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Sample records for all-sky earth occultation

  1. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Bhat, P N; Briggs, M S; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Camero-Arranz, A; Case, G; Cherry, M; Rodi, J; Finger, M H; Jenke, P; Haynes, R H

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog enters or exits occultation by the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results can be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation

  2. Flat-Fielding BATSE Occultation Data for use in a Hard X-Ray All Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, S. E.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A.J.; Diallo, N.; Ferguson, C.; J. Knodlseder(CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France); Lockley, J. J.; Westmore, M. J.; Willis, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The BATSE mission aboard CGRO can be used to observe hard X-ray sources by using the Earth occultation method. This method relies on measuring a step in the count rate profile in each BATSE detector as a source rises above or sets below the Earth's limb. A major problem in determining the step sizes (and hence the flux) is in extracting the steps from the varying background. A technique for flat-fielding the response of gamma ray detectors has been developed at Southampton. The technique uses...

  3. Gamma-Ray All Sky Imaging with BATSE

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, A. B.; Barlow, E. J.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A.J.; Ferguson, C.; Shaw, S. E.; Westmore, M. J.; Willis, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The BATSE mission aboard CGRO observed the whole sky for 9 years in the 20 keV - 2 MeV energy band. Flat-fielding of the temporal variations in the background present in the data set has been accomplished through a GEANT3 Monte-Carlo simulation - the BATSE Mass Model (BAMM). The Earth Occultation technique (EOT) is used together with a maximum-likelihood imaging approach to construct all-sky maps with ~mCrab sensitivity. Additionally, a non-linear CLEAN algorithm is applied to the all-sky map...

  4. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokohata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface all-sky UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  5. Searching for Unmodeled Sources Using the Earth Occultation Data from the Fermi GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, James; Cherry, Michael L; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Finger, Mark H; Jenke, Peter; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Chaplin, Vandiver

    2011-01-01

    Employing the 12 NaI detectors in the Fermi GBM, the Earth Occultation Technique (EOT) can be used to measure the fluxes of x-ray and gamma-ray sources. Each time a source passes behind the Earth (or emerges from behind the Earth), a step-like feature is produced in the detector count rate. With a predefined catalog of source positions, the times of the occultation steps can be calculated, the individual steps fit, and the fluxes derived. However, in order to find new sources and generate a complete catalog, a method is needed for generating an image of the sky. An imaging algorithm has been developed to generate all-sky images using the GBM data. Here we present imaging results from ~2.5 years of data in the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV energy bands.

  6. Earth Occultation Imaging of the Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sky with GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, J; Case, G L; Camero-Arranz, A; Chaplin, C; Finger, M H; Jenke, P; Wilson-Hodge, C A

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Occultation Technique (EOT) has been applied to Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) to perform all-sky monitoring for a predetermined catalog of hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray sources. Imaging with a Differential filter using the Earth Occultation Method (IDEOM) has been developed to search for sources not in the catalog, thus completing the catalog and reducing a source of systematic error in EOT. IDEOM is a tomographic imaging method that takes advantage of the orbital precession of the Fermi satellite. Using IDEOM, all-sky images have been generated for ~4 years of GBM data in the 12-50 keV, 50-100 keV and 100-300 keV energy bands in search of sources otherwise unmodeled by the GBM occultation analysis. Analysis resulted in the detection of 43 sources in the 12-50 keV energy band, 23 sources in the 50-100 keV energy band, and 7 sources in the 100-300 keV energy band. IDEOM analysis has resulted in the addition of 16 sources to the GBM-EOT catalog. We also present the first joined averaged spectra fo...

  7. Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM

  8. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watanabe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  9. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  10. The ADS All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  11. Earth Occultation Monitoring of the Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma Ray Sky with GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael L.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G. L.; Chaplin, V.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P. A.; Rodi, J. C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; GBM Earth Occultation Team

    2012-01-01

    By utilizing the Earth occultation technique (EOT), the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument aboard Fermi has been used to make nearly continuous full-sky observations in the 8-1000 keV energy range. The GBM EOT analysis program currently monitors an input catalog containing 235 sources. We will present the GBM catalog of sources observed in the first 3 years of the EOT monitoring program, with special emphasis on the high energy (>100 keV) and time-variable sources, in particular the Crab, Cyg X-1, and A0535+26. We will also describe the initial results of an all-sky imaging analysis of the EOT data, with comparisons to the Swift, INTEGRAL, and Fermi LAT catalogs. This work is supported by the NASA Fermi Guest Investigator program, NASA/Louisiana Board of Regents, and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia de Innovacion.

  12. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A in July 2015, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, in a single survey, with a single instrument. We will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power. Finally, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra (0.75 - 4.8 um at R = 41.5 and 150) with high sensitivity using a cooled telescope with large mapping speed.SPHEREx will observe from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit, covering the entire sky in a manner similar to IRAS, COBE and WISE. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps for constraining the physics of inflation. These same maps contain numerous high signal-to-noise absorption spectra to study water and biogenic ices. The orbit naturally covers two deep regions at the celestial poles, which we use for studying galaxy evolution. All aspects of the SPHEREx instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. The projected instrument sensitivity, based on conservative performance estimates, meets the driving point source sensitivity requirement with 300 % margin.SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the successful management structure of the NuSTAR and GALEX SMEX missions. The spacecraft

  13. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-ray Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Colleen. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Hong, J. -S.; Grindlay, J.E.; H. Krawczynski(Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA)

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors, and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and trailing Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultation observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gam...

  14. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. © 2016 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  15. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. HHEBBES! All sky camera system: status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, F.

    2015-01-01

    A status update is given of the HHEBBES! All sky camera system. HHEBBES!, an automatic camera for capturing bright meteor trails, is based on a DSLR camera and a Liquid Crystal chopper for measuring the angular velocity. Purpose of the system is to a) recover meteorites; b) identify origin/parental bodies. In 2015, two new cameras were rolled out: BINGO! -alike HHEBBES! also in The Netherlands-, and POgLED, in Serbia. BINGO! is a first camera equipped with a longer focal length fisheye lens, to further increase the accuracy. Several minor improvements have been done and the data reduction pipeline was used for processing two prominent Dutch fireballs.

  17. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Jenke, Peter; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark; Bhat, Narayan; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. From this catalog, we detect 102 sources, including 41 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 33 high-mass X-ray binary neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula, and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to other sky-monitors below 100 keV and is the only all-sky monitor above 100 keV. Up-to-date light curves for all of the catalog sources can be found at http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm/.

  18. Cosmology with all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmology require comprehensive all-sky mapping of the cosmic web to considerable depths. In order to probe the whole extragalactic sky beyond 100 Mpc, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. Here I summarize our dedicated program that employs the largest photometric all-sky surveys -- 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS -- to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts -- the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) -- was publicly released in 2013 and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a median redshift of z~0.1. I discuss how this catalog was constructed and how it is being used for various cosmological tests. I also present how combining the WISE mid-infrared survey with SuperCOSMOS optical data allowed us to push to depths over 1 Gpc on unprecedented angular scales. These photometric redshift samples, with about 20 million sources in total, provide access to volumes large enough to ...

  19. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Capak, Peter; de Putter, Roland; Eifler, Tim; Hirata, Chris; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Masters, Daniel; Raccanelli, Alvise; Zemcov, Mike; Cooray, Asantha; Flagey, Nicolas; Gong, Yan; Katti, Raj; Melnick, Gary; Mennesson, Bertrand; Unwin, Steve; Viero, Marco; Werner, Mike; Ashby, Matthew; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Mauskopf, Phil; Nguyen, Hien; Öberg, Karin; Smith, Roger; Song, Yong-Seon; Tolls, Volker; Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2014-01-01

    SPHEREx (Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) is a proposed all-sky spectroscopic survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's Astrophysics Division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx will scan a series of Linear Variable Filters systematically across the entire sky. The SPHEREx data-set will contain R=40 spectra spanning the near infrared (0.75$\\mu$m$<\\lambda<$ 4.83$\\mu$m) for every 6.2 arcsecond pixel over the the entire-sky. In this paper, we detail the extra-galactic and cosmological studies SPHEREx will enable and present detailed systematic effect evaluations.

  20. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  1. The SCUBA-2 "All-Sky" Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, M A; Jenness, T; Scott, D; Ashdown, M; Brunt, C; Butner, H; Chapin, E; Chrysostomou, A C; Clark, J S; Clements, D; Collett, J L; Coppin, K; Coulson, I M; Dent, W R F; Economou, F; Evans, A; Friberg, P; Fuller, G A; Gibb, A G; Greaves, J; Hatchell, J; Holland, W S; Hudson, M; Ivison, R J; Jaffe, A; Joncas, G; Jones, H R A; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Mann, R; Matthews, H E; Moore, T J T; Mortier, A; Negrello, M; Nutter, D; Pestalozzi, M P; Pope, A; Richer, J; Shipman, R; Urquhart, J S; Vaccari, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Zhu, M

    2007-01-01

    The sub-millimetre wavelength regime is perhaps the most poorly explored over large areas of the sky, despite the considerable effort that has been expended in making deep maps over small regions. As a consequence the properties of the sub-millimetre sky as a whole, and of rare bright objects in particular, remains largely unknown. Here we describe a forthcoming survey (the SCUBA-2 ``All-Sky'' Survey, or SASSy) designed to address this issue by making a large-area map of approximately one-fifth of the sky visible from the JCMT (4800 square degrees) down to a 1 sigma noise level of 30 mJy/beam. This map forms the pilot for a much larger survey, which will potentially map the remaining sky visible from the JCMT, with the region also visible to ALMA as a priority. SASSy has been awarded 500 hours for the 4800 square degree pilot phase and will commence after the commissioning of SCUBA-2, expected in early 2008.

  2. Game: GRB and All-Sky Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ˜1 keV up to ˜20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of ~1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g., by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB / transient triggers.

  3. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C A; Hong, J S; Grindlay, J E; Krawczynski, H; Wilson, Colleen A.

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors, and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and trailing Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultation observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for applying this observation method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5 sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (g...

  4. Feasibility of polarized all-sky imaging for aerosol characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, A.; Blumthaler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polarized all-sky distribution measurements contain radiative information about aerosol properties. We investigate the method of all-sky imaging for aerosol property retrieval and propose a technical frame work for image processing and analysis. Using Zernike polynomials, we decompose the relative Stokes parameter distributions, which efficiently captures the information content. The resulting feature vector is well suited for all-sky imaging, independent of calibration and robust against noise. It can be directly used in existing algorithms or alternative types of retrieval methods of aerosol optical properties in the future. By modeling possible aerosol scenarios we investigate the influence of different aerosol types in terms of the first two principal components describing the maximal variances. In this representation we show that the feature vector from a polarized all-sky imager is suitable for aerosol classification with respect to size and single scatter albedo.

  5. Feasibility of polarized all-sky imaging for aerosol characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kreuter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polarized all-sky distribution measurements contain radiative information about aerosol properties. We investigate the method of all-sky imaging for aerosol property retrieval and propose a technical frame work for image processing and analysis. Using Zernike polynomials, we decompose the relative Stokes parameter distributions, which efficiently captures the information content. The resulting feature vector is well suited for all-sky imaging, independent of calibration and robust against noise. It can be directly used in existing algorithms or alternative types of retrieval methods of aerosol optical properties in the future. By modeling possible aerosol scenarios we investigate the influence of different aerosol types in terms of the first two principal components describing the maximal variances. In this representation we show that the feature vector from a polarized all-sky imager is suitable for aerosol classification with respect to size and single scatter albedo.

  6. Exploring earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Anthes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the proof-of-concept mission GPS/MET in 1995 began a revolution in profiling earth's atmosphere through radio occultation (RO. GPS/MET; subsequent single-satellite missions CHAMP, SAC-C, GRACE, METOP-A, and TerraSAR-X; and the six-satellite constellation, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, have proven the theoretical capabilities of RO to provide accurate and precise profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and refractivity, containing information on temperature and water vapor, in the stratosphere and troposphere. This paper summarizes results from these RO missions and the applications of RO observations to atmospheric research and operational weather analysis and prediction.

  7. Exploring Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Anthes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the proof-of-concept mission GPS/MET (Global Positioning System/Meteorology in 1995 began a revolution in profiling Earth's atmosphere through radio occultation (RO. GPS/MET; subsequent single-satellite missions CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload, SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, METOP-A, and TerraSAR-X (Beyerle et al., 2010; and the six-satellite constellation, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Formosa Satellite mission {#}3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate have proven the theoretical capabilities of RO to provide accurate and precise profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and refractivity, containing information on temperature and water vapor, in the stratosphere and troposphere. This paper summarizes results from these RO missions and the applications of RO observations to atmospheric research and operational weather analysis and prediction.

  8. All Sky Cloud Coverage Monitoring for SONG-China Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J. F.; Deng, L. C.; Yan, Z. Z.; Wang, K.; Wu, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to monitor the cloud distributions at Qinghai station, a site selected for SONG (Stellar Observations Network Group)-China node, the design of the proto-type of all sky camera (ASC) applied in Xinglong station is adopted. Both hardware and software improvements have been made in order to be more precise and deliver quantitative measurements. The ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) MCU (Microcontroller Unit) instead of PC is used to control the upgraded version of ASC. A much higher reliability has been realized in the current scheme. Independent of the positions of the Sun and Moon, the weather conditions are constantly changing, therefore it is difficult to get proper exposure parameters using only the temporal information of the major light sources. A realistic exposure parameters for the ASC can actually be defined using a real-time sky brightness monitor that is also installed at the same site. The night sky brightness value is a very sensitive function of the cloud coverage, and can be accurately measured by the sky quality monitor. We study the correlation between the exposure parameter and night sky brightness value, and give the mathematical relation. The images of the all sky camera are inserted into database directly. All sky quality images are archived in FITS format which can be used for further analysis.

  9. The $AKARI$ Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Yasuo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Figueredo, Elysandra

    2015-01-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese $AKARI$ satellite. The survey covers $> 99$% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 $\\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, 140 $\\mu$m, and 160 $\\mu$m with spatial resolutions ranging from 1 to 1.5 arcmin. These data provide crucial information for the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), since significant portion of its energy is emitted between $\\sim$50 and 200 $\\mu$m. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures and column densities, can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use by the astronomical community.

  10. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  11. AKARI Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Yasuo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Takita, Satoshi; Arimatsu, Ko; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Nakagawa, Takao; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Tanaka, Masahiro; White, Glenn J; Etxaluze, Mireya; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Far-infrared observations provide crucial data for the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), since most of its energy is emitted between ~100 and 200 um. We present the first all-sky image from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite, in the wavelength range 50 -- 180 um. Covering >99% of the sky in four photometric bands with four filters centred at 65 um, 90 um, 140 um, and 160 um wavelengths, this achieved spatial resolutions from 1 to 2 arcmin and a detection limit of <10 MJy sr-1, with absolute and relative photometric accuracies of <20%. All-sky images of the Galactic dust continuum emission enable astronomers to map the large-scale distribution of the diffuse ISM cirrus, to study its thermal dust temperature, emissivity and column density, and to measure the interaction of the Galactic radiation field and embedded objects with the surrounding ISM. In addition to the point source population of stars, protostar...

  12. Submission of Earth-based ring occultation observations to the NASA planetary data system rings discipline node

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a technical report summarizing our progress in our program of contributing high quality Earth-based occultation observations to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Rings Node. During our first year of funding, we selected five data sets for eventual inclusion in the PDS Rings Node. These were Uranus occultation observations obtained by the PI and co-workers from the IRTF of event stars U34 (26 April 1986), U1052 (5 May 1988), U65 (21 June 1990), U7872 (25 June 1991), and U7808 (28 June 1991). In our original proposal, we described four tasks: data sets to a common format; documentation of the occultation observations and associated calibrations; calculation of the occultation geometry for each event; establish prototype PDS templates. As discussed in our renewal proposal, submitted 8 June 1993, we have completed the first three tasks, and are working on the fourth. As an indication of our progress to date, we provide information about each of the data sets, their formats, the documentation, and the method used for reconstructing the occultation geometry.

  13. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Proschek, V.

    2011-10-01

    LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR) within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity) and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms) of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We conclude that

  14. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schweitzer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We

  15. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, J. A.; Hambly, N. C.; Bilicki, M.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Miller, L.; Read, M. A.; Tritton, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The photographic photometry is calibrated using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with results that are linear to 2 per cent or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero-points that are uniform to 0.03 mag or better. The typical AB depths achieved are BJ < 21, RF < 19.5 and IN < 18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the IN plates are shallower than the BJ and RF plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90 per cent complete with 5 per cent stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the surface density of true galaxies at |b| = 30°. Above this latitude, the catalogue limited in BJ and RF contains in total about 20 million galaxy candidates, of which 75 per cent are real. This contamination can be removed, and the sky coverage extended, by matching with additional data sets. This SuperCOSMOS catalogue has been matched with 2MASS and with WISE, yielding quasi-all-sky samples of respectively 1.5 million and 18.5 million galaxies, to median redshifts of 0.08 and 0.20. This legacy data set thus continues to offer a valuable resource for large-angle cosmological investigations.

  16. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a new young association

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; Montes, D

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  17. The WATCH All-Sky Monitor for the Granat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Rao, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Watch X-ray all-sky monitor, which is designed to localize strong X-ray sources and follow their development, is examined, focusing on the addition of four Watch units to the Granat satellite project. The components of the Watch instrument are described and the capabilities and potential...... scientific returns of the Granat project are discussed. The applications of the Watch monitor are given, including the study of time variations of known sources and the detection and localization of new, transient sources....

  18. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  19. Hexapod Design For All-Sky Sidereal Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a hexapod-based telescope mount system intended to provide sidereal tracking for the Fly's Eye Camera project -- an upcoming moderate, 21"/pixel resolution all-sky survey. By exploiting such a kind of meter-sized telescope mount, we get a device which is both capable of compensating for the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere and the same design can be used independently from the actual geographical location. Our construction is the sole currently operating hexapod telescope mount performing dedicated optical imaging survey with a sub-arcsecond tracking precision.

  20. Earth Occultation Imaging Applied to BATSE -- Application to a Combined BATSE-GBM Survey of the Hard X-Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan; Case, Gary; Ling, James; Wheaton, William

    2013-01-01

    A combined BATSE-GBM hard X-ray catalog is presented based on Earth Occultation Imaging applied to a reanalysis of BATSE data. An imaging approach has been developed for the reanalysis of Earth Occultation analysis of BATSE data. The standard occultation analysis depends on a predetermined catalog of potential sources, so that a real source not present in the catalog may induce systematic errors when source counts associated with an uncatalogued source are incorrectly attributed to catalog sources. The goal of the imaging analysis is to find a complete set of hard X-ray sources, including sources not in the original BATSE occultation catalog. Using the imaging technique, we have identified 15 known sources and 17 unidentified sources and added them to the BATSE occultation catalog. The resulting expanded BATSE catalog of sources observed during 1991-2000 is compared to the ongoing GBM survey.

  1. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and AllWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 mas yr$^{-1}$, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-AllWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new $\\sim$ 13 M$_{Jup}$ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared s...

  2. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Boller, Th; Truemper, J; Haberl, F; Voges, W; Nandra, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the PSPC between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4x6.4 degrees sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the PSF across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. We obtained about 135,000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spu...

  3. MAXI: all-sky observation from the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2009 it has been scanning the whole sky in every 92 minutes with ISS rotation. Due to high particle background at high latitude regions the carbon anodes of three GSC cameras were broken. We limit the GSC operation to low-latitude region around equator. GSC is suffering a double high background from Gamma-ray altimeter of Soyuz spacecraft. MAXI issued the 37-month catalog with 500 sources above ~0.6 mCrab in 4-10 keV. MAXI issued 133 to Astronomers Telegram and 44 to Gammaray burst Coordinated Network so far. One GSC camera had a small gas leak by a micrometeorite. Since 2013 June, the 1.4 atm Xe pressure went down to 0.6 atm in 2014 May 23. By gradually reducing the high voltage we keep using the proportional counter. SSC with X-ray CCD has detected diffuse soft X-rays in the all-sky, such as Cygnus super bubble and north polar spur, as well as it found a fast soft X-ray nova MAXI J0158-744. Although we operate C...

  4. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, J A; Bilicki, M; MacGillivray, H T; Miller, L; Read, M A; Tritton, S B

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UKST and POSS2 surveys. The photographic photometry is calibrated using SDSS data, with results that are linear to 2% or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero points that are uniform to 0.03 mag. or better. The typical AB depths achieved are B_J<21, R_F<19.5 and I_N<18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the I_N plates are shallower than the B_J & R_F plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90% complete with 5% stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the s...

