor

    2009-08-01

    An occulter is used in conjunction with a separate telescope to suppress the light of a distant star. To demonstrate the performance of this system, we are building an occulter experiment in the laboratory at Princeton. This experiment will use an etched silicon mask as the occulter, with some modifications to try to improve the performance. The occulter is illuminated by a diverging laser beam to reduce the aberrations from the optics before the occulter. We present the progress of this experiment and expectations for future work.

  1. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  2. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer

  3. OCCULT POWER AND AFRICA'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    people believe in the existence of occult powers and this belief affects their ... make use of occult powers to solve their problems. For example, ... existence and influence of paranormal and occult powers, argues that ..... and friends.

  4. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  5. DM ORI: A YOUNG STAR OCCULTED BY A DISTURBANCE IN ITS PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Weintraub, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Nucleo de Astronoma de la Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ∼1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ∼1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000–2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013–2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ∼12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ∼14.6 km s{sup −1} and is ∼4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  6. An accuracy assessment of an empirical sine model, a novel sine model and an artificial neural network model for forecasting illuminance/irradiance on horizontal plane of all sky types at Mahasarakham, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanasethanon, Singthong; Lertsatitthanakorn, Charoenporn; Atthajariyakul, Surat; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2008-01-01

    The results of a study on all sky modeling and forecasting daylight availability for the tropical climate found in the central region of the northeastern part of Thailand (16 deg. 14' N, 103 deg. 15' E) is presented. The required components of sky quantities, namely, global and diffuse horizontal irradiance and global horizontal illuminance for saving energy used in buildings are estimated. The empirical sinusoidal models are validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a form of the sky conditions. In addition, a novel sinusoidal model, which consists of polynomial or exponential functions, is validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a new function in the polynomial or exponential form of the sky conditions. Novelettes, an artificial intelligent agent, namely, artificial neural network (ANN) model is also identified. Back propagation learning algorithms were used in the networks. Moreover, a one year data set and a next half year data set were used in order to train and test the neural network, respectively. Observation results from one year's round data indicate that luminosity and energy from the sky on horizontal in the area around Mahasarakham are frequently brighter than those of Bangkok. The accuracy of the validated model is determined in terms of the mean bias deviation (MBD), the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) and the coefficient of correlation (R 2 ) values. A comparison of the estimated solar irradiation values and the observed values revealed a small error slide in the empirical sinusoidal model as well. In addition, some results of the sky quantity forecast by the ANN model indicate that the ANN model is more accurate than the empirical models and the novel sinusoidal models. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict highly accurate solar radiance/illuminance values. We believe

  7. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  8. Reflective Occultation Mask for Evaluation of Occulter Designs for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Lyon, Richard; Shiri, Shahram; Roman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Advanced formation flying occulter designs utilize a large occulter mask flying in formation with an imaging telescope to block and null starlight to allow imaging of faint planets in exosolar systems. A paper describes the utilization of subscale reflective occultation masks to evaluate formation flying occulter designs. The use of a reflective mask allows mounting of the occulter by conventional means and simplifies the test configuration. The innovation alters the test set-up to allow mounting of the mask using standard techniques to eliminate the problems associated with a standard configuration. The modified configuration uses a reflective set-up whereby the star simulator reflects off of a reflective occulting mask and into an evaluation telescope. Since the mask is sized to capture all rays required for the imaging test, it can be mounted directly to a supporting fixture without interfering with the beam. Functionally, the reflective occultation mask reflects light from the star simulator instead of transmitting it, with a highly absorptive carbon nanotube layer simulating the occulter blocking mask. A subscale telescope images the star source and companion dim source that represents a planet. The primary advantage of this is that the occulter can be mounted conventionally instead of using diffractive wires or magnetic levitation.

  9. McDonald's and the Occult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Barry

    1979-01-01

    Discusses "occult" and "paranormal" literature which is often mistaken for nonfiction. Suggests that most publishers are unwilling to publish scientific perspectives on the paranormal because such writings would be unmarketable. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)

  10. Measuring the color and brightness of artificial sky glow from cities using an all-sky imaging system calibrated with astronomical methods in the Johnson-Cousins B and V photometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Ashley; Duriscoe, Dan M.; Lughinbuhl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night, when observed at some distance from a city, results in a dome of sky glow, brightest at the horizon. The spectral power distribution of electric light utilized will determine its color of the light dome and the amount of light will determine its brightness. Recent outdoor lighting technologies have included blue-rich light emitting diode (LED) sources that may increase the relative amount of blue to green light in sky glow compared to typical high pressure sodium (HPS) sources with warmer spectra. Measuring and monitoring this effect is important to the preservation of night sky visual quality as seen from undeveloped areas outside the city, such as parks or other protected areas, since the dark-adapted human eye is more sensitive to blue and green. We present a method using a wide field CCD camera which images the entire sky in both Johnson V and B photometric bands. Standard stars within the images are used for calibration. The resulting all-sky brightness maps, and a derived B-V color index map, provide a means to assess and track the impact of specific outdoor lighting practices. We also present example data from several cities, including Las Vegas, Nevada, Flagstaff, Arizona, and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

  11. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  12. Optical performance of the New Worlds Occulter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Lo, Amy S.; Glassman, Tiffany M.; Cash, Webster

    2007-04-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a multiple spacecraft mission that is capable of detecting and characterizing extra-solar planets and planetary systems. NWO consists of an external occulter and a generic space telescope, flying in tandem. The external occulter has specific requirements on its shape and size, while the telescope needs no special modification beyond that required to do high-quality astrophysical observations. The occulter is a petal-shaped, opaque screen that creates a high-suppression shadow large enough to accommodate the telescope. This article reports on the optical performance of the novel New Worlds occulter design. It also introduces two new aspects of its optical performance which enhance the detectability of extra-solar planets. We also include a brief discussion of the buildability and the tolerances of the occulter. It is also shown that an occulter design can be found for any set of science requirements. We show that NWO is a viable mission concept for the study of extra-solar planets. To cite this article: J.W. Arenberg et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  13. External occulter edge scattering control using metamaterials for exoplanet detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Sirbu, Dan; Liu, Zhaowei; Martin, Stefan; Lu, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Direct imaging of earth-like exoplanets in the Habitable Zone of sun-like stars requires image contrast of ~10^10 at angular separations of around a hundred milliarcseconds. One approach for achieving this performance is to fly a starshade at a long distance in front of the telescope, shading the telescope from the direct starlight, but allowing planets around the star to be seen. The starshade is positioned so that sunlight falls on the surface away from the telescope, so the sun does not directly illuminate it. However, sunlight scattered from the starshade edge can enter the telescope, raising the background light level and potentially preventing the starshade from delivering the required contrast. As a result, starshade edge design has been identified as one of the highest priority technology gaps for external occulter missions in the NASAs Exoplanet Exploration Program Technology Plan 2013. To reduce the sunlight edge scatter to an acceptable level, the edge Radius Of Curvature (ROC) should be 1μm or less (commercial razor blades have ROC of a few hundred nanometer). This poses a challenging manufacturing requirement and may make the occulter difficult to handle. In this paper we propose an alternative approach to controlling the edge scattering by applying a flexible metamaterial to the occulter edge. Metamaterials are artificially structured materials, which have been designed to display properties not found in natural materials. Metamaterials can be designed to direct the scatter at planned incident angles away from the space telescope, thereby directly decreasing the contaminating background light. Reduction of the background light translates into shorter integration time to characterize a target planet and therefore improves the efficiency of the observations. As an additional benefit, metamaterials also have potential to produce increased tolerance to edge defects.

  14. Small Spacecraft Constellation Concept for Mars Atmospheric Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S. W.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Kobayashi, M. M.; Lazio, J.; Marinan, A.; Massone, G.; McCandless, S. E.; Preston, R. A.; Seubert, J.; Williamson, W.

    2017-12-01

    First demonstrated in 1965 when Mariner IV flew by Mars and determined the salient features of its atmosphere, radio occultation experiments have been carried out on numerous planetary missions with great discoveries. These experiments utilize the now classic configuration of a signal from a single planetary spacecraft to Earth receiving stations, where the science data are acquired. The Earth science community advanced the technique to utilizing a constellation of spacecraft with the radio occultation links between the spacecraft, enabled by the infrastructure of the Global Positioning System. With the advent of small and less costly spacecraft, such as planetary CubeSats and other variations, such as the anticipated innovative Mars Cube One mission, crosslinks among small spacecraft can be used to study other planets in the near future. Advantages of this type of experiment include significantly greater geographical coverage, which could reach global coverage over a few weeks with a small number of spacecraft. Repeatability of the global coverage can lead to examining temperature-pressure profiles and ionospheric electron density profiles, on daily, seasonal, annual, or other time scales of interest. The higher signal-to-noise ratio for inter-satellite links, compared to a link to Earth, decreases the design demands on the instrumentation (smaller antennas and transmitters, etc.). After an actual Mars crosslink demonstration, this concept has been in development using Mars as a possible target. Scientific objectives, delivery methods, operational scenarios and end-to-end configuration have been documented. Science objectives include determining the state and variability of the lower Martian atmosphere, which has been an identified as a high priority objective by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group, particularly as it relates to entry, descent, and landing and ascent for future crewed and robotic missions. This paper will present the latest research on the

  15. Progress in turbulence detection via GNSS occultation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Cornman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of radio occultation (RO data offers the ability to detect and study turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. An analysis of how RO data can be used to determine the strength and location of turbulent regions is presented. This includes the derivation of a model for the power spectrum of the log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of the permittivity (or index of refraction field. The bulk of the paper is then concerned with the estimation of the model parameters. Parameter estimators are introduced and some of their statistical properties are studied. These estimators are then applied to simulated log-amplitude RO signals. This includes the analysis of global statistics derived from a large number of realizations, as well as case studies that illustrate various specific aspects of the problem. Improvements to the basic estimation methods are discussed, and their beneficial properties are illustrated. The estimation techniques are then applied to real occultation data. Only two cases are presented, but they illustrate some of the salient features inherent in real data.

  16. Influence of Ionospheric Weather on GNSS Radio Occultation Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Kuo, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    Transient loss of lock (LOL) is one of the key space weather effects on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations during 2007-2011, we have analyzed the signal cycle slip (CS) occurrence comprehensively and its correlation to the ionospheric weather phenomena such as sporadic E (Es), equatorial F region irregularity (EFI), and the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The high vertical resolution of RO observations enables us to distinguish the CS resulting from different ionospheric layers clearly on a global scale. In the E layer, the CS is dominated by the Es occurrence, while in the F layer, the CS is mainly related to the EIA and EFI at low and equatorial latitudes. In the polar region, the CS is primarily related to polar cap electron density gradients. The overall average CS (> 6 cycles) occurrence is 23% per occultation, with the E (50-150 km) and F (150-600 km) layers contributing 8.3% and 14.7%, respectively. Awareness of the effect of the ionospheric weather on the CS of the low-Earth-orbit (LEO)-based GNSS signal could be beneficial to a variety of applications, including the LEO-based GNSS data processing and the corresponding hardware/firmware design.

  17. Oligometastasis as a predictor for occult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Wayne S

    2014-05-01

    Oligometastasis can be defined as a state of limited metastases that is potentially amenable to ablative local therapy; the success of such therapy depends on whether or not additional occult metastases exist. A model is presented here to predict occult metastases given detectable oligometastases. Predictions were based on Bayes' theorem, in conjunction with descriptions of the statistical distributions for the sizes and numbers of hematogenous metastases. The background probability for occult metastases in individuals with oligometastases increased markedly with relatively minor increases in metastatic potential. With each additional metastasis detected the chance of further occult metastases increased. These latter increases were incremental and proportionately smaller with the more metastatic tumors. Long disease free intervals had a major effect to decrease in the probability of further occult disease. Demonstration of oligometastases depends heavily upon the sensitivity of radiological imaging techniques, where the proportion of detectable metastases relates to the position of the distribution of metastasis growth times with respect to the detection threshold. Given the limitations of radiological methods, and the possibility that the oligometastases detected may be the only disease, an aggressive approach appears indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Boundary diffraction wave integrals for diffraction modeling of external occulters

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    An occulter is a large diffracting screen which may be flown in conjunction with a telescope to image extrasolar planets. The edge is shaped to minimize the diffracted light in a region beyond the occulter, and a telescope may be placed in this dark shadow to view an extrasolar system with the starlight removed. Errors in position, orientation, and shape of the occulter will diffract additional light into this region, and a challenge of modeling an occulter system is to accurately and quickly...

  19. Strong scintillations during atmospheric occultations Theoretical intensity spectra. [radio scattering during spacecraft occultations by planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Each of the two Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 has completed a reconnaissance of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. In connection with occultation experiments, strong scintillations were observed. Further theoretical work is required before these scintillations can be interpreted. The present study is, therefore, concerned with the derivation of a theory for strong scattering during atmospheric occultation experiments, taking into account as fundamental quantity of interest the spatial spectrum (or spectral density) of intensity fluctuations. Attention is given to a theory for intensity spectra, and numerical calculations. The new formula derived for Phi-i accounts for strong scattering of electromagnetic waves during atmospheric occultations.

  20. First results from stellar occultations in the "GAIA era"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Sicardy, B.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar occultation is a powerful technique to study distant solar system bodies. It allows high angular resolution of the occulting body from the analysis of a light curve acquired with high temporal resolution with uncertainties comparable as probes. In the "GAIA era", stellar occultations is now able to obtain even more impressive results such as the presence of atmosphere, rings and topographic features.

  1. Occult spondyloarthritis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandinelli, Francesca; Manetti, Mirko; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a frequent extra-intestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although its real diffusion is commonly considered underestimated. Abnormalities in the microbioma and genetic predisposition have been implicated in the link between bowel and joint inflammation. Otherwise, up to date, pathogenetic mechanisms are still largely unknown and the exact influence of the bowel activity on rheumatic manifestations is not clearly explained. Due to evidence-based results of clinical studies, the interest on clinically asymptomatic SpA in IBD patients increased in the last few years. Actually, occult enthesitis and sacroiliitis are discovered in high percentages of IBD patients by different imaging techniques, mainly enthesis ultrasound (US) and sacroiliac joint X-ray examinations. Several diagnostic approaches and biomarkers have been proposed in an attempt to correctly classify and diagnose clinically occult joint manifestations and to define clusters of risk for patient screening, although definitive results are still lacking. The correct recognition of occult SpA in IBD requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach in order to identify common diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The use of inexpensive and rapid imaging techniques, such as US and X-ray, should be routinely included in daily clinical practice and trials to correctly evaluate occult SpA, thus preventing future disability and worsening of quality of life in IBD patients.

  2. Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashov Vladimir V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an occult one is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of the development of occult infection, we compared the full-length HBV genome from a blood donor carrying an occult infection (d4 with global genotype D genomes. Results The phylogenetic analysis of polymerase, core and X protein sequences did not distinguish d4 from other genotype D strains. Yet, d4 surface protein formed the evolutionary outgroup relative to all other genotype D strains. Its evolutionary branch was the only one where accumulation of substitutions suggests positive selection (dN/dS = 1.3787. Many of these substitutiions accumulated specifically in regions encoding the core/surface protein interface, as revealed in a 3D-modeled protein complex. We identified a novel RNA splicing event (deleting nucleotides 2986-202 that abolishes surface protein gene expression without affecting polymerase, core and X-protein related functions. Genotype D strains differ in their ability to perform this 2986-202 splicing. Strains prone to 2986-202 splicing constitute a separate clade in a phylogenetic tree of genotype D HBVs. A single substitution (G173T that is associated with clade membership alters the local RNA secondary structure and is proposed to affect splicing efficiency at the 202 acceptor site. Conclusion We propose an evolutionary scenario for occult HBV infection, in which 2986-202 splicing generates intracellular virus particles devoid of surface protein, which subsequently accumulates mutations due to relaxation of coding constraints. Such viruses are deficient of autonomous propagation and cannot leave the host cell until it is lysed.

  3. Partially Transparent Petaled Mask/Occulter for Visible-Range Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron Shahram; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the Poisson Spot, also known as the spot of Arago, has been known since the 18th century. This spot is the consequence of constructive interference of light diffracted by the edge of the obstacle where the central position can be determined by symmetry of the object. More recently, many NASA missions require the suppression of this spot in the visible range. For instance, the exoplanetary missions involving space telescopes require telescopes to image the planetary bodies orbiting central stars. For this purpose, the starlight needs to be suppressed by several orders of magnitude in order to image the reflected light from the orbiting planet. For the Earth-like planets, this suppression needs to be at least ten orders of magnitude. One of the common methods of suppression involves sharp binary petaled occulters envisioned to be placed many thousands of miles away from the telescope blocking the starlight. The suppression of the Poisson Spot by binary sharp petal tips can be problematic when the thickness of the tips becomes smaller than the wavelength of the incident beam. First they are difficult to manufacture and also it invalidates the laws of physical optics. The proposed partially transparent petaled masks/occulters compensate for this sharpness with transparency along the surface of the petals. Depending on the geometry of the problem, this transparency can be customized such that only a small region of the petal is transparent and the remaining of the surface is opaque. This feature allows easy fabrication of this type of occultation device either as a mask or occulter. A partially transparent petaled mask/ occulter has been designed for the visible spectrum range. The mask/occulter can suppress the intensity along the optical axis up to ten orders of magnitude. The design process can tailor the mask shape, number of petals, and transparency level to the near-field and farfield diffraction region. The mask/occulter can be used in space

  4. Observing Tropospheric Water Vapor by Radio Occultation using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    Given the importance of water vapor to weather, climate and hydrology, global humidity observations from satellites are critical. At low latitudes, radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites allow water vapor profiles to be retrieved with accuracies of 10 to 20% below 6 to 7 km altitude and approx. 5% or better within the boundary layer. GPS observations provide a unique combination of accuracy, vertical resolution (less than or equal to 1 km) and insensitivity to cloud and aerosol particles that is well suited to observations of the lower troposphere. These characteristics combined with the inherent stability of radio occultation observations make it an excellent candidate for the measurement of long term trends.

  5. Occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäniemi, Ari; Haapiainen, Reijo

    2003-10-01

    Missed diaphragmatic perforation caused by penetrating trauma can lead to subsequent strangulation of a hollow viscus, which has prompted the use of invasive diagnostic procedures to exclude occult diaphragmatic injuries in asymptomatic, high-risk patients. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds of the lower chest and upper abdomen, and to examine the natural history and consequences of missed diaphragmatic injuries. On the basis of patient data from two previous randomized studies from our institution, a retrospective analysis was performed on 97 patients treated for anterior stab wounds located between the nipple line, the umbilical level, and the posterior axillary lines not having indications for immediate surgical exploration. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their initial randomized management (open or laparoscopic exploration vs. expectant observation). In the exploration group (n = 47), four diaphragmatic injuries (9%) were detected (three left-sided and one right-sided). Excluding patients with associated injuries requiring surgical repair, the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries was 3 of 43 (7%). In the observation group (n = 50), there were two patients (4%) with delayed presentation of missed left-sided diaphragmatic injury 2 and 23 months later, respectively. Both injuries resulted from stab wounds of the left flank and presented with herniation of the stomach or small bowel and colon. The overall incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries in left-sided thoracoabdominal stab wounds was 4 of 24 (17%), and was much lower after stab wounds of left epigastrium (0%), right lower chest (0%), and right epigastrium (4%). In asymptomatic patients with anterior or flank stab wounds of the lower chest or upper abdominal area, the risk of an occult diaphragmatic injury is approximately 7% which, if undetected, is associated with a high risk of subsequent

  6. Occultations from an Active Accretion Disk in a 72-day Detached Post-Algol System Detected by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Rappaport, S.; Nelson, L.; Huang, C. X.; Senhadji, A.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Vanderburg, A.; Quinn, S.; Johnson, C. I.; Latham, D. W.; Torres, G.; Gary, B. L.; Tan, T. G.; Johnson, M. C.; Burt, J.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Schwengeler, H. M.; Terentev, I.; Bieryla, A.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Bento, J.; Cochran, W. D.; Karjalainen, M.; Hatzes, A. P.; Karjalainen, R.; Holden, B.; Butler, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Disks in binary systems can cause exotic eclipsing events. MWC 882 (BD –22 4376, EPIC 225300403) is such a disk-eclipsing system identified from observations during Campaign 11 of the K2 mission. We propose that MWC 882 is a post-Algol system with a B7 donor star of mass 0.542+/- 0.053 {M}ȯ in a 72-day orbit around an A0 accreting star of mass 3.24+/- 0.29 {M}ȯ . The 59.9+/- 6.2 {R}ȯ disk around the accreting star occults the donor star once every orbit, inducing 19-day long, 7% deep eclipses identified by K2 and subsequently found in pre-discovery All-Sky Automated Survey and All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae observations. We coordinated a campaign of photometric and spectroscopic observations for MWC 882 to measure the dynamical masses of the components and to monitor the system during eclipse. We found the photometric eclipse to be gray to ≈1%. We found that the primary star exhibits spectroscopic signatures of active accretion, and we observed gas absorption features from the disk during eclipse. We suggest that MWC 882 initially consisted of a ≈3.6 M ⊙ donor star transferring mass via Roche lobe overflow to a ≈2.1 M ⊙ accretor in a ≈7-day initial orbit. Through angular momentum conservation, the donor star is pushed outward during mass transfer to its current orbit of 72 days. The observed state of the system corresponds with the donor star having left the red giant branch ∼0.3 Myr ago, terminating active mass transfer. The present disk is expected to be short-lived (102 yr) without an active feeding mechanism, presenting a challenge to this model.

  7. Occult fractures of the knee: tomographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Allen, N.B.; Caldwell, D.S.; Rice, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Seven adults with painful effusions of the knee were examined for occult fractures using pluridirectional tomograph in the coronal and lateral planes. Six patients (ages 50 to 82 years) were osteopenic and gave histories ranging from none to mild trauma; one 26-year-old man was not osteopenic and had severe trauma. In all cases, routine radiographs were interpreted as negative, but tomography demonstrated a fracture. Five fractures were subchondral. Bone scans in 2 patients were positive. The authors conclude that osteopenic patients with a painful effusion of the knee should be considered to have an occult fracture. While bone scans may be helpful, tomography is recommended as the procedure of choice to define the location and extent of the fracture

  8. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nivean, M; Muttuvelu, Danson V; Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia

    2016-01-01

    (ERG), serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive...... photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool....

  9. Results from occultations by minor planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Since the minor planets are believed to consist of primordial matter dating from the time of the formation of the solar system there is great interest in determining their composition. It is therefore necessary to calculate their densities, for which we need accurate masses and sizes. On the rare occasions when a minor planet occults a star, timed observations of the event from a number of observing sites enable an accurate size of the minor planet to be determined. (Auth.)

  10. OCCULTISM AND MEDIUMSHIP IN FERNANDO PESSOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Diêgo Dias de Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research on the influence that the occultism had on the work of the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa. To delimitate the study, we selected papers of Fernando Pessoa, which  suggested that the poet considered himself medium, and hence influenced his work, building his depersonalization. This work presents, thus, as main objectiveto analyze personal papers of Fernando Pessoa, whose outstanding characteristic is the presence of occultism and the supposed mediumship defended by him in response to non-literary and heteronymic manifestations. To this end, I focused on specific objectives, which are: a to study the speech of Fernando Pessoa on his supposed mediumship / occultism b to analyze specific texts that are, for the poet, mediumistic manifestations c to study excerpts from a set of personal letters in which Fernando Pessoa suggested being a medium. It is true that this dissertation will address many discussions already made by scholars and specialists in Fernando Pessoa, but we consider the possibility to deepen issues and contribute to the critical fortune of the poet.

  11. Ultrasound detection of nonpalpable mammographically occult malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.L.; Hermann, G.; Rausch, D.R.; Sherman, J.; Feig, S.A.; Bleiweiss, I.J.; Jaffer, S.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult malignancy with screening breast ultrasound. All ultrasound-guided core needle breast biopsies performed between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were identified during screening breast ultrasound in high-risk women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality in either breast, a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in the contralateral breast, or a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in a different quadrant of the same breast. All ultrasound-detected lesions were histologically verified. Six hundred and fifty-two women with a mean age of 49 years underwent 698 biopsies during the study period. Three hundred and forty-nine of these lesions were detected at screening breast ultrasound. Out of 349, 11 (3.2%) had a mammographically and clinically occult malignancy. Nine cancers were found in women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality. Two cancers were found in the same breast as the mammographic or palpable abnormality. None were found in the breast contralateral to a palpable or mammographic abnormality. Screening breast ultrasound of high-risk women has a similar detection rate for occult carcinoma as screening mammography, but has a low positive predictive value in cases where biopsy is performed. (author)

  12. OCCULT-ORSER complete conversational user-language translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Young, K.

    1981-01-01

    Translator program (OCCULT) assists non-computer-oriented users in setting up and submitting jobs for complex ORSER system. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data. OCCULT is designed for those who would like to use ORSER but cannot justify acquiring and maintaining necessary proficiency in Remote Job Entry Language, Job Control Language, and control-card formats. OCCULT is written in FORTRAN IV and OS Assembler for interactive execution.

  13. Impact of tropospheric scintillation in the Ku/K bands on the communications between two LEO satellites in a radio occultation geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Freni, A.; Facheris, L.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the impact of clear-air tropospheric scintillation on a radio occultation link between two low Earth orbit satellites in K- and Ku-bands is presented, with particular reference to differential approaches for the measure of the total content of water vapor. The troposphere...

  14. Taiwan/TriG Radio Occultation Process System (TROPS): A Brief Introduction of Atmospheric Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Yung; Yeh, Wen-Hao; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Chen, Linton J.

    2017-04-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has been used to investigate the Earth's atmosphere since 1990s. In 2006, Taiwan has launched six low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites as a RO constellation mission, named FORMOSAT-3 /COSMIC (F-3/C). F-3/C mission can release 1500-2500 data sets per day for both neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. With the advent of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in ten years and FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F-7/C-2) mission, 12 LEO satellites are planned to be launched and deployed in two clusters of 6-satellites into the designated low and high inclination orbits in 2017 and 2020(TBD), respectively. The amount of RO data set will increase to about 8000 set per day with the using of GNSS TriG (GPS, Glonass, Galileo) receivers. The first phase of FS-7 mission is designed to low inclination (24 deg) orbit to improve the ability of server weather forecasting, like typhoon and monsoon rainfall around tropical region. The second is high inclination (72 deg) for global distribution. In order to observe better water vapor profiles, the 4x3 antennas arrays will be on board to receive weak signals which pass through low troposphere around earth surface. This report will introduce the status of F-7/C-2 mission and atmospheric part of occultation data process software TROPS.

  15. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...... of GEROS-ISS is the dedicated use of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in L-band for remote sensing of the Earth with a focus to study climate change. Prime mission objectives are the determination of the altimetric sea surface height of the oceans...

  16. A unique airborne observation. [Martian atmospheric temperature and abundances from occultation of Epsilon Geminorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Church, C.

    1976-01-01

    The occultation of 3rd magnitude Epsilon Geminorum by Mars was observed using a 36-inch telescope equipped with a photoelectric photometer at the bent Cassegrain focus, carried aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory at altitudes up to 45,000 feet. Scintillation from the earth's atmosphere was greatly reduced in comparison with ground observations. The observations clearly show the central flash, caused by the symmetrical refraction of light by the atmosphere of Mars. The data are being analyzed to obtain temperature profiles and to assess the relative abundance of argon and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the planet.

  17. COSMIC Radio Occultation technique for measurement of the tropopause during tropical cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig

    Basin during July 2008 and reached a maximum intensity of Category 3 and the typhoon Hondo, formed in the south Indian basin during February 2008 with maximum intensity of Category 4. Using measurements from a variety of earth observation satellites (A-Train constellation) and from aircraft together...... and they cool the tropopause layers. The GPS radio occultation technique is useful for studying severe weather phenomena because the GPS signals penetrate through clouds and allow measurements of atmospheric profiles related to temperature, pressure, and water vapour with high vertical resolution...

  18. Prevalence of occult inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, P B; Alea, J A; Kennedy, A C; McCluskey, R T; Green, F A

    1980-10-01

    Fifty-five patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 16 control patients matched for sex and age were examined for evidence of occult inflammatory bowel disease. In all patients evaluation included history and physical examination, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and rectal biopsy. The results of this study suggest that there is no increased prevalence of occult inflammatory bowel disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  19. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a...

  20. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent. Objective: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

  1. Occult Hepatitis B Virus in Gezira State Sudan | Gasmelseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is simply defined as serologically undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-ve), despite the presence of circulating HBV DNA. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult HBV among Screened HBsAg subjects in Gezira State, Sudan.

  2. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig

    signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), we show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger...

  3. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  4. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  5. Occultations of Astrophysical Radio Sources as Probes of Planetary Environments: A Case Study of Jupiter and Possible Applications to Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, Paul [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Vogt, Marissa F. [Center for Space Physics, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Properties of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres are difficult to measure from Earth. Radio occultations are a common method for measuring these properties, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. Here, we explore whether occultations of radio emissions from a distant astrophysical radio source can be used to measure magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density around planets. In a theoretical case study of Jupiter, we find that significant changes in polarization angle due to Faraday rotation occur for radio signals that pass within 10 Jupiter radii of the planet and that significant changes in frequency and power occur from radio signals that pass through the neutral atmosphere. There are sufficient candidate radio sources, such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers, that occultations are likely to occur at least once per year. For pulsars, time delays in the arrival of their emitted pulses can be used to measure plasma density. Exoplanets, whose physical properties are very challenging to observe, may also occult distant astrophysical radio sources, such as their parent stars.

  6. Pluto occultation on 2015 June 29 UTC with central flash and atmospheric spikes just before the New Horizons flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Durst, Rebecca F.; Seeger, Christina H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Person, Michael J.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Abe, Fumio; Nagakane, Masayuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Tristram, Paul J.; Arredondo, Anicia

    2017-11-01

    We observed the occultation by Pluto of a 12th magnitude star, one of the two brightest occultation stars ever in our dozen years of continual monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere through such studies, on 2015 June 29 UTC. At the Univ. of Canterbury Mt. John Observatory (New Zealand), under clear skies throughout, we used a POETS frame-transfer CCD at 10 Hz with GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan telescope as well as an infrared camera on an 0.6-m telescope and three-color photometry at a slower cadence on a second 0.6-m telescope. At the Auckland Observatory, we used a POETS and a PICO on 0.5-m and 0.4-m telescopes, with 0.4 s and 2 s cadences, respectively, obtaining ingress observations before clouds moved in. The Mt. John light curves show a central flash, indicating that we were close to the center of the occultation path. Analysis of our light curves show that Pluto's atmosphere remains robust. The presence of spikes at both sites in the egress and ingress shows atmospheric layering. We coordinated our observations with aircraft observations (Bosh et al., 2017) with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Our chords helped constrain the path across Pluto that SOFIA saw. Our ground-based and airborne stellar-occultation effort came only just over two weeks of Earth days and two Pluto days before the flyby of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft.

  7. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  8. Lunar occultation observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three lunar of occultations of the Crab Nebula were observed, two at 114 MHz and one at 26.3 MHz, during the 1974 series of events. The higher frequency observations were deconvolved of diffraction effects to yield four strip integrated brightness profiles of the Nebula, with an effective resolution of 30 arc-seconds. These four profiles were Fourier inverted and cleaned of sidelobe structure to synthesize a two-dimensional map of the Nebula. At 114 MHz, the Nebula is composed of a broad envelope of emission which contains several smaller sources. The attenuation of the low radio frequency radiation by the thermal hydrogen in the filaments is considered as a possible mechanism to explain these new data. The 26.3 MHz observations indicate the presence of a bright, localized source containing greater than 80% of the flux of the Nebula. The position of the source is confined by the data to a narrow strip centered at the pulsar position. Both sets of data are compared with past occultation observations

  9. Current management of occult bacteremia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mekitarian Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To summarize the main clinical entities associated with fever without source (FWS in infants, as well as the clinical management of children with occult bacteremia, emphasizing laboratory tests and empirical antibiotics. Sources: A non-systematic review was conducted in the following databases – PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO, between 2006 and 2015. Summary of the findings: The prevalence of occult bacteremia has been decreasing dramatically in the past few years, due to conjugated vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Additionally, fewer requests for complete blood count and blood cultures have been made for children older than 3 months presenting with FWS. Urinary tract infection is the most prevalent bacterial infection in children with FWS. Some known algorithms, such as Boston and Rochester, can guide the initial risk stratification for occult bacteremia in febrile infants younger than 3 months. Conclusions: There is no single algorithm to estimate the risk of occult bacteremia in febrile infants, but pediatricians should strongly consider outpatient management in fully vaccinated infants older than 3 months with FWS and good general status. Updated data about the incidence of occult bacteremia in this environment after conjugated vaccination are needed. Resumo: Objetivos: Listar as principais entidades clínicas associadas a quadros de febre sem sinais localizatórios (FSSL em lactentes, bem como o manejo dos casos de bacteremia oculta com ênfase na avaliação laboratorial e na antibioticoterapia empírica. Fonte dos dados: Foi realizada revisão não sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, EMBASE e Scielo no período de 2006 a 2015. Síntese dos dados: A ocorrência de bacteremia oculta vem diminuindo sensivelmente em lactentes com FSSL, principalmente devido à introdução da vacinação conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Neisseria meningitidis nos últimos anos

  10. Atmospheric gravity wave detection following the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes combining COSMIC occultation and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Tao, Y.; Xia, C.; Qi, Y.; Zuo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have reported the earthquake-induced atmospheric gravity waves detected by some new technologies such as airglow (Makela et al., 2011), GOCE (Garcia et al., 2013), GRACE (Yang et al., 2014), F3/C radio occultation sounding (Coïsson et al., 2015). In this work, we collected all occultation events on 11 March, and selected four events to analyze at last. The original and filtered podTEC is represented as function of the altitude of the impact parameter and UT of the four events. Then, the travel time diagrams of filtered podTEC derived from the events were analyzed. The occultation signal from one event (marked as No.73) is consistent with the previous results reported by Coïsson. 2015, which is corresponds to the ionospheric signal induced from tsunami gravity wave. What is noticeable, in this work, is that three occultation events of No.403, 77 and 118 revealed a disturbance of atmospheric gravity wave with velocity 300m/s, preceding the tsunami. It would probably be correspond to the gravity waves caused by seismic rupture but not tsunami. In addition, it can be seen that the perturbation height of occultation observation TEC is concentrated at 200-400km, corresponding ionosphere F region. The signals detected above are compared with GPS measurements of TEC from GEONET and IGS. From GPS data, traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed spreading out from the epicenter as a quasi-circular propagation pattern with the time. Exactly, we observed an acoustic wave coupled with Rayleigh wave starting from the epicenter with a speed of 3.0km/s and a superimposed acoustic-gravity wave moving with a speed of 800m/s. The acoustic-gravity wave generated at the epicenter and gradually attenuated 800km away, then it is replaced by a gravity wave coupled with the tsunami that moves with a speed of between 100 and 300m/s. It is necessary to confirm the propagation process of the waves if we attempt to evaluate the use of ionospheric seismology as a

  11. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  12. CT detection of occult pneumothorax in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocino, I.M.; Miller, M.H.; Frederick, P.R.; Bahr, A.L.; Thomas, F.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective evaluation for occult pneumothorax was performed in 25 consecutive patients with serious head trauma by combining a limited chest CT examination with the emergency head CT examination. Of 21 pneuomothoraces present in 15 patients, 11 (52%) were found only by chest CT and were not identified clinically or by supine chest radiograph. Because of pending therapeutic measures, chest tubes were placed in nine of the 11 occult pneumothoraces, regardless of the volume. Chest CT proved itself as the most sensitive method for detection of occult pneumothorax, permitting early chest tube placement to prevent transition to a tension pneumothorax during subsequent mechanical ventilation or emergency surgery under general anesthesia

  13. CT detection of occult pneumothorax in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocino, I.M.; Miller, M.H.; Frederick, P.R.; Bahr, A.L.; Thomas, F.

    1984-11-01

    A prospective evaluation for occult pneumothorax was performed in 25 consecutive patients with serious head trauma by combining a limited chest CT examination with the emergency head CT examination. Of 21 pneuomothoraces present in 15 patients, 11 (52%) were found only by chest CT and were not identified clinically or by supine chest radiograph. Because of pending therapeutic measures, chest tubes were placed in nine of the 11 occult pneumothoraces, regardless of the volume. Chest CT proved itself as the most sensitive method for detection of occult pneumothorax, permitting early chest tube placement to prevent transition to a tension pneumothorax during subsequent mechanical ventilation or emergency surgery under general anesthesia.

  14. Profiling Saturn's rings by radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouf, E.A.; Tyler, G.L.; Rosen, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of reconstruction algorithms that correct for diffraction effects in radio occultation measurements is described. The reciprocal Fresnel transform relationship between the complex amplitude of the observed coherent signal and the complex microwave transmittance of the rings is derived using the Huygens-Fresnel formulation of the diffraction problem. The effects of the finite data segment width, the uncertainties in the Fresnel scale, systematic phase errors in the kernel of the inverse transform, reference oscillator instabilities, and random noise measurements on the resolution of the reconstructed transmittance are analyzed. Examples of reconstructed opacity profiles for some regions of Saturn's rings derived by applying the reconstruction theory to Voyager 1 at Saturn data are presented. 35 references

  15. Diagnosis of occult abdominal abscesses using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, B.; Schroth, H.J.; Wolf, N.; Wilhelm, H.; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar

    1983-01-01

    Occult intraperitoneal abscesses are difficult to localize and dispose of. Therefore, a method of examination is needed that is specific, can be used at any time, is not expensive, and yields early results within 2-3 h. This seems possible with a new method of examination. sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes which, when reinjected, emigrate to the site of the suspected abscess. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells. Scans were performed in 57 surgical patients with good results. 23 (40,4%) patients had true negative results; 28 (49,1%) scans represented intraperitoneal abscesses; 5 (8,8%) scans demonstrated true positive extraperitoneal inflammations. Only 1 (1,7%) scan was false positive. (orig.) [de

  16. Atmospheric stability index using radio occultation refractivity profiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new stability index based on atmospheric refractivity at ∼500 hPa level and surface measurements of temperature ... able at different heights rather than pressure levels. However ..... the radio occultation technique being a limb sound-.

  17. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  18. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...

  19. Diagnostic strategy for occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, Sara; Casas, Maria Luisa; Buhigas, Ingrid; Lledo, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the European Association for the study of the liver (EASL) defined occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) as the “presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative by currently available assays”. Several aspects of occult HBV infection are still poorly understood, including the definition itself and a standardized approach for laboratory-based detection, which is the purpose of this review. The clinical significance of OBI has not yet been established; however, in terms of public health, the clinical importance arises from the risk of HBV transmission. Consequently, it is important to detect high-risk groups for occult HBV infection to prevent transmission. The main issue is, perhaps, to identify the target population for screening OBI. Viremia is very low or undetectable in occult HBV infection, even when the most sensitive methods are used, and the detection of the viral DNA reservoir in hepatocytes would provide the best evaluation of occult HBV prevalence in a defined set of patients. However, this diagnostic approach is obviously unsuitable: blood detection of occult hepatitis B requires assays of the highest sensitivity and specificity with a lower limit of detection < 10 IU/mL for HBV DNA and < 0.1 ng/mL for HBsAg. PMID:21472120

  20. Possible occultation by Pluto from US East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-06-01

    We have been asked to help disseminate the news of a possible occultation by Pluto visible to observers on the US East coast. Although the AAVSO does not ordinarily issue announcements of upcoming occultations, in this case the object is Pluto and the NASA New Horizons mission (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/main/index.html) will be visiting Pluto in 2015. The information below has been supplied by Dr. Leslie Young (Southwest Research Institute), who is coordinating this observing campaign on Pluto. Dr. Young is also Deputy Project Scientist for the New Horizons mission. ALERT: Possible Pluto occultation Wednesday night (2012/06/14 03:28 UT) from US East coast. CONTACT: Leslie Young (layoung@boulder.swri.edu; work: 303-546-6057; skype: drpluto). Also see our planning pages in progress at http://wiki.boulder.swri.edu/mediawiki/index.php/2012-06-14_Pluto_occultation. Pluto's thin, nitrogen atmosphere is in vapor-pressure equilibrium with the surface ice, and changes seasonally. We've seen it double since 1988, and now we measure its pressure once or twice a year. The technique we use is stellar occultation, when a star passes behind Pluto's atmosphere. The atmosphere defocuses the starlight. By the timing of the fading of the star, we measure the pressure and temperature in Pluto's atmosphere at ~10 km resolution. MORE INFORMATION: See http://wiki.boulder.swri.edu/mediawiki/index.php/2012-06-14_Pluto_occultation.

  1. Measuring Overcast Colors with All-Sky Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Naval Academy (USNA),Mathematics...Science Department,Annapolis,MD,21402 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...are vestigial (29 No- vember 2006 curve). A few overcasts are bluest near the horizon, and this causes particularly large colori- metric excursions

  2. All-Sky Cataloging and Analysis of Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent quick instrumental progress provides possibilities to careful study the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galaxy and in the nearest galaxies (M31, LMC, SMC, etc.). Significant enough baryon mass of the galactic and extragalactic ISM is concentrated in the clouds with molecular content in the densest parts. The molecular clouds (MoC) are closely related to cold dust-gas clouds, particularly HI ones and should play a key-role in the star forming processes as well as in the dynamics of the Galaxy. These arguments show the importance of counting and surveying of the MoC populations. In order to attempt to solve at least some problems of the physics and evolution of the MoC system in the Galaxy (as well as in other galaxies), its impact on the dynamics and evolution of the Galaxy itself, and to extend the results to the MoC systems in other galaxies we drafted a consolidated composite catalog of molecular and dust-gas clouds based on the recent data. Online data banks and services such as VizieR, SIMBAD at CDS as well as original publications were used. In our Galaxy there are about 200 large molecular clouds, more than 2500 smaller cold dark clouds (including clumps and cores this value exceeds approximately 5000 objects) observed in 11 kpc Solar neighborhood. The general catalog has been divided into 3 sub-catalogs: 1)large and giant MoC; 2) MoC with moderate masses and sizes; 3) small MoC including the clumps and cores. All main catalogs and subcatalogs contain the coordinates, sizes, distances, masses and other physical parameters (density, temperature, radial velocity, etc.) that are available for the different clouds. Statistical and correlation analyses of the data has been performed, the spatial distribution is drawn and the total number is estimated, the dynamic model of formation and evolution of MoC system is proposed. Our results are compared and discussed with data of other investigations as well as the ways to complete and improve the catalog data are also proposed. We prepared the complex program for further observations of MoC using the Suffa radio telescope and other large facilities to cover the gaps in observed physical parameters of MoC.

  3. The California All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    A unique next generation multi-camera, multi-site video meteor system is being developed and deployed in California to provide high accuracy orbits of simultaneously captured meteors. Included herein is a description of the goals, concept of operations, hardware, and software development progress. An appendix contains a meteor camera performance trade study made for video systems circa 2010.

  4. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2017), s. 189-215 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : meteor detection * autonomous fireball observatories * fish-eye camera * Hough transformation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science; BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics (ASU-R) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8); Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) (ASU-R) Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2016

  5. The effect of solar radio bursts on the GNSS radio occultation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wei, Yong; Lei, Jiuhou; Solomon, Stan; Rocken, Christian

    2013-09-01

    radio burst (SRB) is the radio wave emission after a solar flare, covering a broad frequency range, originated from the Sun's atmosphere. During the SRB occurrence, some specific frequency radio wave could interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and therefore disturb the received signals. In this study, the low Earth orbit- (LEO-) based high-resolution GNSS radio occultation (RO) signals from multiple satellites (COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, SAC-C, Metop-A, and TerraSAR-X) processed in University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) were first used to evaluate the effect of SRB on the RO technique. The radio solar telescope network (RSTN) observed radio flux was used to represent SRB occurrence. An extreme case during 6 December 2006 and statistical analysis during April 2006 to September 2012 were studied. The LEO RO signals show frequent loss of lock (LOL), simultaneous decrease on L1 and L2 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) globally during daytime, small-scale perturbations of SNR, and decreased successful retrieval percentage (SRP) for both ionospheric and atmospheric occultations during SRB occurrence. A potential harmonic band interference was identified. Either decreased data volume or data quality will influence weather prediction, climate study, and space weather monitoring by using RO data during SRB time. Statistically, the SRP of ionospheric and atmospheric occultation retrieval shows ~4% and ~13% decrease, respectively, while the SNR of L1 and L2 show ~5.7% and ~11.7% decrease, respectively. A threshold value of ~1807 SFU of 1415 MHz frequency, which can result in observable GNSS SNR decrease, was derived based on our statistical analysis.

  6. The size, shape, density and ring of the dwarf planet Haumea from a stellar occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J L; Santos-Sanz, P; Sicardy, B; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Bérard, D; Morales, N; Duffard, R; Braga-Ribas, F; Hopp, U; Ries, C; Nascimbeni, V; Marzari, F; Granata, V; Pál, A; Kiss, C; Pribulla, T; Komžík, R; Hornoch, K; Pravec, P; Bacci, P; Maestripieri, M; Nerli, L; Mazzei, L; Bachini, M; Martinelli, F; Succi, G; Ciabattari, F; Mikuz, H; Carbognani, A; Gaehrken, B; Mottola, S; Hellmich, S; Rommel, F L; Fernández-Valenzuela, E; Bagatin, A Campo; Cikota, S; Cikota, A; Lecacheux, J; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Assafin, M; Colas, F; Behrend, R; Desmars, J; Meza, E; Alvarez-Candal, A; Beisker, W; Gomes-Junior, A R; Morgado, B E; Roques, F; Vachier, F; Berthier, J; Mueller, T G; Madiedo, J M; Unsalan, O; Sonbas, E; Karaman, N; Erece, O; Koseoglu, D T; Ozisik, T; Kalkan, S; Guney, Y; Niaei, M S; Satir, O; Yesilyaprak, C; Puskullu, C; Kabas, A; Demircan, O; Alikakos, J; Charmandaris, V; Leto, G; Ohlert, J; Christille, J M; Szakáts, R; Farkas, A Takácsné; Varga-Verebélyi, E; Marton, G; Marciniak, A; Bartczak, P; Santana-Ros, T; Butkiewicz-Bąk, M; Dudziński, G; Alí-Lagoa, V; Gazeas, K; Tzouganatos, L; Paschalis, N; Tsamis, V; Sánchez-Lavega, A; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Hueso, R; Guirado, J C; Peris, V; Iglesias-Marzoa, R

    2017-10-11

    Haumea-one of the four known trans-Neptunian dwarf planets-is a very elongated and rapidly rotating body. In contrast to other dwarf planets, its size, shape, albedo and density are not well constrained. The Centaur Chariklo was the first body other than a giant planet known to have a ring system, and the Centaur Chiron was later found to possess something similar to Chariklo's rings. Here we report observations from multiple Earth-based observatories of Haumea passing in front of a distant star (a multi-chord stellar occultation). Secondary events observed around the main body of Haumea are consistent with the presence of a ring with an opacity of 0.5, width of 70 kilometres and radius of about 2,287 kilometres. The ring is coplanar with both Haumea's equator and the orbit of its satellite Hi'iaka. The radius of the ring places it close to the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Haumea's spin period-that is, Haumea rotates three times on its axis in the time that a ring particle completes one revolution. The occultation by the main body provides an instantaneous elliptical projected shape with axes of about 1,704 kilometres and 1,138 kilometres. Combined with rotational light curves, the occultation constrains the three-dimensional orientation of Haumea and its triaxial shape, which is inconsistent with a homogeneous body in hydrostatic equilibrium. Haumea's largest axis is at least 2,322 kilometres, larger than previously thought, implying an upper limit for its density of 1,885 kilograms per cubic metre and a geometric albedo of 0.51, both smaller than previous estimates. In addition, this estimate of the density of Haumea is closer to that of Pluto than are previous estimates, in line with expectations. No global nitrogen- or methane-dominated atmosphere was detected.

  7. Occult pneumomediastinum in blunt chest trauma: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, J B; Hoffmann, J; Al Mahroos, M; Tien, H; Hsee, L C; Spencer Netto, F; Speers, V; Rizoli, S B

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic injuries are potentially responsible for 25% of all trauma deaths. Chest X-ray is commonly used to screen patients with chest injury. However, the use of computed tomography (CT) scan for primary screening is increasing, particularly for blunt trauma. CT scans are more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting intra-thoracic abnormalities such as pneumothoraces and pneumomediastinums. Pneumomediastinum detected by chest X-ray or "overt pneumomediastinum", raises the concern of possible aerodigestive tract injuries. In contrast, there is scarce information on the clinical significance of pneumomediastinum diagnosed by CT scan only or "occult pneumomediastinum". Therefore we investigated the clinical consequences of occult pneumomediastinum in our blunt trauma population. A 2-year retrospective chart review of all blunt chest trauma patients with initial chest CT scan admitted to a level I trauma centre. Data extracted from the medical records include; demographics, occult, overt, or no pneumomediastinum, the presence of intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries (trachea, bronchus, and/or esophagus), mechanism and severity of injury, endotracheal intubation, chest thoracostomy, operations and radiological reports by an attending radiologist. All patients with intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries from 1994 to 2004 were also investigated. Of 897 patients who met the inclusion criteria 839 (93.5%) had no pneumomediastinum. Five patients (0.6%) had overt pneumomediastinum and 53 patients (5.9%) had occult pneumomediastinum. Patients with occult pneumomediastinum had significantly higher ISS and AIS chest (pchest thoracostomy tube was more common (ppneumothorax. None of the patients with occult pneumomediastinum had aerodigestive tract injuries (95%CI 0-0.06). Follow up CT scan of patients with occult pneumomediastinum showed complete resolution in all cases, in average 3 h after the initial exam. Occult pneumomediastinum occurred in approximately 6% of

  8. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  9. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  10. Atmospheric Drag, Occultation ‘N’ Ionospheric Scintillation (ADONIS mission proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettrich Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Drag, Occultation ‘N’ Ionospheric Scintillation mission (ADONIS studies the dynamics of the terrestrial thermosphere and ionosphere in dependency of solar events over a full solar cycle in Low Earth Orbit (LEO. The objectives are to investigate satellite drag with in-situ measurements and the ionospheric electron density profiles with radio occultation and scintillation measurements. A constellation of two satellites provides the possibility to gain near real-time data (NRT about ionospheric conditions over the Arctic region where current coverage is insufficient. The mission shall also provide global high-resolution data to improve assimilative ionospheric models. The low-cost constellation can be launched using a single Vega rocket and most of the instruments are already space-proven allowing for rapid development and good reliability. From July 16 to 25, 2013, the Alpbach Summer School 2013 was organised by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG, the European Space Agency (ESA, the International Space Science Institute (ISSI and the association of Austrian space industries Austrospace in Alpbach, Austria. During the workshop, four teams of 15 students each independently developed four different space mission proposals on the topic of “Space Weather: Science, Missions and Systems”, supported by a team of tutors. The present work is based on the mission proposal that resulted from one of these teams’ efforts.

  11. Recent progress on external occulter technology for imaging exosolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Sirbu, D.; Samuels, J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Martin, S.

    Imaging planets orbiting nearby stars requires a system for suppressing the host starlight by at least ten orders of magnitude. One such approach uses an external occulter, a satellite flying far from the telescope and employing a large screen, or starshade, to suppress the incoming starlight. This trades the added complexity of building the precisely shaped starshade and flying it in formation against simplifications in the telescope since extremely precise wavefront control is no longer necessary. Much progress has been made recently in designing, testing and manufacturing starshade technology. In this paper we describe the design of starshades and report on recent accomplishments in manufacturing and measuring a prototype occulter petal as part of NASA's first Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program. We demonstrate that the as-built petal is consistent with a full-size occulter achieving better than 10-10 contrast. We also discuss laboratory testing at the Princeton Occulter Testbed. These experiments use sub-scale, long-distance beam propagation to verify the diffraction analysis associated with occulter starlight suppression. We demonstrate roughly 10-10 suppression in the laboratory and discuss the important challenges and limitations.