  5. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Voges, W; Boller, T; Bräuninger, H; Briel, U G; Burkert, W K A; Dennerl, K; Englhauser, J; Gruber, R; Haberl, F; Hartner, G; Hasinger, G; Pfeffermann, E; Pietsch, W; Predehl, P; Rosso, C; Schmitt, J H M M; Trümper, J E; Zimmermann, H U; Voges, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Bernd; Boller, Thomas; Braeuninger, Heinrich; Briel, Ulrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Dennerl, Konrad; Englhauser, Jakob; Gruber, Rainer; Haberl, Frank; Hartner, Gisela; Hasinger, Guenther; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Predehl, Peter; Rosso, Cristina; Schmitt, Juergen H.M.M.; Truemper, Joachim; Zimmermann, Hans-Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    We present the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC, revision 1RXS) derived from the all-sky survey performed during the first half year (1990/91) of the ROSAT mission. 18,811 sources are catalogued (i) down to a limiting ROSAT PSPC count-rate of 0.05 cts/s in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band, (ii) with a detection likelihood of at least 15 and (iii) at least 15 source counts. The 18,811 sources underwent both an automatic validation and an interactive visual verification process in which for 94% of the sources the results of the standard processing were confirmed. The remaining 6% have been analyzed using interactive methods and these sources have been flagged. Flags are given for (i) nearby sources; (ii) sources with positional errors; (iii) extended sources; (iv) sources showing complex emission structures; and (v) sources which are missed by the standard analysis software. Broad band (0.1-2.4 keV) images are available for sources flagged by (ii), (iii) and (iv). For each source the ROSAT name...

  6. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Querel, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 {\\mu}m) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5{\\deg} el...

  7. GAME: Grb and All-sky Monitor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, L; Frontera, F; Labanti, C; Feroci, M; Hudec, R; Gomboc, A; Ruffini, R; Santangelo, A; Vacchi, A; Campana, R; Evangelista, Y; Fuschino, F; Salvaterra, R; Stratta, G; Tagliaferri, G; Guidorzi, C; Rosati, P; Titarchuk, L; Penacchioni, A; Izzo, L; Zampa, N; Rodic, T

    2014-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ~1 keV up to ~20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~300 eV in ...

  8. The AARTFAAC All Sky Monitor: System Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Peeyush; Kooistra, Eric; van der Schuur, Daniel; Gunst, Andre; Romein, John; Kuiack, Mark; Molenaar, Gijs; Rowlinson, Antonia; Swinbank, John D; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2016-01-01

    The Amsterdam-ASTRON Radio Transients Facility And Analysis Center (AARTFAAC) all sky monitor is a sensitive, real time transient detector based on the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). It generates images of the low frequency radio sky with spatial resolution of 10s of arcmin, MHz bandwidths, and a time cadence of a few seconds, while simultaneously but independently observing with LOFAR. The image timeseries is then monitored for short and bright radio transients. On detection of a transient, a low latency trigger will be generated for LOFAR, which can interrupt its schedule to carry out follow-up observations of the trigger location at high sensitivity and resolutions. In this paper, we describe our heterogeneous, hierarchical design to manage the 240 Gbps raw data rate, and large scale computing to produce real-time images with minimum latency. We discuss the implementation of the instrumentation, its performance, and scalability.

  9. All-sky reconstruction of the primordial scalar potential & implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Sebastian; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2015-08-01

    An essential quantity required to understand the physics of the early Universe is the primordial scalar potential and its statistics. We present an inexpensive all-sky reconstruction of the potential from CMB temperature data as well as an extension including polarization data. This has been achieved by applying a fully parallelized Bayesian inference method that separates the whole inverse problem into many, each of them solved by an optimal linear filter. Once explicitly having the potential, its statistics and underlying physics can be directly obtained avoiding expensive CMB analyses. This reconstruction, for instance, allows to infer the spatial structure of magnetic fields within the recombination epoch, the potential seeds of large-scale magnetic fields nowadays.

  10. All-Sky Interferometry with Spherical Harmonic Transit Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J Richard; Pen, Ue-Li; Stebbins, Albert; Sitwell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope, a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics that allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-Loeve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor twenty below the 21cm signal even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the angle-frequency mode mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints ...

  11. A-STAR: The All-Sky Transient Astrophysics Reporter

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J P; Evans, P; Fraser, G W; Martindale, A; Atteia, J -L; Cordier, B; Mereghetti, S

    2013-01-01

    The small mission A-STAR (All-Sky Transient Astrophysics Reporter) aims to locate the X-ray counterparts to ALIGO and other gravitational wave detector sources, to study the poorly-understood low luminosity gamma-ray bursts, and to find a wide variety of transient high-energy source types, A-STAR will survey the entire available sky twice per 24 hours. The payload consists of a coded mask instrument, Owl, operating in the novel low energy band 4-150 keV, and a sensitive wide-field focussing soft X-ray instrument, Lobster, working over 0.15-5 keV. A-STAR will trigger on ~100 GRBs/yr, rapidly distributing their locations.

  12. MAXI: all-sky observation from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2009 it has been scanning the whole sky in every 92 minutes with ISS rotation. Due to high particle background at high latitude regions the carbon anodes of three GSC cameras were broken. We limit the GSC operation to low-latitude region around equator. GSC is suffering a double high background from Gamma-ray altimeter of Soyuz spacecraft. MAXI issued the 37-month catalog with 500 sources above ~0.6 mCrab in 4-10 keV. MAXI issued 133 to Astronomers Telegram and 44 to Gammaray burst Coordinated Network so far. One GSC camera had a small gas leak by a micrometeorite. Since 2013 June, the 1.4 atm Xe pressure went down to 0.6 atm in 2014 May 23. By gradually reducing the high voltage we keep using the proportional counter. SSC with X-ray CCD has detected diffuse soft X-rays in the all-sky, such as Cygnus super bubble and north polar spur, as well as it found a fast soft X-ray nova MAXI J0158-744. Although we operate CCD with charge-injection, the energy resolution is degrading. In the 4.5 years of operation MAXI discovered 6 of 12 new black holes. The long-term behaviors of these sources can be classified into two types of the outbursts, 3 Fast Rise Exponential Decay (FRED) and 3 Fast Rise and Flat Top (FRFT). The cause of types is still unknown.

  13. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schweitzer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, recently introduced by Kirchengast and Schweitzer (2011, that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. For enabling trace species retrieval based on differential transmission, the LIO signals are spectrally located as pairs, one in the centre of a suitable absorption line of a target species (absorption signal and one close by but outside of any absorption lines (reference signal. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss the atmospheric influences on the transmission and differential transmission of LIO signals. Refraction effects, trace species absorption (by target species, and cross-sensitivity to foreign species, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering are studied in detail. The influences of clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation are discussed as well. We show that the influence of defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle and by a design with close frequency spacing of absorption and reference signals within 0.5 %. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and thermal radiation on the received signal intensities are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions but this

  14. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Th.; Freyberg, M. J.; Trümper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. Methods: We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4° × 6.4° sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the variable point-spread function (PSF) across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. X-ray control images showing the source and background extraction regions were generated, which were visually inspected. Simulations were performed to assess the spurious source content of the 2RXS catalogue. X-ray spectra and light curves were extracted for the 2RXS sources, with spectral and variability parameters derived from these products. Results: We obtained about 135 000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5, as adopted in the 1RXS faint source catalogue. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spurious detections. A more conservative likelihood threshold of 9, on the other hand, yields about 71 000 detections with a 5% spurious fraction. We recommend thresholds appropriate to the scientific application. X-ray images and overlaid X-ray contour lines provide an additional user product to evaluate the detections visually, and we performed our own visual inspections to flag uncertain detections. Intra-day variability in the X-ray light curves was quantified based on the

  15. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  16. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre Array project) in South Africa, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia.

  17. GOALS: The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Armus, L; Evans, A S; Surace, J A; Sanders, D B; Iwasawa, K; Frayer, D T; Howell, J H; Chan, B; Petric, A O; Vavilkin, T; Kim, D C; Haan, S; Inami, H; Murphy, E J; Appleton, P N; Barnes, J E; Bothun, G; Bridge, C R; Charmandaris, V; Jensen, J B; Kewley, L J; Lord, S; Madore, B F; Marshall, J A; Melbourne, J E; Rich, J; Satyapal, S; Schulz, B; Spoon, H W W; Sturm, E; U, V; Veilleux, S; Xu, K

    2009-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) combines data from NASA's Spitzer, Chandra, Hubble and GALEX observatories, together with ground-based data into a comprehensive imaging and spectroscopic survey of over 200 low redshift Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs). The LIRGs are a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The LIRGs targeted in GOALS span the full range of nuclear spectral types defined via traditional optical line-ratio diagrams as well as interaction stages. They provide an unbiased picture of the processes responsible for enhanced infrared emission in galaxies in the local Universe. As an example of the analytic power of the multi-wavelength GOALS dataset, we present data for the interacting system VV 340 (IRAS F14547+2449). Between 80-95% of the total far-infrared emission (or about 5E11 solar luminosities) originates in VV 340 North. While the IRAC colors of VV 340 North and South are consistent with star-forming galaxies, both the Spitzer IRS and Chandra A...

  18. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Joshua S; Lee, William; González, J Jesús; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bolte, Michael; Franco, José; Guichard, José; Carramiñana, Alberto; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bigelow, Bruce; Brodwin, Mark; Burgasser, Adam; Butler, Nat; Chávez, Miguel; Cobb, Bethany; Cook, Kem; Cruz-González, Irene; de Diego, José Antonio; Farah, Alejandro; Georgiev, Leonid; Girard, Julien; Hernández-Toledo, Hector; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Krongold, Yair; Mayya, Divakara; Meza, Juan; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Mújica, Raúl; Nugent, Peter; Porras, Alicia; Poznanski, Dovi; Raga, Alejandro; Richer, Michael; Rodríguez, Lino; Rosa, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Thomas, Rollin; Valenzuela, Octavio; Watson, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    We are proposing to conduct a multicolor, synoptic infrared (IR) imaging survey of the Northern sky with a new, dedicated 6.5-meter telescope at San Pedro M\\'artir (SPM) Observatory. This initiative is being developed in partnership with astronomy institutions in Mexico and the University of California. The 4-year, dedicated survey, planned to begin in 2017, will reach more than 100 times deeper than 2MASS. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey will reveal the missing sample of faint red dwarf stars in the local solar neighborhood, and the unprecedented sensitivity over such a wide field will result in the discovery of thousands of z ~ 7 quasars (and reaching to z > 10), allowing detailed study (in concert with JWST and Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes) of the timing and the origin(s) of reionization. As a time-domain survey, SASIR will reveal the dynamic infrared universe, opening new phase space for discovery. Synoptic observations of over 10^6 supernovae and variable stars will provide better dista...

  19. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the AKARI All Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eser, E Kilerci; Doi, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a new catalog of 118 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and one Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxy (HLIRG) by crossmatching AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the Final Data Release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). 40 of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing/post mergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the AGN fraction and IR luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large off-set from the 'main sequence' up to z~1; their off-set from the z~2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a consistent result with the previous studies showing that compared to local star forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We for the first time demonstrate that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (...

  20. Progress on the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Jenet, Fredrick; Craig, Joseph; Creighton, Teviet David; Percy Dartez, Louis; Ford, Anthony J.; Hernandez, Andrés; Hicks, Brian; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jaramillo, Ricardo; Kassim, Namir E.; Lazio, Joseph; Lunsford, Grady; Miller, Rossina B.; Ray, Paul S.; Rivera, Jesus; Taylor, Gregory B.; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; CenterAdvanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, University of New Mexico, Naval Research Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laborator

    2015-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a system of geographically separated radio arrays dedicated to the study of radio transients. LoFASM consists of four stations, each comprised of 12 cross-dipole antennas designed to operate between 10-88MHz. The antennas and front end electronics for LoFASM were designed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) project (cf. Hicks et al. PASP 124, 1090 (2012)). All four stations are currently operational and in the commissioning stage . Over the last 3 years, undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Texas at Brownsville's Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy have been establishing these stations around the continental US, consisting of sites located in Port Mansfield, Texas, the LWA North Arm site of the LWA1 Radio Observatory in New Mexico, adjacent to the North Arm of the Very Large Array, the Green Bank Radio Observatory, West Virginia, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, California. In combination with the establishment of these sites was the development of the analog hardware, which consists of custom RF splitter/combiners and a custom amplifier and filter chain designed at Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA). This poster will expound on progress in site installation and the development of the analog signal chain, specifically the redesigned analog receiving system.

  1. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilerci Eser, E., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Goto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Doi, Y., E-mail: tomo@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ∼ 1; their offset from the z ∼ 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ∼ 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  2. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Pavelyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric layers can be evaluated, (iii the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1–4 db of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation

  3. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated, (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation indicates the

  4. Application of the locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A new formulation of the previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and other planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the intensity and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case, if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry centre is known, the time derivatives of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the centre of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency; (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated; (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the intensity and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen, water vapour, and hydrometeors can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. In accordance with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with the S4 scintillation index is established. This

  5. The AGN Content of the Micron all Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) began routine operations from its northern facility on Mt. Hopkins, AZ in June of 1997, and from its southern facility on Cerro Tololo, Chile in March of 1998. At each site, highly automated 1.3 m telescopes equipped with identical 3-channel cameras, are systematically imaging the sky in three near infrared wavelength bands, J (1.25 um), H (1.65 um) and K-s (2.17 um). The Survey will ultimately produce an Image Atlas containing nearly two million 512 x 1024 pixel images (1 arcsec/pix) in the three colors, a highly complete and reliable catalog containing approx. 300 million point sources having SNR greater than 10 photometry at J less or = 15.8, H less or = 15.1 and K-s less or = 14.3 mag. and an astrometric accuracy greater than 0.511 RMS, and a catalog of 1-2 million resolved sources, primarily galaxies, having SNR greater than 10 photometric accuracy at J less than or = 15.5, H less than or = 14.8 and K-s less than or = 13.5 mag. The 2MASS Sampler, an introductory set of data, was released to the community in December of 1998 (see http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/2mass/). We review the near IR and optical/IR properties of "conventional" QSOs from UV and optical samples, and estimate the number that will be detected by 2MASS. We also discuss 2MASS's ability to test for for new populations of extremely red AGN that have been missed by UV and Visual surveys, as suggested by from IRAS and radio studies. Results of spectroscopic follow-up of 2MASS-selected new AGN candidates will also be presented.

  6. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jenke, P; Case, Gary L; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark H; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughto, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. We will present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. Although the occultation technique is in principle quite simple, in practice there are many complications including the dynamic instrument response, source confusion, and scattering in the Earth's atmosphere, which will be described. We detect 99 sources, including 40 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 31 high-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to ot...

  7. Reconstruction of internal gravity wave parameters from radio occultation retrievals of vertical temperature profiles in the Earth atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Gubenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The new method for the reconstruction of internal gravity wave (IGW parameters from a single vertical temperature profile measurement in the Earth atmosphere has been developed. This method does not require any additional information not contained in the profile and may be used for the analysis of profiles measured by various techniques. The criterion for the IGW identification has been formulated and argued. In the case when this criterion is satisfied, then analyzed temperature fluctuations can be considered as wave-induced. The method is based on the analysis of relative amplitude thresholds of the temperature wave field and on the linear IGW saturation theory in which amplitude thresholds are restricted by dynamical (shear instability processes in the atmosphere. When the amplitude of an internal gravity wave reaches the shear instability limit, energy is assumed to be dissipated in such a way that the amplitude is maintained at the instability limit as the wave propagates upwards. In order to approbate the method we have used in situ data of simultaneous balloon high-resolution measurements of the temperature and wind velocity in the Earth stratosphere (France where a long-period inertia-gravity wave has been detected. Using the temperature data only, we have reconstructed all the measured wave parameters with uncertainties not larger than 30%. An application of the method to the radio occultation data has given the possibility to identify the IGWs in the Earth stratosphere and to determine the magnitudes of key wave parameters such as the intrinsic frequency, amplitudes of vertical and horizontal perturbations of the wind velocity, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase (and group speeds, kinetic and potential energy, vertical fluxes of the wave energy and horizontal momentum. The obtained results of internal wave studies in the Earth stratosphere deduced from the COSMIC and CHAMP GPS occultation

  8. Reconstruction of internal gravity wave parameters from radio occultation retrievals of vertical temperature profiles in the Earth's atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Gubenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the reconstruction of internal gravity wave (IGW parameters from a single vertical temperature profile measurement in the Earth's atmosphere has been developed. This method does not require any additional information not contained in the profile and may be used for the analysis of profiles measured by various techniques. The criterion for the IGW identification has been formulated and argued. In the case when this criterion is satisfied, then analyzed temperature fluctuations can be considered as wave-induced. The method is based on the analysis of relative amplitude thresholds of the temperature wave field and on the linear IGW saturation theory in which amplitude thresholds are restricted by dynamical (shear instability processes in the atmosphere. When the amplitude of an internal gravity wave reaches the shear instability limit, energy is assumed to be dissipated in such a way that the amplitude is maintained at the instability limit as the wave propagates upwards. In order to approbate the method we have used data of simultaneous high-resolution balloon measurements of the temperature and wind velocity in the Earth's stratosphere over France where a long-period inertia-gravity wave has been detected. Using the radiosonde temperature data only, we have reconstructed all wave parameters, which were determined by radiosondes, with relative deviations not larger than 30%. An application of the method to the radio occultation (RO data has given the possibility to identify the IGWs in the Earth's stratosphere and to determine the magnitudes of key wave parameters such as the intrinsic frequency, amplitudes of vertical and horizontal perturbations of the wind velocity, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase (and group speeds, kinetic and potential energy, vertical fluxes of the wave energy and horizontal momentum. The obtained results of internal wave studies in the Earth's stratosphere

  9. Parameterization of atmospheric longwave emissivity in a mountainous site for all sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Longwave radiation is an important component of the energy balance of the Earth's surface. The downward component, emitted by the clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, is rarely measured, and is still not well understood. In mountainous areas, direct observations are even scarcer and the fitting of existing models is often subjected to local parameterization in order to surplus the particular physics of the atmospheric profiles. The influence of clouds makes it even harder to estimate for all sky conditions. This work presents a long-time continuous dataset of high-resolution longwave radiation measured in a weather station at a height of 2500 m a.s.l. in Sierra Nevada, Spain, together with the parameterization of the apparent atmospheric emissivity for clear and cloudy skies resulting from three different schemes. We evaluate the schemes of Brutsaert, and Crawford and Duchon with locally adjusted coefficients and compare them with a completely parametric expression adjusted for these data that takes into account three possible significant atmospheric states related to the cloud cover: clear, completely covered, and partly covered skies. All the parametric expressions are related to the screen-level values of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation, which can be frequently found in standard weather stations. Unobserved cloudiness measurements needed for Brutsaert scheme for cloudy sky are also parameterized from screen-level measurements. The calibration performed for a 6-yr period at the study site resulted in satisfactory estimations of emissivity for all the analyzed schemes thanks to the local fitting of the parameterizations, with the best achievement found for the completely parametric expression. Further validation of the expressions in two alternative sites showed that the greater accuracy of the latter can also be found in very close sites, while a better performance of the Brutsaert scheme, with a more physical background

  10. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  11. All-sky Relative Opacity Mapping Using Night Time Panoramic Images

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Roberj J.

    2005-01-01

    An all-sky cloud monitoring system that generates relative opacity maps over many of the world's premier astronomical observatories is described. Photometric measurements of numerous background stars are combined with simultaneous sky brightness measurements to differentiate thin clouds from sky glow sources such as air glow and zodiacal light. The system takes a continuous pipeline of all-sky images, and compares them to canonical images taken on other nights at the same sidereal time. Data ...

  12. Correction on Effect of Earth's Oblateness in Inversion of GPS Occultation Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaohua; LI Zhenghang; LUO Jia

    2005-01-01

    By using observed CHAMP orbit ephemeredes and MSISE-90 dry air model and regarding the earth as a sphere and an ellipsoid respectively, phase delays are simulated and the simulated data are retrieved under different schemes. The comparison between the inverted temperature profiles and the model temperature profiles shows that by inverting observed data, we will get temperature results with large errors if the effect of Earth's oblateness is omitted. The correction method is proved to be effective because the temperature errors decreased obviously with this method.

  13. First Results from Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Soft Gamma-Ray Sources Above 100 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Gary L; Rodi, James C; Jenke, Peter; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Finger, Mark H; Meegan, Charles A; Camero-Arranz, Ascencion; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayan; Briggs, Michael S; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Kippen, R Marc; von Kienlin, Andreas; Griener, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The NaI and BGO detectors on the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi are now being used for long-term monitoring of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma-ray sky. Using the Earth occultation technique as demonstrated previously by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, GBM can be used to produce multiband light curves and spectra for known sources and transient outbursts in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range with its NaI detectors and up to 40 MeV with its BGO detectors. Over 85% of the sky is viewed every orbit, and the precession of the Fermi orbit allows the entire sky to be viewed every ~26 days with sensitivity exceeding that of BATSE at energies below ~25 keV and above ~1.5 MeV. We briefly describe the technique and present preliminary results using the NaI detectors after the first two years of observations at energies above 100 keV. Eight sources are detected with a significance greater than 7 sigma: the Crab, Cyg X-1, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, 1E 1740-29, Cen A, GRS 1915+105, and the transien...