  12. [Occultism, parapsychology and the esoteric from the perspective of psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, C

    1998-10-01

    The concepts and main themes of occultism, parapsychology and esoterics are set in comparison to religion, spirituality, mysticism. The cultural relativity of these concepts is emphasised. Occultism means dealing with phenomena, processes, and/or powers which are not accessible to "normal perception". The manipulation of such powers is effected via (white, black, grey) magic. Parapsychology, in its popular sense, deals with occult phenomena, whereas scientific parapsychology investigates them empirically. Esoterics is a complex of beliefs within a hermetic tradition about occult processes and about desting after death. Transpersonal psychology deals with these issues while calling them "spiritual". Effects of paranormal experiences and actions on the side of the actor as well as the adept are discussed: personality types, interpersonal effects, crises and psychoses (mediumistic psychoses). The concept of dissociation of subpersonalities (subselves) appears to be a viable perspective to explain these phenomena. In mediumistic psychoses, the splitting of non-ego parts of the psyche leads to a manifestation of schizophrenic symptoms. Dangers for mental health are an ego inflation by self-attribution of "superhuman" power. A personality disposition for parapsychological perception and/or action may be seen in schizotypia and similar near-psychotic "personalities up the border". Adepts of occultism may present with a "false self" in the sense of Winnicott.

  13. David Levy's Guide to Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David H.

    2010-08-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Magic and History of Eclipses: 1. Shakespeare, King Lear, and the Great Eclipse of 1605; 2. Three centuries later: Einstein, relativity, and the solar eclipse of 1919; 3. What causes solar and lunar eclipses; Part II. Observing Solar Eclipses: 4. Safety considerations; 5. What to expect during a partial eclipse; 6. Annular eclipses and what to see in them; 7. Total eclipse of the Sun: introduction to the magic; 8. The onset: temperature drop, Baily's Beads, Diamond Ring; 9. Totality: Corona, Prominences, Chromosphere, and surrounding area; 10. Photographing and imaging a solar eclipse; Part III. Observing Lunar Eclipses: 11. Don't forget the penumbral eclipses!; 12. Partial lunar eclipses; 13. Total lunar eclipses; 14. Photographing and imaging lunar eclipses; Part IV. Occultations: 15. When the Moon occults a star; Part V. Transits: 16. When planets cross the Sun; Part VI. My Favorite Eclipses: 17. A personal canon of eclipses, occultations, and transits I have seen; Appendices; Index.

  14. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life in Benin as well as in academic research on the topic, the terms of vodun, witchcraft and the occult are often used in a non distinct way covering quite similar phenomena while at the same time referring to different kinds of beliefs and practices. The problem of understanding...... confronted with this difficulty. Both because the vodun, as a recognized religion in the country - equal to Islam and Christianity - , plays an important role in society as well as in individual life, but also because all area of social life are on one level or another influenced by beliefs and practices...... characterized as witchcraft or occult. Reflecting upon earlier research and particularly on the choice of terminology of the occult in writing on religion and political change in Benin (PhD thesis 2008), this paper seeks to clarify some of the epistemological, academic and historical reasons that have formed...

  15. The stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Haumea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Sicardy, Bruno; Rossi, Gustavo; Berard, Diane; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Hopp, Ulrich; Ries, Christoph; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Marzari, Francesco; Granata, Valentina; Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Pribulla, Theodor; Milan Komzík, Richard; Hornoch, Kamil; Pravec, Petr; Bacci, Paolo; Maestripieri, Martina; Nerli, Luca; Mazzei, Leonardo; Bachini, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Succi, Giacomo; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Mikuz, Herman; Carbognani, Albino; Gaehrken, Bernd; Mottola, Stefano; Hellmich, Stephan; Rommel, Flavia; Fernández-Valenzuela, Estela; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Haumea occultation international Collaboration: https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/public.php?service=files&t=d9276f8ab1a316cef13bee28bef75add

    2017-10-01

    The dwarf planet Haumea is a very peculiar Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) with unique and exotic characteristics. It is currently classified as one of the five dwarf planets of the solar system, and it is the only one for which size, shape, albedo, density and other basic properties were not accurately known. To solve that we predicted an occultation of the star GaiaDR1 1233009038221203584 by Haumea and organized observations within the expected shadow path. Medium/large telescopes were needed to record the occultation with enough signal to noise ratio because the occulted star is of similar brightness as Haumea (R~17.7 mag). We will report results derived from this successful stellar occultation by Haumea on 2017 January 21st. The occultation was positive from 12 telescopes at 10 observing stations in Europe: the Asiago Observatory 1.8m telescope (Italy), the Mount Agliale Observatory 0.5m telescope (Italy), the Lajatico Astronomical Centre 0.5m telescope (Italy), the S.Marcello Pistoiese Observatory 0.6m telescope (Italy), the Crni Vrh Observatory 0.6m telescope (Slovenia), the Ondrejov Observatory 0.65m telescope (Czech Republic), the Bavarian Public Observatory 0.81m telescope (Germany), the Konkoly Observatory 1m and 0.6m telescopes (Hungary), the Skalnate Pleso Observatory 1.3m telescope (Slovakia), and the Wendelstein Observatory 2m and 0.4m telescopes (Germany). This is the occultation by a TNO with the largest number of chords ever recorded.Part of this work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 687378.

  16. Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere structure during convective systems using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo

    The deep convective systems play a fundamental role in atmospheric circulation and climate. Thunderstorms and meso-scale convective systems produce fast vertical transport, redistributing water vapor and trace gases and influencing the thermal structure of the upper troposphere and lower...... stratosphere (UTLS) contributing to the troposphere-stratosphere transport and affecting the Earth global circulation and the climate changes. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique enables measurement of atmospheric density structure in any meteorological condition...... to the analysis of tropical storms for the future mission ACES will also be evaluated. Using data from the past and ongoing GPS RO missions we have defined an algorithm to detect the clouds top of the convective systems and their thermal structure. Other satellite and in-situ measurements co-located with GPS ROs...

  17. Exploring small bodies in the outer solar system with stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Jim L.; Dunham, Edward W.; Olkin, C. B.

    1995-01-01

    Stellar occultation observations probe the atmospheric structure and extinction of outer solar system bodies with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers, and an airborne platform allows the observation of occultations by small bodies that are not visible from fixed telescopes. Results from occultations by Triton, Pluto, and Chiron observed with KAO are discussed, and future directions for this program are presented.

  18. Predictions of stellar occultations by TNOs/Centaurs using Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmars, Josselin; Camargo, Julio; Berard, Diane; Sicardy, Bruno; Leiva, Rodrigo; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Assafin, Marcelo; Rossi, Gustavo; Chariklo occultations Team, Rio Group, Lucky Star Occultation Team, Granada Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    Stellar occultations are the unique technique from the ground to access physical parameters of the distant solar system objects, such as the measure of the size and the shape at kilometric level, the detection of tenuous atmospheres (few nanobars), and the investigation of close vicinity (satellites, rings, jets).Predictions of stellar occultations require accurate positions of the star and the object.The Gaia DR1 catalog now allows to get stellar position to the milliarcsecond (mas) level. The main uncertainty in the prediction remains in the position of the object (tens to hundreds of mas).Now, we take advantage of the NIMA method for the orbit determination that uses the most recent observations reduced by the Gaia DR1 catalog and the astrometric positions derived from previous positive occultations.Up to now, we have detected nearly 50 positive occultations for about 20 objects that provide astrometric positions of the object at the time of the occultation. The uncertainty of these positions only depends on the uncertainty on the position of the occulted stars, which is a few mas with the Gaia DR1 catalog. The main limitation is now on the proper motion of the star which is only given for bright stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution. This limitation will be solved with the publicationof the Gaia DR2 expected on April 2018 giving proper motions and parallaxes for the Gaia stars. Until this date, we use hybrid stellar catalogs (UCAC5, HSOY) that provide proper motions derived from Gaia DR1 and another stellar catalog.Recently, the Gaia team presented a release of three preliminary Gaia DR2 stellar positions involved in the occultations by Chariklo (22 June and 23 July 2017) and by Triton (5 October 2017).Taking the case of Chariklo as an illustration, we will present a comparison between the proper motions of DR2 and the other catalogs and we will show how the Gaia DR2 will lead to a mas level precision in the orbit and in the prediction of stellar

  19. Presentation of Axillary Metastases from Occult Breast Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Axillary presentation from occult breast cancer is uncommon and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.Once the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma metastatic to an axillary lymph node has been confirmed,a preoperative workup should be done.The current experience is based on several relatively small retrospective reviews and case reports.It is difficult to determine the best management of occult breast cancer.However,treatmenl of axillary Iymph node dissection is recommended for local control and complete staging information.Treatment of breast should be a choice between breast conservation with whole-breast radiotherapy and mastectomy.Adjuvant systemic treatment should be offered.

  20. Detection of occult abscesses with 111In-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Gurevich, N.; Goris, M.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Clinicians are frequently faced with the problem of a patient in whom they suspect an occult abscess. In such a situation, there may be no clinical signs to localize the site of the abscess and often extensive investigations do not provide additional useful information. This report illustrates the efficacy of autologous leukocytes labeled with 111 In oxine in detecting the site and extent of occult abscesses in two patients. The technique of in vitro lebeling of leukocytes is simple and has been mastered by all of our nuclear medicine technologists

  1. Polarimetric mountain based radio-occultation for rain detection: The ROHP-PAZ ground campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulles, Ramon; Cardellach, Estel; Tomas, Sergio; de la Torre, Manuel; Turk, Joe

    2014-05-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter (ROHP-PAZ) is a mission of opportunity: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) approved in 2009 a proposal to include a polarimetric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio-Occultation (RO) payload on board of the Spanish Earth Observation satellite PAZ. This will be a new technique that has never been tested before, that aims to improve the knowledge of precipitation through simultaneous thermodynamic and vertical rain profiles. Prior to the launch of the satellite, expected for 2014, a ground experimental campaign is being conducted with the goal of starting the process of identifying and understanding all the factors that might affect the polarimetric RO observables. The campaign is being carried out at the top of Puig Sesolles, a 1667m peak in the Natural Park of Montseny (41º46'24 N, 2º26'17 E), 50 km N-NE from Barcelona, with clear views over the horizon to the South (East to West) direction, an area in which intense precipitation events tend to occur a few times per year. The campaign uses a ICE-CSIC/IEEC's GOLD-RTR open-loop receiver initially designed for collecting GNSS signals reflected off the sea surface. The receiver has been adjusted to track occulting GNSS radio-links. A double polarization (H and V) GNSS antenna has been designed and manufactured by the Polytechnic University of Barcelona (UPC) team for this particular ground-based experiment. The antenna is a phase-array made of 7 elements, each of them being a square patch built using a Rogers 4003 substrate, and symmetrically fed by four probes. It provides a pattern of 12.9 dB peak gain, 45 degrees half-power beam-width, and <-35 dB cross-polar isolation at the peak (better than -30 dB in the main lobe). The preliminary results show that not only precipitation, but also other factors are affecting the GNSS signal, wich means that the polarimetric signal is richer than expected

  2. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood donors in Malaysia. ... Objective: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface .... of the standard HBV-positive serum and the detection ... in general population ranges from 1.5 to 9.8% but report- .... Putra, Malaysia for their financial support of this research.

  3. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  4. Detection of occult HBV infection by nested PCR assay among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) has been reported among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OBI in chronic hepatitis C patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 40 chronic hepatitis C patients ...

  5. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Nogueira Cordeiro Moraes Jardim

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA in the serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. We assessed occult HBV infection prevalence in two groups of immunocompromised patients (maintenance hemodialysis patients and HIV-positive patients presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns, co-infected or not by HCV. Thirty-four hemodialysis anti-HIV negative patients, 159 HIV-positive patients and 150 blood donors who were anti-HBc positive (control group were selected. HBV-DNA was detected by nested-PCR. Occult hepatitis B infection was not observed in the hemodialysis patients group but was found in 5% of the HIV-patients and in 4% of the blood donors. Immunosuppression in HIV positive patients was not a determining factor for occult HBV infection. In addition, no significant relationship between HBV-DNA and HCV co-infection in the HIV-positive patient group was found. A lack of significant associations was also observed between positivity for HBV-DNA and CD4 count, viral load and previous lamivudine treatment in these HIV-positive patients.

  6. Occult spontaneous lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Bano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal encephaloceles are extremely rare congenital malformations. Advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for diagnosing the asymptomatic, occult basal encephalocele and planning the surgical approach. We present an interesting case of clinically silent right-sided lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele through a large bony defect.

  7. Occurrence of occult CSF leaks during standard FESS procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, S; Kugler, A; Probst, E; Epprecht, L; Stadler, R S; Holzmann, D; Soyka, M B

    2018-03-18

    To determine the incidence of occult cerebrospinal fluid leaks (CSF) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated conditions. Prospective cohort study. An analysis of 57 intraoperative samples using hydrogel 6 beta2-transferrin assay after FESS was undertaken. In case of CSF positive samples and continuing rhinorrhea, reanalysis after more than 1 year was conducted. In-vivo analysis of a primary spontaneous CSF leak sample took place to verify difficulties in detecting beta2-transferrin in blood-contaminated settings. Own titrations were performed to evaluate detection limits of CSF by beta2-transferrin and beta-trace protein assays in these settings. An incidence of 13% for occult CSF leaks after FESS was found. In blood-contaminated conditions, routine beta2-transferrin assays showed low sensitivity. In over 1 year follow-up, all samples were negative for CSF and none of them developed clinical relevant CSF leaks or meningitis. Occult and clinically irrelevant CSF leaks do occur in a significant proportion of patients during and shortly after FESS. Intra- and postoperatively, routine beta2-transferrin assays show low sensitivity. They should not be used in these settings. The clinical course of patients with occult CSF leaks indicated possibility of an uneventful follow-up.

  8. Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.

    2011-01-01

    -located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes and GOES analyses are also shown to support the hypothesis that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock...

  9. Past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Lindal, Gunnar F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of radio waves that have propagated through planetary atmospheres have provided exploratory results on atmospheric constituents, structure, dynamics, and ionization for Venus, Mars, Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Highlights of past results are reviewed in order to define and illustrate the potential of occultation and related radio studies in future planetary missions.

  10. A method to detect occult pneumothorax with chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Kishikawa, Masanobu; Hayakawa, Koichi; Narumi, Atsushi; Matsunami, Katsutoshi; Kitano, Mitsuhide

    2011-04-01

    Small pneumothoraces are often not visible on supine screening chest radiographs because they develop anteriorly to the lung. These pneumothoraces are termed occult. Occult pneumothoraces account for an astonishingly high 52% to 63% of all traumatic pneumothoraces. A 19-year-old obese woman was involved in a head-on car accident. The admission anteroposterior chest radiographs were unremarkable. Because of the presence of right chest tenderness and an abrasion, we suspected the presence of a pneumothorax. Thus, we decided to take a supine oblique chest radiograph of the right side of the thorax, which clearly revealed a visceral pleural line, consistent with a diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax. A pneumothorax may be present when a supine chest radiograph reveals either an apparent deepening of the costophrenic angle (the "deep sulcus sign") or the presence of 2 diaphragm-lung interfaces (the "double diaphragm sign"). However, in practice, supine chest radiographs have poor sensitivity for occult pneumothoraces. Oblique chest radiograph is a useful and fast screening tool that should be considered for cases of blunt chest trauma, especially when transport of critically ill patients to the computed tomographic suite is dangerous or when imminent transfer to another hospital is being arranged and early diagnosis of an occult pneumothorax is essential. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis | Hari Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP. Materials and Methods: ...

  12. Precise pointing knowledge for SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bramstedt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to precisely determine the viewing direction for solar occultation instruments from scans over the solar disk. Basic idea is the fit of the maximum intensity during the scan, which corresponds to the center of the solar disk in the scanning direction. We apply this method to the solar occultation measurements of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY, which scans the Sun in elevation direction. The achieved mean precision is 0.46 mdeg, which corresponds to an tangent height error of about 26 m for individual occultation sequences. The deviation of the derived elevation angle from the geolocation information given along with the product has a seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 2.26 mdeg, which is in tangent height an amplitude of about 127 m. The mean elevation angle offset is −4.41 mdeg (249 m. SCIAMACHY's sun follower device controls the azimuth viewing direction during the occultation measurements. The derived mean azimuth direction has an standard error of 0.65 mdeg, which is about 36 m in horizontal direction at the tangent point. We observe also a seasonal cycle of the azimuth mispointing with an amplitude of 2.3 mdeg, which is slightly increasing with time. The almost constant mean offset is 88 mdeg, which is about 5.0 km horizontal offset at the tangent point.

  13. Occult Pneumothoraces in Acute Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Berryman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR(occult PTX but are detected only on computed tomography (CT. Although CR remains the first toolfor detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CTand CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR fordetecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT,that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determineother predictors of PTX on CR.Methods: All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered thegold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words fordiagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologistreadings for both CR and CT (positive or negative and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate,small, or tiny. The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTXdetected on CR. Descriptive statistics and v2 tests were used for univariate analysis. A regressionanalysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable wasadded to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80%to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group.Results: There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74%were men. For 66 (49% patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity¼50%. The CR detected 30%of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTXon CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no

  14. Occult pneumothoraces in acute trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Amy A; McIntyre, William A; Weiss, Steven J; Berryman, Chad

    2012-11-01

    Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX) are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR) (occult PTX) but are detected only on computed tomography (CT). Although CR remains the first tool for detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CT and CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR for detecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT, that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determine other predictors of PTX on CR. All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a 2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered the gold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words for diagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologist readings for both CR and CT (positive or negative) and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate, small, or tiny). The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTX detected on CR. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) tests were used for univariate analysis. A regression analysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable was added to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80% to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group. There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74% were men. For 66 (49%) patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity = 50%). The CR detected 30% of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTX on CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no relationships between PTX detected

  15. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  16. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  17. Digital solar edge tracker for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. W.; Mayo, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (Haloe) elevation sun sensor is described. The Haloe instrument is a gas-correlation radiometer now being developed at NASA Langley for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned monolithic CCD. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the Haloe science instantaneous field of view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration and then to maintain the science IFOV 4 arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 700-nm operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability.

  18. Sensitivity of GPS occultation to the stratopause height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas Morville; Ao, Chi; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    We scrutinize temperature profiles collected with radio occultation measurement for an imprint of the stratopause. In the retrieval step that integrates bending angle data to atmospheric refractivity, the falloff toward infinite altitude is constrained in a boundary condition with statistical opt...... rate, not isothermal conditions. Keeping the model seed for temperature conversion to subsequent retrieval steps eliminates external information from the deconvolved refractivity. It will help argue for radio occultation as independent vehicle for climate monitoring....... height gradient. On the basis of noise free simulation using a climatology covering all latitudes, seasons, and hours and on the basis of validation against data collected with weather balloons, laser imaging, and limb sounding, we find that adaptation to the fluctuating stratopause is crucial...

  19. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2017-08-01

    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  20. A variational regularization of Abel transform for GPS radio occultation

    OpenAIRE

    T.-K. Wee

    2018-01-01

    In the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) technique, the inverse Abel transform of measured bending angle (Abel inversion, hereafter AI) is the standard means of deriving the refractivity. While concise and straightforward to apply, the AI accumulates and propagates the measurement error downward. The measurement error propagation is detrimental to the refractivity in lower altitudes. In particular, it builds up negative refractivity bias in the tropical ...

  1. [Occult pneumothorax: Does it take drain before elective surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensghir, M; Moutaoukil, M; Meziane, M; Jaafari, A; Hemmaoui, B; Haimeur, C

    2016-08-01

    Pneumothorax occult is defined by the presence of a non-visible to standard asymptomatic pneumothorax and pulmonary diagnosed only by X-ray computed tomography. The presence of this type of pneumothorax before planned surgery is a rare situation. What to do remains non-consensual. Through two clinic cases and a literature review, the authors discuss the modalities of management of this entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  3. [Results of conservative treatment in patients with occult pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaquet Bayo, Heura; Montmany Vioque, Sandra; Rebasa, Pere; Navarro Soto, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    An occult pneumothorax is found in 2-15% trauma patients. Observation (without tube thoracostomy) in these patients presents still some controversies in the clinical practice. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and the adverse effects when observation is performed. A retrospective observational study was undertaken in our center (university hospital level II). Data was obtained from a database with prospective registration. A total of 1087 trauma patients admitted in the intensive care unit from 2006 to 2013 were included. In this period, 126 patients with occult pneumothorax were identified, 73 patients (58%) underwent immediate tube thoracostomy and 53 patients (42%) were observed. Nine patients (12%) failed observation and required tube thoracostomy for pneumothorax progression or hemothorax. No patient developed a tension pneumothorax or experienced another adverse event related to the absence of tube thoracostomy. Of the observed patients 16 were under positive pressure ventilation, in this group 3 patients (19%) failed observation. There were no differences in mortality, hospital length of stay or intensive care length of stay between the observed and non-observed group. Observation is a safe treatment in occult pneumothorax, even in pressure positive ventilated patients. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Lunar occultation observation of μ Sgr: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatmiko, A. T. P. [Bosscha Observatory, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Puannandra, G. P.; Hapsari, R. D.; Putri, R. A.; Arifin, Z. M.; Haans, G. K.; Hadiputrawan, I. P. W. [Bosscha Observatory, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia and Astronomy Study Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Lunar Occultation (LO) is an event where limb of the Moon passing over a particular heavenly bodies such as stars, asteroids, or planets. In other words, during the event, stars, asteroids and planets are occulted by the Moon. When occulted objects contact the lunar limb, there will be a diffraction fringe(s) which can be measured photometrically, until the signal vanishes into noise. This event will give us a valuable information about binarities (of stars) and/or angular diameters estimation (of stars, planets, asteroids) in milliarcsecond resolution, by fitting with theoretical LO pattern. CCDs are common for LO observation because of its fast read out, and recently are developed for sub-meter class telescope. In this paper, our LO observation attempt of μ Sgr and its progress report are presented. The observation was conducted on July 30{sup th}, 2012 at Bosscha Observatory, Indonesia, using 45cm f/12 GOTO telescope combined with ST-9 XE CCD camera and Bessel B filter. We used drift-scan method to obtain light curve of the star as it was disappearing behind Moon's dark limb. Our goal is to detect binarity (or multiplicity) of this particular object.

  5. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  6. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Sánchez

    Full Text Available Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  7. Developing an Optical Lunar Occultation Measurement Reduction System for Observations at Kaau Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malawi, Abdulrahman A.

    2013-06-01

    We present here a detailed explanation of the reduction method that we use to determine the angular diameters of the stars occulted by the dark limb of the moon. This is a main part of the lunar occultation observation program running at King Abdul Aziz University observatory since late 1993. The process is based on the least square model fitting method of analyzing occultation data, first introduced by Nather et al. (Astron. J. 75:963, 1970).

  8. Lunar occultation of Saturn. IV - Astrometric results from observations of the satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The method of determining local lunar limb slopes, and the consequent time scale needed for diameter studies, from accurate occultation timings at two nearby telescopes is described. Results for photoelectric observations made at Mauna Kea Observatory during the occultation of Saturn's satellites on March 30, 1974, are discussed. Analysis of all observations of occultations of Saturn's satellites during 1974 indicates possible errors in the ephemerides of Saturn and its satellites.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of oblique chest radiograph for occult pneumothorax: comparison with ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Orita, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Masayuki; Hayashida, Kei; Kazamaki, Taku; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kishikawa, Masanobu; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Kitano, Mitsuhide

    2016-01-01

    Backgraound An occult pneumothorax is a pneumothorax that is not seen on a supine chest X-ray but is detected by computed tomography scanning. However, critical patients are difficult to transport to the computed tomography suite. We previously reported a method to detect occult pneumothorax using oblique chest radiography (OXR). Several authors have also reported that ultrasonography is an effective technique for detecting occult pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to evaluate the useful...

  10. DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM A SUPER-EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Benneke, Bjoern [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Jackson, Brian, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We report on the detection of infrared light from the super-Earth 55 Cnc e, based on four occultations obtained with Warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m. Our data analysis consists of a two-part process. In a first step, we perform individual analyses of each data set and compare several baseline models to optimally account for the systematics affecting each light curve. We apply independent photometric correction techniques, including polynomial detrending and pixel mapping, that yield consistent results at the 1{sigma} level. In a second step, we perform a global Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, including all four data sets that yield an occultation depth of 131 {+-} 28 ppm, translating to a brightness temperature of 2360 {+-} 300 K in the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m channel. This occultation depth suggests a low Bond albedo coupled to an inefficient heat transport from the planetary day side to the night side, or else possibly that the 4.5 {mu}m observations probe atmospheric layers that are hotter than the maximum equilibrium temperature (i.e., a thermal inversion layer or a deep hot layer). The measured occultation phase and duration are consistent with a circular orbit and improves the 3{sigma} upper limit on 55 Cnc e's orbital eccentricity from 0.25 to 0.06.

  11. [Management of occult malformations at the lateral skull base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, E; Draf, W; Hofmann, E; Bockmühl, U

    2005-12-01

    Occult malformations of the lateral skull base are rare anomalies, but can cause severe complications such as recurrent meningitis. Therefore, they need to be precisely delineated and sufficient surgical closure is mandatory. Between 1986 and 2004 twenty patients (10 children and 10 adults) with occult malformations at the lateral skull base were treated surgically at the ENT-Department of the Hospital Fulda gAG. Of these 3 Mondini-malformations, 11 defects of the tegmen tympani or the mastoidal roof, 2 dural lesions to the posterior fossa and 4 malformations within the pyramidal apex have been found. Four patients have had multiple anomalies. Routing symptom was in all cases at least one previous meningitis. Radiological diagnostics included high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as CT- or MR-cisternography. Depending on type and localisation of the defect the following surgical algorithm was carried out: The trans-mastoidal approach was used in all cases of Mondini-malformation (including obliteration of the ear), in case of lesions to the posterior fossa as well as partly in anomalies at the tegmen tympani and mastoidal roof, respectively. Defects of the pyramidal apex should be explored via the trans-mastoidal way if the lesion is located caudally to the inner auditory canal (IAC), whereas the trans-temporal approach should be used if the lesion is situated ventral to the IAC and dorso-medially to the internal carotid artery (ICA). The trans-temporal approach was also performed in large defects of the tegmen tympani and mastoidal roof as well as in recurrences. In all cases of recurrent meningitis caused by agents of the upper airway tract the basic principle should be to search for occult skull base malformations radiologically as well as by sodium fluorescein endoscopy as long as the anomaly is detected.