  14. INTEGRAL observations of the cosmic X-ray background in the 5-100 keV range via occultation by the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Revnivtsev, M.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We study the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in energy range similar to 5-100 keV. Methods. Early in 2006 the INTEGRAL observatory performed a series of four 30 ks observations with the Earth disk crossing the field of view of the instruments. The modulation of the aperture flux...... due to occultation of extragalactic objects by the Earth disk was used to obtain the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray Background ( CXB). Various sources of contamination were evaluated, including compact sources, Galactic Ridge emission, CXB reflection by the Earth atmosphere, cosmic ray induced emission...... by the Earth atmosphere and the Earth auroral emission. Results. The spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in the energy band 5-100 keV is obtained. The shape of the spectrum is consistent with that obtained previously by the HEAO-1 observatory, while the normalization is similar to 10% higher...

  15. Modeling of the Zodiacal Emission for the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared All-sky Diffuse Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Takaba, Sachi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Onaka, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our solar system, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. Therefore, we aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al., using the AKARI 9 and 18 μm all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest that the size of the smooth cloud, a dominant component in the model, is about 10% more compact than previously thought, and that the dust sizes are not large enough to emit blackbody radiation in the mid-IR. Furthermore, we detect a significant isotropically distributed IPD component, owing to an accurate baseline measurement with AKARI.

  16. MODELING OF THE ZODIACAL EMISSION FOR THE AKARI/IRC MID-INFRARED ALL-SKY DIFFUSE MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Toru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Takaba, Sachi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ishihara@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our solar system, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. Therefore, we aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al., using the AKARI 9 and 18 μm all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest that the size of the smooth cloud, a dominant component in the model, is about 10% more compact than previously thought, and that the dust sizes are not large enough to emit blackbody radiation in the mid-IR. Furthermore, we detect a significant isotropically distributed IPD component, owing to an accurate baseline measurement with AKARI.

  17. Modeling of the zodiacal emission for the AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky diffuse maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, T; Kaneda, H; Nakamichi, K; Takaba, S; Kobayashi, H; Ootsubo, T; Pyo, J; Onaka, T

    2016-01-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our Solar System, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. We therefore aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al. 1998, using the AKARI 9 and 18 micron all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest ...

  18. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.

  19. Coherently combining short data segments for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, Evan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments. For misaligned detectors, however, thi...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    OpenAIRE

    Planck Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 mu m data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a good representation of the IRAS and Planck data at 5 0 between 353 and 3000 GHz (850 and 100 mu m). It shows variations of the order of 30% compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlege...

  1. Planck early results. VIII. The all-sky early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This early SZ (ESZ) sample is comprised of 189 candidates, which have a high signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 6 to 29. Its ...

  2. Remote and automatic small-scale observatories: experience with an all-sky fireball patrol camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a remote, automatic all-sky camera for capturing bright meteor trails based on a DSLR camera combined with Liquid Crystal shutter technology for angular velocity measurement. Design, performance and first results are discussed, as well the up scaling towards a large autonomous network for accurate fireball orbit determination and meteorite recovery.

  3. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, E.; Riles, K.

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors.

  4. Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-09-01

    Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.

  5. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin; Kuzin, Sergey; Pertsov, Andrey; Berghmans, David; Dominique, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO) satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA) and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the extinction coefficients

  6. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slemzin Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth’s upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the

  7. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a Hemispherical Sky Imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated by spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelength 380 nm to 760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less then 20% for all sky conditions.

  8. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a hemispherical sky imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images, non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated using spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelengths 380–760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less than 20% for all sky conditions.

  9. Derivation of sky quality indicators from photometrically calibrated all-sky image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.; Moore, Chadwick A.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    A large database of high resolution all-sky measurements of V-band night sky brightness at sites in U.S. National Parks and astronomical observatories is utilized to describe sky quality over a wide geographic area. Mosaics of photometrically calibrated V-band imagery are processed with a semi-automated procedure to reveal the effects of artificial sky glow through graphical presentation and numeric indicators of artificial sky brightness. Comparison with simpler methods such as the use of the Unihedron SQM and naked eye limiting magnitude reveal that areas near the horizon, which are not typically captured with single-channel measurements, contribute significantly to the indicators maximum vertical illuminance, maximum sky luminance, and average all-sky luminance. Distant sources of sky glow may represent future threats to areas of the sky nearer the zenith. Timely identification and quantification of these threats may allow mitigating strategies to be implemented.

  10. All-sky Relative Opacity Mapping Using Night Time Panoramic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, L; Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Roberj J.

    2005-01-01

    An all-sky cloud monitoring system that generates relative opacity maps over many of the world's premier astronomical observatories is described. Photometric measurements of numerous background stars are combined with simultaneous sky brightness measurements to differentiate thin clouds from sky glow sources such as air glow and zodiacal light. The system takes a continuous pipeline of all-sky images, and compares them to canonical images taken on other nights at the same sidereal time. Data interpolation then yields transmission maps covering almost the entire sky. An implementation of this system is currently operating through the Night Sky Live network of CONCAM3s located at Cerro Pachon (Chile), Mauna Kea (Hawaii), Haleakala (Hawaii), SALT (South Africa) and the Canary Islands (Northwestern Africa).

  11. The GRB All-sky Spectrometer Experiment III: Upgrades and Commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zachary; Martinot, Zachary; Voigt, Elana; Pober, Jonathan; Morales, Miguel F.

    2015-01-01

    The GRB All-sky Spectrometer Experiment (GASE) is designed to detect low frequency radio emission following a gamma ray burst. GASE currently uses 8 dipole antennas to detect these emissions. This poster will discuss the commissioning and associated troubleshooting of setting up these antennas. This will include the challenges presented by having the instrument located here in Seattle such as water damage, corrosion, and RFI.

  12. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey view of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Denner, K.; Kahabka, P.; Pakull, M.; Schaeidt, S.

    1996-01-01

    During the Rosat all sky survey, centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 516 X-ray sources were detected. The field was covered from July 1990 to January 1991. The X-ray parameters of the sources, involving position, count rates, hardness ratios, extent, and time variability during the observations, are discussed. Identifications with objects from optical, radio and infrared wavelength allow the LMC candidates to be separated from the foreground stars and the background objects.

  13. Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission

    CERN Document Server

    Abergel, A; Aghanim, N; Alina, D; Alves, M I R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Grenier, I A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Joncas, G; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 857, 545 and 353 GHz, and IRAS 100 micron data. Using a modified black-body fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a tight representation of the data at 5 arcmin. It shows variations of the order of 30 % compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, tau_353/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_obs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at HI column densities lower than...

  14. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  15. Monitoring the Sky with the Prototype All-Sky Imager on the LWA1

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Hartman, J M; Clarke, T E; Dowell, J; Dubois, A; Dubois, D; Henning, P A; Lazio, J; Michalak, S; Schinzel, F K

    2015-01-01

    We present a description of the Prototype All-Sky Imager (PASI), a backend correlator and imager of the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1). PASI cross-correlates a live stream of 260 dual-polarization dipole antennas of the LWA1, creates all-sky images, and uploads them to the LWA-TV website in near real-time. PASI has recorded over 13,000 hours of all-sky images at frequencies between 10 and 88 MHz creating opportunities for new research and discoveries. We also report rate density and pulse energy density limits on transients at 38, 52, and 74 MHz, for pulse widths of 5 s. We limit transients at those frequencies with pulse energy densities of $>2.7\\times 10^{-23}$, $>1.1\\times 10^{-23}$, and $>2.8\\times 10^{-23}$ J m$^{-2}$ Hz$^{-1}$ to have rate densities $<1.2\\times10^{-4}$, $<5.6\\times10^{-4}$, and $<7.2\\times10^{-4}$ yr$^{-1}$ deg$^{-2}$

  16. All-Sky Observational Evidence for An Inverse Correlation Between Dust Temperature and Emissivity Spectral Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gold, B.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a one-component variable-emissivity-spectral-index model (the free- model) provides more physically motivated estimates of dust temperature at the Galactic polar caps than one- or two-component fixed-emissivity-spectral-index models (fixed- models) for interstellar dust thermal emission at far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. For the comparison we have fit all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to a new and improved version of the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100-240 micrometer maps from the COBE-DIRBE and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. The best model, the free-alpha model, is well constrained by data at 60-3000 GHz over 86 per cent of the total sky area. It predicts dust temperature (T(sub dust)) to be 13.7-22.7 (plus or minus 1.3) K, the emissivity spectral index (alpha) to be 1.2-3.1 (plus or minus 0.3) and the optical depth (tau) to range 0.6-46 x 10(exp -5) with a 23 per cent uncertainty. Using these estimates, we present all-sky evidence for an inverse correlation between the emissivity spectral index and dust temperature, which fits the relation alpha = 1/(delta + omega (raised dot) T(sub dust) with delta = -.0.510 plus or minus 0.011 and omega = 0.059 plus or minus 0.001. This best model will be useful to cosmic microwave background experiments for removing foreground dust contamination and it can serve as an all-sky extended-frequency reference for future higher resolution dust models.

  17. WATCHDOG: A COMPREHENSIVE ALL-SKY DATABASE OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C., E-mail: btetaren@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (∼40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ∼20 years. Our findings suggest that this “hard-only” behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these “hard-only” outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population.

  18. Star-galaxy separation strategies for WISE-2MASS all-sky infrared galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, András; Szapudi, István

    2015-04-01

    We combine photometric information of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) all-sky infrared data bases, and demonstrate how to produce clean and complete galaxy catalogues for future analyses. Adding 2MASS colours to WISE photometry improves star-galaxy separation efficiency substantially at the expense of losing a small fraction of the galaxies. We find that 93 per cent of the WISE objects within W1 data set. We constructed a training set from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey PhotoObj table with known star-galaxy separation, and determined redshift distribution of our sample from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly spectroscopic survey. Varying the combination of photometric parameters input into our algorithm we show that W1WISE - J2MASS is a simple and effective star-galaxy separator, capable of producing results comparable to the multidimensional SVM classification. We present a detailed description of our star-galaxy separation methods, and characterize the robustness of our tools in terms of contamination, completeness, and accuracy. We explore systematics of the full sky WISE-2MASS galaxy map, such as contamination from moon glow. We show that the homogeneity of the full sky galaxy map is improved by an additional J2MASS < 16.5 mag flux limit. The all-sky galaxy catalogue we present in this paper covers 21 200 deg2 with dusty regions masked out, and has an estimated stellar contamination of 1.2 per cent and completeness of 70.1 per cent among 2.4 million galaxies with zmed ≈ 0.14. WISE-2MASS galaxy maps with well controlled stellar contamination will be useful for spatial statistical analyses, including cross-correlations with other cosmological random fields, such as the cosmic microwave background. The same techniques also yield a statistically controlled sample of stars as well.

  19. The Steepness Ratio Technique: A New Method to analyze ROSAT All-Sky Survey Extended Sources

    OpenAIRE

    S. De Grandi; Molendi, S.; Böhringer, H.; Chincarini, G.; Voges, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this first paper of a series we develop a new technique to analyze clusters of galaxies observed during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). We call this method the Steepness Ratio Technique (SRT). The SRT uses the convolution between the real RASS point-spread function and the cluster emission profile assumed to be a beta-model with the beta parameter fixed to the value of 2/3. From the convolved source emission profile the SRT extracts total flux and extension (i.e., core radius) for each cl...

  20. Total infrared luminosity estimation from local galaxies in AKARI all sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Solarz, A; Pollo, A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use the a new and improved version of AKARI all sky survey catalogue of far-infrared sources to recalibrate the formula to derive the total infrared luminosity. We cross-match the faint source catalogue (FSC) of IRAS with the new AKARI-FIS and obtained a sample of 2430 objects. Then we calculate the total infrared (TIR) luminosity $L_{\\textrm{TIR}}$ from the Sanders at al. (1996) formula and compare it with total infrared luminosity from AKARI FIS bands to obtain new coefficients for the general relation to convert FIR luminosity from AKARI bands to the TIR luminosity.

  1. Spectral Classification of Optical Counterparts to ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, D; Rutledge, R E; Dragomir, Diana; Roy, Philippe; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work statistically identified 5492 optical counterparts, with approximately 90% confidence, from among the approximately 18,000 X-ray sources appearing in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC). Using low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 3700-7900 angstroms, we present spectroscopic classifications for 195 of these counterparts which have not previously been classified. Of these 195, we find 168 individual stars of F, G, K or M type, 6 individual stars of unknown type, 6 double stars, 6 AGN or galaxies and 7 unclassifiable objects; the spectra of the 2 remaining objects were saturated.

  2. Status of GRB Observations with the Suzaku Wideband All-sky Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M S; Urata, Y; Onda, K; Kodaka, N; Endo, A; Suzuki, M; Morigami, K; Yamaoka, K; Nakagawa, Y E; Sugita, S; Fukazawa, Y; Ohno, M; Takahashi, T; Kira, C; Uehara, T; Tamagawa, T; Enoto, T; Miyawaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Makishima, K; Sonoda, E; Yamauchi, M; Maeno, S; Tanaka, H; Hara, R; Suzuki, M; Kokubun, M; Takahashi, T; Hong, S J; Murakami, T; Tajima, H

    2008-01-01

    The Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) is a function of the large lateral BGO shield of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) onboard Suzaku. Its large geometrical area of 800 cm^2 per side, the large stopping power for the hard X-rays and the wide-field of view make the WAM an ideal detector for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observations in the energy range of 50-5000 keV. In fact, the WAM has observed 288 GRBs confirmed by other satellites, till the end of May 2007.

  3. Optical Identification of Four Hard X-ray Sources from the Swift All-Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lutovinov, A.; Burenin, R.; Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S; Sholukhova, O.; Valeev, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of four hard X-ray sources from the Swift all-sky survey. We obtained optical spectra for each of the program objects with the 6-m BTA telescope (Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz), which allowed their nature to be established. Two sources (SWIFT J2237.2+6324} and SWIFT J2341.0+7645) are shown to belong to the class of cataclysmic variables (suspected polars or intermediate polars). The measured...

  4. THE TIME AND COORDINATE SYSTEM OF EARTH-BASED MARS ATMOSPHERE OCCULTATION%地基火星大气掩星观测的时间系统与坐标系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩婷婷; 毛晓飞; 张素君; 李磊; 平劲松; 洪振杰

    2009-01-01

    在地基掩星观测反演火星大气的资料处理过程中,掩星平面的建立是数据整理模块考虑的第一项任务.该文详细介绍了利用初始的观测资料(飞行器、火星与地球的历表),确定信号时延、建立掩星平面、计算掩星点高度以及在火固坐标系下掩星点和太阳的位置等流程中的时间系统与坐标系统问题.%In the inversion of the Earth-based Mars atmosphere occultation of the data processing, the first task is to establish the occultation plane in the observation data arrangement module. This paper describes how to use the initial data ( aircraft, Mars and Earth ephemeris) to determine the signal delay , establish the occultation plane, calculate the height of occultation, as well as define the occultation points and the sun's location in the Mars Non-inertial Coordinate. The time and the coordinates system in the observation data arrangement module are discussed in detail.

  5. Comprehensive All-sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Sixth Science Run LIGO Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 100-1500 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of $[-1.18, +1.00]\\times 10^{-8}$ Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from the Initial LIGO sixth science run and covers a larger parameter space with respect to any past search. A Loosely Coherent detection pipeline was applied to follow up weak outliers in both Gaussian (95% recovery rate) and non-Gaussian (75% recovery rate) bands. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strength. Our smallest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude $h_0$ is ${9.7}\\times 10^{-25}$ near 169 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of ${5.5}\\times 10^{-24}$. Both cases refer to all sky locations and entire range of frequency derivative values.

  6. Sharp Chandra View of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Sources: I. Improvement of Positional Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) represents one of the most complete and sensitive soft X-ray all-sky surveys to date. However, the deficient positional accuracy of the RASS Bright Source Catalog (BSC) and subsequent lack of firm optical identifications affect the multi-wavelength studies of X-ray sources. The widely used positional errors $\\sigma_{pos}$ based on the Tycho Stars Catalog (Tycho-1) have previously been applied for identifying objects in the optical band. The considerably sharper Chandra view covers a fraction of RASS sources, whose $\\sigma_{pos}$ could be improved by utilizing the sub-arcsec positional accuracy of Chandra observations. We cross-match X-ray objects between the BSC and \\emph{Chandra} sources extracted from the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) archival observations. A combined counterparts list (BSCxACIS) with \\emph{Chandra} spatial positions weighted by the X-ray flux of multi-counterparts is employed to evaluate and improve the former identifications of BSC with the other...

  7. Solar radiation forecasting in the short- and medium-term under all sky conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological conditions are decisive in solar plant management and electricity generation. Any increases or decreases in solar radiation mean a plant has to adapt its operation method to the climatological phenomena. An unexpected atmospheric change can provoke a range of problems related to various solar plant components affecting the electricity generation system and, in consequence, causing alterations in the electricity grid. Therefore, predicting atmospheric features is key to managing solar plants and is therefore necessary for correct electrical grid management. Accordingly, a solar radiation forecast model is presented, where the three solar components (beam, diffuse and global) are predicted over the short- and medium-term (up to three hours) for all sky conditions, demonstrating its potential as a useful application in decision-making processes at solar power plants. - Highlights: • A solar radiation forecasting has been proposed over the short- and medium-term. • The three radiation components have been predicted under all sky conditions. • Cloud motion and the Heliosat-2 model are combined for predicting solar radiation. • Results have been presented for cloudless, partially-cloudy and overcast conditions. • For beam and global radiation, the nRMSE value is lower than 10% under clear skies

  8. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  9. An improved source-subtracted and destriped 408 MHz all-sky map

    CERN Document Server

    Remazeilles, M; Banday, A J; Bigot-Sazy, M -A; Ghosh, T

    2014-01-01

    The all-sky 408 MHz map of Haslam et al. is one the most important total-power radio surveys. It has been widely used to study diffuse synchrotron radiation from our Galaxy and as a template to remove foregrounds in cosmic microwave background data. However, there are a number of issues associated with it that must be dealt with, including large-scale striations and contamination from extragalactic radio sources. We have re-evaluated and re-processed the rawest data available to produce a new and improved 408 MHz all-sky map. We first quantify the positional accuracy ($\\approx 7$ arcmin) and effective beam ($56.0\\pm1.0$ arcmin) of the four individual surveys from which it was assembled. Large-scale striations associated with $1/f$ noise in the scan direction are reduced to a level $\\ll 1$ K using a Fourier-based filtering technique. The most important improvement results from the removal of extragalactic sources. We have used an iterative combination of two techniques -- two-dimensional Gaussian fitting and m...

  10. All-sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Full S5 LIGO Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cain, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endrőczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Farr, W; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Garcia, J; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamaretsos, I; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinsey, M; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H M

    2011-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 50-800 Hz and with the frequency time derivative in the range of 0 through -6e-9 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. After recent improvements in the search program that yielded a 10x increase in computational efficiency, we have searched in two years of data collected during LIGO's fifth science run and have obtained the most sensitive all-sky upper limits on gravitational wave strain to date. Near 150 Hz our upper limit on worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude $h_0$ is 1e-24, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 3.8e-24 for all polarizations and sky locations. These results constitute a factor of two improvement upon previously published data. A new detection pipeline utilizing a Loosely Coherent algorithm was able to follow up weaker outliers, increasing the volume of space wher...

  11. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.;

    2016-01-01

    in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The DL A(V) estimates are larger than those determined towards QSOs by a factor of about 2, which depends on U-min. The DL fitting parameter U-min, effectively determined by the wavelength where the SED peaks, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust...... for the systematic differences found with QSO observations. This renormalization, made to match the A(V) estimates towards QSOs, also brings into agreement the DL A(V) estimates with those derived for molecular clouds from the near-IR colours of stars in the 2 micron all sky survey (2MASS). The DL model and the QSOs......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...

  12. An All-Sky Sample of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lundquist, Michael J; Alexander, Michael J; Kerton, Charles R; Arvidsson, Kim

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions color-selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5 degrees using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 solar masses of stars. The...

  13. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  14. Comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the sixth science run LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We report on a comprehensive all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 100-1500 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.18 ,+1.00 ] ×1 0-8 Hz /s . Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from the initial LIGO sixth science run and covers a larger parameter space with respect to any past search. A Loosely Coherent detection pipeline was applied to follow up weak outliers in both Gaussian (95% recovery rate) and non-Gaussian (75% recovery rate) bands. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strength. Our smallest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 is 9.7 ×1 0-25 near 169 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 5.5 ×1 0-24 . Both cases refer to all sky locations and entire range of frequency derivative values.