  12. A 2017 stellar occultation by Orcus/Vanth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Levine, Stephen; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Genade, Anja; Schindler, Karsten; Lister, Tim; Person, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    (90482) Orcus is a large trans-Neptunian object (TNO) of diameter ~900 km, located in the 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. This plutino has a satellite, Vanth, approximately 280 km in diameter. Vanth orbits roughly 9000 km from Orcus in a ~9.5-day period. This system is particularly interesting, as Orcus falls between the small, spectrally-bland TNOs and the large TNOs having spectra rich in volatile features, while Vanth might have resulted from either collision or capture.A stellar occultation by Orcus was predicted to occur on 07 March 2017. Observations were made from five sites: the 0.6-m Astronomical Telescope of the University of Stuttgart (ATUS) at Sierra Remote Observatories (SRO), California; Las Cumbres Observatory’s 1-m telescope (ELP) at McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas; NASA’s 3-m InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii; the 4.1-m Southern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) on Cerro Pachón, Chile; and the 0.6-m Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy telescope (SARA-CT) at Cerro Tololo, Chile. High-speed, visible-wavelength images were taken at all sites, in addition to simultaneous K-band images at the IRTF. A solid-body occultation was observed at both ELP and the IRTF. Offset midtimes and incompatible light ratios suggest that two different stars were occulted by two different bodies, likely Orcus and Vanth. See Bosh et al. this conference for details of the astrometry for the event. Here, we present results from the observations, including light curves, size and albedo estimates, and upper limits on a possible atmosphere.

  13. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  14. Trio of Stellar Occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New Horizons’ Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-02

    stellar signal, both with 20 s exposures with our frame-transfer Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System. Since Pluto had a geocentric velocity...and for New Horizons’s 2015 approach . For the July 31 event, though for our atmospheric studies we are glad to have detected the occultation of this

  15. Combined parathyroid adenoma and an occult papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahid N.; Al-Saihati, Basima A.; Butt, Mohammad S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the pathological association of thyroid and parathyroid disease is common, the association of both parathyroid adenoma and thyroid cancer is rare. We report here a case of a 45-year-old saudi women who diagnosed to have primary hyperparathyrodism due to single parathyroid adenoma as confirmed biochemically and radiologically. At operation, the adenoma was found to be an intrathyroid and therefore a thyroid lobectomy was performed. Histology of the excised lobe revealed in addition to the intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma a concurrent occult thyroid papillary carcinoma. The interesting association is discussed based on a literature review. (author)

  16. MR imaging of occult fractures of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, J.H.; Deutsch, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors encountered 65 radiographically occult fractures that they classified into five types. Bone bruises were a result of direct trauma or were associated with ligamentous injury. They were characterized by geographic foci of decreased signal on short repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) sequences. Stress fractures were linear or globular foci of low signal on short TR, short TE sequences. Osteochondral fractures were displaced or impacted types; the latter were often associated with an anterior cruciate ligament tear. Tibial fractures were minimally displaced, vertically oriented fractures extending into the plateaus. Femoral fractures were Y-shaped, extending across the supracondylar region

  17. Laser fluorescence bronchoscope for localization of occult lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.; King, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging occult bronchogenic carcinoma by the fluorescence of previously-injected, tumor-specific compound hematoporphyrin-derivative has been assembled and successfully used to locate a tumor l mm thick. The violet excitation source is a krypton ion laser coupled to fused quartz fiber light conductor. An electrostatic image intensifier attached to a standard flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope provides a bright image even at relatively low irradiance. A red secondary filter rejects most reflected background and autofluorescence. Sensitivity and contrast capability of the system should permit detection of a tumor less than 0.1 mm thick

  18. Occult microscopic endometriosis: undetectable by laparoscopy in normal peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Fujishita, Akira; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Is there any occurrence of hidden (occult) endometriotic lesions in normal peritoneum of women with and without visible endometriosis? We detected a slightly higher occurrence of occult microscopic endometriosis (OME) in normal peritoneum of women with visible endometriosis than in control women. Based on a small number of cases, the concept of invisible microscopic endometriosis in visually normal peritoneum has been reported for more than a decade but there is controversy regarding their tissue activity and clinical significance. This case-controlled research study was conducted with prospectively collected normal peritoneal samples from 151 women with and 62 women without visible endometriosis. Normal peritoneal biopsy specimens from different pelvic sites of were collected during laparoscopy. A histological search of all peritoneal biopsy specimens for the detection of invisible endometriosis was done by immunoreaction to Ber-EP4 (epithelial cell marker), CD10 (stromal cell marker) and Calretinin (mesothelial cell marker). Tissue expression of estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was performed by immunohistochemistry to identify tissue activity. Three different patterns of OME were detected based on (I) the presence of typical gland/stroma, (II) reactive hyperplastic change of endometrioid epithelial cells with surrounding stroma and (III) single-layered epithelium-lined cystic lesions with surrounding stroma. A higher tendency toward the occurrence of OME was found in women with visible endometriosis (15.2%, 23/151) compared with control women (6.4%, 4/62) (P = 0.06, χ(2) test). The epithelial cells and/or stromal cells of OME lesions were immunoreactive to Ber-EP4 and CD10 but not reactive to Calretinin. ER and PR expression was observed in all patterns of OME lesions. Ki-67 index was significantly higher in pattern I/II OME lesions than in pattern III OME lesions (Pendometriosis due to the presence of adhesions in

  19. Significance of mammographic signs in clinically occult disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, J.C. de; Steil, B.; Baltzer, J.; Vaillant, W.; Zander, J.

    1987-10-01

    The significance of various radiographic signs in 183 patients with clinically occult breast disease is described. 30.6% hat a carcinoma of the breast or a carcinoma in situ. The radiological features have varying predictive values and there is variation in the incidence of lymph node metastases. It is considered useful to classify the radiological appearances under the headings of round foci, star-shaped opacities, diffuse opacities, opacities with calcification and groups of micro-calcification. Despite the early diagnosis, 24% of patients already had lymph node metastases.

  20. Occult lung malignancy presenting with finger pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embley Matthew A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies in the world. Early detection is an important prognostic factor. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be vague and a substantial proportion of cases present with the effects of metastases. Case presentation We discuss a case of occult lung malignancy in a 61-year-old man. The only symptom at presentation was pain in the right ring finger due to metastasis from the lung primary. Conclusion This case highlights the need for vigilance when a patient presents with unusual or unexplained symptoms, especially if they have known risk factors for cancer.

  1. Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...

  2. PREVALENCE OF OCCULT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY WITH CHRONIC CO - MORBIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth in elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression which is affecting the quality of life. Depression is more prevalent amongst elderly individuals with medical illnesses and emerging public health problem leading to increased morbidity and disability worldwide. AIMS AND OBJE CTIVES: To assess the prevalence of occult depression in elderly patients with chronic co - morbid medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross - sectional study conducted in tertiary hospital. Total 100 elderly patients with underlying chronic me dical illnesses were included. Depression in study population was assessed by geriatric depression scale and analyzed. RESULT: Out of 100 patients 23(23% had depression. Females 12/39(30.76% were affected more than males 11/61 (18.03%. Depression was mo re prevalent among patients with 3 or more co - morbid conditions (45.4% as compared to <3 (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with multiple chronic medical illnesses may have associated occult depression. Screening of these patients for depression couple d with appropriate psychiatric referral should be an integral part of Geriatric service

  3. Occulting Light Concentrators in Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Cabrera, Anatael; Dusini, Stefano; Grassi, Marco; He, Miao; Wu, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    The experimental efforts characterizing the era of precision neutrino physics revolve around collecting high-statistics neutrino samples and attaining an excellent energy and position resolution. Next generation liquid-based neutrino detectors, such as JUNO, HyperKamiokande, etc, share the use of a large target mass, and the need of pushing light collection to the edge for maximal calorimetric information. Achieving high light collection implies considerable costs, especially when considering detector masses of several kt. A traditional strategy to maximize the effective photo-coverage with the minimum number of PMTs relies on Light Concentrators (LC), such as Winston Cones. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel concept called Occulting Light Concentrators (OLC), whereby a traditional LC gets tailored to a conventional PMT, by taking into account its single-photoelectron collection efficiency profile and thus occulting the worst performing portion of the photocathode. Thus, the OLC shape optimization takes into account not only the optical interface of the PMT, but also the maximization of the PMT detection performances. The light collection uniformity across the detector is another advantage of the OLC system. By considering the case of JUNO, we will show OLC capabilities in terms of light collection and energy resolution.

  4. Image guidance improves localization of sonographically occult colorectal liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L.; Adams, Lauryn B.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Kingham, T. Peter

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the therapeutic benefit of surgical navigation systems is a challenging problem in image-guided surgery. The exact clinical indications for patients that may benefit from these systems is not always clear, particularly for abdominal surgery where image-guidance systems have failed to take hold in the same way as orthopedic and neurosurgical applications. We report interim analysis of a prospective clinical trial for localizing small colorectal liver metastases using the Explorer system (Path Finder Technologies, Nashville, TN). Colorectal liver metastases are small lesions that can be difficult to identify with conventional intraoperative ultrasound due to echogeneity changes in the liver as a result of chemotherapy and other preoperative treatments. Interim analysis with eighteen patients shows that 9 of 15 (60%) of these occult lesions could be detected with image guidance. Image guidance changed intraoperative management in 3 (17%) cases. These results suggest that image guidance is a promising tool for localization of small occult liver metastases and that the indications for image-guided surgery are expanding.

  5. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.

  6. Advanced Electrocardiography Can Identify Occult Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljak, M.; Petric, A. Domanjko; Wilberg, M.; Olsen, L. H.; Stepancic, A.; Schlegel, T. T.; Starc, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, multiple advanced resting electrocardiographic (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in detection of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. This study investigated whether 12-lead A-ECG recordings could accurately identify the occult phase of DCM in dogs. Short-duration (3-5 min) high-fidelity 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 31 privately-owned, clinically healthy Doberman Pinschers (5.4 +/- 1.7 years, 11/20 males/females). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 healthy dogs with normal echocardiographic M-mode measurements: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd . 47mm) and in systole (LVIDs . 38mm) and normal 24-hour ECG recordings (100 VPCs/24h; 1/12 dogs had only abnormal 24-hour ECG recordings (>100 VPCs/24h). ECG recordings were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate multiple parameters of high-frequency (HF) QRS ECG, heart rate variability, QT variability, waveform complexity and 3-D ECG. Student's t-tests determined 19 ECG parameters that were significantly different (P canine DCM as five selected ECG parameters can with reasonable accuracy identify occult DCM in Doberman Pinschers. Future extensive clinical studies need to clarify if 12-lead A-ECG could be useful as an additional screening test for canine DCM.

  7. The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliore, A. J.; Hinson, D. P.; Flasar, F. M.; Nagy, A. F.; Cravens, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system. In five of the six instances, these occultations revealed the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa, with an average maximum electron density of nearly 10(4) per cubic centimeter near the surface and a plasma scale height of about 240 +/- 40 kilometers from the surface to 300 kilometers and of 440 +/- 60 kilometers above 300 kilometers. Such an ionosphere could be produced by solar photoionization and jovian magnetospheric particle impact in an atmosphere having a surface density of about 10(8) electrons per cubic centimeter. If this atmosphere is composed primarily of O2, then the principal ion is O2+ and the neutral atmosphere temperature implied by the 240-kilometer scale height is about 600 kelvin. If it is composed of H2O, the principal ion is H3O+ and the neutral temperature is about 340 kelvin. In either case, these temperatures are much higher than those observed on Europa's surface, and an external heating source from the jovian magnetosphere is required.

  8. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29 deg N and 64 deg S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L(sub s) = 264 deg - 308 deg. The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. wavelengths approximately 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29 deg N and 10 deg S, usually in regions of "interesting" topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30 deg of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4-mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are "breaking" and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  9. The floating cardiac fat pad-sign of occult pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Claire; Bokhari, S A Jamal

    2016-08-01

    Pneumothoraces are a possible sequela of chest trauma with potential morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated promptly. A portable supine chest radiograph is frequently the first radiologic study performed in the setting of trauma. While large pneumothoraces can be readily recognized on these radiographs, smaller pneumothoraces are missed in up to 15 % of trauma patients. There are many radiographic signs of occult pneumothoraces, and we are presenting a new radiographic sign of occult pneumothorax. The floating cardiac fat pad sign occurs when pleural air collects anteriorly and superiorly in the most non-dependent portion of the chest lifting the pericardial fat pad off the diaphragm. Lung markings are still seen surrounding the pericardial fat pad due to the inflated lower lobe of the lung resting dependently. Rapid and accurate identification of pneumothoraces is critical but often difficult on chest radiographs. Although there are many existing radiographic signs for identification of pneumothorax, prospective identification of small pneumothoraces is still relatively poor. Here, we describe an additional sign which aides in the detection of pneumothoraces, the floating cardiac fat pad. When present, this should prompt further evaluation with chest CT or upright chest radiograph.

  10. Inversion, error analysis, and validation of GPS/MET occultation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Steiner

    Full Text Available The global positioning system meteorology (GPS/MET experiment was the first practical demonstration of global navigation satellite system (GNSS-based active limb sounding employing the radio occultation technique. This method measures, as principal observable and with millimetric accuracy, the excess phase path (relative to propagation in vacuum of GNSS-transmitted radio waves caused by refraction during passage through the Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere in limb geometry. It shows great potential utility for weather and climate system studies in providing an unique combination of global coverage, high vertical resolution and accuracy, long-term stability, and all-weather capability. We first describe our GPS/MET data processing scheme from excess phases via bending angles to the neutral atmospheric parameters refractivity, density, pressure and temperature. Special emphasis is given to ionospheric correction methodology and the inversion of bending angles to refractivities, where we introduce a matrix inversion technique (instead of the usual integral inversion. The matrix technique is shown to lead to identical results as integral inversion but is more directly extendable to inversion by optimal estimation. The quality of GPS/MET-derived profiles is analyzed with an error estimation analysis employing a Monte Carlo technique. We consider statistical errors together with systematic errors due to upper-boundary initialization of the retrieval by a priori bending angles. Perfect initialization and properly smoothed statistical errors allow for better than 1 K temperature retrieval accuracy up to the stratopause. No initialization and statistical errors yield better than 1 K accuracy up to 30 km but less than 3 K accuracy above 40 km. Given imperfect initialization, biases >2 K propagate down to below 30 km height in unfavorable realistic cases. Furthermore, results of a statistical validation of GPS/MET profiles through comparison

  11. Time delay occultation data of the Helios spacecraft for probing the electron density distribution in the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.; Esposito, P. B.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Hansen, R. T.; Hansen, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    S-band time delay measurements were collected from the spacecraft Helios A and B during three solar occultations in 1975/76 within heliocentric distances of about 3 and 215 earth radius in terms of range, Doppler frequency shift, and electron content. Characteristic features of measurement and data processing are described. Typical data sets are discussed to probe the electron density distribution near the sun (west and east limb as well) including the outer and extended corona. Steady-state and dynamical aspects of the solar corona are presented and compared with earth-bound-K-coronagraph measurements. Using a weighted least squares estimation, parameters of an average coronal electron density profile are derived in a preliminary analysis to yield electron densities at r = 3, 65, 215 earth radius. Transient phenomena are discussed and a velocity of propagation v is nearly equal to 900 km/s is determined for plasma ejecta from a solar flare observed during an extraordinary set of Helios B electron content measurements.

  12. Diffraction-based analysis of tunnel size for a scaled external occulter testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dan; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    For performance verification of an external occulter mask (also called a starshade), scaled testbeds have been developed to measure the suppression of the occulter shadow in the pupil plane and contrast in the image plane. For occulter experiments the scaling is typically performed by maintaining an equivalent Fresnel number. The original Princeton occulter testbed was oversized with respect to both input beam and shadow propagation to limit any diffraction effects due to finite testbed enclosure edges; however, to operate at realistic space-mission equivalent Fresnel numbers an extended testbed is currently under construction. With the longer propagation distances involved, diffraction effects due to the edge of the tunnel must now be considered in the experiment design. Here, we present a diffraction-based model of two separate tunnel effects. First, we consider the effect of tunnel-edge induced diffraction ringing upstream from the occulter mask. Second, we consider the diffraction effect due to clipping of the output shadow by the tunnel downstream from the occulter mask. These calculations are performed for a representative point design relevant to the new Princeton occulter experiment, but we also present an analytical relation that can be used for other propagation distances.

  13. Occult HBV infection in HIV-infected adults and evaluation of pooled NAT for HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesha, T R; Boobalan, J; Sivamalar, S; Subashini, D; Solomon, S S; Murugavel, K G; Balakrishnan, P; Smith, D M; Saravanan, S

    2018-01-06

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected persons and to evaluate the use of a pooling strategy to detect occult HBV infection in the setting of HIV infection. Five hundred and two HIV-positive individuals were tested for HBV, occult HBV and hepatitis C and D with serologic and nucleic acid testing (NAT). We also evaluated a pooled NAT strategy for screening occult HBV infection among the HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive individuals was 32 (6.4%), and occult HBV prevalence was 10%. The pooling HBV NAT had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%, compared to HBV DNA NAT of individual samples. In conclusion, this study found a high prevalence of occult HBV infection among our HIV-infected population. We also demonstrated that pooled HBV NAT is highly specific, moderately sensitive and cost-effective. As conventional HBV viral load assays are expensive in resource-limited settings such as India, pooled HBV DNA NAT might be a good way for detecting occult HBV infection and will reduce HBV-associated complications. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Noninvasive Prenatal Testing and Incidental Detection of Occult Maternal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Diana W; Chudova, Darya; Sehnert, Amy J; Bhatt, Sucheta; Murray, Kathryn; Prosen, Tracy L; Garber, Judy E; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Vora, Neeta L; Warsof, Stephen; Goldberg, James; Ziainia, Tina; Halks-Miller, Meredith

    2015-07-14

    Understanding the relationship between aneuploidy detection on noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and occult maternal malignancies may explain results that are discordant with the fetal karyotype and improve maternal clinical care. To evaluate massively parallel sequencing data for patterns of copy-number variations that might prospectively identify occult maternal malignancies. Case series identified from 125,426 samples submitted between February 15, 2012, and September 30, 2014, from asymptomatic pregnant women who underwent plasma cell-free DNA sequencing for clinical prenatal aneuploidy screening. Analyses were conducted in a clinical laboratory that performs DNA sequencing. Among the clinical samples, abnormal results were detected in 3757 (3%); these were reported to the ordering physician with recommendations for further evaluation. NIPT for fetal aneuploidy screening (chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y). Detailed genome-wide bioinformatics analysis was performed on available sequencing data from 8 of 10 women with known cancers. Genome-wide copy-number changes in the original NIPT samples and in subsequent serial samples from individual patients when available are reported. Copy-number changes detected in NIPT sequencing data in the known cancer cases were compared with the types of aneuploidies detected in the overall cohort. From a cohort of 125,426 NIPT results, 3757 (3%) were positive for 1 or more aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, or Y. From this set of 3757 samples, 10 cases of maternal cancer were identified. Detailed clinical and sequencing data were obtained in 8. Maternal cancers most frequently occurred with the rare NIPT finding of more than 1 aneuploidy detected (7 known cancers among 39 cases of multiple aneuploidies by NIPT, 18% [95% CI, 7.5%-33.5%]). All 8 cases that underwent further bioinformatics analysis showed unique patterns of nonspecific copy-number gains and losses across multiple chromosomes. In 1 case, blood was

  15. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  16. Influence of misalignments on the performance of externally occulted solar coronagraphs. Application to PROBA-3/ASPIICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The ASPIICS instrument is a novel externally occulted coronagraph that will be launched on board the PROBA-3 mission of the European Space Agency. The external occulter will be placed on one satellite 150 m ahead of the second satellite that will carry an optical instrument. During 6 h out of 19.38 h of orbit, the satellites will fly in a precise (accuracy around a few millimeters) formation, constituting a giant externally occulted coronagraph. The large distance between the external occulter and the primary objective will allow observations of the white-light solar corona starting from extremely low heights 1.1R⊙. Aims: We intend to analyze influence of shifts of the satellites and misalignments of optical elements on the ASPIICS performance in terms of diffracted light. Based on the quantitative influence of misalignments on diffracted light, we provide a recipe for choosing the size of the internal occulter (IO) to achieve a trade-off between the minimal height of observations and sustainability to possible misalignments. Methods: We considered different types of misalignments and analyzed their influence from optical and computational points of view. We implemented a numerical model of the diffracted light and its propagation through the optical system and computed intensities of diffracted light throughout the instrument. Our numerical approach is based on a model from the literature that considered the axisymmetrical case. Here we extend the model to include nonsymmetrical cases and possible misalignments. Results: The numerical computations fully confirm the main properties of the diffracted light that we obtained from semi-analytical consideration. We obtain that relative influences of various misalignments are significantly different. We show that the internal occulter with RIO = 1.694 mm = 1.1R⊙ is large enough to compensate possible misalignments expected to occur in PROBA-3/ASPIICS. Besides that we show that apodizing the edge of the

  17. Heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce positive scintiscan in occult gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Brantly, M.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce a positive scintiscan was studied in a patient with chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding. When all standard diagnostic tests (upper and lower gastrointestinal series, upper and lower endoscopy, and conventional noninterventional Tc-99m RBC imaging) fail to detect and localize gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient who has definite clinical evidence (guaiac positive stool and dropping hemoglobin, hematocrit) of chronic occult gastrointestinal oozing, heparin may be used (with proper precaution) as a last resort to aid in the scintigraphic detection and localization of chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding

  18. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  19. Radiosensitive orbital metastasis as presentation of occult colonic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmir, Ethan B; McCall, Shannon J; Czito, Brian G; Palta, Manisha

    2014-09-19

    An 82-year-old man presented with progressive right frontal headaches. The patient's history was significant for benign polyps on surveillance colonoscopy 2 years prior, without high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. MRI revealed an enhancing lesion arising within the superomedial aspect of the right orbit. Lesion biopsy demonstrated histological appearance and immunophenotype suggestive of colonic adenocarcinoma. Staging positron emission tomography/CT showed visceral metastases and diffuse activity in the posterior rectosigmoid, consistent with metastatic colon cancer. Treatment of the orbital lesion with external beam radiotherapy to 30 Gy resulted in significant palliation of the patient's headaches. The patient expired 2 months following treatment completion due to disease progression. Orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of an occult colorectal primary lesion is exceedingly rare, and occurred in this patient despite surveillance colonoscopy. Radiotherapy remains an efficacious modality for treatment of orbital metastases. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Lunar occultations for gamma-ray source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.; Nolan, Patrick L.

    1990-01-01

    The unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects radiating at other wavelengths, the separation of discrete sources from the extended emission within the Galaxy, the mapping of gamma-ray emission from nearby galaxies and the measurement of structure within a discrete source cannot presently be accomplished at gamma-ray energies. In the past, the detection processes used in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy have not allowed for good angular resolution. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For purposes of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above 100 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  1. Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated.

  2. Adolescent Occultism and the Philosophy of Things in Three Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Finegan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Jackson’s 1962 We Have Always Lived in the Castle, Iain Banks’s 1984 The Wasp Factory and Sonya Hartnett’s 2009 Butterfly are novels separated not only by decades, but by distance being produced in the United States, Scotland and Australia respectively. Despite this, each of these texts depicts a young adult in a mimetically recognisable world struggling to reconcile their intuitive occultism with that world. The mediation of magic through assemblages of charged objects creates a philosophy of things – modelling in intuitive and narrative terms the essence and nature of objects familiar from the philosophies of Martin Heidegger and Walter Benjamin. As such, the supernaturalism of Iain Banks, Shirley Jackson and Sonya Hartnett’s narratives implicates their readers – breaking the boundaries of fiction to comment on the material world itself, not through analogy or metaphor but through direct modelling of the potential power and worth of things.

  3. Radiographically Occult and Subtle Fractures: A Pictorial Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, M.; Hayashi, D.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Conlin, J.; Marra, M.D.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Diaz, L.; Conlin, J.; Jomaah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Radiographically occult and subtle fractures are a diagnostic challenge. They may be divided into (1) high energy trauma fracture, (2) fatigue fracture from cyclical and sustained mechanical stress, and (3) insufficiency fracture occurring in weakened bone (e.g., in osteoporosis and post radiotherapy). Independently of the cause, the initial radiographic examination can be negative either because the findings seem normal or are too subtle. Early detection of these fractures is crucial to explain the patients symptoms and prevent further complications. Advanced imaging tools such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy are highly valuable in this context. Our aim is to raise the awareness of radiologists and clinicians in these cases by presenting illustrative cases and a discussion of the relevant literature.

  4. The prototype cameras for trans-Neptunian automatic occultation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Hu, Yen-Sang; Geary, John C.; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Amato, Stephen M.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Pratlong, Jerome; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Lehner, Matthew; Norton, Timothy; Jorden, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a three robotic telescope project to detect the stellar occultation events generated by TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs). TAOS II project aims to monitor about 10000 stars simultaneously at 20Hz to enable statistically significant event rate. The TAOS II camera is designed to cover the 1.7 degrees diameter field of view of the 1.3m telescope with 10 mosaic 4.5k×2k CMOS sensors. The new CMOS sensor (CIS 113) has a back illumination thinned structure and high sensitivity to provide similar performance to that of the back-illumination thinned CCDs. Due to the requirements of high performance and high speed, the development of the new CMOS sensor is still in progress. Before the science arrays are delivered, a prototype camera is developed to help on the commissioning of the robotic telescope system. The prototype camera uses the small format e2v CIS 107 device but with the same dewar and also the similar control electronics as the TAOS II science camera. The sensors, mounted on a single Invar plate, are cooled to the operation temperature of about 200K as the science array by a cryogenic cooler. The Invar plate is connected to the dewar body through a supporting ring with three G10 bipods. The control electronics consists of analog part and a Xilinx FPGA based digital circuit. One FPGA is needed to control and process the signal from a CMOS sensor for 20Hz region of interests (ROI) readout.