  15. Concept of a small satellite for sub-MeV and MeV all sky survey: the CAST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Takashima, Takeshi; Tashiro, Makoto; Tamagawa, Toru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Shin

    2012-09-01

    MeV and sub-MeV energy band from ~200 keV to ~2 MeV contains rich information of high-energy phenomena in the universe. The CAST (Compton Telescope for Astro and Solar Terrestrial) mission is planned to be launched at the end of 2010s, and aims at providing all-sky map in this energy-band for the first time. It is made of a semiconductor Compton telescope utilizing Si as a scatterer and CdTe as an absorber. CAST provides allsky sub-MeV polarization map for the first time, as well. The Compton telescope technology is based on the design used in the Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard ASTRO-H, characterized by its tightly stacked semiconductor layers to obtain high Compton reconstruction efficiency. The CAST mission is currently planned as a candidate for the small scientific satellite series in ISAS/JAXA, weighting about 500 kg in total. Scalable detector design enables us to consider other options as well. Scientific outcome of CAST is wide. It will provide new information from high-energy sources, such as AGN and/or its jets, supernova remnants, magnetors, blackhole and neutron-star binaries and others. Polarization map will tell us about activities of jets and reflections in these sources, as well. In addition, CAST will simultaneously observe the Sun, and depending on its attitude, the Earth.

  16. The MAXI Mission on the ISS: Science and Instruments for Monitoring All Sky X-Ray Images

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Motoko; Adachi, Yasuki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Isobe, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yujin; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Jun; Morii, Mikio; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Chujo, Hirotaka; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamazaki, Osamu; Nakahira, Satoshi; You, Tetsuya; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Miyoshi, Sho; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Ebisawa, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the ISS. It is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2009 to monitor all-sky X-ray objects on every ISS orbit. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor (ASM) payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of AGN. MAXI will provide all sky images of X-ray sources of about 20 mCrab in the energy band of 2-30 keV from observation on one ISS orbit (90 min), about 4.5 mCrab for one day, and about 1 mCrab for one month. A final detectability of MAXI could be 0.2 mCrab for 2 year observations.

  17. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project № 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  18. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, M.; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between -1.0 ×10-10 and +1.5 ×10-11 Hz /s , and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short fast Fourier transforms, of length 8192 s, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, in both the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each data set a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and for the coincidence step greatly reduce the harmful effect of large instrumental artifacts. Selected candidates have been subject to a follow-up by constructing a new set of longer fast Fourier transforms followed by a further incoherent analysis, still based on the FrequencyHough transform. No evidence for continuous gravitational wave signals was found, and therefore we have set a population-based joint VSR2-VSR4 90% confidence level upper limit on the dimensionless gravitational wave strain in the frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz. This is the first all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves conducted, on data of ground-based interferometric detectors, at frequencies below 50 Hz. We set upper limits in the range between about 1 0-24 and 2 ×10-23 at most frequencies. Our upper limits on signal strain show an improvement of up to a factor of ˜2 with respect to the results of previous all-sky searches at frequencies below 80 Hz.

  19. The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey I. Source selection and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, S T; Browne, I W A; De Bruyn, A G; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Wilkinson, P N; Biggs, A D; Blandford, R D; Fassnacht, C D; Koopmans, L V E; Marlow, D R; McKean, J P; Norbury, M A; Phillips, P M; Rusin, D; Shepherd, M C; Sykes, C M

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) is an international collaborative program which has obtained high-resolution radio images of over 10000 flat-spectrum radio sources in order to create the largest and best studied statistical sample of radio-loud gravitationally lensed systems. With this survey, combined with detailed studies of the lenses found therein, constraints can be placed on the expansion rate, matter density, and dark energy (e.g. cosmological constant, quintessence) content of the Universe that are complementary to and independent of those obtained through other methods. CLASS is aimed at identifying lenses where multiple images are formed from compact flat-spectrum radio sources, which should be easily identifiable in the radio maps. Because CLASS is radio-based, dust obscuration in lensing galaxies is not a factor, and the relative insensitivity of the instrument to environmental conditions leads to nearly uniform sensitivity and resolution over the entire survey. In four observing seasons fr...

  20. All Sky Search for Gravitational-Wave Bursts in the Second Joint LIGO-Virgo Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aylott, B. E.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a search for gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010: data are analyzed when at least two of the three LIGO-Virgo detectors are in coincident operation, with a total observation time of 207 days. The analysis searches for transients of duration approx. standard-candle sources. As in the previous joint run, typical sensitivities of the search in terms of the root-sum-squared strain amplitude for these waveforms lie in the range approx 5 x 10(exp -22 Hz(exp-1/2) approx 1 X 10(exp -20) Hz(exp -1/2) . The combination of the two joint runs entails the most sensitive all-sky search for generic gravitational-wave bursts and synthesizes the results achieved by the initial generation of interferometric detectors.

  1. All-sky sensitivity of HAWC to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatory in the state of Puebla, Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m. Its 22,000 m$^2$ instrumented area, wide field of view ($\\sim$2 sr), and >95% uptime make it an ideal instrument for discovering gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission at $\\sim$100 GeV. Such a discovery would provide key information about the origins of prompt GRB emission as well as constraints on extra-galactic background light (EBL) models and the violation of Lorentz invariance. We will present prospects for discovering GRB emission at $\\sim$100 GeV with a simple, all-sky search algorithm using HAWC data that is most sensitive to short GRBs. The search algorithm presented here can also be used to detect other short transients with timescales and fluxes similar to short GRBs.

  2. The effect of radiation on the IRAS all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is in a sun synchronous, 'near' polar orbit at an altitude of 900 km. The primary objective of IRAS is related to the conduction of an all-sky survey in the wavelength range from 8 microns to 120 microns. The present investigation is concerned with three components of the radiation environment encountered by IRAS, taking into account the high energy protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly, high energy electrons in the horns of the Van Allen belts, and cosmic rays. The effect of radiation on the returned data stream is studied, and attention is given to the steps which were taken to minimize the impact of radiation on the completeness of the survey.

  3. Imaging science at Amazon rainforest, Brazil, using an all-sky imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, G. L.; Pimenta, A. A.; Manzi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Near-simultaneous all-sky (160 degrees field of view) observations of the OI 630.0 nm, OI777.4 nm, OI557.7 nm and 589 nm nightglow emissions are being carried out on a routine basis at ZF-2 Cuireiras Biological Reserve (2.59 degrees S, 60.22 degrees W, altitude 87 m), Amazonas state, Brazil, since July 2015. In the thermosphere-ionosphere, three types of phenomena are studied using 630.0 nm and 777.4 nm observations: (1) brightness waves (BW) associated with the midnight temperature maximum (MTM), (2) electron density enhancement associated with plasma blobs and MSTID with characteristics matching a Perkins-instability. In the mesosphere we study gravity waves events, probably generated by lower atmospheric due to treetops of the Amazon rainforest.

  4. Estimating all-sky night brightness maps from finite sets of SQM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve Rúa, V.; Ling, J. F.; Bará, S.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Nievas, M.; Zamorano, J.

    2015-05-01

    The all-sky night brightness distributions recorded at observing sites with moderate to high levels of light pollution can be efficiently described by polynomial series or relatively low order. This opens the way for estimating these continuous distributions from discrete sets of measurements made in different directions of the sky with photometric detectors of low spatial resolution as, e.g. the Sky Quality Meter, SQM^{TM} (10° HWHM). Modal estimations of the night sky brightness can be obtained by expanding their equal-area projection maps as a series of orthonormal functions, in particular Zernike polynomials, and fitting the unknown modal coefficients to the measurements provided by the detector. Least squares and minimum variance estimators can be easily developed once the linear functional relationship between the measurements and the actual sky brightness distribution is established.

  5. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  6. All-sky reconstruction of the primordial scalar potential from WMAP temperature data

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A

    2014-01-01

    An essential quantity required to understand the physics of the early Universe, in particular the inflationary epoch, is the primordial scalar potential $\\Phi$ and its statistics. We present for the first time an all-sky reconstruction of $\\Phi$ with corresponding $1\\sigma$-uncertainty from WMAP's cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data - a map of the very early Universe right after the inflationary epoch. This has been achieved by applying a Bayesian inference method that separates the whole inverse problem of the reconstruction into many independent ones, each of them solved by an optimal linear filter (Wiener filter). In this way, the three-dimensional potential $\\Phi$ gets reconstructed slice by slice resulting in a thick shell of nested spheres around the comoving distance to the last scattering surface. Each slice represents the primordial scalar potential $\\Phi$ projected onto a sphere with corresponding distance. Furthermore, we present an advanced method for inferring $\\Phi$ and its power ...

  7. All-sky signals from recombination to reionization with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Pritchard, Jonathan; Vedantham, Harish K

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic evolution in the hydrogen content of the Universe through recombination and up to the end of reionization is expected to be revealed as subtle spectral features in the uniform extragalactic cosmic radio background. The redshift evolution in the excitation temperature of the 21-cm spin flip transition of neutral hydrogen appears as redshifted emission and absorption against the cosmic microwave background. The precise signature of the spectral trace from cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization are dependent on the spectral radiance, abundance and distribution of the first bound systems of stars and early galaxies, which govern the evolution in the spin-flip level populations. Redshifted 21 cm from these epochs when the spin temperature deviates from the temperature of the ambient relic cosmic microwave background results in an all-sky spectral structure in the 40-200 MHz range, almost wholly within the band of SKA-Low. Another spectral structure from gas evolution is redshifted recombination lines fro...

  8. Noctilucent Cloud Particle Size Determination based on Multi-Wavelength All-Sky Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S; Pilgaev, Sergey V; Roldugin, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of color distribution in noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the sky based on multi-wavelength (RGB) CCD-photometry provided with the all-sky camera in Lovozero in the north of Russia (68.0 deg N, 35.1 deg E) during the bright expanded NLC performance in the night of August 12, 2016. Insignificant changes in the NLC color across the sky are interpreted as the atmospheric extinction effect combined with the difference in the Mie scattering functions of NLC particles for the three color channels of the camera. The method described in this paper is used to find the effective radius of particles about 56 nm. The result of these simple and cost-effective measurements is in good agreement with previous estimations of comparable accuracy. Non-spherical particles and lognormal distribution of the particle size are also considered.

  9. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. I. Survey Description, Goals, and Initial Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    McClure-Griffiths, N M; Calabretta, M R; Ford, H A; Lockman, F J; Staveley-Smith, L; Kalberla, P M W; Bailin, J; Dedes, L; Janowiecki, S; Gibson, B K; Murphy, T; Nakanishi, H; Newton-McGee, K

    2009-01-01

    The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) emission in the Southern sky covering declinations $\\delta \\leq 1^{\\circ}$ using the Parkes Radio Telescope. The survey covers $2\\pi$ steradians with an effective angular resolution of ~16', at a velocity resolution of 1.0 km/s, and with an rms brightness temperature noise of 57 mK. GASS is the most sensitive, highest angular resolution survey of Galactic HI emission ever made in the Southern sky. In this paper we outline the survey goals, describe the observations and data analysis, and present the first-stage data release. The data product is a single cube at full resolution, not corrected for stray radiation. Spectra from the survey and other data products are publicly available online.

  10. A Uniformly Selected, All-Sky Optical AGN catalog, for UHECR Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaw, Ingyin; Farrar, Glennys R

    2015-01-01

    Studies discerning whether there is a significant correlation between UHECR arrival directions and optical AGN are hampered by the lack of a uniformly selected and complete all-sky optical AGN catalog. To remedy this, we are preparing such a catalog based on the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), a spectroscopic sample of $\\sim 44,500$ galaxies complete to a K magnitude of 11.75 over 91% of the sky. We have analyzed the available optical spectra of these 2MRS galaxies ($\\sim 80$% of the galaxies), in order to identify the AGN amongst them with uniform criteria. We present a first-stage release of the AGN catalog for the southern sky, based on spectra from the 6dF Galaxy survey and CTIO telescope. Providing a comparably uniform and complete catalog for the northern sky is more challenging because the spectra for the northern galaxies were taken with different instruments.

  11. Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS): Algorithm and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit; Dudhia, Jimy

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resources for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the RT equation, the computation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time-consuming, though many approximations (e.g., two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme) have been utilized. Thus, a more efficient RT model is crucial for model developers as a new option for approximating solar radiation at the land surface with minimal loss of accuracy. In this study, we developed a fast all-sky radiation model for solar applications (FARMS) using the simplified clear-sky RT model, REST2, and simulated cloud transmittances and reflectances from the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) with a 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT). Simulated lookup tables (LUTs) of cloud transmittances and reflectances are created by varying cloud optical thicknesses, cloud particle sizes, and solar zenith angles. Equations with optimized parameters are fitted to the cloud transmittances and reflectances to develop the model. The all-sky solar irradiance at the land surface can then be computed rapidly by combining REST2 with the cloud transmittances and reflectances. This new RT model is more than 1,000 times faster than those currently utilized in solar resource assessment and forecasting because it does not explicitly solve the RT equation for each individual cloud condition. Our results indicate that the accuracy of the fast radiative transfer model is comparable to or better than two-stream approximation in term of computing cloud transmittance and solar radiation.

  12. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  13. Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain spectral sky radiances, at three wavelengths (464, 534 and 626 nm, from hemispherical sky images. Images are registered with an All-Sky Imager installed at the Andalusian Center for Environmental Research (CEAMA in Granada (Spain. The methodology followed in this work for the absolute calibration in radiance of this instrument is based on the comparison of its output measurements with modelled sky radiances derived from the Libradtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code under cloud-free conditions. Previously, in order to check the goodness of the simulated radiances, these are compared with experimental values recorded by a CIMEL sunphotometer. In general, modelled radiances are in agreement with experimental data, showing mean differences lower than 15% except for the pixels located next to the sun position that show larger errors.

    The comparison between the output signal of the All-Sky Imager and the modelled sky radiances provides a calibration matrix for each image. The variability of the matrix coefficients is analyzed, showing no significant changes along a period of 5 months. Therefore, a unique calibration matrix per channel is obtained for all selected images (a total of 705 images per channel. Camera radiances are compared with CIMEL radiances, finding mean absolute differences between 2% and 15% except for pixels near to the Sun and high zenith angles. We apply these calibration matrices to three images in order to study the sky radiance distributions for three different sky conditions: cloudless, overcast and partially cloudy. Horizon brightening under cloudless conditions has been observed together with the enhancement effect of individual clouds on sky radiance.

  14. The AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, D.; Onaka, T.; Kataza, H.; Salama, A.; Alfageme, C.; Cassatella, A.; Cox, N.; García-Lario, P.; Stephenson, C.; Cohen, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Ita, Y.; Kim, W.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, H.; Müller, T. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pyo, J.; Sakon, I.; Shibai, H.; Takita, S.; Tanabé, T.; Uemizu, K.; Ueno, M.; Usui, F.; Wada, T.; Watarai, H.; Yamamura, I.; Yamauchi, C.

    2010-05-01

    Context. AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 μm and 200 μm during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9 μm and 18 μm bands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the infrared camera (IRC). Aims: We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 μm and 18 μm AKARI all-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point source detection and measurements. Methods: The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan, and the point sources candidates are derived above the 5σ noise level per single scan. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statistically and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detections of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Results: The sky coverage is more than 90% for both bands. A total of 877 091 sources (851 189 for 9 μm, 195 893 for 18 μm) are confirmed and included in the current release of the point source catalog. The detection limit for point sources is 50 mJy and 90 mJy for the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively. The position accuracy is estimated to be better than 2''. Uncertainties in the in-flight absolute flux calibration are estimated to be 3% for the 9 μm band and 4% for the 18 μm band. The coordinates and fluxes of detected sources in this survey are also compared with those of the IRAS survey and are found to be statistically consistent. Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/514/A1

  15. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations.

    We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%.

    This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The

  16. Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Draine, B. T.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density ΣMd, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the present dust mass estimates agree remarkably well (within 10%) with DL estimates based on independent Spitzer and Herschel data. We compare the DL optical extinction AV for the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) with optical estimates for approximately 2 × 105 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) observed inthe Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined towards QSOs by a factor of about 2, which depends on Umin. The DL fitting parameter Umin, effectively determined by the wavelength where the SED peaks, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains per unit AV, and not only in the starlight intensity. These results show that some of the physical assumptions of the DL model will need to be revised. To circumvent the model deficiency, we propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found with QSO observations. This renormalization, made to match the AV estimates towards QSOs, also brings into agreement the DL AV estimates with those derived for

  17. New AGN classifications in the Swift/BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at the San Pedro Martir (Mexico) Telescope and using the 6dF archive (http://www.aao.gov.au/local/www/6df, Jones et al. 2004), we determine or give a better classification for 8 newly discovered Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Swift/BAT 22-months All-sky Hard X-ray Survey (Baumgartner et al. 2008, Tueller et al. 2010). All these objects have observations taken with Swift/XRT or Chandra or XMM archival data which allowed us to pinpoint their optical counterpart thanks to the precise (better than a few arcsec) soft X-ray positions afforded by these observatories. This information enabled us to obtain optical spectra of all these counterparts, since only three spectra are available on-line, but not flux calibrated, allowing us to reveal their real nature (Baumgartner et al. 2008 give only a tentative classification based upon their X-ray properties). Here we present the spectra, along with the corresponding finding charts obtained from the DSS-II red survey, of these 8 s...

  18. A Two Micron All Sky Survey Analysis of the Stability of Southern Bok Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Germán A.; Vilas-Boas, José W. S.; de la Reza, Ramiro

    2009-10-01

    We used near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey data to construct visual extinction maps of a sample of Southern Bok globules utilizing the NICE method. We derived radial extinction profiles of dense cores identified in the globules and analyzed their stability against gravitational collapse with isothermal Bonnor-Ebert spheres. The frequency distribution of the stability parameter (ξmax) of these cores shows that a large number of them are located in stable states, followed by an abrupt decrease of cores in unstable states. This decrease is steeper for globules with associated IRAS point sources than for starless globules. Moreover, globules in stable states have a Bonnor-Ebert temperature of T = 15 ± 6 K, while the group of critical plus unstable globules has a different temperature of T = 10 ± 3 K. Distances were estimated to all the globules studied in this work and the spectral class of the IRAS sources was calculated. No variations were found in the stability parameters of the cores and the spectral class of their associated IRAS sources. On the basis of 13CO J = 1 - 0 molecular line observations, we identified and modeled a blue-asymmetric line profile toward a globule of the sample, obtaining an upper limit infall speed of 0.25 km s-1. Based on a Ph.D. thesis made at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. The AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Salama, Alberto; Alfageme, Carlos; Cassatella, Angelo; Cox, Nick; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Stephenson, Craig; Cohen, Martin; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kim, Woojung; Matsuhara, Hideo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takita, Satoshi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Wada, Takehiko; Watarai, Hiden ori; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato

    2010-01-01

    Context : AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrar ed astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 and 200um during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9um and 18um b ands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the Infrar ed Camera (IRC). Aims : We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 and 18um AKARI al l-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point s ource detection and measurements. Methods : The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan and point sources candidates, above the 5-sigma noise level per single scan, are der ived. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statisti cally and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detect ions of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Resu...

  20. An all-sky search for long-duration gravitational wave transients with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D V; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; 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    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and 132.9 days, respectively. The search targets gravitational wave transients of duration 10 - 500 seconds in a frequency band of 40 - 1000 Hz, with minimal assumptions about the signal waveform, polarization, source direction, or time of occurrence. All candidate triggers were consistent with the expected background; as a result we set 90% confidence upper limits on the rate of long-duration gravitational wave transients for different types of gravitational wave signals. We also report upper limits on the source rate density per year per Mpc^3 for specific signal models. These are the first results from an all-sky search for unmodeled long-duration transient gravitational waves.

  1. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    CERN Document Server

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Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Madden-Fong, D X; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N M; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Okounkova, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W E; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C T; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J H; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodger, A S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffery, P; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepanczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, M; Wade, L E; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, K J; Williams, L; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 Hz and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between $-1.0 \\times 10^{-10}$ Hz/s and $+1.5 \\times 10^{-11}$ Hz/s, and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), of length 8192 seconds, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, both in the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each dataset a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) DR9 (Henden+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, A. A.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Smith, T. C.; Levine, S.; Welch, D.