  5. Between occultism and drama. Henrik Ibsen and Aleister Crowley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano D' Amico

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the references to the works of Henrik Ibsen that the writer and occultist Aleister Crowley scattered in his writings around the turn of the 20th century, in the early phase of his career as a writer and occultist. Crowley’s reading of Ibsen has a marked a socio-political bent, especially in his interpretation of the work of the Norwegian playwright as an act of rebellion against the bourgeois (and for Crowley, Victorian system of values. Also, such view is enriched by a spiritual and individualistic interpretation of Ibsen as an “Artist”, i.e., in the light of Crowley’s occult doctrine, Thelema, of an individual who has found his own “Will” and can inspire others to do so. Such social and spiritual interpretations of Ibsen on Crowley’s part found their literary realization in his one-act play The Mother’s Tragedy (1899. The article claims that Crowley’s reading of Ibsen can give some new insight in the mechanisms of reception of the Norwegian playwright, by opening up for a reading of some of his plays within an occult discourse. Also, it is an occasion to treat Crowley – a figure that was constantly present in the European cultural and literary life of the last decade of the 19th century and of the first five decades of the 20th – with a different attitude than the irony and disdain to which he is often exposed.

  6. Mapping Pluto's Temperature Distribution Through Twenty Years of Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangari, Amanda; Binzel, R. P.; Person, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Multi-chord, high signal-to-noise Pluto occultations have been observed several times over the past two decades, including events in 1988, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2010 and 2011 (Elliot et al. 1989, 2003, 2007; Person et al. 2008, 2010, 2011). We fit separate immersion and emersion occultation light-curve models to each of the individual light curves obtained from these efforts. Asymmetries in the light curves result in the half-light temperatures for opposite sides of a single chord to differ by up to 20 Kelvin in the largest case. The temperature difference for each chord is consistent using both isothermal (b=0) and non-isothermal (e.g. b=-2.2) models based on the methodology described by Elliot & Young (1992). We examine the relationship between the location of immersion and emersion points on Pluto and these temperatures at the half-light radius and will present results for correlations between these location/temperature data and surface composition maps, Pluto geometry, and accumulated insolation patterns. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant to MIT (NNX10AB27G), and NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Grant to MIT (0707609). The authors would like to acknowledge the late Professor James L. Elliot for his efforts in beginning this work. References: Elliot, J. L., Dunham, E. W., Bosh, A. S., et al. 1989, Icarus, 77,148 Elliot, J. L., Ates, A., Babcock, B. A., et al. 2003, Nature, 424,165 Elliot, J. L., Person, M. J., Gulbis, A. A. S., et al. 2007, AJ, 134, 1 Elliot, J. L., & Young, L. A. 1992, AJ, 103, 991. Person, M. J., Elliot, J. L., Gulbis, A. A. S., et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 1510 Person, M. J., Elliot, J. L., Bosh, A. S., et al. 2010, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 42, 983 Person, M. J., Dunham, E. W., Bida, T., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 1374.

  7. Magellan radio occultation measurements of atmospheric waves on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus on three consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft in October 1991. Each occultation occurred over the same topography (67 deg N, 127 deg E) and at the same local time (22 hr 5 min), but the data are sensitive to zonal variations because the atmosphere rotates significantly during one orbit. Through comparisons between observations and predictions of standard wave theory, we have demonstrated that small-scale oscillations in retrieved temperature profiles as well as scintillations in received signal intensity are caused by a spectrum of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. There is a strong similarity between the intensity scintillations observed here and previous measurements, which pertain to a wide range of locations and experiment dates. This implies that the same basic phenomenon underlies all the observations and hence that gravity waves are a persistent, global feature of Venus' atmosphere. We obtained a fairly complete characterization of a gravity wave that appears above the middle cloud in temperature measurements on all three orbits. The amplitude and vertical wavelength are about 4 K and 2.5 km respectively, at 65 km. A model for radiative damping implies that the wave intrinsic frequency is approximately 2 x 10(exp 4) rad/sec, the corresponding ratio between horizontal and vertical wavelengths is approximately 100. The wave is nearly stationary relative to the surface or the Sun. Radiative attenuation limits the wave amplitude at altitudes above approximately 65 km, leading to wave drag on the mean zonal winds of about +0.4 m/sec per day (eastward). The sign, magnitude, and location of this forcing suggest a possible role in explaining the decrease with height in the zonal wind speed that is believed to occur above the cloud tops. Temperature oscillations with larger vertical wavelengths (5-10 km) were also observed on all three orbits, but we are able unable to interpret these

  8. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  9. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by a variety of conditions, including: Polyps Hemorrhoids Diverticulosis Ulcers Colitis , a type of inflammatory bowel ... on a fecal occult blood test include ulcers, hemorrhoids, polyps, and benign tumors. If your test results ...

  10. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  11. Parapsychology on the couch: the psychology of occult belief in Germany, c. 1870-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the attempts of academic psychologists and critical occultists in Germany during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to construct a psychology of occult belief. While they claimed that the purpose of this new subdiscipline was to help evaluate the work of occult researchers, the emergence of a psychology of occult belief in Germany served primarily to pathologize parapsychology and its practitioners. Not to be outdone, however, parapsychologists argued that their adversaries suffered from a morbid inability to accept the reality of the paranormal. Unable to resolve through experimental means the dispute over who should be allowed to mold the public's understanding of the occult, both sides resorted to defaming their opponent. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed or recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  13. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary (unknown primary) treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Low-Cost Small Satellite Atmospheric Rotating Solar Occultation Imager (ROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the ROI concept will meet or exceed the quality of SAGE measurements at a small fraction of the...

  15. Prevalence of Visible and Occult Blood on the Surfaces of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKamey, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... This study was conducted to determine if current cleaning, disinfection and sterilization procedures used at one medical center was adequate to remove visible and occult blood from fiberoptic bronchoscopes...

  16. Assessment of Radiometer Calibration with GPS Radio Occultation for the MiRaTA CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinan, Anne D.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Lui, Susan S.; Bardeen, James R.; Mulligan, Tamitha; Blackwell, William J.; Leslie, R. Vincent; Osaretin, Idahosa; Shields, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). The science payload on MiRaTA consists of a tri-band microwave radiometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (GPSRO) sensor. The microwave radiometer takes measurements of all-weather temperature (V-band, 50-57 GHz), water vapor (G-band, 175-191 GHz), and cloud ice (G-band, 205 GHz) to provide observations used to improve weather forecasting. The Aerospace Corporation's GPSRO experiment, called the Compact TEC (Total Electron Content) and Atmospheric GPS Sensor (CTAGS), measures profiles of temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (∼20 km) and electron density in the ionosphere (over 100 km). The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, (2) the application of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) GPS receiver and custom patch antenna array technology to obtain neutral atmospheric GPSRO retrieval from a nanosatellite, and (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. In this paper, we focus on objective (3), developing operational models to meet a mission goal of 100 concurrent radiometer and GPSRO measurements, and estimating the temperature measurement precision for the CTAGS instrument based on thermal noise. Based on an analysis of thermal noise of the CTAGS instrument, the expected temperature retrieval precision is between 0.17 K and 1.4 K, which supports the improvement of radiometric calibration to 0.25 K. PMID:28828144

  17. Detection of an occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid fistula by CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, B.; Brors, D.; Draf, W.; Goedecke, A.; Prescher, A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an unusual occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula to the sphenoid sinus demonstrated by MRI. CT was performed because of a posterior cerebral infarct caused by cardiac arrhythmia. Axial sections showed fluid in the sphenoid sinus. High-resolution scans revealed a bony defect 3 mm in diameter of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus, and MRI showed a transclival CSF fistula. This occult lesion was confirmed by surgery and duraplasty was successfully performed via an endonasal approach. (orig.)

  18. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  19. A prospective evaluation of occult disorders in obstructed defecation using the 'iceberg diagram'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatori, M; Spyrou, M; Pulvirenti d'Urso, A

    2007-06-01

    Surgical treatment of constipation and obstructed defecation (OD) carries frequent recurrences, as OD is an 'iceberg syndrome' characterized by 'underwater rocks' or occult diseases which may affect the outcome of surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate occult disorders, in order to alert the clinician of these and minimize failures. One hundred consecutive constipated patients with OD symptoms, 81 women, median age 52 years, underwent perineal examination, proctoscopy, anorectal manometry and anal/vaginal ultrasound (US). Anorectal physiology and imaging tests were also carried out when indicated, as well as psychological and urogynaecological consultations. Symptoms were graded using a modified 1-20 constipation score. Both evident (e.g. rectocele) and occult (e.g. anismus) diseases were prospectively evaluated using a novel 'iceberg diagram'. The type of treatment, whether conservative or surgical, was also recorded. Fifty-four (54%) patients had both mucosal prolapse and rectocele. All patients had at least two occult OD-related diseases, 66 patients had at least three of them: anxiety-depression, anismus and rectal hyposensation were the most frequent (66%, 44% and 33%, respectively). The median constipation score was 11 (range 2-20), the median number of 'occult disorders' was 5 (range 2-8). Conservative treatment was carried out in most cases. Surgery was carried out in 14 (14%) patients. The novel 'iceberg diagram' allowed the adequate evaluation of OD-related occult diseases and better selection of patients for treatment. Most were managed conservatively, and only a minority were treated by surgery.

  20. Scaled model guidelines for solar coronagraphs' external occulters with an optimized shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Federico; Baccani, Cristian; Schweitzer, Hagen; Asoubar, Daniel; Romoli, Marco; Taccola, Matteo; Focardi, Mauro; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Fineschi, Silvano

    2017-12-01

    One of the major challenges faced by externally occulted solar coronagraphs is the suppression of the light diffracted by the occulter edge. It is a contribution to the stray light that overwhelms the coronal signal on the focal plane and must be reduced by modifying the geometrical shape of the occulter. There is a rich literature, mostly experimental, on the appropriate choice of the most suitable shape. The problem arises when huge coronagraphs, such as those in formation flight, shall be tested in a laboratory. A recent contribution [Opt. Lett.41, 757 (2016)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.41.000757] provides the guidelines for scaling the geometry and replicate in the laboratory the flight diffraction pattern as produced by the whole solar disk and a flight occulter but leaves the conclusion on the occulter scale law somehow unjustified. This paper provides the numerical support for validating that conclusion and presents the first-ever simulation of the diffraction behind an occulter with an optimized shape along the optical axis with the solar disk as a source. This paper, together with Opt. Lett.41, 757 (2016)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.41.000757, aims at constituting a complete guide for scaling the coronagraphs' geometry.

  1. A Comprehensive Assessment of Radio Occultation Ionospheric Measurements at Mid-Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, C.; Brum, C. G. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Aponte, N.; Sulzer, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS radio occultation (RO) has become a widely used technique for global measurements of the ionospheric electron density (Ne). To advance our understanding of the accuracy of the RO profiles at mid latitudes, we performed a comprehensive comparison of RO measurements made by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites and observations of Ne profiles made by the Arecibo Observatory incoherent scatter radar (ISR). COSMIC is formed by six satellites in circular, 800 km altitude low-Earth orbit (LEO) at 72° inclination. The satellites orbit in their own plane, approximately 24° apart in ascending node. The satellites are equipped with dual-frequency GPS receivers capable of making measurements of the total electron content (TEC) along the signal path and, therefore, RO observations. The Arecibo ISR, located at(18.35°N, 66.75°W; ˜28.25°N dip latitude), operates at a frequency of 430 MHz with a maximum bandwidth of about 1 MHz. The large collecting area provided by the 300 m dish antenna combined with high peak power transmitters (2.0-2.5 MW) allows the radar to make accurate Ne measurements throughout the entire ionospheric F-region and topside heights. We analyzed 74 and 89 days of line feed and Gregorian data, respectively, collected between 2006 and 2014. There were 638 RO profiles measured within 10° of latitude and 20° of longitude from Arecibo Observatory and within ±10 minutes of the radar measurements. Preliminary analyses of the observations show patterns in the relationship between densities measured by the Arecibo ISR and densities estimated from the COSMIC ROs. We will present and discuss the behavior of the patterns. We will also present results of a numerical model representing the patterns and discuss the possibility of using this model to improve RO estimates of density profiles.

  2. A Climate Benchmark of Upper Air Temperature Observations from GNSS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Leroy, S. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    GPS (Global Positioning System), or more generally Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique that produces highly accurate temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere across the globe with fine vertical resolution. Its fundamental measurement is the time delay of the microwave signal as it travels from a GNSS satellite to the receiver in low Earth orbit. With a relatively simple physical retrieval, the uncertainty in the derived temperature can be traced rigorously through the retrieval chain back to the raw measurements. The high absolute accuracy of RO allows these observations to be assimilated without bias correction in numerical weather prediction models and provides an anchor for assimilating other types of observations. The high accuracy, coupled with long-term stability, makes RO valuable in detecting decadal temperature trends. In this presentation, we will summarize the current state of RO observations and show temperature trends derived from 15 years of RO data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We will discuss our recent efforts in developing retrieval algorithms that are more tailored towards climate applications. Despite the relatively robust "self-calibrating" nature of RO observations, disparity in receiver hardware and software may introduce subtle differences that need to be carefully addressed. While the historic RO data record came from relatively homogeneous hardware based largely on NASA/JPL design (e.g., CHAMP and COSMIC), the future data will likely be comprised of a diverse set of observations from Europe, China, and various commercial data providers. In addition, the use of non-GPS navigation systems will become more prevalent. We will discuss the challenges involved in establishing a long-term RO climate data record from a suite of research and operational weather satellites with changes in instrumentation and coverage.

  3. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  4. Extent and kinetics of recovery of occult spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Jiang, G.-L.; Feng Yan; Stephens, L. Clifton; Tucker, Susan L.; Price, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain clinically useful quantitative data on the extent and kinetics of recovery of occult radiation injury in primate spinal cord, after a commonly administered elective radiation dose of 44 Gy, given in about 2 Gy per fraction. Methods and Materials: A group of 56 rhesus monkeys was assigned to receive two radiation courses to the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, given in 2.2 Gy per fraction. The dose of the initial course was 44 Gy in all monkeys. Reirradiation dose was 57.2 Gy, given after 1-year (n 16) or 2-year (n = 20) intervals, or 66 Gy, given after 2-year (n = 4) or 3-year (n = 14) intervals. Two animals developed intramedullary tumors before reirradiation and, therefore, did not receive a second course. The study endpoint was myeloparesis, manifesting predominantly as lower extremity weakness and decrease in balance, occurring within 2.5 years after reirradiation, complemented by histologic examination of the spinal cord. The data obtained were analyzed along with data from a previous study addressing single-course tolerance, and data from a preliminary study of reirradiation tolerance. Results: Only 4 of 45 monkeys completing the required observation period (2-2.5 years after reirradiation, 3-5.5 years total) developed myeloparesis. The data revealed a substantial recovery of occult injury induced by 44 Gy within the first year, and suggested additional recovery between 1 and 3 years. Fitting the data with a model, assuming that all (single course and reirradiation) dose-response curves were parallel, yielded recovery estimates of 33.6 Gy (76%), 37.6 Gy (85%), and 44.6 Gy (101%) of the initial dose, after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, at the 5% incidence (D 5 ) level. The most conservative estimate, using a model in which it was assumed that there was no recovery between 1 and 3 years following initial irradiation and that the combined reirradiation curve was not necessarily parallel to the single-course curve, still showed an

  5. Detection of Occult Erythrocytic Membrane Damages upon Pharmacological Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu. Alekseyeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood administration of pharmaceuticals may cause occult effects of these agents on erythrocytic membranes. These effects may damage and cause additional membrane defects, but may strengthen. The type and degree of the effects of an agent were detected by calibrated irreversible electroporation with a pulsed electric field (PEF. The paper considers the erythrocytic membranous effects of a wide concentration range of agents used in anesthesiology, such as esmerone, tracrium, and mar-caine-adrenaline. Under the action of PEF and esmerone at the normal concentration N, the rate of erythrocytic hemolysis increased by several times as compared with the control. The similar effect also occurred when esmerone was added at the concentration C=10N. Tracrium exerted a fixing effect on erythrocytic membranes. Upon a combined exposure to PEF and tracrium in the normal concentration C=N; erythrocytic hemolysis was slow. So was with the concentration C=10N. The rate of hemolysis of the red blood cells subjected to a combined action of marcaine adrenaline at the normal concentration C=N and even at the concentration C=10N and PEF was comparable with the hemolytic rate of the reference suspension. 

  6. Exploring atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking has been closely investigated in recent years due to its impact on weather and climate, such as heat waves, droughts, and flooding. We use, for the first time, satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO and explore their ability to resolve blocking in order to potentially open up new avenues complementing models and reanalyses. RO delivers globally available and vertically highly resolved profiles of atmospheric variables such as temperature and geopotential height (GPH. Applying a standard blocking detection algorithm, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking as demonstrated for two well-known blocking events over Russia in summer 2010 and over Greenland in late winter 2013. During blocking episodes, vertically resolved GPH gradients show a distinct anomalous behavior compared to climatological conditions up to 300 hPa and sometimes even further up into the tropopause. The accompanying increase in GPH of up to 300 m in the upper troposphere yields a pronounced tropopause height increase. Corresponding temperatures rise up to 10 K in the middle and lower troposphere. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of RO to detect and resolve blocking and in particular to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere during blocking episodes. This new observation-based view is available globally at the same quality so that blocking in the Southern Hemisphere can also be studied with the same reliability as in the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Occult radiological effects of lipomatosis of the lumbosacral plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, Mark A. [Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Howe, B.M.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurosurgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve (LN) is a condition of massive peripheral nerve enlargement frequently associated with hypertrophy within the distribution of the nerve, and most commonly affecting the distal limbs. We sought to understand if LN of the lumbosacral plexus would be associated with the trophic effects of LN on surrounding tissue within the pelvis, which may be clinically occult, but present on MRI. Fifty-one cases of LN, confirmed by pathology or pathognomonic appearance on MRI, were reviewed. Patients with LN of the sciatic nerve were investigated for radiological signs suggestive of overgrowth. Five patients had involvement of the sciatic nerve, 4 of whom had MR imaging of the pelvis. Three patients had LN involving the lumbosacral plexus, and one patient had isolated involvement of the sciatic nerve. All patients with involvement of the lumbosacral plexus demonstrated previously unrecognized evidence of nerve territory overgrowth in the pelvis, including: LN, profound adipose proliferation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, and bone hypertrophy and ankylosis. The patient with LN involving the intrapelvic sciatic nerve, but not the lumbosacral plexus did not demonstrate any radiological evidence of pelvic overgrowth. LN is broader in anatomical reach than previously understood. Proximal plexal innervation may be involved, with a consequent effect on axial skeleton and intrapelvic structures. (orig.)

  8. Cassini-VIMS at Jupiter: Solar occultation measurements using Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report unusual and somewhat unexpected observations of the jovian satellite Io, showing strong methane absorption bands. These observations were made by the Cassini VIMS experiment during the Jupiter flyby of December/January 2000/2001. The explanation is straightforward: Entering or exiting from Jupiter's shadow during an eclipse, Io is illuminated by solar light which has transited the atmosphere of Jupiter. This light, therefore becomes imprinted with the spectral signature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, which includes strong atmospheric methane absorption bands. Intercepting solar light refracted by the jovian atmosphere, Io essentially becomes a "miffor" for solar occultation events of Jupiter. The thickness of the layer where refracted solar light is observed is so large (more than 3000 km at Io's orbit), that we can foresee a nearly continuous multi-year period of similar events at Saturn, utilizing the large and bright ring system. During Cassini's 4-year nominal mission, this probing tecnique should reveal information of Saturn's atmosphere over a large range of southern latitudes and times. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occult hepatitis B infection and transfusion-transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candotti, D; Boizeau, L; Laperche, S

    2017-09-01

    Advances in serology and viral nucleic acid testing (NAT) over the last decades significantly reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV). The combination of HBsAg testing and NAT efficiently prevents the majority of HBV transmission. However, a specific residual risk remains associated with extremely low viral DNA levels in blood donors with occult HBV infection (OBI) that are intermittently or not detectable even by highly sensitive individual donation (ID) NAT. Studies have reported HBV transfusion-transmission with blood components from donors with OBI that contained low amount of viruses (transfusion-transmission seems to depend on a combination of several factors including the volume of plasma associated with the infected blood components transfused, the anti-HBV immune status of both recipient and donor, and possibly the viral fitness of the infecting HBV strain. Models based on clinical and experimental evidences estimate a residual transmission risk of 3-14% associated with OBI donations testing HBsAg and ID-NAT non-reactive. Anti-HBc testing has the potential to improve further blood safety but it may also compromise blood availability in settings with medium/high HBV prevalence. Pathogen reduction procedures might be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ectoparasites of the occult bat, Myotis occultus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.

  11. MRI of occult sacral insufficiency fractures following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammone, J.F.; Schweitzer, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Following radiation therapy, marrow abnormalities noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are frequent and may mimic metastases. Specific radiotherapy changes are usually easily identifiable; however, traumatic lesions cause more interpretive difficulties. We assessed the incidence and MRI characteristics of insufficiency fractures in this population. During a 5-year span (1987-1991), 546 patients received pelvic radiotherapy for primary malignancies. MRI was performed in 25 of these patients at least 3 months after treatment. The mean dose in this group was 53 Gy. These MRI scans were retrospectively reviewed for the appearance of the sacrum with particular attention to the presence of insufficiency fractures. This was correlated with clinical course and scintigraphic findings. Presumed insufficiency fractures on MRI paralleled the sacral side of the sacroiliac joint, enhanced with Gd-DTPA, were most prominent or initially seen anteriorly, and had ill-defined margins on all imaging sequences. The incidence of occult sacral insufficiency fractures was at least 20%. Insufficiency fractures of the sacrum in the post-radiotherapy patient are a relatively frequent occurrence which can mimic metastases. Consideration of this phenomenon and knowledge of differential features may avoid overdiagnosis of osseous metastases. (orig.)

  12. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  13. Information content in reflected signals during GPS Radio Occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Josep M.; Cardellach, Estel; Rodríguez, Hilda

    2018-04-01

    The possibility of extracting useful information about the state of the lower troposphere from the surface reflections that are often detected during GPS radio occultations (GPSRO) is explored. The clarity of the reflection is quantified, and can be related to properties of the surface and the low troposphere. The reflected signal is often clear enough to show good phase coherence, and can be tracked and processed as an extension of direct non-reflected GPSRO atmospheric profiles. A profile of bending angle vs. impact parameter can be obtained for these reflected signals, characterized by impact parameters that are below the apparent horizon, and that is a continuation at low altitude of the standard non-reflected bending angle profile. If there were no reflection, these would correspond to tangent altitudes below the local surface, and in particular below the local mean sea level. A forward operator is presented, for the evaluation of the bending angle of reflected GPSRO signals, given atmospheric properties as described by a numerical weather prediction system. The operator is an extension, at lower impact parameters, of standard bending angle operators, and reproduces both the direct and reflected sections of the measured profile. It can be applied to the assimilation of the reflected section of the profile as supplementary data to the direct section. Although the principle is also applicable over land, this paper is focused on ocean cases, where the topographic height of the reflecting surface, the sea level, is better known a priori.

  14. SOLAR OCCULTATION BY TITAN MEASURED BY CASSINI/UVIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Benilan, Yves [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universites Paris Est Creteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Sandel, Bill R. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the first published analysis of a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere measured by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on board Cassini. The data were measured during flyby T53 in 2009 April and correspond to latitudes between 21 Degree-Sign and 28 Degree-Sign south. The analysis utilizes the absorption of two solar emission lines (584 A and 630 A) in the ionization continuum of the N{sub 2} absorption cross section and solar emission lines around 1085 A where absorption is due to CH{sub 4}. The measured transmission at these wavelengths provides a direct estimate of the N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} column densities along the line of sight from the spacecraft to the Sun, which we inverted to obtain the number densities. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the data allowed us to retrieve density profiles in the altitude range 1120-1400 km for nitrogen and 850-1300 km for methane. We find an N{sub 2} scale height of {approx}76 km and a temperature of {approx}153 K. Our results are in general agreement with those from previous work, although there are some differences. Particularly, our profiles agree, considering uncertainties, with the density profiles derived from the Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrograph data, and with in situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer with revised calibration.

  15. The value of MR imaging of PDFASAT sequence in the diagnosis of extremities occult fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lingquan; Xu Mingshen; Wu Qianzhi; Mao Chunnan; Wang Shuzi; Zhou Xingfan; Wang Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR imaging of proton density weighted-fat saturated (PDFASAT) sequence in detecting the occult fracture of extremities. Methods: Thirty-one patients with acute trauma were studied using radiography and MR imaging within 45 days. MR sequences included FSE T 1 WI, T 2 WI, and PDFASAT. 21 occult fractures occurred in the knee joint, 6 in the hip joint, 1 in the elbow joint, 2 in the shoulder, and 1 in the ankle. Results: All 31 cases had normal radiographic results. 10 cases with proximal fibula, 4 with proximal tibia and 7 with femur condyle occult fractures were found in 21 knee joint acute trauma cases. 2 cases with intertrochanteric, 2 with femoral neck and 2 with cotyle occult fractures were found in 6 hip joint trauma cases. 2 proximal humerus occult fractures were found in 2 shoulder cases. 1 distal humerus and 1 distal fibula occult fracture was found in elbow and ankle cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular linear low signal in the subcortical region on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI, and high signal changes around low signal were seen on T 2 WI in some cases. The high signal in PDFASAT sequence was more remarkable and wider than that on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Conclusion: MR imaging could determine the diagnosis of acute and chronic occult fractures. MRI should be the next choice when plain films fail to reveal suspected fractures in setting of suggestive symptoms and positive physical examination. PDFASAT would be the best effective sequence among the T 1 WI, T 2 WI, and PDFASAT. (author)

  16. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  17. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling is not yet available. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO data. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor (H2O, methane (CH4, and ozone (O3. The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from about 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The retrieved profiles also appear unbiased, which points

  18. Recurring sets of recurring starspot occultations on exoplanet host Qatar-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, T.; Southworth, J.; Hellier, C.