    2016-01-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) project is designed to bridge the gap between the shallow Tycho2 two-bandpass photometric catalog that is complete to V=11 and the deeper, but less spatially-complete catalogs like SDSS or PanSTARRS. It can be used for calibration of a specific field; for obtaining spectral information about single sources, determining reddening in a small area of the sky; or even obtaining current-epoch astrometry for rapidly moving objects. The survey is being performed at two locations: near Weed, New Mexico in the Northern Hemisphere; and at CTIO in the Southern Hemisphere. Each site consists of dual bore-sighted 20cm telescopes on a single mount, designed to obtain two bandpasses of information simultaneously. Each telescope covers 9 square degrees of sky with 2.5arcsec pixels, with the main survey taken with B,V,g',r',i' filters and covering the magnitude range 10Sciences Fund, with a follow-on grant from the National Science Foundation. (1 data file).

  3. An all-sky Support Vector Machine selection of WISE YSO Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Paladini, Roberta; Kun, Mária; Zahorecz, Sarolta; McGehee, Peregrine; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    We explored the AllWISE catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission and identified Young Stellar Object candidates. Reliable 2MASS and WISE photometric data combined with Planck dust opacity values were used to build our dataset and to find the best classification scheme. A sophisticated statistical method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to analyse the multi-dimensional data space and to remove source types identified as contaminants (extragalactic sources, main sequence stars, evolved stars and sources related to the interstellar medium). Objects listed in the SIMBAD database are used to identify the already known sources and to train our method. A new all-sky selection of 133,980 Class I/II YSO candidates is presented. The estimated contamination was found to be well below 1% based on comparison with our SIMBAD training set. We also compare our results to that of existing methods and catalogues. The SVM selection process successfully identified >90% of the Class I/II YSOs based on...

  4. WISE-2MASS all-sky infrared galaxy catalog for large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, András

    2014-01-01

    We combine photometric information of the WISE and 2MASS infrared all-sky surveys to produce a clean galaxy sample for large-scale structure research. Adding 2MASS colors improves star-galaxy separation substantially at the expense of loosing a small fraction of the galaxies: 93% of the WISE objects within the W1<15.2 mag limit have 2MASS observation as well. We use a class of supervised machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines (SVM), to classify objects in our large data set. We used SDSS PhotoObj table with known star-galaxy separation for a training set on classification, and the GAMA spectroscopic survey for determining the redshift distribution of our sample. Varying the combination of photometric parameters input into our algorithm revealed that W1-J is a simple and effective star-galaxy separator, capable of producing results comparable to the multi-dimensional SVM classification. The final catalog has an estimated ~2% stellar contamination among 5 million galaxies with median redshift o...

  5. Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Draine, B T; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubio-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical est...

  6. Planck 2013 results. XXI. All-sky Compton parameter power spectrum and high-order statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\\ell 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\theta \\lesssim 3.0^{\\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to ...

  7. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr\\Hoczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; 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Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semi-major axes of the orbit from ~0.6e-3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for ci...

  8. AKARI-CAS --- Online Service for AKARI All-Sky Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, C; Ikeda, N; Inada, K; Katano, M; Kataza, H; Makiuti, S; Matsuzaki, K; Takita, S; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamura, I; 10.1086/660926

    2011-01-01

    The AKARI All-Sky Catalogues are an important infrared astronomical database for next-generation astronomy that take over the IRAS catalog. We have developed an online service, AKARI Catalogue Archive Server (AKARI-CAS), for astronomers. The service includes useful and attractive search tools and visual tools. One of the new features of AKARI-CAS is cached SIMBAD/NED entries, which can match AKARI catalogs with other catalogs stored in SIMBAD or NED. To allow advanced queries to the databases, direct input of SQL is also supported. In those queries, fast dynamic cross-identification between registered catalogs is a remarkable feature. In addition, multiwavelength quick-look images are displayed in the visualization tools, which will increase the value of the service. In the construction of our service, we considered a wide variety of astronomers' requirements. As a result of our discussion, we concluded that supporting users' SQL submissions is the best solution for the requirements. Therefore, we implemented...

  9. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Greiner, J; Madejski, G M; Gehrels, N; Burlon, D

    2012-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15--55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of \\sim2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ~5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN--LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN--LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ~10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick ...

  10. THE DIFFUSE SOFT EXCESS EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These ROSAT data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ-temporally and spatially contiguous-background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge toward Coma, and generated either by nonthermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves.

  11. The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey: Comparison of Ultraviolet and Far-Infrared Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Justin H; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Evans, Aaron S; Surace, Jason A; Sanders, David B; Petric, Andreea; Appleton, Phil; Bothun, Greg; Bridge, Carrie; Chan, Ben H P; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Frayer, David T; Haan, Sebastian; Inami, Hanae; Kim, Dong-Chan; Lord, Steven; Madore, Barry F; Melbourne, Jason; Schulz, Bernhard; U, Vivian; Vavilkin, Tatjana; Veilleux, Sylvain; Xu, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of a complete sample of 202 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The galaxies span the full range of interaction stages, from isolated galaxies to interacting pairs to late stage mergers. We present a comparison of the UV and infrared properties of 135 galaxies in GOALS observed by GALEX and Spitzer. For interacting galaxies with separations greater than the resolution of GALEX and Spitzer (2-6"), we assess the UV and IR properties of each galaxy individually. The contribution of the FUV to the measured SFR ranges from 0.2% to 17.9%, with a median of 2.8% and a mean of 4.0 +/- 0.4%. The specific star formation rate of the GOALS sample is extremely high, with a median value (3.9*10^{-10} yr^{-1}) that is comparable to the highest specific star formation rates seen in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample. We examine the position of each galaxy on the IR excess-UV slope (IRX-beta) ...

  12. Planck Early Results: The all-sky Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Brown, M L; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Eisenhardt, P; En\\sslin, T A; Feroz, F; Finelli, F; Flores, I; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; González-Riestra, R; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Harrison, D; Heinämäki, P; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Hurley-Walker, N; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Li, C; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Olamie, M; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Saar, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Saunders, R D E; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Stanford, A; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Sygnet, J -F; Taburet, N; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Weller, J; White, S D M; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This Early SZ (ESZ) sample of 189 candidates comprises high signal-to-noise clusters, from 6 to 29. Its high reliability (purity above 95%) is further insured by an extensive validation process based on Planck-internal quality assessments and external cross-identification and follow-up observations. Planck provides the first measured SZ signal for about 80% of the 169 ESZ known clusters. Planck further releases 30 new cluster candidates among which 20 are within the ESZ signal-to-noise selection criterion. Eleven of these 20 ESZ candidates are confirmed using XMM-Newton snapshot observations as new clusters, most of them with disturbed morphologies and low luminosities. The ESZ clusters are mostly at moderate redshifts (86% with z below 0.3) and span over a decade in mass, up to the rarest and most massive clusters with masses above 10^15 M...

  13. An all-sky census of Galactic high-latitude molecular intermediate-velocity clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Röhser, T; Lenz, D; Winkel, B

    2016-01-01

    The HI halo clouds of the Milky Way and in particular the intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) are thought to be connected to Galactic fountain processes. Observations of fountain clouds are important for understanding the role of matter recycling and accretion onto the Galactic disk and subsequent star formation. Here, we quantify the amount of molecular gas in the Galactic halo. We focus on the rare class of molecular IVCs (MIVCs) and search for new objects. The HI-FIR correlation is studied across the entire northern and southern Galactic hemispheres at Galactic latitudes $|b|>20^\\circ$ in order to determine the amount and distribution of molecular gas in IVCs. We use the most recent large-scale HI and FIR data, the Effelsberg Bonn-HI Survey, the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey, and the Planck FIR surveys. We present a catalogue of 239 MIVC candidates on the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres. Among these candidates all previously known MIVCs are recovered except for a single one only. The frequency ...

  14. All-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S4 data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Daz, M; Dickson, J; Di Credico, A; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, a C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, a N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ungarelli, C; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitbeck, D M; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yunes, N; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; Zur Muhlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2007-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1000 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -1.0E-8 Hz/s to zero. Data from the fourth LIGO science run (S4) have been used in this search. Three different semi-coherent methods of transforming and summing strain power from Short Fourier Transforms (SFTs) of the calibrated data have been used. The first, known as "StackSlide", averages normalized power from each SFT. A "weighted Hough" scheme is also developed and used, and which also allows for a multi-interferometer search. The third method, known as "PowerFlux", is a variant of the StackSlide method in which the power is weighted before summing. In both the weighted Hough and PowerFlux methods, the weights are chosen according to the noise and detector antenna-pattern to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. The respective advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitationa...

  15. HAWC: A Next Generation All-Sky VHE Gamma-Ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sinnis, G; McEnery, J E

    2004-01-01

    The study of the universe at energies above 100 GeV is a relatively new and exciting field. The current generation of pointed instruments have detected TeV gamma rays from at least 10 sources and the next generation of detectors promises a large increase in sensitivity. We have also seen the development of a new type of all-sky monitor in this energy regime based on water Cherenkov technology (Milagro). To fully understand the universe at these extreme energies requires a highly sensitive detector capable of continuously monitoring the entire overhead sky. Such an instrument could observe prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts and probe the limits of Lorentz invariance at high energies. With sufficient sensitivity it could detect short transients ($\\sim$15 minutes) from active galaxies and study the time structure of flares at energies unattainable to space-based instruments. Unlike pointed instruments a wide-field instrument can make an unbiased study of all active galaxies and enable many multi-wavelength ca...

  16. The MICE Grand Challenge Lightcone Simulation III: Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fosalba, P; Castander, F J; Crocce, M

    2013-01-01

    In paper I of this series (Fosalba et al. 2013), we presented a new N-body lightcone simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 Gpc)^3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II (Crocce et al. 2013). Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modeling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the "Onion Universe" approach (Fosalba et al. 2008), and discuss their properties in the lightcone up to z=1.4 with sub-arcmin spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e., particle mass ~ 10^11 Msun) simulations, we find that resolution effects ...

  17. New active galactic nuclei detected in ROSAT All Sky Survey galaxies - The complete dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Pietsch, W; Bischoff, K; Zetzl, M

    2008-01-01

    The ROSAT ALL Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) has been correlated with the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) to identify new extragalactic counterparts. 550 reliable optical counterparts have been detected. We took optical spectra of 176 X-ray candidates and companions at ESO, Calar Alto observatory and McDonald observatory. We discuss the redshift-, linewidth-, as well as optical and X-ray luminosity distribution of our ROSAT selected sample. 139 galaxies of our 166 X-ray counterparts have been identified as AGN with 93 being Seyfert 1 galaxies (61%). Eighteen of them (20%) are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. 34 X-ray candidates (21%) are LINERs and only eight candidates (5%) are Seyfert 2. The ratio of the number of Seyfert 1 galaxies to Seyfert 2 galaxies is about 11/1. Optical surveys result in ratios of 1/1.4. The high fraction of detected Seyfert 1 galaxies is explained by the sensitivity of the ROSAT to soft X-rays which are heavily absorbed in type 2 AGN. Two X-ray candidates are HII...

  18. Point Source Detection using the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet on simulated all-sky Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vielva, P; Gallegos, J E; Toffolatti, L; Sanz, J L

    2003-01-01

    We present an estimation of the point source (PS) catalogue that could be extracted from the forthcoming ESA Planck mission data. We have applied the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet in simulated all-sky maps that include CMB, Galactic emission, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and PS emission, as well as instrumental white noise. We have developed an algorithm focused on a fast optimal scale determination, that is crucial to achieve a PS catologue with a large number of detections and a low flux limit. An important effort has been also done to reduce the CPU time processor for spherical harmonic trans formation, in order to perform the PS detection in a reasonable time. The presented algorithm is able to provide a PS catalogue above fluxes: 1.39 Jy (857 GHz), 0.84 Jy (545 GHz), 0.30 Jy (353 GHz), 0.16 Jy (217 GHz), 0.17 Jy (143 GHz), 0.19 Jy (100 GHz HFI), 0.22 Jy (100 GHz LFI), 0.28 Jy (70 GHz), 0.33 Jy (44 GHz) and 0.37 Jy (30 GHz). We detect around 36700 PS at the highest frequency Planck channel and 2200 a...

  19. Timeline analysis and wavelet multiscale analysis of the AKARI All-Sky Survey at 90 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Shibai, Hiroshi; Savage, Rich; Oliver, Seb; Thomson, Matthew; Rahman, Nurur; Clements, Dave; Figueredo, Elysandra; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsuura, Shuji; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris P; Serjeant, Stephen; Shirahata, Mai; White, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    We present a careful analysis of the point source detection limit of the AKARI All-Sky Survey in the WIDE-S 90 $\\mu$m band near the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP). Timeline Analysis is used to detect IRAS sources and then a conversion factor is derived to transform the peak timeline signal to the interpolated 90 $\\mu$m flux of a source. Combined with a robust noise measurement, the point source flux detection limit at S/N $>5$ for a single detector row is $1.1\\pm0.1$ Jy which corresponds to a point source detection limit of the survey of $\\sim$0.4 Jy. Wavelet transform offers a multiscale representation of the Time Series Data (TSD). We calculate the continuous wavelet transform of the TSD and then search for significant wavelet coefficients considered as potential source detections. To discriminate real sources from spurious or moving objects, only sources with confirmation are selected. In our multiscale analysis, IRAS sources selected above $4\\sigma$ can be identified as the only real sources at the Point Sourc...

  20. An all-sky support vector machine selection of WISE YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Tóth, L. V.; Paladini, R.; Kun, M.; Zahorecz, S.; McGehee, P.; Kiss, Cs.

    2016-06-01

    We explored the AllWISE catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and identified Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates. Reliable 2MASS and WISE photometric data combined with Planck dust opacity values were used to build our data set and to find the best classification scheme. A sophisticated statistical method, the support vector machine (SVM) is used to analyse the multidimensional data space and to remove source types identified as contaminants (extragalactic sources, main-sequence stars, evolved stars and sources related to the interstellar medium). Objects listed in the SIMBAD data base are used to identify the already known sources and to train our method. A new all-sky selection of 133 980 Class I/II YSO candidates is presented. The estimated contamination was found to be well below 1 per cent based on comparison with our SIMBAD training set. We also compare our results to that of existing methods and catalogues. The SVM selection process successfully identified >90 per cent of the Class I/II YSOs based on comparison with photometric and spectroscopic YSO catalogues. Our conclusion is that by using the SVM, our classification is able to identify more known YSOs of the training sample than other methods based on colour-colour and magnitude-colour selection. The distribution of the YSO candidates well correlates with that of the Planck Galactic Cold Clumps in the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus-California region.

  1. Mapping the Cosmic Web with the largest all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H; Cluver, Michelle E; Steward, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Our view of the low-redshift Cosmic Web has been revolutionized by galaxy redshift surveys such as 6dFGS, SDSS and 2MRS. However, the trade-off between depth and angular coverage limits a systematic three-dimensional account of the entire sky beyond the Local Volume (z<0.05). In order to reliably map the Universe to cosmologically significant depths over the full celestial sphere, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. We have undertaken a dedicated program of cross-matching the largest photometric all-sky surveys -- 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS -- to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts -- the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ, Bilicki et al. 2014a) -- has been publicly released and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a mean redshift of z=0.08. Here we summarize how this catalog was constructed and how using the WISE mid-infrared sample together with SuperCOSMOS optical data allows ...

  2. Solar Wind Charge Exchange contribution to the ROSAT All Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Uprety, Y; Collier, M R; Cravens, T; Galeazzi, M; Koutroumpa, D; Kuntz, K D; Lallement, R; Lepri, S T; Liu, W; McCammon, D; Morgan, K; Porter, F S; Prasai, K; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Ursino, E; Walsh, B M

    2016-01-01

    DXL (Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXB) and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). The detectors are large-area thin-window proportional counters with a spectral response similar to that of the PSPC used in the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). A direct comparison of DXL and RASS data for the same part of the sky allowed us to quantify the SWCX contribution to all 6 RASS bands (R1-R7). We find that the SWCX contribution at l=140 deg, b=0 deg, where the DXL path crosses the Galactic plane is 32%+-12% (statistical)+-5%(systematic) for R1, 45%+-8%+-5% for R2, 22%+-11%+-4% for R4, 14%+-12%+-4% for R5, and negligible for R6 and R7 bands. We can also estimate the contribution to the whole sky. We find that the average SWCX contribution in the whole sky is 25%+-10%+-7% for R1, 30%+-6%+-6% for R2, 9%+-5%+-2% for R4, 7%+-5%+-1% for R5, and neg...

  3. Machine-learning identification of galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS all-sky catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Krakowski, T; Bilicki, M; Pollo, A; Krupa, M; Kurcz, A

    2016-01-01

    The two currently largest all-sky photometric datasets, WISE and SuperCOSMOS, were cross-matched by Bilicki et al. (2016) (B16) to construct a novel photometric redshift catalogue on 70% of the sky. Galaxies were therein separated from stars and quasars through colour cuts, which may leave imperfections because of mixing different source types which overlap in colour space. The aim of the present work is to identify galaxies in the WISExSuperCOSMOS catalogue through an alternative approach of machine learning. This allows us to define more complex separations in the multi-colour space than possible with simple colour cuts, and should provide more reliable source classification. For the automatised classification we use the support vector machines learning algorithm, employing SDSS spectroscopic sources cross-matched with WISExSuperCOSMOS as the training and verification set. We perform a number of tests to examine the behaviour of the classifier (completeness, purity and accuracy) as a function of source appa...

  4. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes can scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), we are discovering more than 60% of supernovae with V<17. Since June 2013, we have discovered 224 supernovae, 133 in 2015 alone (as of September 30, 2015). ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting extragalactic transients, including the three closest tidal disruption events (TDEs) ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  5. C-Band All-Sky Survey: A First Look at the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Irfan, M O; Davies, R D; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Ferreira, P G; Holler, C M; Jonas, J L; Jones, Michael E; King, O G; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Leitch, E M; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Peel, M W; Readhead, A C S; Stevenson, M A; Sutton, D; Taylor, Angela C; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse emission at 5 GHz in the first quadrant of the Galactic plane using two months of preliminary intensity data taken with the C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) northern instrument at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California. Combining C-BASS maps with ancillary data to make temperature-temperature plots we find synchrotron spectral indices of $\\beta = -2.65 \\pm 0.05$ between 0.408 GHz and 5 GHz and $ \\beta = -2.72 \\pm 0.09$ between 1.420 GHz and 5 GHz for $-10^{\\circ} < |b| < -4^{\\circ}$, $20^{\\circ} < l < 40^{\\circ}$. Through the subtraction of a radio recombination line (RRL) free-free template we determine the synchrotron spectral index in the Galactic plane ($ |b| < 4^{\\circ}$) to be $\\beta = -2.56 \\pm 0.07$ between 0.408 GHz and 5 GHz, with a contribution of $53 \\pm 8$ per cent from free-free emission at 5\\,GHz. These results are consistent with previous low frequency measurements in the Galactic plane. By including C-BASS data in spectral fits we dem...

  6. A fast all-sky radiative transfer model and its implications for solar energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer models simulating broadband solar radiation, e.g. Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its GCM applications, have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resource for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the radiative transfer equation, simulating solar radiation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time consuming though many approximations, e.g. two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme, have been utilized. To provide a new option to approximate solar radiation, we developed a Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) using simulated cloud transmittance and reflectance from 16-stream RRTM model runs. The solar irradiances at the land surface were simulated by combining parameterized cloud properties with a fast clear-sky radiative transfer model. Using solar radiation measurements from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in Oklahoma as a benchmark against the model simulations, we were able to demonstrate that the accuracy of FARMS was comparable to the two-stream approach. However, FARMS is much more efficient since it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. We further explored the use of FARMS to promote solar resource assessment and forecasting research through the increased ability to accommodate higher spatial and temporal resolution calculations for the next generation of satellite and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  7. Einstein@Home all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endrőczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner}, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lhuillier, V; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lindquist, P E; Litvine, V; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow--Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenberg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pihlaja, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pöld, J; Postiglione, F; Poux, C; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, M; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Saracco, E; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J; Anderson, D P

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of an all-sky searches for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range [50, 1190] Hz and with frequency derivative ranges of [-2 \\times 10^-9, 1.1 \\times 10^-10] Hz/s for the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The novelty of the search lies in the use of a non-coherent technique based on the Hough-transform to combine the information from coherent searches on timescales of about one day. Because these searches are very computationally intensive, they have been deployed on the Einstein@Home distributed computing project infrastructure. The search presented here is about a factor 3 more sensitive than the previous Einstein@Home search in early S5 LIGO data. The post-processing has left us with eight surviving candidates. We show that deeper follow-up studies rule each of them out. Hence, since no statistically significant gravitational wave signals have been detected, we report upper limits on the intrinsic gravitational wave amplitude h0. For example, in the 0.5 Hz-wide band at 15...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalog (Boller+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, T.; Freyberg, M. J.; Truemper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-03-01

    We have re-analysed the photon event files from the ROSAT all-sky survey. The main goal was to create a catalogue of point-like sources, which is referred to as the 2RXS source catalogue. We improved the reliability of detections by an advanced detection algorithm and a complete screening process. New data products were created to allow timing and spectral analysis. Photon event files with corrected astrometry and Moon rejection (RASS-3.1 processing) were made available in FITS format. The 2RXS catalogue will serve as the basic X-ray all-sky survey catalogue until eROSITA data become available. (2 data files).

  9. Data Analysis for Continuous Gravitational Waves: Deepest All-Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J.

    2009-11-01

    Direct detection of gravitational waves would not only validate Einstein's theory of General Relativity but also constitute an important new astronomical tool. Continuous gravitational-wave (CW) signals are expected for instance from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Most such stars are estimated to be electromagnetically invisible, but might be detected and studied via gravitational waves. This dissertation is concerned with the development, study and application of data- analysis techniques to detect CW signals from previously unknown sources through all-sky surveys over broadest possible ranges of putative source frequencies and frequency time-derivatives. An all-sky CW search is presented using 510 hours of data from the fourth science run (S4) of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), covering frequencies of 50 to 1500 Hz and linear drifts in frequency. The main computational work of the search is distributed over hundreds of thousands of computers via the public volunteer computing project "Einstein@Home". This enormous computing capacity allows the exploration of a wide parameter space, despite of using comparably long coherent integration times of 30 hours, subdividing the 510 hours of data into 17 segments. To enhance the sensitivity of the search, in a post-processing stage the coherent-analysis results from the 17 data segments are combined through a highly efficient coincidence scheme. Moreover, the sensitivity of the search is estimated, along with the fraction of parameter space vetoed because of contamination by instrumental artifacts. In a further Einstein@Home CW search the previous S4 analysis is extended to use 840 hours of early fifth-science-run (S5) LIGO data, which are examined in 28 coherent segments of 30 hours. The major part of the post-processing is again related to efficiently combining the 28 coherently-analyzed segments. Despite probing a slightly larger parameter space, this analysis achieves 3 times better

  10. Planck's dusty GEMS: The brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies discovered with the Planck all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Guery, D.; McKenzie, T.; König, S.; Petitpas, G.; Dole, H.; Frye, B.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Montier, L.; Negrello, M.; Beelen, A.; Boone, F.; Dicken, D.; Lagache, G.; Le Floc'h, E.; Altieri, B.; Béthermin, M.; Chary, R.; de Zotti, G.; Giard, M.; Kneissl, R.; Krips, M.; Malhotra, S.; Martinache, C.; Omont, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Puget, J.-L.; Scott, D.; Soucail, G.; Valtchanov, I.; Welikala, N.; Yan, L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of CO spectroscopy and infrared-to-millimetre dust photometry of 11 exceptionally bright far-infrared (FIR) and sub-mm sources discovered through a combination of the Planck all-sky survey and follow-up Herschel-SPIRE imaging - "Planck's Dusty Gravitationally Enhanced subMillimetre Sources". Each source has a secure spectroscopic redshift z = 2.2-3.6 from multiple lines obtained through a blind redshift search with EMIR at the IRAM 30-m telescope. Interferometry was obtained at IRAM and the SMA, and along with optical/near-infrared imaging obtained at the CFHT and the VLT reveal morphologies consistent with strongly gravitationally lensed sources, including several giant arcs. Additional photometry was obtained with JCMT/SCUBA-2 and IRAM/GISMO at 850 μm and 2 mm, respectively. The SEDs of our sources peak near either the 350 μm or 500 μm bands of SPIRE with peak flux densities between 0.35 and 1.14 Jy. All objects are extremely bright isolated point sources in the 18'' beam of SPIREat 250 μm, with apparent FIR luminosities of up to 3 × 1014 L⊙ (not correcting for the lensing effect). Their morphologies, sizes, CO line widths, CO luminosities, dust temperatures, and FIR luminosities provide additional empirical evidence that these are amongst the brightest strongly gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies on the sub-mm sky. Our programme extends the successful wide-area searches for strongly gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies (carried out with the South Pole Telescope and Herschel) towards even brighter sources, which are so rare that their systematic identification requires a genuine all-sky survey like Planck. Six sources are above the ≃600 mJy 90% completeness limit of the Planck catalogue of compact sources (PCCS) at 545 and 857 GHz, which implies that these must literally be amongst the brightest high-redshift FIR and sub-mm sources on the extragalactic sky. We discuss their dust masses and temperatures, and use

  11. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Alexander, D.M.; /Durham U.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Madejski, G.M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Burlon, D.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2012-04-02

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of {approx}2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a {approx}5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN-LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN-LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a {approx}10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN and measure a space density of 7.9{sub -2.9}{sup +4.1} x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. As the BAT AGN are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGN in the nearby Universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGN that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local ({le} 85 Mpc) Universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions.

  12. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Contribution to the ROSAT All Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Y.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Liu, W.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K.; Porter, F. S.; Prasai, K.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; Ursino, E.; Walsh, B. M.

    2016-10-01

    DXL (Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission designed to estimate the contribution of solar wind charge eXchange (SWCX) to the diffuse X-ray background and to help determine the properties of the Local Hot Bubble. The detectors are large area thin-window proportional counters with a spectral response that is similar to that of the PSPC used in the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). A direct comparison of DXL and RASS data for the same part of the sky viewed from quite different vantage points in the solar system, and the assumption of approximate isotropy for the solar wind, allowed us to quantify the SWCX contribution to all six RASS bands (R1-R7, excluding R3). We find that the SWCX contribution at l=140^\\circ ,b=0^\\circ , where the DXL path crosses the Galactic plane, is 33 % +/- 6 % ({statistical})+/- 12 % ({systematic}) for R1, 44 % +/- 6 % +/- 5 % for R2, 18 % +/- 12 % +/- 11 % for R4, 14 % +/- 11 % +/- 9 % for R5, and negligible for the R6 and R7 bands. Reliable models for the distribution of neutral H and He in the solar system permit estimation of the contribution of interplanetary SWCX emission over the the whole sky and correction of the RASS maps. We find that the average SWCX contribution in the whole sky is 26 % +/- 6 % +/- 13 % for R1, 30 % +/- 4 % +/- 4 % for R2, 8 % +/- 5 % +/- 5 % for R4, 6 % +/- 4 % +/- 4 % for R5, and negligible for R6 and R7.

  13. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the abundance of P-types increases beyond 3 AU. This

  14. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  15. Occultation studies of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occultations of stars by planets, satellites, planetary ring systems, asteroids, and comets provide valuable opportunities to probe the Solar System in ways otherwise impossible from the surface of the earth. For example, one can precisely measure the size and shape of objects which are much too small to be resolved directly, accurately map the structure and transparency of ring systems, and detect the faintest trace of an atmosphere. In this investigation, researchers identify upcoming occultations through wide-ranging computer searches, provide accurate predictions for the more important events, and observe selected occultations with our specially designed portable photometric equipment. During the past year, researchers produced accurate predictions for an occultation of AG+40 degrees 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 and coordinated efforts to observe this event. The occultation was successfully observed at 13 sites including two manned by Lowell Observatory astronomers

  16. The SKA Mid-frequency All-sky Continuum Survey: Discovering the unexpected and transforming radio-astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Brown, Michael; Carretti, Ettore; Kapinska, Anna D; Prandoni, Isabella; Rudnick, Lawrence; Seymour, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We show that, in addition to specific science goals, there is a strong case for conducting an all-sky (i.e. the visible 3-pi steradians) SKA continuum survey which does not fit neatly into conventional science cases. History shows that the greatest scientific impact of most major telescopes (e.g., HST, VLA) lies beyond the original goals used to justify the telescope. The design of the telescope therefore needs to maximise the ultimate scientific productivity, in addition to achieving the specific science goals. In this chapter, we show that an all-sky continuum survey is likely to achieve transformational science in two specific respects: (1) Discovering the unexpected (2) Transforming radio-astronomy from niche to mainstream

  17. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    OpenAIRE

    Kalberla, Peter M. W.; Haud, Urmas

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic All-Sky Survey is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope record...

  18. A Limit on the Number of Isolated Neutron Stars Detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Monica L; Letcavage, Ryan; Shevchuk, Andrew S H; Fox, Derek B

    2010-01-01

    Using new and archival observations made with the Swift satellite and other facilities, we examine 147 X-ray sources selected from the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) to produce a new limit on the number of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the RASS/BSC, the most constraining such limit to-date. Independent of X-ray spectrum and variability, the number of INSs is <=48 (90% confidence). Restricting attention to soft (having an effective temperature of < 200 eV), non-variable X-ray sources -- as in a previous study -- yields an all-sky limit of <=31 INSs. In the course of our analysis, we identify five new high-quality INS candidates for targeted follow-up observations. A future all-sky X-ray survey with eROSITA, or another mission with similar capabilities, can be expected to increase the detected population of X-ray-discovered INSs from the 8 to 50 in the BSC, to (for a disk population) 240 to 1500, which will enable a more detailed study of neutron star population models.

  19. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. II. Stray-Radiation Correction and Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, P M W; Pisano, D J; Calabretta, M R; Ford, H Alyson; Lockman, Felix J; Staveley-Smith, L; Kerp, J; Winkel, B; Murphy, T; Newton-McGee, K

    2010-01-01

    The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release was published by McClure-Griffiths et al. (2009). We remove instrumental effects that affect the GASS and present the second data release. We calculate the stray-radiation by convolving the all-sky response of the Parkes antenna with the brightness temperature distribution from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) all sky 21-cm line survey, with major contributions from the 30-m dish of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR) in the southern sky. Remaining instrumental baselines are corrected using the LAB data for a first guess of emission-free baseline regions. Radio frequency interference is removed by median filtering. After applying these corrections to the GASS we find an excellent agreement with the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) survey. The GASS is the highest spatial resolution, most sensitive, and is currently the m...

  20. The Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Park, Jae H.; Drayson, S. R.; Hesketh, W. D.; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Frederick, John E.; Harries, John E.; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) uses solar occultation to measure vertical profiles of O3, HCl, HF, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, aerosol extinction, and temperature versus pressure with an instantaneous vertical field of view of 1.6 km at the earth limb. Latitudinal coverage is from 80 deg S to 80 deg N over the course of 1 year and includes extensive observations of the Antarctic region during spring. The altitude range of the measurements extends from about 15 km to about 60-130 km, depending on channel. Experiment operations have been essentially flawless, and all performance criteria either meet or exceed specifications. Internal data consistency checks, comparisons with correlative measurements, and qualitative comparisons with 1985 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) results are in good agreement. Examples of pressure versus latitude cross sections and a global orthographic projection for the September 21 to October 15, 1992, period show the utility of CH4, HF, and H2O as tracers, the occurrence of dehydration in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, the presence of the water vapor hygropause in the tropics, evidence of Antarctic air in the tropics, the influence of Hadley tropical upwelling, and the first global distribution of HCl, HF, and NO throughout the stratosphere. Nitric oxide measurements extend through the lower thermosphere.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WATCHDOG: an all-sky database of Galactic BHXBs (Tetarenko+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (~40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ~20 years. Our findings suggest that this "hard-only" behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these "hard-only" outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population. (9 data files).

  2. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Plasma Bubbles Observed by an All-Sky Airglow Imager at Yonaguni, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiko Ogawa; Yuichi Otsuka; Kazuo Shiokawa; Takuya Tsugawa; Akinori Saito; Kazuaki Hoshinoo; Keisuke Matunaga; Minoru Kubota; and Mamoru Ishii

    2009-01-01

    We report on night time air glow imaging observations of the low latitude ionosphere by means of a 630-m all-sky imager in stalled in March 2006 at Yonaguni, Japan _ _ _ geomagnetic), about 100 km east of Taiwan. The imager detected medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) for about 7 hours on the night of 26 May 2006. A dense GPS net work in Japan also ob served the same MSTID event on this night. The imager and GEONET data indicate that most of the MSTIDs prop a gated south ...

  3. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, W.; Arain, M; Araya, M.; Armandula, H; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50--1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5.0E-9 Hz/s to zero. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semi-coherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitt...

  4. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.;

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched....... The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non...

  5. A long-term observation of 4U 1700-37 by the granat/watch all-sky monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazonov, S.; Lapshov, I.; Sunyaev, R.;

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of the observations of the X-ray source 4U 1700-37 by the WATCH all-sky monitor on GRANAT during the period 1991 to 1992. We have reconstructed light curves of 4U 1700-37 in two energy bands which prove the strong variability of the source's intensity on various time scales....... The light curve having been folded with the orbital period clearly reveals a dependence of the source's intensity upon the orbital phase. This dependence can be explained by scattering and absorption of photons in the stellar wind of the massive optical companion. We interpret the X-ray light curves...

  6. The Occult Today: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Gary E.

    1975-01-01

    Author offered some reflections on the "why" of the contemporary interest in the occult. He attempted to convince the reader that, if he or she has been surprised by the recent rise of occultism, sober reflection will dispell some fears and, perhaps, even convince him or her that occultism is not merely superstition. (Author/RK)

  7. Parameterization of atmospheric long-wave emissivity in a mountainous site for all sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-wave radiation is an important component of the energy balance of the Earth's surface. The downward component, emitted by the clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, is rarely measured, and is still not well understood. In mountainous areas, the models existing for its estimation through the emissivity of the atmosphere do not give good results, and worse still in the presence of clouds. In order to estimate this emissivity for any atmospheric state and in a mountainous site, we related it to the screen-level values of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. This permitted the obtaining of: (1 a new set of parametric equations and (2 the modification of the Brutsaert's equation for cloudy skies through the calibration of C factor to 0.34 and the parameterization of the cloud index N. Both fitted to the surface data measured at a weather station at a height of 2500 m a.s.l. in Sierra Nevada, Spain. This study analyzes separately three significant atmospheric states related to cloud cover, which were also deduced from the screen-level meteorological data. Clear and totally overcast skies are accurately represented by the new parametric expressions, while the intermediate situations corresponding to partly clouded skies, concentrate most of the dispersion in the measurements and, hence, the error in the simulation. Thus, the modeling of atmospheric emissivity is greatly improved thanks to the use of different equations for each atmospheric state.

  8. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  9. Results of an all-sky high-frequency Einstein@Home search for continuous gravitational waves in LIGO 5th Science Run

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Avneet; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Zhu, Sylvia; Pletsch, Holger; Allen, Bruce; Bock, Oliver; Maschenchalk, Bernd; Prix, Reinhard; Siemens, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a high-frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated compact objects in LIGO's 5th Science Run S5 data, using the computing power of the Einstein@Home volunteer computing project. This is the only dedicated continuous gravitational wave search that probes this high frequency range on S5 data. We find no significant candidate signal, so we set 90%-confidence level upper-limits on continuous gravitational wave strain amplitudes. At the lower end of the search frequency range, around 1250 Hz, the most constraining upper-limit is $5.0\\times 10^{-24}$, while at the higher end, around 1500 Hz, it is $6.2\\times 10^{-24}$. Based on these upper-limits, and assuming a fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38}$kg$\\,$m$^2$, we can exclude objects with ellipticities higher than roughly $2.8\\times10^{-7}$ within 100 pc of Earth with rotation periods between 1.3 and 1.6 milliseconds.

  10. Results of the deepest all-sky survey for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO S6 data running on the Einstein@Home volunteer distributed computing project

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the S6 LIGO science run. The search was possible thanks to the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home distributed computing project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, between $170.5$ and $171$ Hz we set a 90% confidence upper limit of ${5.5}^{-25}$, while at the high end of our frequency range, around 505 Hz, we achieve upper limits $\\simeq {10}^{-24}$. At $230$ Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-6}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \\textrm{kg m}^2$. If we assume a higher (lower) gravitational wave spindown we constrain farther (closer) objects to higher (lower) ellipticities.

  11. Results of an all-sky high-frequency Einstein@Home search for continuous gravitational waves in LIGO's fifth science run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avneet; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Zhu, Sylvia; Pletsch, Holger; Allen, Bruce; Bock, Oliver; Maschenchalk, Bernd; Prix, Reinhard; Siemens, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    We present results of a high-frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from isolated compact objects in LIGO's fifth science run (S5) data, using the computing power of the Einstein@Home volunteer computing project. This is the only dedicated continuous gravitational wave search that probes this high-frequency range on S5 data. We find no significant candidate signal, so we set 90% confidence level upper limits on continuous gravitational wave strain amplitudes. At the lower end of the search frequency range, around 1250 Hz, the most constraining upper limit is 5.0 ×10-24, while at the higher end, around 1500 Hz, it is 6.2 ×10-24. Based on these upper limits, and assuming a fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of 1038 kg m2 , we can exclude objects with ellipticities higher than roughly 2.8 ×10-7 within 100 pc of Earth with rotation periods between 1.3 and 1.6 milliseconds.

  12. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and

  13. Banks of templates for all-sky narrow-band searches of gravitational waves from spinning neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We construct efficient banks of templates suitable for all-sky narrow-band searches of almost monochromatic gravitational waves originating from spinning neutron stars in our Galaxy in data collected by interferometric detectors. We thus assume that both the position of the gravitational-wave source in the sky and the wave's frequency together with spindown parameters are unknown. In the construction we employ simplified model of the signal with constant amplitude and phase which is a linear function of unknown parameters. All our template banks enable usage of the fast Fourier transform algorithm in the computation of the maximum-likelihood $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic for nodes of the grids defining the bank and fulfill an additional constraint needed to resample the data to barycentric time efficiently. Our template banks are suitable for larger range of search parameters than the banks previously proposed and compared to them they have smaller thicknesses for certain values of search parameters.

  14. Probing the Dark Ages at Z~20: The SCI-HI 21 cm All-Sky Spectrum Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Voytek, Tabitha C; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose Miguel; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged \\cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8

  15. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, Peter M W

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic All-Sky Survey is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3-D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscil...

  16. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov,K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a wide parameter space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semi-coherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-$400 $Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is $4.43\\times 10^{-23}$.

  17. Statistical Comparison of Gravity Wave Characteristics Obtained from Airglow All-Sky Observation at Mt. Bohyun, Korea and Shigaraki, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2015-12-01

    Previously, all-sky airglow images observed at Shigaraki (34.9° N, 136.1° E), Japan, during 2004 and 2005 were analyzed in relation to those observed at Mt. Bohyun (36.2° N, 128.9° E) for a comparison of their gravity wave characteristics (Kim et al. 2010). By applying the same selection criteria of waves and cloud coverages as in the case of Mt. Bohyun all-sky images, we derived apparent wavelengths, periods, phase velocities, and monthly occurrence rates of gravity waves at Shigaraki in this study. The distributions of wavelengths, periods, and speeds derived for Shigaraki were found to be roughly similar to those for Mt. Bohyun. However, the overall occurrence rates of gravity waves at Shigaraki were 36% and 34% for OI 557.7 nm and OH Meinel band airglow layers, respectively, which were significantly higher than those at Mt. Bohyun. The monthly occurrence rates did not show minima near equinox months, unlike those for Mt. Bohyun. Furthermore, the seasonal preferential directions that were clearly apparent for Mt. Bohyun were not seen in the wave propagation trends for Shigaraki. These differences between the two sites imply different origins of the gravity waves near the Korean peninsula and the Japanese islands. The gravity waves over the Japanese islands may originate from sources at various altitudes; therefore, wind filtering may not be effective in causing any seasonal preferential directions in the waves in the airglow layers. Our analysis of the Shigaraki data supports recent theoretical studies, according to which gravity waves can be generated from in situ sources, such as mesosphere wind shear or secondary wave formation, in the mesosphere.

  18. Distortion of thermospheric air masses by horizontal neutral winds over Poker Flat Alaska measured using an all-sky scanning Doppler imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2016-01-01

    An air mass transported by a wind field will become distorted over time by any gradients present in the wind field. To study this effect in Earth's thermosphere, we examine the behavior of a simple parameter that we describe here as the "distortion gradient." It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity and is thus capable of representing all contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. The distortion gradient is defined such that it is always positive, so averaging over time and/or space does not suppress small-scale features. Conventional gradients, by contrast, are signed quantities that would often average to zero. To analyze the climatological behavior of this distortion gradient, we used three years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of thermospheric F region wind observations from a high-latitude ground-based all-sky wavelength scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Poker Flat Alaska. Climatological averaging of the distortion gradient allowed us to investigate its diurnal and seasonal (annual) behaviors at our observing location. Distortion was observed to be higher before local magnetic midnight and to be seasonally dependent. While maximum distortion occurred before local magnetic midnight under all geomagnetic conditions, the peak distortion occurred earlier under moderate geomagnetic conditions as compared to the quiet geomagnetic conditions and even earlier still when geomagnetic conditions were active. Peak distortion was stronger and appeared earlier when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward compared to northward. By contrast, we could not resolve any time-shift effect due to the IMF component tangential to Earth's orbit.

  19. Radio occultation measurements of the lunar ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.; Maccaferri, G.; Cassaro, P.