    2017-10-01

    We announce the detection of recurring sets of recurring starspot occultation events in the short-cadence K2 light curve of Qatar-2, a K dwarf star transited every 1.34 d by a hot Jupiter. In total, we detect 34 individual starspot occultation events, caused by five different starspots, occulted in up to five consecutive transits or after a full stellar rotation. The longest recurring set of recurring starspot occultations spans over three stellar rotations, setting a lower limit for the longest starspot lifetime of 58 d. Starspot analysis provided a robust stellar rotational period measurement of 18.0 ± 0.2 d and indicates that the system is aligned, having a sky-projected obliquity of 0° ± 8°. A pronounced rotational modulation in the light curve has a period of 18.2 ± 1.6 d, in agreement with the rotational period derived from the starspot occultations. We tentatively detect an ellipsoidal modulation in the phase curve, with a semi-amplitude of 18 ppm, but cannot exclude the possibility that this is the result of red noise or imperfect removal of the rotational modulation. We detect no transit-timing and transit-duration variations with upper limits of 15 s and 1 min, respectively. We also reject any additional transiting planets with transit depths above 280 ppm in the orbital period region 0.5-30 d.

  19. Retrieval of Electron Density Profile for KOMPSAT-5 GPS Radio Occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Kyoung Lee

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The AOPOD (Atmosphere Occultation and Precision Orbit Determination system, the secondary payload of KOMPSAT (KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-5 scheduled to be launched in 2010, shall provide GPS radio occultation data. In this paper, we simulated the GPS radio occultation characteristic of KOMPSAT-5 and retrieved electron density profiles using KROPS (KASI Radio Occultation Processing Software. The electron density retrieved from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload GPS radio occultation data on June 20, 2004 was compared with IRI (International Reference Ionosphere - 2001, PLP (Planar Langmuir Probe, and ionosonde measurements. When the result was compared with ionosonde measurements, the discrepancies were 5 km on the F_2 peak height (hmF_2 and 3×10^{10} el/m^3 on the electron density of the F_2 peak height (NmF_2. By comparing with the Langmuir Probe measurements of CHAMP satellite (PLP, both agrees with 1.6×10^{11} el/m^3 at the height of 365.6 km.

  20. [Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Hyperthyroidism Complicated with Occult Thyroid Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the surgical diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperthyroidism complicated with occult thyroid carcinoma. Data of 51 cases of primary hyperthyroidism complicated with occult thyroid carcinoma admitted during January 2004 to November 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The incidence of occult thyroid carcinoma was 5.03% in hyperthyroidism,and 47 cases (92.16%) were female. The preoperative diagnosis of all these 51 cases was primary hyperthyroidism and 11 cases were diagnosed thyroid carcinoma at the same time;25 cases were diagnosed thyroid carcinoma by frozen section and the remaining 26 cases were diagnosed by postoperative pathology. Finally,26 cases underwent subtotal thyroidectomy,4 cases underwent total thyroidectomy, and 21 cases underwent total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy. The tumor size ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cm [mean:(0.63 ± 0.35) cm]. The lesions were less than or equal to 0.5 cm in 28 cases (54.9%). The follow-up lasted from 1 to 121 months [mean:(28.6 ± 22.7)months] in 43 patients,and all of them survived. Primary hyperthyroidism complicated with occult thyroid carcinoma is commonly found in female patients. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Ultrasound is the major examining method. Frozen section can increase the detection rate. The postoperative prognosis of hyperthyroidism complicated with occult thyroid carcinoma is satisfactory.

  1. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in haemodialysis patients from central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Paraskevi; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Rizos, Christos; Dalekos, George N; Rigopoulou, Eirini I

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA and the prevalence of occult HBV infection in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients from Central Greece. METHODS: Sera from 366 ESRF patients attending five out of six dialysis units from Central Greece were investigated for HBV-DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Only serum samples with repeatedly detectable HBV-DNA were considered positive. IgG antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were tested by a third generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) were tested by two commercially available ELISAs. RESULTS: HBV-DNA was detected in 15/366 patients (4.1%) and HBsAg in 20/366 (5.5%). The prevalence of occult HBV infection was 0.9% (3/346 HBsAg-negative patients). Occult HBV was not associated with a specific marker of HBV infection or anti-HCV or anti-HEV reactivity. There was no significant difference in HBV-DNA titres, demographic and biochemical features, between patients with occult HBV infection and those with HBsAg-positive chronic HBV infection. CONCLUSION: In central Greece, 4% of ESRF patients had detectable HBV-DNA, though in this setting, the prevalence of occult HBV seems to be very low (0.9%). PMID:20066742

  2. Outcome of Concurrent Occult Hemothorax and Pneumothorax in Trauma Patients Who Required Assisted Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The management and outcomes of occult hemopneumothorax in blunt trauma patients who required mechanical ventilation are not well studied. We aimed to study patients with occult hemopneumothorax on mechanical ventilation who could be carefully managed without tube thoracostomy. Methods. Chest trauma patients with occult hemopneumothorax who were on mechanical ventilation were prospectively evaluated. The presence of hemopneumothorax was confirmed by CT scanning. Hospital length of stay, complications, and outcome were recorded. Results. A total of 56 chest trauma patients with occult hemopneumothorax who were on ventilatory support were included with a mean age of 36 ± 13 years. Hemopneumothorax was managed conservatively in 72% cases and 28% underwent tube thoracostomy as indicated. 29% of patients developed pneumonia, 16% had Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, and 7% died. Thickness of hemothorax, duration of mechanical ventilation, and development of ARDS were significantly associated with tube thoracostomy in comparison to no-chest tube group. Conclusions. The majority of occult hemopneumothorax can be carefully managed without tube thoracostomy in patients who required positive pressure ventilation. Tube thoracotomy could be restricted to those who had evidence of increase in the size of the hemothorax or pneumothorax on follow-up chest radiographs or developed respiratory compromise.

  3. [Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection and its phylogenetic features among mother-teenager pairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-lian; Yao, Qing-qing; Wang, Xue-cai; Xu, Hai-tao; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Sheng-yu; Tang, Zhi-feng; Zheng, Ying-Jie

    2013-03-01

    Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) was investigated in a paired mother-teenager population and HBV S gene variation including overt and occult HBV, was determined. A follow-up study based on an initial survey of 135 mother-teenager pairs was carried out through collection of questionnaires and blood samples HBsAg were detected by ELISA method, viral load by PCR amplification and HBV S gene by phylogenetic analysis. 102 pairs of subjects were followed-up. Blood samples from 94 mothers and 101 children were collected. OBI prevalence in mothers was 10.0% (6/60), significantly higher than 2.0% (2/101) in teenagers. Medians of viral load were 399.9 IU/ml and 247.6 IU/ml in overt and occult HBV strains, but without significant difference. 1 occult HBV strain belonged to genotype B with serotype adw while the other 7 were genotype C with serotype adr. 15 of the overt HBV strains belonged to genotype B with serotype adw and the other 8 were genotype C with serotype adr. Proportions of genotype-C strains were significantly higher in occult HBV strains than in overt HBV strains. OBI was seen in teenage-mother population.

  4. Disparities in the receipt of fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy among Filipino American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M; Bastani, Roshan

    2008-08-01

    This report examines disparities associated with the type of colorectal screening test, fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy, within a particular racial/ethnic group, Filipino American immigrants. Between July 2005 and October 2006, Filipino Americans aged 50 to 75 years from 31 community organizations in Los Angeles completed a 15-minute survey in English (65%) or Filipino (35%). Of the 487 respondents included in this analysis, 257 (53%) had never received any type of colorectal cancer screening. Among the 230 subjects who had ever received a routine screening test, 78 had fecal occult blood test only (16% of the total sample), and 152 had endoscopy with or without fecal occult blood test (31% of the total sample). After controlling for access to care and key demographic variables in a multivariate analysis, only two characteristics distinguished between respondents who had fecal occult blood test only versus those who had endoscopy: acculturation, assessed by percent lifetime in the United States and language of interview, and income. Our data suggest a two-tier system, fecal occult blood test for less acculturated Filipino Americans with lower income versus endoscopy for Filipino immigrants with higher levels of acculturation and income. The disparity persists after adjusting for access to care. Instead of treating minority groups as monolithic, differences within groups need to be examined so that interventions can be appropriately targeted.

  5. Optimization of the occulter for the Solar Orbiter/METIS coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Federico; Vivès, Sébastien; Romoli, Marco; Guillon, Christophe; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Escolle, Clement; Focardi, Mauro; Antonucci, Ester; Fineschi, Silvano; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Spadaro, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    METIS (Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy investigation), selected to fly aboard the Solar Orbiter ESA/NASA mission, is conceived to perform imaging (in visible, UV and EUV) and spectroscopy (in EUV) of the solar corona, by means of an integrated instrument suite located on a single optical bench and sharing the same aperture on the satellite heat shield. As every coronagraph, METIS is highly demanding in terms of stray light suppression. Coronagraphs history teaches that a particular attention must be dedicated to the occulter optimization. The METIS occulting system is of particular interest due to its innovative concept. In order to meet the strict thermal requirements of Solar Orbiter, METIS optical design has been optimized by moving the entrance pupil at the level of the external occulter on the S/C thermal shield, thus reducing the size of the external aperture. The scheme is based on an inverted external-occulter (IEO). The IEO consists of a circular aperture on the Solar Orbiter thermal shield. A spherical mirror rejects back the disk-light through the IEO. A breadboard of the occulting assembly (BOA) has been manufactured in order to perform stray light tests in front of two solar simulators (in Marseille, France and in Torino, Italy). A first measurement campaign has been carried on at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. In this paper we describe the BOA design, the laboratory set-up and the preliminary results.

  6. The Return of Congenital Rickets, Are We Missing Occult Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T H

    2016-09-01

    Congenital rickets is the term given to fetus born with clinical features of rickets, but those born with biochemical evidence of rickets without obvious clinical features still can be considered occult congenital rickets. Some of the affected babies with this disease have the intrauterine rachitic environment, but a calcium trans-placental pump prevents the fetus from having clinical features of rickets. They may present with hypocalcemia few days after birth or later with more florid features of rickets. Congenital rickets cases born with florid features reported over the last 40 years are few and can be divided into two groups. The first due to severe maternal osteomalacia in which their bones were so decalcified to have enough calcium to be pumped to their fetus. Another group in which newborn babies were hypocalcemic due to other maternal diseases as malabsorption, celiac disease, pre-eclampsia, and prematurity. All inherited rickets cases per se, or as part of other syndromes can be considered congenital rickets. Most cases seen in our region are due to maternal vitamin D deficiency with symptoms becoming obvious when the infants are breastfed, or may present with hypocalcemic convulsions or craniotabes. This is a review of congenital rickets with the aim of shedding light on this potentially acute disease that needs more attention and awareness in the neonatal period to avoid rare serious complications as cardiomyopathy or myelofibrosis and the complications of hypocalcemic convulsions. Congenital rickets cases seen simulate a tip of an ice-burg and its prevention is an important issue, especially with the tremendous urbanization with tall buildings living in sun-deprived flats as the commonest type of residence leading to the increasing incidence of maternal osteomalacia and rickets.

  7. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  8. Clinical presentations and MRI findings of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Iwakoshi, Takayasu

    1994-01-01

    Various clinical features as well as MRI findings of AOVM (angiographically occult vascular malformation) were studied. Amongst out patients, since January 1988, there have been 30 cases of symptomatic AOVM (20 males, 10 females) including 4 cases with multiple lesions. The age ranged from 3 to 60 years of age, with a mean of 33.4 years. The locations of symptomatic lesions were in the cerebral hemisphere (15), the thalamus (4), the brain stem (8) and in the cerebellum (3). The initial presentations of these 30 cases were either by hemorrhage (18), convulsive seizure (9) or by progressive neurological deficits (3). The initial presentation was not related to the patient's age and the size of the lesion, but apparently related to the location of AOVM. Most of the lesions in the cerebral hemisphere presented seizures, but all of the lesions in the thalamus, the brain stem and the cerebellum disclosed hemorrhage as an initial presentation. In fact it was noticed that brain stem lesions tend to cause repetitive hemorrhage in a relatively short period. AOVM lesions were clearly visualized with T2-weighted MRI images, consisting of high intensity cores with surrounding low intensity rims. Most of the symptomatic lesions were partially enhanced by Gd-DTPA with varied intensity. Dynamic changes in size and enhancement pattern on MRI were occasionally seen, usually accompanied with episodes such as hemorrhage or neurological deterioration. Although AOVMs were angiographically negative some strands indicating draining veins were observed on MRI in several cases. In contrast, none of the nonsymptomatic lesions (22 lesions) demonstrated enhancement effects with Gd-DTPA. (author)

  9. Occult hepatitis B infection in children with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anshu; Mathias, Amrita; Yachha, Surender K; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2015-04-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) may adversely affect the outcome of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). There are no data on OBI and CLD in children. This study determined the prevalence and effect of OBI in HBsAg-negative CLD children. CLD children were prospectively evaluated with a demographic, clinical, and investigative proforma. All HBsAg-negative CLD cases were tested for exposure to hepatitis B (total anti-HBc, anti-HBs). Serum hepatitis B virus DNA was measured in exposed (total anti-HBc positive) patients. A total of 115 HBsAg-negative CLD children (59 boys, age 9.0±3.6 years) were enrolled. The etiology of CLD was known in 94 cases and 21 children had cryptogenic CLD. Of these, 45 (39.1%) had evidence of HBV exposure (23 total anti-HBc positive, 17 total anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive, five only anti-HBs positive without previous vaccination). The anti-HBc-positive children had a higher Child's score than the anti-HBc-negative children [11 (5-13) vs. 7 (5-13); P=0.00]. A total of 4/45 children had seropositive OBI with serum HBV DNA of 8, 36, 133, and 156 IU/ml, respectively. The proportion of total anti-HBc positivity (8/21 vs. 32/94; P=0.8) and OBI (2/21 vs. 2/94; P=0.1) was similar in cryptogenic CLD and known cause CLD. Seropositive OBI is infrequent in Indian children with CLD. The prevalence is similar in cryptogenic and CLD of known etiology.

  10. TWENTY-FIVE SUBARCSECOND BINARIES DISCOVERED BY LUNAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    We report on 25 subarcsecond binaries, detected for the first time by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared (near-IR) as part of a long-term program using the ISAAC instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 3.8-10.4, and the companions in the range K = 6.4-12.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.8, with the largest being 5.4. The projected separations are in the range 6-748 mas and with a median of 18 mas, or about three times less than the diffraction limit of the telescope. Among our binary detections are a pre-main-sequence star and an enigmatic Mira-like variable previously suspected to have a companion. Additionally, we quote an accurate first-time near-IR detection of a previously known wider binary. We discuss our findings on an individual basis as far as made possible by the available literature, and we examine them from a statistical point of view. We derive a typical frequency of binarity among field stars of Almost-Equal-To 10%, in the resolution and sensitivity range afforded by the technique ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''003 to Almost-Equal-To 0.''5, and K Almost-Equal-To 12 mag, respectively). This is in line with previous results using the same technique but we point out interesting differences that we can trace up to sensitivity, time sampling, and average distance of the targets. Finally, we discuss the prospects for further follow-up studies.

  11. Occult carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Schneider, Bernard F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with occult carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy is controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine our results with postoperative radiotherapy and to compare them to similar reports and to reports of treatment with radical parametrectomy. Methods and Materials: Between November 1979 and April:, 18 patients were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Virginia for invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy. Simple hysterectomy was performed in all 18 patients for a variety of indications. After surgery gross residual carcinoma remained in four patients; and microscopic disease was present at the surgical margins in two patients. The remaining patients had no evidence of residual disease. All 18 patients had postoperative radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. The endpoints for this study were local control, survival, and treatment-related toxicity. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Life method. Results: Median follow-up for all 18 patients was 42 months (range 2-202 months). Both the 5 and the 10-year actuarial local control rates were 88%. Five and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates were both 93%. Two patients had both local and distant cancer recurrences. There were no recurrences among the six patients treated with external beam alone. The remaining patients are all alive without evidence of disease, including two patients who had gross residual disease after surgery, and one patient with both microscopic positive margin and a positive lymph node (the only patient to undergo lymph node sampling). There was no severe acute morbidity and only one patient had severe late morbidity. Conclusions: Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy may be treated safely and effectively with postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with known residual disease following surgery do poorly with either radiotherapy or reoperation, but treatment with radiotherapy

  12. [MRI findings and pathological features of occult breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Yang, X T; Du, X S; Zhang, J X; Hou, L N; Niu, J L

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinicopathological features of primary lesions in patients with occult breast cancer (OBC). Methods: The imaging reports from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the morphology and the time signal intensity curve (TIC) of breast lesions in patients with OBC. The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients were also included. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 24 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy and 18 of them had primary breast carcinoma in pathological sections. MRI detected 17 cases of primary lesions, including six masse lesions with a diameter of 0.6-1.2 cm (average 0.9 cm), and 11 non-mass lesions with four linear distributions, three segmental distributions, three focal distributions, and one regions distribution. Five patients had TIC typeⅠprimary lesions, ten had TIC type Ⅱ primary lesions, and two had TIC type Ⅲ primary lesions. Among all 34 cases, 23 of them had complete results of immunohistochemistry: 11 estrogen receptor (ER) positive lesions (47.8%), tenprogesterone receptor (PR) positive lesions (43.5%), seven human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive lesions (30.4%), and 20high expression(>14%) of Ki-67 (87.0%). The proportion of type luminal A was 4.3%, type luminal B was 43.5%, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was 30.4%, and HER-2 over expression accounted for 21.7%. Conclusions: The primary lesions of OBC usually manifested as small mass lesions, or focal, linear or segmental distribution of non-mass lesions. The positive rate of ER and PR was low, but the positive rate of HER-2 and the proliferation index of Ki-67 was high. Type luminal B is the most common molecular subtype.

  13. Waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty wave features, observed in 3.6 and 13 cm-wavelength optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings obtained by Voyager 1 radio occultation, are analyzed individually and comparatively. Many are the signature of spiral density waves and bending waves excited by gravitational resonances with Saturn's satellites. A new technique for locating waveform extrema, which fits a sinusoid to each half cycle of wave data, quantifies the wavelength variation across a feature. Fitting dispersion models to the derived wavelengths provides new estimates of ambient surface mass density σ in each wave region. For fourteen weak density waves in Ring A, modelling of the waveform near resonance with linear density wave theory gives independent estimates of σ, as well as reliable estimates of resonance location. Measurements of wave amplitude damping give an upper bound for ring thickness 2H, where H is the ring scale height. In the wave regions studied, Rings A, B, and C have 30 approx-lt σ approx-lt 70, σ approx-gt 65, and σ ∼ 1 g/cm 2 , respectively. Mass loading estimates from waveform modelling are 20 to 40% larger than dispersion-derived values, suggesting accumulation of mass in the wave regions. The average offset of derived wave location from theoretical resonance is about 1 km. Model waveforms of overlapping waves excited by the satellites Janus and Epimethenus agree well with observed morphologies in the linear region near resonance. In Ring C, dispersion analysis indicates that the most prominent wave feature, previously unidentified, is a one-armed spiral wave

  14. Lowest-order average effect of turbulence on atmospheric profiles derived from radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Haugstad, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Turbulence in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres causes changes in angles of refraction of radio waves used in occultation experiments. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles, and ionospheric electron concentration profiles, derived from radio occultation measurements of Doppler frequency contain errors due to such angular offsets. The lowest-order average errors are derived from a geometrical-optics treatment of the radio-wave phase advance caused by the addition of uniform turbulence to an initially homogeneous medium. It is concluded that the average profile errors are small and that precise Doppler frequency measurements at two or more wavelengths could be used to help determine characteristics of the turbulence, as well as accuracy limits and possible correction terms for the profiles. However, a more detailed study of both frequency and intensity characteristics in radio and optical occultation measurements of turbulent planetary atmospheres and ionospheres is required to realize the full potential of such measurements

  15. An integration time adaptive control method for atmospheric composition detection of occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hou, Shuai; Yu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Li, Chao; Zhe, Lin

    2018-01-01

    When sun is used as the light source for atmospheric composition detection, it is necessary to image sun for accurate identification and stable tracking. In the course of 180 second of the occultation, the magnitude of sun light intensity through the atmosphere changes greatly. It is nearly 1100 times illumination change between the maximum atmospheric and the minimum atmospheric. And the process of light change is so severe that 2.9 times per second of light change can be reached. Therefore, it is difficult to control the integration time of sun image camera. In this paper, a novel adaptive integration time control method for occultation is presented. In this method, with the distribution of gray value in the image as the reference variable, and the concepts of speed integral PID control, the integration time adaptive control problem of high frequency imaging. The large dynamic range integration time automatic control in the occultation can be achieved.

  16. Magnetic field orientations in Saturn's upper ionosphere inferred from Voyager radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    The radio scintillations observed during occultations of Voyagers 1 and 2 by Saturn are analyzed to determine the morphology of plasma irregularities and hence the magnetic field orientation in Saturn's upper atmosphere. The measurement techniques, the weak scattering theory, and the method used to relate the observed radio scintillations to physical properties of the ionospheric irregularities are briefly described. Results on the spatial characteristics of the irregularities are presented, and the magnetic field orientation in Saturn's ionosphere is inferred. Although the occultation measurements generally confirm the accuracy of the Saturnian magnetic field model of Connerney et al. (1982), it is found that a small adjustment of the coefficients in that model's zonal harmonic expansion would remove the discrepancy between the model predictions and the measurements. A strategy for obtaining improved measurements of Saturn's magnetic field from radio occultation observations of scintillations and Faraday rotation using an orbiting spacecraft is briefly discussed.

  17. Helios-1 Faraday rotation experiment - Results and interpretations of the solar occultations in 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, H.; Bird, M. K.; Levy, G. S.; Stelzried, C. T.; Seidel, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    The first of two solar occultations of the satellite Helios-1 in 1975 occurred in April when the satellite's ray path approached the west limb of the sun to a minimum distance of 1.63 solar radii. The second occultation took place in late August/early September when Helios-1 was totally eclipsed by the photosphere. Measurements of the polarization angle of the linearly polarized telemetry signal were performed with automatic tracking polarimeters at the 64 m Goldstone Tracking Station in California and also at the 100 m radio telescope in Effelsberg, West Germany. The coronal Faraday rotation as a function of the solar offset for both occultations is shown in graphs. The theoretical significance of the observations is investigated.

  18. Do X-ray-occult fractures play a role in chronic pain following a whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Petersen, Henrik; Kasch, Helge

    2014-01-01

    symptoms following an MVA was invited to have a cervical SPECT shortly post injury and again 6 months later. Associations between occult fractures and pain levels at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up were analyzed. Eighty-eight patients had baseline SPECT performed at median 15 days (range 3-28) post......Whiplash trauma in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) may involve various painful soft tissue damages, but weeks/months later a minority of victims still suffers from various long-lasting and disabling symptoms, whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The etiology is currently unknown, but X......-ray-occult fractures may be one cause in some cases. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the association between occult fractures, as seen on bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), with neck-, head- and arm pain. An inception cohort of 107 patients presenting with acute whiplash...

  19. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M

    1960-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  20. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  1. Detection of an occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid fistula by CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, B.; Brors, D.; Draf, W. [Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head, Neck and Facial Plastic Surgery, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Goedecke, A. [Department of Radiology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Fulda (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, University Medical School, RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    We describe an unusual occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula to the sphenoid sinus demonstrated by MRI. CT was performed because of a posterior cerebral infarct caused by cardiac arrhythmia. Axial sections showed fluid in the sphenoid sinus. High-resolution scans revealed a bony defect 3 mm in diameter of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus, and MRI showed a transclival CSF fistula. This occult lesion was confirmed by surgery and duraplasty was successfully performed via an endonasal approach. (orig.) With 3 figs., 19 refs.

  2. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  3. Occult injuries of the femoral neck in osteoporosis of aged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral neck in elderly patients are often a complication in osteoporosis. Diagnosis of fractures with displacement and compression of fragments is quite easy. The negative radiograph in old patients complaining of hip pain is generally considered a characteristic feature of presensile osteoporotic pain. Clinical examples present patients with hip pain caused by occult injuries of the femoral neck. They should be regarded as imminent fractures and adequately treated. Bone scan is very helpful in the early detection of such occult osteroporotic injuries. (orig.) [de

  4. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  5. Naturally occurring mutations in large surface genes related to occult infection of hepatitis B virus genotype C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms related to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, particularly those based on genotype C infection, have rarely been determined thus far in the ongoing efforts to determine infection mechanisms. Therefore, we aim to elucidate the mutation patterns in the surface open reading frame (S ORF underlying occult infections of HBV genotype C in the present study. Nested PCRs were applied to 624 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg negative Korean subjects. Cloning and sequencing of the S ORF gene was applied to 41 occult cases and 40 control chronic carriers. Forty-one (6.6% of the 624 Korean adults with HBsAg-negative serostatus were found to be positive for DNA according to nested PCR tests. Mutation frequencies in the three regions labeled here as preS1, preS2, and S were significantly higher in the occult subjects compared to the carriers in all cases. A total of two types of deletions, preS1 deletions in the start codon and preS2 deletions as well as nine types of point mutations were significantly implicated in the occult infection cases. Mutations within the "a" determinant region in HBsAg were found more frequently in the occult subjects than in the carriers. Mutations leading to premature termination of S ORF were found in 16 occult subjects (39.0% but only in one subject from among the carriers (2.5%. In conclusion, our data suggest that preS deletions, the premature termination of S ORF, and "a" determinant mutations are associated with occult infections of HBV genotype C among a HBsAg-negative population. The novel mutation patterns related to occult infection introduced in the present study can help to broaden our understanding of HBV occult infections.