    Radio occultation measurements by using interplanetary probes is a well known technique to obtain information on planetary atmospheres. To further understand the morphology of the lunar ionosphere we performed radio occultation experiments by using the radio sounding technique. This method mainly consists in the analisys of the effects produced on the radio wave transmitted from the spacecraft to the Earth when it crosses the atmosphere. The wave amplitude and phase undergo modifications that are correlated to the physical parameters - i.e. electron density - of the crossed medium. The first data set was obtained during the lunar occultations of the European probe SMART-1 shortly before impacting the lunar soil on September 3rd, 2006. During this experiment several radio occultation measurements of the signal transmitted by the spacecraft were performed in S and X band by using the 32 meters radiotelescopes (at Medicina and Noto) of the Istituto di Radioastronomia - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. Further experiments were performed during lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus. On May 22nd and June 18th 2007 the Cassini spacecraft, orbiting Saturn, and the Venus Express spacecraft, orbiting Venus, respectively were occulted by the Moon. The variation of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by our instruments (˜ 1013 el/m2) on this occasion is in agreement with values of the electron number density acquired by in situ measuments of the US Apollo missions and the USSR Luna 19 and 22 probes.

  20. Deep shadow occulter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Webster (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for occulting light. The occulter shape suppresses diffraction at any given size or angle and is practical to build because it can be made binary to avoid scatter. Binary structures may be fully opaque or fully transmitting at specific points. The diffraction suppression is spectrally broad so that it may be used with incoherent white light. An occulter may also include substantially opaque inner portion and an at least partially transparent outer portion. Such occulters may be used on the ground to create a deep shadow in a short distance, or may be used in space to suppress starlight and reveal exoplanets.

  1. The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS)

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C J; Copi, Craig J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    Natural (such as lunar) occultations have long been used to study sources on small angular scales, while coronographs have been used to study high contrast sources. We propose launching the Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS), a large steerable occulting satellite to combine both of these techniques. BOSS will have several advantages over standard occulting bodies. BOSS would block all but about 4e-5 of the light at 1 micron in the region of interest around the star for planet detections. Because the occultation occurs outside the telescope, scattering inside the telescope does not degrade this performance. BOSS could be combined with a space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point to yield very long integration times, in excess of 3000 seconds. If placed in Earth orbit, integration times of 160--1600 seconds can be achieved from most major telescope sites for objects in over 90% of the sky. Applications for BOSS include direct imaging of planets around nearby stars. Planets separated by as little as 0.1--0....

  2. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  3. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two

  4. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  5. A New Display Format Relating Azimuth-Scanning Radar Data and All-Sky Images in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Seker, Ilgin; Mathews, John D.; Aponte, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Here we correlate features in a sequence of all-sky images of 630 nm airglow with the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of electron densities in the F region above Arecibo. Pairs of 180 azimuth scans (using the Gregorian and line feeds) of the two-beam incoherent scatter radar (ISR) have been plotted in cone pictorials of the line-of-sight electron densities. The plots include projections of the 630 nm airglow onto the ground using the same spatial scaling as for the ISR data. Selected sequential images from the night of 16-17 June 2004 correlate ionospheric plasma features with scales comparable to the ISR density-cone diameter. The entire set of over 100 images spanning about eight hours is available as a movie. The correlation between the airglow and the electron densities is not unexpected, but the new display format shows the 3-D structures better than separate 2-D plots in latitude and longitude for the airglow and in height and time for the electron densities. Furthermore, the animations help separate the bands of airglow from obscuring clouds and the star field.

  6. GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey I: A low-frequency extragalactic catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Hancock, Paul J; Franzen, Thomas M O; Hindson, Luke; Kapinska, Anna D; Morgan, John; Offringa, Andre R; Wayth, Randall B; Wu, Chen; Zheng, Q; Murphy, Tara; Bell, Martin E; Dwarakanath, K S; For, Bi-Qing; Gaensler, Bryan M; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Lenc, Emil; Procopio, Pietro; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Ekers, Ron; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, Frank; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, Avinash A; Greenhill, Lincoln; Hazelton, Brynah J; Kaplan, David L; Lonsdale, Colin J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, Daniel A; Morales, Miguel F; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Ord, Stephen M; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven J; Webster, Rachel L; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array (SKA1 LOW) precursor located in Western Australia, we have completed the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, and present the resulting extragalactic catalogue, utilising the first year of observations. The catalogue covers 24,831 square degrees, over declinations south of $+30^\\circ$ and Galactic latitudes outside $10^\\circ$ of the Galactic plane, excluding some areas such as the Magellanic Clouds. It contains 307,455 radio sources with 20 separate flux density measurements across 72--231MHz, selected from a time- and frequency- integrated image centred at 200MHz, with a resolution of $\\approx 2$'. Over the catalogued region, we estimate that the catalogue is 90% complete at 170mJy, and 50% complete at 55mJy, and large areas are complete at even lower flux density levels. Its reliability is 99.97% above the detection threshold of $5\\sigma$, which itself is typically 50mJy. These observations constitute the w...

  7. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  8. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Plasma Bubbles Observed by an All-Sky Airglow Imager at Yonaguni, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on night time air glow imaging observations of the low latitude ionosphere by means of a 630-m all-sky imager in stalled in March 2006 at Yonaguni, Japan _ _ _ geomagnetic, about 100 km east of Taiwan. The imager detected medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs for about 7 hours on the night of 26 May 2006. A dense GPS net work in Japan also ob served the same MSTID event on this night. The imager and GEONET data indicate that most of the MSTIDs prop a gated south west ward from the north of Japan to the south of Yonaguni and Taiwan over 4000 km, with a southern limit of _ (geomagnetic latitude _ or lower. On the night of 10 November 2006, the imager observed two weak emission bands that were embedded on the F-region anomaly crest to the south of Yonaguni. The simultaneous electron density profiles from the FORMOSAT-3/COS MIC mission demonstrate that the weak emission bands are due to density depletions in equatorial plasma bubbles. These case studies suggest that the Yonaguni imager in collaboration with other instruments is very suit able for the study of ionospheric disturbances in and around the northern F-region anomaly crest.

  9. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey AGNs II. Halo Occupation Distribution Modeling of the Cross Correlation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2010-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of AGNs in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) through cross-correlation functions (CCFs) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. In this paper, we apply the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model to the CCFs between the RASS Broad-line AGNs with SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.16

  10. Implementation of an F-statistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Virgo VSR1 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Borkowski, K; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorosh, O; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We present an implementation of the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic to carry out the first search in data from the Virgo laser interferometric gravitational wave detector for periodic gravitational waves from a priori unknown, isolated rotating neutron stars. We searched a frequency $f_0$ range from 100 Hz to 1 kHz and the frequency dependent spindown $f_1$ range from $-1.6\\,(f_0/100\\,{\\rm Hz}) \\times 10^{-9}\\,$ Hz/s to zero. A large part of this frequency - spindown space was unexplored by any of the all-sky searches published so far. Our method consisted of a coherent search over two-day periods using the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic, followed by a search for coincidences among the candidates from the two-day segments. We have introduced a number of novel techniques and algorithms that allow the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm in the coherent part of the search resulting in a fifty-fold speed-up in computation of the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic with respect to the algorithm used in the other pipelines. No ...

  11. GMOSS: All-sky model of spectral radio brightness based on physical components and associated radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Mayuri Sathyanarayana; Shankar, N Udaya; Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We present Global MOdel for the radio Sky Spectrum (GMOSS) -- a novel, physically motivated model of the low-frequency radio sky from 22 MHz to 23 GHz. GMOSS invokes different physical components and associated radiative processes to describe the sky spectrum over 3072 pixels of $5^{\\circ}$ resolution. The spectra are allowed to be convex, concave or of more complex form with contributions from synchrotron emission, thermal emission and free-free absorption included. Physical parameters that describe the model are optimized to best fit four all-sky maps at 150 MHz, 408 MHz, 1420 MHz and 23 GHz and two maps at 22 MHz and 45 MHz generated using the Global Sky Model of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008). The fractional deviation of model to data has a median value of $6\\%$ and is less than $17\\%$ for $99\\%$ of the pixels. Though aimed at modeling of foregrounds for the global signal arising from the redshifted 21-cm line of Hydrogen during Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization (EoR) - over redshifts $150\\lesssim z ...

  12. GALACTIC ALL-SKY SURVEY HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE REGION OF THE MAGELLANIC LEADING ARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    For, Bi-Qing; Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M., E-mail: biqing.for@uwa.edu.au [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2013-02-10

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds in the region of the Magellanic Leading Arm. The catalog is based on neutral hydrogen (H I) observations from the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Excellent spectral resolution allows clouds with narrow-line components to be resolved. The total number of detected clouds is 419. We describe the method of cataloging and present the basic parameters of the clouds. We discuss the general distribution of the high-velocity clouds and classify the clouds based on their morphological type. The presence of a significant number of head-tail clouds and their distribution in the region is discussed in the context of Magellanic System simulations. We suggest that ram-pressure stripping is a more important factor than tidal forces for the morphology and formation of the Magellanic Leading Arm and that different environmental conditions might explain the morphological difference between the Magellanic Leading Arm and Magellanic Stream. We also discuss a newly identified population of clouds that forms the LA IV and a new diffuse bridge-like feature connecting the LA II and III complexes.

  13. GALACTIC ALL-SKY SURVEY HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE REGION OF THE MAGELLANIC LEADING ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds in the region of the Magellanic Leading Arm. The catalog is based on neutral hydrogen (H I) observations from the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Excellent spectral resolution allows clouds with narrow-line components to be resolved. The total number of detected clouds is 419. We describe the method of cataloging and present the basic parameters of the clouds. We discuss the general distribution of the high-velocity clouds and classify the clouds based on their morphological type. The presence of a significant number of head-tail clouds and their distribution in the region is discussed in the context of Magellanic System simulations. We suggest that ram-pressure stripping is a more important factor than tidal forces for the morphology and formation of the Magellanic Leading Arm and that different environmental conditions might explain the morphological difference between the Magellanic Leading Arm and Magellanic Stream. We also discuss a newly identified population of clouds that forms the LA IV and a new diffuse bridge-like feature connecting the LA II and III complexes.

  14. Statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an all-sky airglow imager at Maui, HI and Cerro Pachon, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-07-01

    Many long-term observations, such as airglow imaging, have shown that gravity waves exist in the mesopause region most of the time. These waves deposit momentum and energy into the background atmosphere when dissipating, and thus exert strong influence to the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on (1) the climatology of gravity waves characteristics, (2) the intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux and (3) the duration/lifespan of gravity wave events. These properties have important implications for gravity wave parameterizations. This study is based on multi-year all sky OH airglow observations obtained at Maui, HI (20.7° N, 156.3° W) and the Andes Lidar Observatory in Chile (30.3° S, 70.7° W). The statistical distribution of intrinsic wave parameters and the momentum flux are analyzed. The probability density functions of gravity wave momentum flux and duration can be described by simple functions and are related to the gravity wave intermittency. The probability distributions of the two sites have some similarity but with noticeable differences, indicating different effects of the background flow and wave source on the gravity wave intermittency in the mesopause region.

  15. STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF STELLAR DISKS FROM TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY IMAGES OF EDGE-ON GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of an analysis of the J, H, and Ks Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images of 139 spiral edge-on galaxies selected from the Revised Flat Galaxies Catalog. The basic structural parameters scale length (h), scale height (z 0), and central surface brightness of the stellar disks (μ0) are determined for all selected galaxies in the near-infrared (NIR) bands. The mean relative ratios of the scale heights of the thin stellar disks in the J:H:Ks bands are 1.16:1.08:1.00, respectively. Comparing the scale heights obtained from the NIR bands for the same objects, we estimate the scale heights of the thin stellar disks corrected for the internal extinction. We find that the extinction-corrected scale height is, on average, 11% smaller than that in the K band. Using the extinction-corrected structural parameters, we find that the dark-to-luminous mass ratio is, on average, 1.3 for the galaxies in our sample within the framework of a simplified galactic model. The relative thicknesses of the stellar disks z 0/h correlates with their face-on central surface brightnesses obtained from the 2MASS images. We also find that the scale height of the stellar disks shows no systematic growth with radius in most of our galaxies.

  16. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pérez-Ramírez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, δAe(λ, and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of δAe(λ and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable δAe(λ and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  17. Cloud screening and quality control algorithm for star photometer data: assessment with lidar measurements and with all-sky-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pérez-Ramírez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. This kind of algorithms is necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, δAe(λ, and precipitable water vapor content, W, at night-time. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of δAe(λ and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable δAe(λ and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16° N, 3.60° W, 680 m a.s.l.; South-East of Spain for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  18. The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): Design and implementation of the northern receiver

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Blackhurst, E J; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Dickinson, C; Holler, C M; Irfan, M O; John, J J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Stevenson, M A; Taylor, Angela C

    2013-01-01

    The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to map the full sky in total intensity and linear polarization at 5 GHz. The northern component of the survey uses a broadband single-frequency analogue receiver fitted to a 6.1-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California, USA. The receiver architecture combines a continuous-comparison radiometer and a correlation polarimeter in a single receiver for stable simultaneous measurement of both total intensity and linear polarization, using custom-designed analogue receiver components. The continuous-comparison radiometer measures the temperature difference between the sky and temperature-stabilized cold electrical reference loads. A cryogenic front-end is used to minimize receiver noise, with a system temperature of $\\approx 30$ K in both linear polarization and total intensity. Custom cryogenic notch filters are used to counteract man-made radio frequency interference. The radiometer $1/f$ noise is dominated by atmospheric fluctuations, while th...

  19. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Behnke, B; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Cardoso, V; Caride, S; Casebolt, T; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cepeda, C; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cokelaer, T; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Cornish, N; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cutler, R M; Danzmann, K; Daudert, B; Davies, G; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harstad, E D; Haughian, E; Hayama, K; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Holt, K; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamat, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kocsis, B; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Kozhevatov, I; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lormand, M; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Miller, A; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohanty, S D; Moreno, G; Mors, K; Mossavi, K; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perraca, A; Petrie, T; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Reed, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schediwy, S W; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, L C; Strain, K A; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H

    2009-03-20

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5 x 10{-9}-0 Hz s{-1}. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semicoherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitted by any unknown isolated rotating neutron stars within the search range. Strain limits below 10{-24} are obtained over a 200-Hz band, and the sensitivity improvement over previous searches increases the spatial volume sampled by an average factor of about 100 over the entire search band. For a neutron star with nominal equatorial ellipticity of 10{-6}, the search is sensitive to distances as great as 500 pc.

  20. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leto Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10–100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  1. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Leto, Giuseppe; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astro- physics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF ob- serving station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data anal- ysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  2. AGN and QSOs in the eROSITA All-Sky Survey -- Part II: Studies of large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The four year X-ray all-sky survey (eRASS) of eROSITA telescope aboard the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite will detect ~3 million AGN with a median redshift of z~1 and typical luminosity of L_{0.5-2.0keV} ~ 10^{44} erg/s. We show that this unprecedented AGN sample, complemented with redshift information, will supply us with outstanding opportunities for large-scale structure research. For the first time, detailed redshift and luminosity resolved studies of the bias factor for X-ray selected AGN will become possible. The eRASS AGN sample will not only improve the redshift and luminosity resolution of these studies but will also expand their luminosity range beyond L_{0.5-2.0 keV} ~ 10^{44} erg/s, thus making possible direct comparison of clustering properties of luminous X-ray AGN and optical quasars. These studies will dramatically improve our understanding of AGN environment, triggering mechanisms, growth of super-massive black holes and their co-evolution with dark matter halos. The eROSITA AGN sample wil...

  3. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  4. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  5. Albedo Properties of Main Belt Asteroids Based on the Infrared All-Sky Survey of the Astronomical Satellite AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mueller, Thomas G; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the Standard Thermal Model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes. Main belt asteroids, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06 to 3.27 AU. AcuA provides a complete data set of all main belt asteroids brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the main belt asteroids is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite ...

  6. Ring Orbits from Multiple Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee, C. A.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N.

    2006-09-01

    Planetary rings provide a remarkable laboratory for the investigation of a wide range of dynamical effects, including resonance-driven density and bending waves, satellite wakes, shepherding of narrow ringlets, and non-circular edges of gaps. Careful quantitative examination of these features requires a very accurate absolute radius scale and planetary pole direction, achievable by combining multiple stellar and radio occultation observations. Uncertainty in the location of the spacecraft (at the km level) introduces a fundamental uncertainty into the geometric solution for the ring radius scale, and in the end one must solve for corrections to the spacecraft trajectory as part of the overall determination of the ring orbital model. Using JPL's NAIF toolkit, we have developed accurate algorithms for computing the event time of a ring occultation during an Earth-based or spacecraft occultation, including the effects of spacecraft trajectory errors mapped in two orthogonal directions transverse to the line of sight, based on osculating orbital elements for the instantaneous spacecraft path. These are the fundamental building blocks for a global solution for the pole direction and orbits of the rings of Saturn and Uranus. For Uranus, our new orbit solution includes the full set of digitally recorded occultation data from 1977-2002, yielding a radius scale accurate at the 100 meter level. For Saturn, we explore the potential for highly accurate ring orbit determination as occultation observations from dozens of stellar and radio occultations become publicly available over the course of the ongoing Cassini orbital tour. Saturn's pole precession is also detectable from ring occultation data, and we set limits on the accuracy of the precession rate determination and the implications for our understanding of the mass distribution in Saturn's interior. This work was supported in part by the NASA PGG program.

  7. Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor measurements of duration distributions of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Norisuke; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Ohno, Masanori; Sugita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Ryuuji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Hurley, Kevin; Hanabata, Yoshitaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Enomoto, Junichi; Fujinuma, Takeshi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Kawano, Takafumi; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakaya, Souhei; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Sawako; Terada, Yukikatsu; Urata, Yuji; Yabe, Seiya; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    We report on the T90 and T50 duration distributions and their relations with spectral hardness using 1464 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were observed by the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) from 2005 August 4 to 2010 December 29. The duration distribution is clearly bimodal in three energy ranges (50-120, 120-250, and 250-550 keV), but is unclear in the 550-5000 keV range, probably because of the limited sample size. The WAM durations decrease with energy according to a power-law index of -0.058(-0.034, +0.033). The hardness-duration relation reveals the presence of short-hard and long-soft GRBs. The short:long event ratio tends to be higher with increasing energy. We compared the WAM distribution with ones measured by eight other GRB instruments. The WAM T90 distribution is very similar to those of INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS and Granat/PHEBUS, and least likely to match the Swift/BAT distribution. The WAM short:long event ratio (0.25:0.75) is much different from Swift/BAT (0.08:0.92), but is almost the same as CGRO/BATSE (0.25:0.75). To explain this difference for BAT, we examined three effects: BAT trigger types, energy dependence of the duration, and detection sensitivity differences between BAT and WAM. As a result, we found that the ratio difference could be explained mainly by energy dependence including soft extended emissions for short GRBs and much better sensitivity for BAT which can detect weak/long GRBs. The reason for the same short:long event ratio for BATSE and WAM was confirmed by calculation using the trigger efficiency curve.

  8. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  9. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Haud, U.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (H i) emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. Aims: We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. Methods: We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. Results: We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscillations; errors cause stripes in the scanning direction. The remaining problems from radio frequency interference (RFI) are spotted. Classifying the severeness of instrumental errors for each individual telescope record (dump) allows us to exclude bad data from averages. We derive parameters that allow us to discard dumps without compromising the noise of the resulting data products too much. All steps are reiterated several times: in each case, we check the Gaussian parameters for remaining problems and inspect 3D FITS data cubes visually. We find that in total ~1.5% of the telescope dumps need to be discarded in addition to ~0.5% of the spectral channels that were excluded in GASS II. Conclusions: The new data release (GASS III) facilitates data products with improved quality. A new web interface, compatible with the previous version, is available for download of GASS III FITS cubes and spectra.

  10. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  11. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  12. Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar Applications (FARMS): A Brief Overview of Mechanisms, Performance, and Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Solar radiation can be computed using radiative transfer models, such as the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its general circulation model applications, and used for various energy applications. Due to the complexity of computing radiation fields in aerosol and cloudy atmospheres, simulating solar radiation can be extremely time-consuming, but many approximations--e.g., the two-stream approach and the delta-M truncation scheme--can be utilized. To provide a new fast option for computing solar radiation, we developed the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by parameterizing the simulated diffuse horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance for cloudy conditions from the RRTM runs using a 16-stream discrete ordinates radiative transfer method. The solar irradiance at the surface was simulated by combining the cloud irradiance parameterizations with a fast clear-sky model, REST2. To understand the accuracy and efficiency of the newly developed fast model, we analyzed FARMS runs using cloud optical and microphysical properties retrieved using GOES data from 2009-2012. The global horizontal irradiance for cloudy conditions was simulated using FARMS and RRTM for global circulation modeling with a two-stream approximation and compared to measurements taken from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Our results indicate that the accuracy of FARMS is comparable to or better than the two-stream approach; however, FARMS is approximately 400 times more efficient because it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. Radiative transfer model runs are computationally expensive, but this model is promising for broad applications in solar resource assessment and forecasting. It is currently being used in the National Solar Radiation Database, which is publicly available from the National Renewable Energy

  13. Thermospheric winds and temperatures above Mawson, Antarctica, observed with an all-sky imaging, Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anderson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer has been installed at Mawson station (67°36' S, 62°52' E, Antarctica. This instrument is capable of recording independent spectra from many tens of locations across the sky simultaneously. Useful operation began in March 2007, with spectra recorded on a total of 186 nights. Initial analysis has focused on the large-scale daily and average behavior of winds and temperatures derived from observations of the 630.0 nm airglow line of atomic oxygen, originating from a broad layer centered around 240 km altitude, in the ionospheric F-region.