  6. Titan's Surface Composition from Cassini VIMS Solar Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas; Hayne, Paul; Sotin, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Titan's surface is obscured by a thick absorbing and scattering atmosphere, allowing direct observation of the surface within only a few spectral win-dows in the near-infrared, complicating efforts to identify and map geologi-cally important materials using remote sensing IR spectroscopy. We there-fore investigate the atmosphere's infrared transmission with direct measure-ments using Titan's occultation of the Sun as well as Titan's reflectance measured at differing illumination and observation angles observed by Cas-sini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). We use two im-portant spectral windows: the 2.7-2.8-mm "double window" and the broad 5-mm window. By estimating atmospheric attenuation within these windows, we seek an empirical correction factor that can be applied to VIMS meas-urements to estimate the true surface reflectance and map inferred composi-tional variations. Applying the empirical corrections, we correct the VIMS data for the viewing geometry-dependent atmospheric effects to derive the 5-µm reflectance and 2.8/2.7-µm reflectance ratio. We then compare the cor-rected reflectances to compounds proposed to exist on Titan's surface. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scattering in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass water ice for the majority of the low-to-mid latitude area covered by VIMS measurements. Four compositional units are defined and mapped on Titan's surface based on the positions of data clusters in 5-mm vs. 2.8/2.7-mm scatter plots; a simple ternary mixture of H2O, hydrocarbons and CO2 might explain the reflectance properties of these surface units. The vast equatorial "dune seas" are compositionally very homogeneous, perhaps suggesting transport and mixing of particles over very large distances and/or and very consistent formation process and source material. The composi-tional branch characterizing Tui Regio and Hotei Regio is

  7. A variational regularization of Abel transform for GPS radio occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-K. Wee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO technique, the inverse Abel transform of measured bending angle (Abel inversion, hereafter AI is the standard means of deriving the refractivity. While concise and straightforward to apply, the AI accumulates and propagates the measurement error downward. The measurement error propagation is detrimental to the refractivity in lower altitudes. In particular, it builds up negative refractivity bias in the tropical lower troposphere. An alternative to AI is the numerical inversion of the forward Abel transform, which does not incur the integration of error-possessing measurement and thus precludes the error propagation. The variational regularization (VR proposed in this study approximates the inversion of the forward Abel transform by an optimization problem in which the regularized solution describes the measurement as closely as possible within the measurement's considered accuracy. The optimization problem is then solved iteratively by means of the adjoint technique. VR is formulated with error covariance matrices, which permit a rigorous incorporation of prior information on measurement error characteristics and the solution's desired behavior into the regularization. VR holds the control variable in the measurement space to take advantage of the posterior height determination and to negate the measurement error due to the mismodeling of the refractional radius. The advantages of having the solution and the measurement in the same space are elaborated using a purposely corrupted synthetic sounding with a known true solution. The competency of VR relative to AI is validated with a large number of actual RO soundings. The comparison to nearby radiosonde observations shows that VR attains considerably smaller random and systematic errors compared to AI. A noteworthy finding is that in the heights and areas that the measurement bias is supposedly small, VR follows AI very closely in the

  8. A variational regularization of Abel transform for GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Tae-Kwon

    2018-04-01

    In the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) technique, the inverse Abel transform of measured bending angle (Abel inversion, hereafter AI) is the standard means of deriving the refractivity. While concise and straightforward to apply, the AI accumulates and propagates the measurement error downward. The measurement error propagation is detrimental to the refractivity in lower altitudes. In particular, it builds up negative refractivity bias in the tropical lower troposphere. An alternative to AI is the numerical inversion of the forward Abel transform, which does not incur the integration of error-possessing measurement and thus precludes the error propagation. The variational regularization (VR) proposed in this study approximates the inversion of the forward Abel transform by an optimization problem in which the regularized solution describes the measurement as closely as possible within the measurement's considered accuracy. The optimization problem is then solved iteratively by means of the adjoint technique. VR is formulated with error covariance matrices, which permit a rigorous incorporation of prior information on measurement error characteristics and the solution's desired behavior into the regularization. VR holds the control variable in the measurement space to take advantage of the posterior height determination and to negate the measurement error due to the mismodeling of the refractional radius. The advantages of having the solution and the measurement in the same space are elaborated using a purposely corrupted synthetic sounding with a known true solution. The competency of VR relative to AI is validated with a large number of actual RO soundings. The comparison to nearby radiosonde observations shows that VR attains considerably smaller random and systematic errors compared to AI. A noteworthy finding is that in the heights and areas that the measurement bias is supposedly small, VR follows AI very closely in the mean refractivity

  9. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  10. Relative Timing of Substorm-Associated Processes in the Near-Earth Magnetotail and Development of Auroral Onset Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.; Machida, S.; Hiraki, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.; Auster, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Donovan, E.; Larson, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the relative timing of the processes in the near-Earth magnetotail and development of auroral onset arc at the beginning of the expansion phase, based on substorm events observed by the THEMIS spacecraft and ground-based all-sky imagers. The THEMIS all-sky imagers can observe auroras over a wide area with temporal and spacial resolutions higher than spacecraft-borne cameras. This enables us to investigate the timing of auroral development in more detail than before. A few min after the appearance and intensification of an auroral onset arc, it begins to form wave-like structure. Then auroral poleward expansion begins another few min later. THEMIS magnetotail observations clearly show that magnetic reconnection is initiated at X~-20 Re at least 1-2 min before the intensification of auroral onset arc. Then low-frequency waves are excited in the plasma sheet at X~-10 Re 2 min before dipolarization, which is simultaneous with the formation of auroral wave-like structure. Dipolarization begins at the same time as the auroral poleward expansion. These results suggest that near-Earth magnetic reconnection plays some role in the development of dipolarization and auroral onset arc.

  11. Treatment for occult hepatocellular carcinoma: does it offer survival advantages over symptom-driven treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Kim, Jiyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hye Seung; Kim, Kyunga; Kang, Wonseok; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2018-04-03

    In order to claim a benefit of screen-based diagnosis for asymptomatic individuals, treatment of occult disease needs to offer survival advantages compared to the treatment of symptomatic disease, yet information on this issue is scarce with regard to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening. A total of 3353 treatment-naïve, consecutive, newly diagnosed HCC patients [age: 57.9 ± 10.3, male: 2,689 (80.2%), hepatitis B virus: 2555 (76.2%)], diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. Data on the mode of detection was prospectively collected at the time of HCC diagnosis and was used to group patients into occult or symptomatic cases. Overall, 643 (19.2%) patients were symptomatic cases. The proportion of patients undergoing resection, radiofrequency ablation or transplantation were lower in symptomatic cases than occult cases (20.8 vs. 56.2%, p offered a survival benefit to patients over symptomatic cases. These data support screening practices for asymptomatic individuals to diagnose occult HCC.

  12. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  13. First Ionospheric Results From the MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul; Felici, M.; Mendillo, M.; Moore, L.; Narvaez, C.; Vogt, M. F.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    Radio occultation observations of the ionosphere of Mars can span the full vertical extent of the ionosphere, in contrast to in situ measurements that rarely sample the main region of the ionosphere. However, most existing radio occultation electron density profiles from Mars were acquired without clear context for the solar forcing or magnetospheric conditions, which presents challenges for the interpretation of these profiles. Here we present 48 ionospheric electron density profiles acquired by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE) from 5 July 2016 to 27 June 2017 at solar zenith angles of 54° to 101°. Latitude coverage is excellent, and comprehensive context for the interpretation of these profiles is provided by other MAVEN instruments. The profiles show a 9-km increase in ionospheric peak altitude in January 2017 that is associated with a lower atmospheric dust storm, variations in electron densities in the M1 layer that cannot be explained by variations in the solar soft X-ray flux, and topside electron densities that are larger in strongly magnetized regions than in weakly magnetized regions. MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment electron density profiles are publicly available on the NASA Planetary Data System.

  14. Occult hepatitis B virus among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-08-01

    The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers.

  15. Lunar occultation of the Galactic center at 2.2 microns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, D. J.; Becklin, E. E.; Jameson, R. F.; Longmore, A. J.; Sandqvist, Aa.; Valentijn, E.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the lunar occultation of IRS 16 on 1986 September 11 are reported. Sixty percent of the observed flux in a 6arcsec.5 beam comes from four discrete sources. Three sources are unresolved pointlike objects (<0arcsec.05) and are assumed to be individual stars. The fourth object is well

  16. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. Patients and Methods: The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Results: Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Conclusions: Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers. PMID:25485052

  17. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  18. Detection of occult hepatitis B virus among chronic hepatitis C patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concurrent infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increasingly recognized in patients with chronic hepatitis. In Egypt, the last decade showed a remarkable decline in HBV infection associated with remarkable rise in HCV infection. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients ...

  19. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  20. Aplastic crisis in occult hereditary spherocytosis caused by human parvovirus (HPV B19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, E S; Quick, G; Ransom, D; Helbert, B; Frankel, L S

    1989-02-01

    We have reported a case of aplastic crisis occurring in an 11-year-old black boy with occult hereditary spherocytosis. An etiologic diagnosis of human parvovirus (HPV) B19 infection was confirmed serologically. The Coulter Model S + IV proved useful for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring through serial histograms. The relationship of HPV infection and aplastic crisis is discussed.

  1. Clinical relevance of occult tumor cells in lymph nodes from gastric cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, F.S.; Mesker, W.H.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Kok, N.F.; Hartgrink, H.H.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Putter, H.; Kuppen, P.J.; Tanke, H.J.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2005-01-01

    The current method for staging in gastric cancer is not sufficient as even after a complete primary tumor resection, patients with node-negative gastric cancer suffer from disease recurrence. In this study, the relation between disease recurrence and the presence of occult tumor cells (OTC) in lymph

  2. Design and Verification of External Occulters for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An occulter is an optical element which is placed in front of the telescope to block most of the light from a star before it reaches the optics inside, without blocking the planet.In our case, we use two spacecraft ying in formation: First has its edge shaped to cancel the starlight Second is the telescope which images the star and planet

  3. Inappropriate use of the faecal occult blood test in a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Anne F.; Stroobants, An K.; Deutekom, Marije; Lauppe, Corinne; Sturk, Auguste; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although all international guidelines state that there is no indication to perform a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in symptomatic patients, we believe the test is frequently used as a diagnostic test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the current guidelines for FOBT

  4. Tropical cyclone cloud‐top height and vertical temperature structure detection using GPS radio occultation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Ho, Shu‐Peng; Randel, William

    2013-01-01

    The accurate determination of tropical cyclone (TC) cloud-top height and its vertical thermal structure using the GPS radio occultation (RO) technique is demonstrated in this study. Cloud-top heights are determined by using the bending angle anomaly and the temperature anomaly profiles during...

  5. Indeling occulte tumorcellen in de lymfklieren bij patiënten met darmkanker onvoldoende betrouwbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zaag, E. S.; Welling, L.; Peters, H. M.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Buskens, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interobserver agreement between pathologists in judging photographs of lymph node preparations of occult tumour cells of patients with colon cancer. DESIGN: Descriptive and comparative study of interobserver variability. METHODS: All lymph nodes of 82 pN0 patients with colon

  6. GPS radio occultation technique for measurement of the atmosphere above tropical cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Water vapour transport to the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) by deep convective storms affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere and has been proposed as an important component of climate change. The aim of the work presented here is to understand if the GPS Radio Occult...... 2008 and reached a maximum intensity of Category 3....

  7. Estimation and evaluation of COSMIC radio occultation excess phase using undifferenced measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengfei; Ye, Shirong; Jiang, Kecai; Chen, Dezhong

    2017-05-01

    In the GPS radio occultation technique, the atmospheric excess phase (AEP) can be used to derive the refractivity, which is an important quantity in numerical weather prediction. The AEP is conventionally estimated based on GPS double-difference or single-difference techniques. These two techniques, however, rely on the reference data in the data processing, increasing the complexity of computation. In this study, an undifferenced (ND) processing strategy is proposed to estimate the AEP. To begin with, we use PANDA (Positioning and Navigation Data Analyst) software to perform the precise orbit determination (POD) for the purpose of acquiring the position and velocity of the mass centre of the COSMIC (The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) satellites and the corresponding receiver clock offset. The bending angles, refractivity and dry temperature profiles are derived from the estimated AEP using Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) software. The ND method is validated by the COSMIC products in typical rising and setting occultation events. Results indicate that rms (root mean square) errors of relative refractivity differences between undifferenced and atmospheric profiles (atmPrf) provided by UCAR/CDAAC (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Centre) are better than 4 and 3 % in rising and setting occultation events respectively. In addition, we also compare the relative refractivity bias between ND-derived methods and atmPrf profiles of globally distributed 200 COSMIC occultation events on 12 December 2013. The statistical results indicate that the average rms relative refractivity deviation between ND-derived and COSMIC profiles is better than 2 % in the rising occultation event and better than 1.7 % in the setting occultation event. Moreover, the observed COSMIC refractivity profiles from ND processing strategy are further validated using European Centre for Medium

  8. Sizes of the Smallest Particles at Saturn Ring Edges from Diffraction in UVIS Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Becker, T. M.; Esposito, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has observed more than 150 ring stellar occultations since its arrival at Saturn in 2004. We use stellar occultation data from the UVIS High Speed Photometer (HSP) to identify diffraction signals at ring edges caused by small particles diffracting light into the detector and consequently increasing the signal above that of the unocculted star. The shape of a diffraction signal is indicative of the particle size distribution at the ring edge, which may be a dynamically perturbed region. Becker et al. (2015 Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.001) analyzed diffraction signals at the outer edge of the A Ring and the edges of the Encke Gap. We apply the Becker et al. (2015) model to the outer edge of the B Ring as well as the edges of ringlets within the C Ring and Cassini Division. In addition, we analyze diffraction signatures at the A Ring outer edge in 2 new occultations. The best-fit model signals to these occultations are consistent with the findings of Becker et al. (2015) who found an average minimum particle size amin =4.5 mm and average power law slope q=3.2. At the B Ring outer edge, we detect a diffraction signal in 10 of 28 occultations in which the diffraction signal would be observable according to our criteria for star brightness and observation geometry. We find a mean amin =11 mm and a mean q=3.0. At both edges of the so-called "Strange" ringlet (R6) we find a mean amin = 20 mm and mean q values of 3.0 and 2.8 at the inner and outer edges, respectively. In contrast, we do not observe any clear diffraction signals at either edge of the wider Huygens ringlet. This could imply an absence of cm-scale or smaller particles and indicates that collisions here may be less vigorous than at the other ring edges analyzed in this study. We detect diffraction in a small fraction ( 10%) of occultations at 3 ringlets within the Cassini Division: the Herschel ringlet, the Laplace ringlet, and the Barnard ringlet. We

  9. Histopathological Parameters predicting Occult Nodal Metastases in Tongue Carcinoma Cases: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tina Elizabeth; Malathi, N; Rajan, Sharada T; Augustine, Dominic; Manish, N; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that in squamous cell carcinoma cases, the presence of lymph node metastases decreased the 5-year survival rate by 50% and also caused the recurrence of the primary tumor with development of distant metastases. Till date, the predictive factors for occult cervical lymph nodes metastases in cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma remain inconclusive. Therefore, it is imperative to identify patients who are at the greatest risk for occult cervical metastases. This study was thus performed with the aim to identify various histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor that predict occult nodal metastases. The clinicopathologic features of 56 cases of lateral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with cT1NoMo/cT2NoMo as the stage and without prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were considered. The surgical excision of primary tumor was followed by elective neck dissection. The glossectomy specimen along with the neck nodes were fixed in formalin and 5 urn thick sections were obtained. The hematoxylin & eosin stained sections were then subjected to microscopic examination. The primary tumor characteristics that were analyzed include tumor grade, invading front, depth of tumor, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and inflammatory response. The nodes were examined for possible metastases using hematoxylin & eosin followed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. A total of 12 cases were found with positive occult nodal metastases. On performing univariate analysis, the histopathologic parameters that were found to be statistically significant were lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004) and perineural invasion (p = 0.003) along with a cut-off depth of infiltration more than 5 mm (p = 0.01). Histopathologic assessment of the primary tumor specimen therefore continues to provide information that is central to guide clinical management, particularly in cases of occult nodal metastases. Clinical significance The study highlights the importance of

  10. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  11. Occult pneumothorax in trauma patients: should this be sought in the focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Michael M K

    2005-01-01

    At present, CT scan is the gold standard for detecting occult traumatic pneumothorax not apparent on supine chest X-ray radiograph. Recently there were suggestions to expand focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) to include thoracic ultrasound for detecting pneumothorax. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of occult pneumothorax (as shown by CT) in the subgroup of trauma patients undergoing FAST. Review of all trauma patients with FAST done from 1 June 2001 to 31 October 2002. Incidence of occult pneumothorax as diagnosed by CT was determined. Patients were not counted as having true occult pneumothorax if they had chest drains inserted before arrival or imaging studies. Selected clinical findings were tested for association with occult pneumothorax. In total, 143 patients underwent FAST, of whom 137 (95.8%) had chest X-ray examination performed. Of the 137 patients 59 required CT abdomen and/or thorax. Occult pneumothorax was found in three patients (2.1%). A history of thorax and/or abdominal injury plus one or more of: (i) mechanisms potentially causing major trauma; (ii) abnormal chest examination; and (iii) chest X-ray radiograph abnormality in the absence of pneumothorax, was significantly associated with the presence of occult pneumothorax (P = 0.03, Fisher's exact test; sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 71%; likelihood ratio: 3.42). The incidence of occult pneumothorax in the subgroup of trauma patients undergoing FAST is low. It implies that routine screening for its presence by adding thoracic ultrasound to FAST is unnecessary. Identifying those at risk of occult pneumothorax for further investigation appeared feasible.

  12. Stellar Occultations by TNOs and Centaurs: first results in the “Gaia era”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gustavo; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Sicardy, Bruno; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Rio Group, Lucky Star Occultation Team, Granada Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    After the first release of the GAIA catalog (in September/2016), stellar positions are now known with unprecedented accuracy, reaching values of the order of milliarcseconds. This improvement reflected into a stunning accuracy on the astrometry of moving objects, such as TNOs. Unfortunately, Gaia stars proper motions will be only available on the second data release (DR2) next year, so there is still a need to use hybrid stellar catalogs for occultation predictions until then. Despite that, stellar occultations predictions are now much more accurate, and the biggest uncertainties comes mainly from the object ephemerides. This issue will be overcome by large surveys such as the LSST, which will provide positions for the known TNOs and it is expected to increase the number of known TNOs by nearly 40,000, with an unprecedent amount of acquired information.This huge amount of data also poses a new era in stellar occultations: predictions will be very accurate and the participation of professional astronomers, laboratories, and the amateur community will be crucial to observe the predicted events; observation campaigns will need to be selected according to a specific scientific purpose such as the probability to detect rings or archs around a body, the presence of atmosphere or even the detection of topographic features; the development of softwares capable of reducing the data more efficiently and an easier method to coordinate observation campaigns are needed.Here we present some impressive results obtained from predictions and observed occultations in 2017 (among them we have Pluto, Chariklo and Haumea), the problems we are starting to face in the beginning of the “Gaia era” and the future challenges of stellar occultation.

  13. Theoretical performance of serrated external occulters for solar coronagraphy. Application to ASPIICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeot, R.; Aime, C.

    2018-04-01

    Context. This study is made in the context of the future solar coronagraph ASPIICS of the ESA formation-flying mission Proba-3. Aims: In the context of solar coronagraphy, we provide a comparative study of the theoretical performance of serrated (or toothed) external occulters by varying the number and size of the teeth, which we compare to the sharp-edged and apodized disks. The tooth height is small (a few centimeters), to avoid hindering the observation of the solar corona near the limb. We first analyze the diffraction pattern produced by such occulters. In a second step, we compute the umbra profile by integration over the Sun. Methods: We explored a few methods to compute the diffraction pattern. Two of them were implemented. The first is based on 2D fast Fourier transformation (FFT) routines and a multiplication by the Fresnel filter of the form exp(-iπλzu2). Simple rules were derived and discussed to set the sampling conditions. The Maggi-Rubinowicz representation is then proposed as an alternative method, and is proven to be very efficient for this study. Results: Serrated occulters tend to create a two-level intensity pattern, the inner being the darker, which perfectly matches a previously reported geometrical prediction. The diffraction in this central region is lower by two to four orders of magnitude when compared to the sharp-edged disk. The achieved umbra level at the center ranges from 10-4 to below 10-7, depending on the geometry of the teeth. Conclusions: Our study shows that serrated occulters can achieve a high rejection and can almost reach the performance of the apodized disk when very many teeth are used. We prove that shaped occulters must be preferred to simple disks in solar and stellar coronagraphy.

  14. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  15. A Survey of Variable Extragalactic Sources with XTE's All Sky Monitor (ASM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Garrett

    1998-01-01

    The original goal of the project was the near real-time detection of AGN utilizing the SSC 3 of the ASM on XTE which does a deep integration on one 100 square degree region of the sky. While the SSC never performed sufficiently well to allow the success of this goal, the work on the project has led to the development of a new analysis method for coded aperture systems which has now been applied to ASM data for mapping regions near clusters of galaxies such as the Perseus Cluster and the Coma Cluster. Publications are in preparation that describe both the new method and the results from mapping clusters of galaxies.

  16. ROTSE All-Sky Surveys for Variable Stars. I. Test Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, C.; Amrose, S.; Balsano, R.; Bloch, J.; Casperson, D.; Fletcher, S.; Gisler, G.; Hills, J.; Kehoe, R.; Lee, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment I (ROTSE-I) experiment has generated CCD photometry for the entire northern sky in two epochs nightly since 1998 March. These sky patrol data are a powerful resource for studies of astrophysical transients. As a demonstration project, we present first results of a search for periodic variable stars derived from ROTSE-I observations. Variable identification, period determination, and type classification are conducted via automatic algorithms. In a set of nine ROTSE-I sky patrol fields covering roughly 2000 deg2, we identify 1781 periodic variable stars with mean magnitudes between m v = 10.0 and m v = 15.5. About 90% of these objects are newly identified as variable. Examples of many familiar types are presented. All classifications for this study have been manually confirmed. The selection criteria for this analysis have been conservatively defined and are known to be biased against some variable classes. This preliminary study includes only 5.6% of the total ROTSE-I sky coverage, suggesting that the full ROTSE-I variable catalog will include more than 32,000 periodic variable stars. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  17. The First Data Release of the All-sky NOAO Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidever, David L.; NOAO Data Lab

    2018-06-01

    Roughly three quarters of the sky has been imaged with NOAO's telescopes from both hemispheres. While the large majority of these data were obtained for PI-led projects and surveys only a fraction have been released to the community via well-calibrated and easily accessible catalogs. We have remedied this by creating a catalog of sources from most of the public data taken on CTIO-4m+DECam as well as KPNO 4m+Mosaic3. The first data release (DR1) of this catalog, called the NOAO Source Catalog (NSC), contains 2.9 billion unique objects, 34 billion individual measurements, covers ~30,000 square degrees, has depths of ~23rd magnitude in most broadband filters with ~1-2% photometric accuracy and astrometric accuracy of ~2 mas. The NSC will be useful for exploring stellar streams, dwarf satellite galaxies, distant galaxies as well as variable stars and other transients. DR1 is now available through the NOAO Data Lab (datalab.noao.edu).

  18. All-sky Meteor Orbit System AMOS and preliminary analysis of three unusual meteor showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóth, J.; Kornoš, L.; Zigo, P.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kalmančok, D.; Világi, J.; Šimon, J.; Vereš, P.; Šilha, J.; Buček, M.; Galád, Adrián; Rusňák, P.; Hrábek, P.; Ďuriš, F.; Rudawska, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, December (2015), s. 102-106 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteor * meteorite * meteoroid streams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2015

  19. The GMRT 150 MHz all-sky radio survey. First alternative data release TGSS ADR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intema, H. T.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Frail, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first full release of a survey of the 150 MHz radio sky, observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) between April 2010 and March 2012 as part of the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) project. Aimed at producing a reliable compact source survey, our automated data reduction pipeline efficiently processed more than 2000 h of observations with minimal human interaction. Through application of innovative techniques such as image-based flagging, direction-dependent calibration of ionospheric phase errors, correcting for systematic offsets in antenna pointing, and improving the primary beam model, we created good quality images for over 95 percent of the 5336 pointings. Our data release covers 36 900 deg2 (or 3.6 π steradians) of the sky between -53° and +90° declination (Dec), which is 90 percent of the total sky. The majority of pointing images have a noise level below 5 mJy beam-1 with an approximate resolution of 25''×25'' (or 25''×25''/ cos(Dec-19°) for pointings south of 19° declination). We have produced a catalog of 0.62 Million radio sources derived from an initial, high reliability source extraction at the seven sigma level. For the bulk of the survey, the measured overall astrometric accuracy is better than two arcseconds in right ascension and declination, while the flux density accuracy is estimated at approximately ten percent. Within the scope of the TGSS alternative data release (TGSS ADR) project, the source catalog, as well as 5336 mosaic images (5°×5°) and an image cutout service, are made publicly available at the CDS as a service to the astronomical community. Next to enabling a wide range of different scientific investigations, we anticipate that these survey products will provide a solid reference for various new low-frequency radio aperture array telescopes (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, SKA-low), and can play an important role in characterizing the epoch-of-reionisation (EoR) foreground. The TGSS ADR project aims at continuously improving the quality of the survey data products. Near-future improvements include replacement of bright source snapshot images with archival targeted observations, using new observations to fill the holes in sky coverage and replace very poor quality observational data, and an improved flux calibration strategy for less severely affected observational data. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A78

  20. Inferences of all-sky solar irradiance using Terra and Aqua MODIS satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Rasmus Møller; Søgaard, Henrik; Emmerich, W.

    2007-01-01

    -sky solar irradiance components, which links a physically based clear-sky model with a neural network version of a rigorous radiative transfer model. The scheme exploits the improved cloud characterization and retrieval capabilities of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard...... contrasting climates and cloud environments. Information on the atmospheric state was provided by MODIS data products and verifications against AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data demonstrated usefulness of MODIS aerosol optical depth and total precipitable water vapour retrievals for the delineation...... and become unusable above approximately 60° latitude. However, in principle, the scheme can be applied anywhere on the globe, and a synergistic use of MODIS and geostationary satellite datasets may be envisaged for some applications....

  1. Machine learning in infrared object classification - an all-sky selection of YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Gabor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Toth, L. Viktor; Magnus McGehee, Peregrine; Kun, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Object classification is a fundamental and challenging problem in the era of big data. I will discuss up-to-date methods and their application to classify infrared point sources.We analysed the ALLWISE catalogue, the most recent public source catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to compile a reliable list of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates. We tested and compared classical and up-to-date statistical methods as well, to discriminate source types like extragalactic objects, evolved stars, main sequence stars, objects related to the interstellar medium and YSO candidates by using their mid-IR WISE properties and associated near-IR 2MASS data.In the particular classification problem the Support Vector Machines (SVM), a class of supervised learning algorithm turned out to be the best tool. As a result we classify Class I and II YSOs with >90% accuracy while the fraction of contaminating extragalactic objects remains well below 1%, based on the number of known objects listed in the SIMBAD and VizieR databases. We compare our results to other classification schemes from the literature and show that the SVM outperforms methods that apply linear cuts on the colour-colour and colour-magnitude space. Our homogenous YSO candidate catalog can serve as an excellent pathfinder for future detailed observations of individual objects and a starting point of statistical studies that aim to add pieces to the big picture of star formation theory.

  2. All-sky x-ray ampersand gamma-ray monitor (AXGAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuemer, T.O.; O'Neill, T.J.; Hurley, K.

    1996-01-01

    A wide field-of-view, arcsecond imaging, high energy resolution x-ray and low energy gamma ray detector is proposed for a future space mission. It is specifically designed to detect and find counterparts at other wavelengths for Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Detection of GRBs require wide field-of-view (π to 2 π field-of-view) and high sensitivity. This will be achieved by using high quantum efficiency CdZnTe pixel detectors, low energy threshold (few keV) to observe larger flux levels that may be possible at lower energies and large effective area (625 to 1,000 cd) per coded aperture imaging module. Counterpart searches can only be done with ultra high angular resolution (10 to 30 arcsecond FWHM) which gives 1 to 5 arcsecond position determination especially for strong GRBs. A few arcsecond resolution error box is expected to contain only one counterpart observed at another wavelength. This will be achieved by using ultra high spatial resolution pixel detectors (50 x 50 to 100 X 100 micron) and a similar resolution coded aperture to achieve the required angular resolution. AXGAM also has two other important advantages over similar detectors: (1) excellent low energy response (> 1 keV) and (2) high energy resolution (<6% at sign 5.9 keV, <3% at sign 14 keV, <4% at sign 122 keV). The low energy range may provide important new information on their cause and the high energy resolution is expected to help in the observation and identification of emission and absorption lines in the GRB spectrum. The effective energy range is planned to be 2 to 200 keV which is exceptionally wide for such a detector. AXGAM will be built in the form of a open-quotes Bucky Ballclose quotes using a coded aperture mask in a semi geodesic dome arrangement placed over a two-dimensional, high resolution CdZnTe pixel detector array using newly developed p-i-n detector technology. The p-i-n structure decreases the electron and hole trapping effect and increases energy resolution significantly

  3. The History of the CONCAM Project: All Sky Monitors in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert; Shamir, Lior; Pereira, Wellesley

    2018-01-01

    The CONtinuous CAMera (CONCAM) project, which ran from 2000 to (about) 2008, consisted of real-time, Internet-connected, fisheye cameras located at major astronomical observatories. At its peak, eleven CONCAMs around the globe monitored most of the night sky, most of the time. Initially designed to search for transients and stellar variability, CONCAMs gained initial notoriety as cloud monitors. As such, CONCAMs made -- and its successors continue to make -- ground-based astronomy more efficient. The original, compact, fisheye-observatory-in-a-suitcase design underwent several iterations, starting with CONCAM0 and with the last version dubbed CONCAM3. Although the CONCAM project itself concluded after centralized funding diminished, today more locally-operated, commercially-designed, CONCAM-like devices operate than ever before. It has even been shown that modern smartphones can operate in a CONCAM-like mode. It is speculated that the re-instatement of better global coordination of current wide-angle sky monitors could lead to better variability monitoring of the brightest stars and transients.

  4. Search for neutrino point sources with an all-sky autocorrelation analysis in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcati, Andrea; Bernhard, Anna; Coenders, Stefan [TU, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope located in the Antarctic ice. Its full-sky field of view gives unique opportunities to study the neutrino emission from the Galactic and extragalactic sky. Recently, IceCube found the first signal of astrophysical neutrinos with energies up to the PeV scale, but the origin of these particles still remains unresolved. Given the observed flux, the absence of observations of bright point-sources is explainable with the presence of numerous weak sources. This scenario can be tested using autocorrelation methods. We present here the sensitivities and discovery potentials of a two-point angular correlation analysis performed on seven years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2015. The test is applied on the northern and southern skies separately, using the neutrino energy information to improve the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Star formation rates in isolated galaxies selected from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, O.; Karachentseva, V.; Karachentsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    We have considered the star formation properties of 1616 isolated galaxies from the 2MASS XSC (Extended Source Catalog) selected sample (2MIG) with the far-ultraviolet GALEX magnitudes. This sample was then compared with corresponding properties of isolated galaxies from the Local Orphan Galaxies (LOG) catalogue and paired galaxies. We found that different selection algorithms define different populations of isolated galaxies. The population of the LOG catalogue, selected from non-clustered galaxies in the Local Supercluster volume, mostly consists of low-mass spiral and late-type galaxies. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) upper limit in isolated and paired galaxies does not exceed the value of ˜dex(-9.4). This is probably common for galaxies of differing activity and environment (at least at z processes is the galaxy mass. However, the environmental influence is notable: paired massive galaxies with logM* > 11.5 have higher (S)SFR than isolated galaxies. Our results suggest that the environment helps to trigger the star formation in the highest mass galaxies. We found that the fraction of AGN in the paired sample is only a little higher than in our isolated galaxy sample. We assume that AGN phenomenon is probably defined by secular galaxy evolution.

  6. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Dia, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Ma, H.Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosins, D.; Rowan, S.; Rud, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tap, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Eijningen, J. V.; Eggel, A. A. V.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10−23/√Hz at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time

  7. All-sky search for long-duration gravitational wave transients with initial LIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunwald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and

  8. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Cosmology Laboratory (Code 665), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Amblard, Alexandre [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fleuren, Simone [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cava, Antonio [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, David [Imperial College, Astrophysics Group, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, Ali [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  9. All-sky signals from recombination to reionization with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subrahmanyan, R.; Shankar, U. N.; Pritchard, J.; Vedantham, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic evolution in the hydrogen content of the Universe through recombination and up to the end of reionization is expected to be revealed as subtle spectral features in the uniform extragalactic cosmic radio background. The redshift evolution in the excitation temperature of the 21-cm spin flip

  10. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  11. Retrieval of Garstang's emission function from all-sky camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio; Kundracik, František

    2015-10-01

    The emission function from ground-based light sources predetermines the skyglow features to a large extent, while most mathematical models that are used to predict the night sky brightness require the information on this function. The radiant intensity distribution on a clear sky is experimentally determined as a function of zenith angle using the theoretical approach published only recently in MNRAS, 439, 3405-3413. We have made the experiments in two localities in Slovakia and Mexico by means of two digital single lens reflex professional cameras operating with different lenses that limit the system's field-of-view to either 180º or 167º. The purpose of using two cameras was to identify variances between two different apertures. Images are taken at different distances from an artificial light source (a city) with intention to determine the ratio of zenith radiance relative to horizontal irradiance. Subsequently, the information on the fraction of the light radiated directly into the upward hemisphere (F) is extracted. The results show that inexpensive devices can properly identify the upward emissions with adequate reliability as long as the clear sky radiance distribution is dominated by a largest ground-based light source. Highly unstable turbidity conditions can also make the parameter F difficult to find or even impossible to retrieve. The measurements at low elevation angles should be avoided due to a potentially parasitic effect of direct light emissions from luminaires surrounding the measuring site.

  12. MoonBEAM: A Beyond Earth-Orbit Gamma-Ray Burst Detector for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between different orbits. We present here a gamma-ray SmallSat concept in Earth-Moon L3 halo orbit that is capable of rapid response and provide a timing baseline for localization improvement when partnered with an Earth-orbit instrument. Such an instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  13. Prediction of occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant donors through hepatitis B virus blood markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandoi, Francesco; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Smedile, Antonina; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation. we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors. In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe. In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (pdonors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000 mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs ≥ 58 mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBsdonors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Retrieval of temperature and pressure using broadband solar occultation: SOFIE approach and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Marshall

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of atmospheric temperature as a function of pressure, T(P, is key to understanding many atmospheric processes and a prerequisite for retrieving gas mixing ratios and other parameters from solar occultation measurements. This paper gives a brief overview of the solar occultation measurement technique followed by a detailed discussion of the mechanisms that make the measurement sensitive to temperature. Methods for retrieving T(P using both broadband transmittance and refraction are discussed. Investigations using measurements of broadband transmittance in two CO2 absorption bands (the 4.3 and 2.7 μm bands and refractive bending are then presented. These investigations include sensitivity studies, simulated retrieval studies, and examples from SOFIE.

  16. Photometry of occultation candidate stars. I - Uranus 1985 and Saturn 1985-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L. M.; Morales, G.; Dalton, A. S.; Klavetter, J. J.; Conner, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Photometric observations of five stars to be occulted by the rings around Uranus are presented. The four stars to be occulted by Saturn or its rings during the period 1985-1991 were also observed. The observations were carried out with a CCD detector attached to the Kitt Peak McGraw-Hill 1.30-m telescope. Landolt standards of widely ranging V-I color indices were used to determine the extinction coefficients, transformation coefficients, and zero points of the stars. Mean extinction coefficients are given for each night of observation. K magnitudes for each star were estimated on the basis of the results of Johnson (1967). The complete photometric data set is given in a series of tables.

  17. Lunar occultation of Saturn. II - The normal reflectance of Rhea, Titan, and Iapetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Veverka, J.; Goguen, J.

    1978-01-01

    An inversion procedure to obtain the reflectance of the central region of a satellite's disk from lunar occultation data is presented. The scheme assumes that the limb darkening of the satellite depends only on the radial distance from the center of the disk. Given this assumption, normal reflectances can be derived that are essentially independent of the limb darkening and the diameter of the satellite. The procedure has been applied to our observations of the March 1974 lunar occultation of Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, and Iapetus. In the V passband we derive the following normal reflectances: Rhea (0.97 plus or minus 0.20), Titan (0.24 plus or minus 0.03), Iapetus, bright face (0.60 plus or minus 0.14). For Tethys and Dione the values derived have large uncertainties, but are consistent with our result for Rhea.

  18. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. B. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy and University Observatory, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (China); Kim, D.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rice, J. A., E-mail: ishioka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Statistics, University of California Berkeley, 367 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 δ Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  19. Incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma in presumed morcellation cases: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana M; Asoglu, Mehmet R; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Tan, Alai; Borahay, Mostafa A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the incidence of uterine leiomyosarcoma in patients with leiomyomas following laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy procedures. For this study, we analyzed records of 13,964 women aged 25-64 years who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies or myomectomies for leiomyomas from 2002 to 2011 using Clinformatics DataMart. Patient records were divided into two groups: history of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and history of myomectomy. Subjects were tracked to identify diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma within 1 year of the procedure. We analyzed data from the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets. Evidence was obtained from a cohort study from national private insurance claims in the US. Our results showed the incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following supracervical hysterectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 9.8, 10.7, and 33.4 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 13.1 per 10,000. The incidence rate of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following myomectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 0.0, 33.8, and 90.1 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 17.3 per 10,000. Our analysis shows the overall risk of being diagnosed with occult leiomyosarcoma is 12.9 per 10,000 in laparoscopic-assisted supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy for patients younger than 49. There is no evidence of occult leiomyosarcoma 1 year after operation for patients younger than 40 who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The occult nature of intramedullary spinal cord metastases from renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are characterised by a tendency to metastasise widely, often while remaining occult. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCM) from RCC may be the presenting feature of the disease or present at any time in the disease course. This case report discusses an ISCM from RCC which became manifested at the time of resection of the primary tumour. We review the literature published on ISCM from RCC from 1990 to date comparing disease characteristics and presentations.

  1. High prevalence of occult left heart disease in scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray

    2013-10-01

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP)≥25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg and LVEDP≤15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH.

  2. Significance of occult hbv infection in patients with chronic hepatitis c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, W.; Sarwar, M.; Saif, M.; Hussain, A.B.; Tariq, W.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of occurrence of occult Hepatitis B infection in chronic hepatitis C patients and its impact (if any) on the effectivity of standard chronic hepatitis C treatment. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, and Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, for a period of nine months from January 2003 to September 2003. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 30 HBsAg negative patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease who were receiving combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin. Occult hepatitis B infection was assessed by carrying out HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the sera of these patients. Markers of previous hepatitis B infection Le; anti-HBs and total anti-HBc antibodies were also tested. Response to treatment for hepatitis C (with interferon and ribavirin) was assessed at the end of six months of therapy by measuring ALT levels and HCV RNA by PCR in the serum. Results: In our study only one patient (3.33%) was found to be harbouring HBV DNA in the serum detectable by PCR, with markers of previous HBV infection (both anti HBc antibodies and anti HBs antibodies were positive). A total 14 patients (46.67%) had markers of previous HBV infection, while 16 patients (53.33%) had no such sero markers. Twenty five out of 30 patients (83.33%) responded to treatment and 5 (16.66%) turned out to be non-responders. The single case of occult hepatitis B detected in this study responded to hepatitis C treatment. Conclusion: Occult hepatitis B is not a common occurrence in chronic hepatitis C patients and it did not alter the outcome of treatment for hepatitis C in our study. (author)

  3. Outcome of early detection and radiotherapy for occult spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Barbachano, Yolanda; Dearnaley, David P.; Parker, Christopher C.; Khoo, Vincent; Huddart, Robert A.; Eeles, Rosalind; Horwich, Alan; Aslam Sohaib, S.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective analysis in 150 patients with metastatic prostate cancer was conducted to determine whether early detection with MRI spine and treatment of clinically occult spinal cord compromise (SCC) facilitate preservation of neurologic function. Our results suggest that prophylactic radiotherapy for patients with back pain or radiological SCC without neurologic deficit may facilitate preservation of neurologic function. Thus MRI surveillance for SCC may be important for prostate cancer patients with bone metastases

  4. Anemia and thrombocytopenia as initial symptoms of occult breast cancer with bone marrow metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lulu; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Mingtai; Ren, Saisai; Liu, Haihui; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Occult breast cancer (OBC) is a rare type of breast cancer without any symptoms in the breast and is often presented with initial symptoms of axillary lymph node metastasis or other metastases. The low incidence rates of OBC make it a great challenge to diagnose and cure. Patient concerns: Our case was a 58-year-old female affected by dizziness and fatigue for nearly a month. Blood tests revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia, and pathological results of a bone marrow biopsy...

  5. Efficacy of benazepril hydrochloride to delay the progression of occult dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M R; O'Sullivan, M L; Minors, S L; Horne, R

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are recommended in people to treat asymptomatic (occult) dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Efficacy of therapy in occult DCM in dogs is unknown. ACEIs, specifically benazepril hydrochloride (BH), will delay the onset of overt DCM in Doberman Pinschers. Ninety-one Doberman Pinschers were studied, 57 dogs received BH, and 34 dogs no ACEI. Retrospective study of the medical records of all Doberman Pinschers with occult DCM that received BH or no ACEI between April 1989 and February 2003. Two criteria of left ventricular enlargement were used for enrollment: one independent of body weight (BW) (C1) and the other indexed to BW (C2). Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to identify variables associated with the onset of overt DCM. On univariate analysis the median time to onset of overt DCM was significantly longer for the benazepril group (for C1: 425 days for BH, 95% confidence interval [CI] 264-625 days; 339 days for no ACEI, CI 172-453 days, P= .02; for C2: 454 days for BH, CI 264-628 days; 356 days for no ACEI, CI 181-547 days, P= .02). The hazard ratio (HR) (benazepril/no ACEI) was 0.57, CI 0.35-0.94, P= .03 for C1; HR = 0.56, CI 0.34-0.93, P= .02 for C2. On multivariate analysis, BH significantly delayed onset of overt DCM (HR [benazepril/no ACEI] = 0.45, CI 0.26-0.78, P < .01, for C1; HR = 0.36, CI 0.21-0.63, P < .01, for C2). BH in particular and ACEIs in general might delay the progression of occult DCM. Prospective studies are warranted to test this theory.

  6. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  7. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  8. The prevalence of visible and/or occult blood on anesthesia and monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S M; Monaghan, W P

    2001-02-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have attempted to stop the spread of blood-borne pathogens by issuing several recommendations and regulations. However, unless healthcare workers comply with these standards, they are not effective. In the anesthesia care environment, the anesthetist is responsible for ensuring that the equipment is clean, and disinfected, before use. We studied the prevalence of visible and occult blood on 6 types of anesthesia and monitoring equipment identified as ready for use in 28 operating suites, in 2 facilities. The sample consisted of 336 observations of the 6 types of equipment. The equipment was inspected for visible blood and then tested for occult blood using a 3-stage phenolphthalein test. Of the 336 observations, 110 (32.7%), were positive for occult blood with only 6 showing visible blood. The presence of blood on this equipment may be in direct violation of the OSHA Blood-borne Pathogen Standard and the infection control guidelines of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists. Furthermore, the presence of blood on this equipment may increase the risk for nosocomial and occupational exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens. Recommendations were made to decrease the risks from this contamination by redesigning equipment, increasing the use of disposable equipment, and ensuring compliance with effective infection control practices.

  9. The use of MRI and CT in Imaging Occult Hip Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadă B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hip fractures is particularly important due to the high dependence on the integrity of this structure for people to function in their daily lives. Left unrecognized, patients face increasing morbidity and mortality as time from the original injury lengthens. A delay of just 2 days in surgical treatment for an acute hip fracture doubles mortality. In addition, an unrecognized non-displaced fracture may displace, requiring surgery of much higher risk. This may be part of the reason that the most frequent lawsuit against Emergency Physicians is for missed orthopedic injury. We reviewed the use of MRI and CT for occult hip fractures (OHF detection at a major urban trauma unit. Our study is a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria: all patients presenting to the Emergency Clinical Hospital of Constanta with a suspected, posttraumatic, occult hip fracture, over a 5 years period were included. All patients had negative initial radiographs and underwent further imaging with either CT or MRI. A total of 185 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. 72 occult hip fractures were detected with both imaging modalities. Although MRI certainly enables greater image detail, in our experience both modalities are able to provide satisfactory fracture characterization. The choice of imaging should be determined by availability and indication. MRI provides superior imaging of soft tissue but is less sensitive for degenerative changes in presence of bone edema.

  10. Verify Occulter Deployment Tolerances as Part of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Webb, D.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM), we recently completed a 2 year study of the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals. An external occult is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. This poster presents the results of our successful first TDEM that demonstrated an occulter petal could be built and measured to an accuracy consistent with close to 10^-10 contrast. We also present the progress in our second TDEM to demonstrate the next critical technology milestone: precision deployment of the central truss and petals to the necessary accuracy. We have completed manufacture of four sub-scale petals and a central hub to fit with an existing deployable truss. We show the plans for repeated stow and deploy tests of the assembly and the metrology to confirm that each deploy repeatably meets the absolute positioning requirements of the petals (better than 1.0 mm).

  11. Verifying occulter deployment tolerances as part of NASA's technology development for exoplanet missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Webb, D.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2013-09-01

    An external occulter is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In support of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM), we recently completed a 2 year study of the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals. In this paper we review the results of that successful first TDEM which demonstrated an occulter petal could be built and measured to an accuracy consistent with close to 10-10 contrast. We then present the results of our second TDEM to demonstrate the next critical technology milestone: precision deployment of the central truss and petals to the necessary accuracy. We show the deployment of an existing deployable truss outfitted with four sub-scale petals and a custom designed central hub.

  12. The Centaur Chariklo and its rings system from stellar occultations in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Rodrigo; Sicardy, Bruno; Camargo, Julio; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Berard, Diane; Desmars, Josselin; Chariklo Occultations Team; Rio Group; Lucky Star Occultation Team; Granada Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    A stellar occultation in June 3, 2013 revealed the presence of a dense ring system around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 2014). Subsequent analysis of occultation data and long-term photometric variations indicate that Chariklo's body is elongated (Leiva et al. 2017, submitted) and that the main ring exhibits significant longitudinal variations of the radial width (Bérard et al. 2017, in press). We report three multi-chord high-quality stellar occultation by Chariklo on April 9, 2017 and June 22, 2017 from Namibia, and July 23 2017 from South America. The analysis of this new data set is underway, but preliminary results are consistent with triaxial ellipsoidal models. From this analysis we will:-present refined models for the size and shape of Chariklo's main body andevaluate the heights and slopes of its topographic features.-give constraints on the longitudinal width variations of Chariklo's rings andexplore the possibility to obtain the rings apsidal precession rate.Chariklo's shape and topography have strong consequences on the dynamics of the rings through Lindblad-type resonances between mean motion of the ring particles and the spin of the main body, while the rings precession rate gives constraints on the dynamical oblateness of the main body.**Part of the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community’s H2020 (2014-2020/ ERC Grant Agreement n 669416 ”LUCKY STAR”).

  13. First lunar occultation results from the 2.4 m Thai national telescope equipped with ULTRASPEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A.; Irawati, P.; Soonthornthum, B. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Building, Huay Kaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    The recently inaugurated 2.4 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) is equipped with, among other instruments, the ULTRASPEC low-noise, frame-transfer EMCCD camera. At the end of its first official observing season, we report on the use of this facility to record high time resolution imaging using small detector subarrays with a sampling as fast as several 10{sup 2} Hz. In particular, we have recorded lunar occultations of several stars that represent the first contribution to this area of research made from Southeast Asia with a telescope of this class. Among the results, we discuss an accurate measurement of α Cnc, which has been reported previously as a suspected close binary. Attempts by several authors to resolve this star have so far met with a lack of unambiguous confirmation. With our observation we are able to place stringent limits on the projected angular separation (<0.''003) and brightness (Δm > 5) of a putative companion. We also present a measurement of the binary HR 7072, which extends considerably the time coverage available for its yet undetermined orbit. We discuss our precise determination of the flux ratio and projected separation in the context of other available data. We conclude by providing an estimate of the performance of ULTRASPEC at TNT for lunar occultation work. This facility can help to extend the lunar occultation technique in a geographical area where no comparable resources were available until now.

  14. Astrometry of the Orcus/Vanth occultation on UT 7 March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Genade, Anja; Schindler, Karsten; Lister, Tim; Person, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    On UT 7 March 2017, Orcus was predicted to occult a star with m=14.3. Observations were made at five observatories: the 0.6-m Astronomical Telescope of the University of Stuttgart (ATUS) at Sierra Remote Observatories (SRO), California; Las Cumbres Observatory’s 1-m telescope (ELP) at McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas; NASA’s 3-m InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii; the 4.1-m Southern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) on Cerro Pachón, Chile; and the 0.6-m Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy telescope (SARA-CT) at Cerro Tololo, Chile. While observations at all sites were successful, only two—ELP and IRTF—observed solid-body occultation signatures. We will discuss the various predictions for this event and the reasons for the differences among them, including an offset of 130 mas for the star position from the position in the Gaia catalog. The sum of the positive and negative detections place constraints on the geometry of the Orcus/Vanth system, and we present our astrometric results for the geometric solution for this occultation. The implications of the light curve analyses are presented by Sickafoose et al., this conference.

  15. Usefullness of routine use of fecal occult blood test in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ravnik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal occult blood test, hematest, is a well excepted non-invasive method used for detecting different diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It was proven in different randomized studies that usage of this simple method may facilitate further diagnostic and therapeutic treatment.Patients and methods: The retrospective analysis includes patients, which were admitted to the gastroenterological and endoscopy department of the General hospital Maribor in the last quarter of the year 2005. In all patients fecal occult blood test was performed.Results: We examined 200 patients, 104 women and 96 men, average age 63.9 years, SD±16.9, ranging from 21 to 97 years. Positive hematest was discovered in 76 patients (38 %. The source of hemorrhage from the upper digestive tract was confirmed in 37 patients (48.6 % of all positive tests and from the lower digestive tract in 34 patients (46 % of all positive tests. The most frequent causes of hemorrhage from the lower digestive tract were chronic inflammatory bowel disease (13.1 % of all positive tests, colorectal cancer (10.5 % and polyps (6.6 %. The source of hemorrhage was not located in five patients (6.6 % of all positive tests despite the accurate diagnostic procedure.Conclusions: By performing a fecal occult blood screening in non-symptomatic patients, we can make an essential step towards discovering different gastrointestinal diseases, even colorectal cancer in its early, limited form, when the effect of treatment is greatest.

  16. TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/UVIS SOLAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Bénilan, Yves [Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universités Paris Est Créteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, F-94010, Créteil Cédex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Titan’s atmosphere is composed mainly of molecular nitrogen, methane being the principal trace gas. From the analysis of 8 solar occultations measured by the Extreme Ultraviolet channel of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board Cassini, we derived vertical profiles of N{sub 2} in the range 1100–1600 km and vertical profiles of CH{sub 4} in the range 850–1300 km. The correction of instrument effects and observational effects applied to the data are described. We present CH{sub 4} mole fractions, and average temperatures for the upper atmosphere obtained from the N{sub 2} profiles. The occultations correspond to different times and locations, and an analysis of variability of density and temperature is presented. The temperatures were analyzed as a function of geographical and temporal variables, without finding a clear correlation with any of them, although a trend of decreasing temperature toward the north pole was observed. The globally averaged temperature obtained is (150 ± 1) K. We compared our results from solar occultations with those derived from other UVIS observations, as well as studies performed with other instruments. The observational data we present confirm the atmospheric variability previously observed, add new information to the global picture of Titan’s upper atmosphere composition, variability, and dynamics, and provide new constraints to photochemical models.

  17. Cassini UVIS solar occultations by Saturn's F ring and the detection of collision-produced micron-sized dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Colwell, Joshua E.; Esposito, Larry W.; Attree, Nicholas O.; Murray, Carl D.

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of eleven solar occultations by Saturn's F ring observed by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on the Cassini spacecraft. In four of the solar occultations we detect an unambiguous signal from diffracted sunlight that adds to the direct solar signal just before or after the occultations occur. The strongest detection was a 10% increase over the direct signal that was enabled by the accidental misalignment of the instrument's pointing. We compare the UVIS data with images of the F ring obtained by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and find that in each instance of an unambiguous diffraction signature in the UVIS data, the ISS data shows that there was a recent disturbance in that region of the F ring. Similarly, the ISS images show a quiescent region of the F ring for all solar occultations in which no diffraction signature was dete