    The 1993 Horizontal Wind Model (HWM93, NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model, and the Coupled Thermosphere/Ionosphere Plasmasphere (CTIP model were used for comparison. During the geomagnetically quiet period studied, observed winds and temperatures were generally well modelled, although temperatures were consistently higher than NRLMSISE-00 predicted, by up to 100 K. CTIP temperatures better matched our data, particularly later in the night, but predicted zonal winds which were offset from those observed by 70–180 ms−1 westward. During periods of increased activity both winds and temperatures showed much greater variability over time-scales of less than an hour. For the active night presented here, a period of 45 min saw wind speeds decrease by around 180 ms−1, and temperatures increase by approximately 100 K. Active-period winds were poorly modelled by HWM93 and CTIP, although observed median temperatures were in better agreement with NRLMSISE-00 during such periods.

    Average behavior was found to be generally consistent with previous studies of thermospheric winds above Mawson. The collected data set was representative of quiet geomagnetic and solar conditions. Geographic eastward winds in the afternoon/evening generally continued until around local midnight, when winds turned equatorward. Geographic meridional and

  14. Temporal-spatial structure of magnetic merging at the magnetopause inferred from 557.7-nm all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that high-resolution 557.7-nm all-sky images are useful tools for investigating the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Analysis of ground and satellite measurements leads us to conclude that high-latitude merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 30s to 3min. Variations of 557.7nm emissions were observed at a 10s cadence at Ny-Ålesund on 19 December 2001, while significant changes in the IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. The optical patterns are consistent with a scenario in which merging occurs around the rim of the high-latitude cusp at positions dictated by the IMF clock angle. Electrons energized at merging sites represent plausible sources for 557.7nm emissions in the cusp. Polar observations at the magnetopause have directly linked enhanced fluxes of ≥0.5keV electrons with merging. Spectra of electrons responsible for some of the emissions, measured during a DMSP F15 overflight, exhibit "inverted-V" features, indicating further acceleration above the ionosphere. SuperDARN spectral width boundaries, characteristic of open-closed field line transitions, are located at the equatorward edge of the 557.7nm emissions. Optical data suggest that with IMF BY>0, the Northern Hemisphere cusp divides into three source regions. When the IMF clock angle was ~150° structured 557.7-nm emissions came from east of the 13:00 MLT meridian. At larger clock angles the emissions appeared between 12:00 and 13:00 MLT. No significant 557.7-nm emissions were detected in the prenoon MLT sector. MHD simulations corroborate our scenario, showing that with the observed large dipole-tilt and IMF clock angles, merging sites develop near the front and eastern portions of the high-altitude cusp rim in the Northern Hemisphere and near the western part of the cusp rim in the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. AGN and Starbursts in Dusty Galaxy Mergers: Insights from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.

    2014-07-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is combining imaging and spectroscopic data from the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes augmented with extensive ground-based observations in a multiwavelength study of approximately 180 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and 20 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) that comprise a statistically complete subset of the 60μm-selected IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. The objects span the full range of galaxy environments (giant isolated spirals, wide and close pairs, minor and major mergers, merger remnants) and nuclear activity types (Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst/HII), with proportions that depend strongly on the total infrared luminosity. I will review the science motivations and present highlights of recent results selected from over 25 peer-reviewed journal articles published recently by the GOALS Team. Statistical investigations include detection of high-ionization Fe K emission indicative of deeply embedded AGN, comparison of UV and far-IR properties, investigations of the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength derived from mid-IR spectroscopy, mid-IR spectral diagnostics and spectral energy distributions revealing the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to powering the bolometric luminosity, and quantitative structure analyses that delineate the evolution of stellar bars and nuclear stellar cusps during the merger process. Multiwavelength dissections of individual systems have unveiled large populations of young star clusters and heavily obscured AGN in early-stage (II Zw 96), intermediate-stage (Mrk 266, Mrk 273), and late-stage (NGC 2623, IC 883) mergers. A recently published study that matches numerical simulations to the observed morphology and gas kinematics in mergers has placed four systems on a timeline spanning 175-260 million years after their first passages, and modeling of additional (U)LIRGs is underway. A very

  16. Vertical winds and momentum fluxes due to equatorial planetary scale waves using all-sky meteor radar over Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egito, F.; Andrioli, V. F.; Batista, P. P.

    2016-11-01

    In the equatorial region planetary scale waves play an important role transporting significant amount of energy and momentum through atmosphere. Quantifying the momentum transported by these waves and its effects on the mean flow is rather important. Direct estimates of the momentum flux transported by waves require horizontal and vertical wind measurements. Ground-based meteor radars have provided continuous and reliable measurements of the horizontal wind components in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region and have contributed to improve our knowledge of the dynamics of this region. However, instrumental limitations hinder its use for measuring vertical winds and momentum fluxes. On the other hand, according to Babu et al (2012), all- sky meteor radars are able to infer tridimensional winds when using a large number of meteor echoes centered at the meteor ablation peak. Following this approach, we have used measurements performed by a Meteor Radar installed at São João do Cariri, Brazil (7.4°S; 36.5°W) in order to measure vertical winds and calculate the momentum flux transported by equatorial planetary scale waves. In order to evaluate the accuracy of vertical wind values we have performed several tests based on a simple model considering real meteor distributions and theoretical equations for the MLT winds motion. From our tests, we inferred that Brazilian meteor radar data can be used for this purpose with an accuracy of ~ 1.8 m/s. The results show that the vertical wind presents magnitudes of a few meters per second and occasionally reaches magnitudes around 10 m/s. Below 92 km the vertical wind is predominantly upward during the whole year and above exhibits a semi-annual oscillation with downward phase during the equinoxes. Variations associated to planetary scale waves in the vertical wind are also observed and some of them appear simultaneously in the zonal and meridional wind as well. Largest wave induced amplitudes in the vertical wind

  17. Phase-Occultation Nulling Coronagraphy

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, Richard G; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The search for life via characterization of earth-like planets in the habitable zone is one of the key scientific objectives in Astronomy. We describe a new phase-occulting (PO) interferometric nulling coronagraphy (NC) approach. The PO-NC approach employs beamwalk and freeform optical surfaces internal to the interferometer cavity to introduce a radially dependent plate scale difference between each interferometer arm (optical path) that nulls the central star at high contrast while transmitting the off-axis field. The design is readily implemented on segmented-mirror telescope architectures, utilizing a single nulling interferometer to achieve high throughput, a small inner working angle (IWA), sixth-order or higher starlight suppression, and full off-axis discovery space, a combination of features that other coronagraph designs generally must trade. Unlike previous NC approaches, the PO-NC approach does not require pupil shearing; this increases throughput and renders it less sensitive to on-axis common-mo...

  18. Gravity wave activity observed in the mesosphere and ionosphere on September 16th 2015 by an all-sky imager and dTEC maps over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano; Buriti, Ricardo; Bageston, José Valentin; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Cosme Alexandre Figueiredo, M.; Takahashi, Hisao; Azambuja, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    All-sky imager was used to observe the wave activity in the mesosphere and a ground network of GPS receivers were used to make detrended Total Electron Content (dTEC) maps to monitor the ionosphere. The wave activity was observed on September 16th 2015 over the southeast region in Brazil. The gravity wave characteristics and the atmospheric conditions for wave propagation will be presented and discussed. The gravity wave source was associated with strong tropospheric convection.

  19. Flight System Implementation of the Spacecraft Occulter System for Theia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerelli, Domenick; Theia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Theia program is to characterize Earth-like planets around nearby stars. Theia utilizes two formation-flying spacecraft in an L2 orbit - an observatory and a free flying occulter. Characterization involves looking for signs of life by observing molecular signatures and the presence of water vapor. A free flying occulter spacecraft provides starlight suppression by blocking the starlight while allowing planet light to pass. A diffraction limited monolithic optical telescope is provided for observing planet light passed by the occulter spacecraft. The occulter spacecraft and observatory are flown with a separation of 38, 700 km to 72,000 km (depending on telescope aperture). The Theia system design greatly simplifies design, manufacturing, modeling, and testing requirements compared to a stand-alone high performance internal coronagraph. Design advantages include having thermal/mechanical specifications approaching those of a conventional telescope requiring minimal actuator count. Standard materials and manufacturing approaches apply. End-to-end testing and facilities requirements are standard. The occulter is comprised of up to 30 petals constructed of a dimensionally stable material. Each petal is structurally reinforced for ground handling and testing purposes. An electro-mechanically actuated deployment utilizes standard space qualified mechanism designs to achieve up to a 50m deployed diameter. Multiple layers ensure performance over 5 years of micro-meteroid degradation. The occulter spacecraft is a modular design built of dimensionally stable composite material with 6 bays mounted to a propulsion sub-assembly. The occulter spacecraft uses ion thrusters to achieve its required delta-V over its lifetime and to maintain a position tolerance of 1 m with respect to the observatory. A traditional reaction wheel system is used to maintain orientation. The occulter and occulter spacecraft are compatible with the Atlas 5 launch vehicle.

  20. Time-resolved hard X-Ray hardness variation of solar flares observed by Suzaku Wide-band All-sky monitor

    OpenAIRE

    遠藤, 輝; Endo, Akira; 守上, 浩市; Morigami, Kouichi; 田代, 信; Tashiro, Makoto; 寺田, 幸功; Terada, Yukikatsu; 山岡, 和貴; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; 園田 絵里; Sonoda, Eri; 簑島, 敬; Minoshima, Takashi; Krucker, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Results of solar flare observations in the hard X-ray band with the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) are reported. On June 2009, 108 solar flares (GOES class X:16, M:29, C:46, B:17) have been detected with the WAM since the launch. One of the brightest flares WAM detected was the event occurring on 2006 December 13. It lasted for more than 700 seconds even in above 500 keV. This event was simultaneously observed by the solar missions Hinode and RHESSI in soft and hard X-ray region respe...

  1. The occult abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical signs of an abscess may be masked by the patient's immunosuppressed state or antibiotic therapy. The authors reviewed the clinical presentations of 30 patients with 32 occult abscesses diagnosed with CT or US over 4 years. The abscesses included 12 intraperitoneal, 16 retroperitoneal, and four pleural infected fluid collections. Initial symptoms included fever of unknown origin in six patients and musculoskeletal complaints in four. Six patients were diagnosed with noninflammatory medical problems, five were under investigation for tumor, and, while an infectious process was suspected in nine patients, an associated abscess was not. The occult abscess may mimic other disease processes, and the radiological may be the first to suggest the diagnosis in patients in whom the classic signs and symptoms are absent

  2. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  3. All-sky search for gravitational-wave bursts in the second joint LIGO-Virgo run

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardt, A; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a search for gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010: data are analyzed when at least two of the three LIGO-Virgo detectors are in coincident operation, with a total observation time of 207 days. The analysis searches for transients of duration < 1 s over the frequency band 64--5000 Hz, without other assumptions on the signal waveform, polarization, direction or occurrence time. All identified events are consistent with the expected accidental background. We set frequentist upper limits on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts by combining this search with the previous LIGO-Virgo search on the data collected between November 2005 and October 2007. The upper limit on the rate of strong gravitational-wave bursts at the Earth is 1.3 events per year at 90% confidence. We also present upper limits on source rate density per year and Mpc^3 for sample populations of standard-candle sources. As in the previous...

  4. GAMBARAN RADIOLOGIS PADA OCCULT PNEUMOTHORAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Aditha Satya Putra; Nyoman Srie Laksminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of death in chest wall trauma. Radiological examination is the key factor to establish the existence of a pneumothorax. Occult pneumothorax is pneumothorax that undiagnosed clinically and with thoracic x-ray, but it can be tolerated while other more urgent trauma. Occult pneumothorax can be detected by CT (Computed tomography). Occult pneumothorax may progress to tension pneumothorax in certain circumstances. Missing in diagnosed pneumothorax will cause deat...

  5. Hierarchical follow-up of sub-threshold candidates of an all-sky Einstein@Home search for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO sixth science run data

    CERN Document Server

    Papa, Maria Alessandra; Walsh, Sinéad; Di Palma, Irene; Allen, Bruce; Astone, Pia; Bock, Oliver; Creighton, Teviet D; Keitel, David; Machenschalk, Bernd; Prix, Reinhard; Siemens, Xavier; Singh, Avneet; Zhu, Sylvia J; Schutz, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    We report results of an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves with frequency between 50 and 510 Hz from isolated compact objects, i.e. neutron stars. A new hierarchical multi-stage approach is taken, supported by the computing power of the Einstein@Home project, allowing to probe more deeply than ever before. 16 million sub-threshold candidates from the initial search [LVC,arXiv:1606.09619] are followed up in three stages. None of those candidates is consistent with an isolated gravitational wave emitter, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the amplitudes of continuous waves from the target population. Between 170.5 and 171 Hz we set the most constraining 90% confidence upper limit on the strain amplitude h0 at 4.3x10-25 , while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve an upper limit of 7.6x10-25. These are the most constraining all-sky upper limits to date and constrain the ellipticity of rotating compact objects emitting at 300 Hz at a distance D to less than 6x10-7 [d/100...

  6. Study of transneptunian objects through stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Sicardy, B.; Braga-Ribas, F.

    2014-07-01

    The physical parameters of the transneptunian objects (TNO's) such as size, shape, density, presence of atmosphere, provide important information on their formation and evolution. At more than 30 astronomical units (au) from the Sun, those objects receive low solar radiation and have low mutual collisions so they can be considered as remnants of the primordial outer Solar System. Besides that, information on TNO's is of great relevance when trying to establish a general formation scenario for the recently discovered planetary systems. The problem is that such bodies have a diameter smaller than 2300 km (Eris, one of the largest TNO, has 2326 km) and, when viewed from Earth, they subtend angles smaller than 50 milli-arcseconds, a fact that makes their resolution very poor with current imaging systems. One method to obtain very accurate information on the TNO's is the stellar-occultation technique. Sizes at kilometer accuracies and pressure at nanobar levels can be achieved with this method. Shape, mass, density and other physical parameters can also be derived using this technique. Since 2010, we observed stellar occultations of several TNO's (Varuna in 2010 and 2013; Eris in 2010; 2003 AZ_{84} in 2010 and 2011; Makemake in 2011; Quaoar in 2011 and two in 2012; 2002 KX_{14} in 2013; and finally Sedna in 2013) besides some other occultations of the Pluto system and of the largest Centaurs. We also predicted future events in 2014 and 2015 for the largest 40 TNO's and Centaurs. In this work, we will present new results obtained from recent stellar occultations of TNO's.

  7. On occult period maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kudla, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider the "occult" period maps into ball quotients which exist for the moduli spaces of cubic surfaces, cubic threefolds, non-hyperelliptic curves of genus three and four. These were constructed in the work of Allcock/Carlson/Toledo, Looijenga/Swierstra, and Kondo. We interpret these maps as morphisms into moduli spaces of polarized abelian varieties of Picard type, and show that these morphisms, whose initial construction is transcendental, are defined over the natural field of definition of the spaces involved. This paper is extracted from section 15 of our paper arXiv:0912.3758, and differs from it only in some points of exposition.

  8. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work

  9. The Fermi All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Brandt, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Scargle, J. D; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  10. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  11. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: allafort@stanford.edu, E-mail: rolf.buehler@desy.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 Degree-Sign and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  12. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jáuregui García, José Miguel; López-Cruz, Omar, E-mail: tcv@andrew.cmu.edu [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica (INAOE), Coordinación de Astrofísica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  13. Empirically extending the range of validity of parameter-space metrics for all-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Karl

    2016-01-01

    All-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars are generally limited in sensitivity by the finite availability of computing resources. Semicoherent searches are a common method of maximizing search sensitivity given a fixed computing budget. The work of Wette and Prix [Phys. Rev. D 88, 123005 (2013)] and Wette [Phys. Rev. D 92, 082003 (2015)] developed a semicoherent search method which uses metrics to construct the banks of pulsar signal templates needed to search the parameter space of interest. In this work we extend the range of validity of the parameter-space metrics using an empirically-derived relationship between the resolution (or mismatch) of the template banks and the mismatch of the overall search. This work has important consequences for the optimization of metric-based semicoherent searches at fixed computing cost.

  14. A quality check of the $AKARI$ mid-infrared all-sky diffuse map toward the massive star-forming regions NGC 6334 and NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Toru; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission toward a region including the massive star-forming regions of NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We use the NANTEN $^{12}$CO($J$ = 1--0) data and the $AKARI$ 9 $\\mu$m All-Sky diffuse map in order to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the $AKARI$ data. We confirm that the overall CO distribution shows a good spatial correspondence with the PAH emission, and their intensities exhibit a good power-law correlation with a spatial resolution down to 4$'$ over the region of 10$^\\circ$$\\times$10$^\\circ$. We also reveal poorer correlation for small scale structures between the two quantities toward NGC 6357, due to strong UV radiation from local sources. Larger scatter in the correlation toward NGC 6357 indicates higher ionization degree and/or PAH excitation than that of NGC 6334.

  15. JWST observations of stellar occultations by solar system bodies and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Sanz, P; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Stansberry, J; Lin, Z-Y; Zhang, Z-W; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th; Ortiz, J L; Braga-Ribas, F; Bosh, A; Duffard, R; Lellouch, E; Tancredi, G; Young, L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of solar system bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings, and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun-Earth Lagrange-point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a by-product of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  16. Orbit dynamics and geographical coverage capabilities of satellite-based solar occultation experiments for global monitoring of stratospheric constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Orbit dynamics of the solar occultation technique for satellite measurements of the Earth's atmosphere are described. A one-year mission is simulated and the orbit and mission design implications are discussed in detail. Geographical coverage capabilities are examined parametrically for a range of orbit conditions. The hypothetical mission is used to produce a simulated one-year data base of solar occultation measurements; each occultation event is assumed to produce a single number, or 'measurement' and some statistical properties of the data set are examined. A simple model is fitted to the data to demonstrate a procedure for examining global distributions of atmospheric constitutents with the solar occultation technique.

  17. The Occult: Diabolica to Alchemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Oliver J.

    1971-01-01

    The 91 items in this bibliography deal with works of occult science. The material is subdivided into biographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, noteworthy histories, indices, annuals, and a few miscellany works with treatises. (95 references) (Author)

  18. Diffraction-based sensitivity analysis for an external occulter laboratory demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dan; Kim, Yunjong; Jeremy Kasdin, N; Vanderbei, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    An external flower-shaped occulter flying in formation with a space telescope can theoretically provide sufficient starlight suppression to enable direct imaging of an Earth-like planet. Occulter shapes are scaled to enable experimental validation of their performance at laboratory dimensions. Previous experimental results have shown promising performance but have not realized the full theoretical potential of occulter designs. Here, we develop a two-dimensional diffraction model for optical propagations for occulters incorporating experimental errors. We perform a sensitivity analysis, and comparison with experimental results from a scaled-occulter testbed validates the optical model to the 10-10 contrast level. The manufacturing accuracy along the edge of the occulter shape is identified as the limiting factor to achieving the theoretical potential of the occulter design. This hypothesis is experimentally validated using a second occulter mask manufactured with increased edge feature accuracy and resulting in a measured contrast level approaching the 10-12 level-a better than one order of magnitude improvement in performance. PMID:27505392

  19. Galactic distributions of carbon- and oxygen-rich AGB stars revealed by the AKARI mid-infrared all-sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Matsuura, Mikako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Context: The environmental conditions for asympotic giant branch (AGB) stars to reach the carbon-rich (C-rich) phase are important to understand the evolutionary process of AGB stars. The difference between the spatial distributions of C-rich and oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars is essential for the study of the Galactic structure and the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: We quantitatively investigate the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars in our Galaxy. We discuss the difference between them and its origin. Methods: We classify a large number of AGB stars newly detected by the AKARI id-infrared all-sky survey. In the color-color diagrams, we define their occupation zones based on the locations of known objects. We then obtain the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars, assuming that they have the same luminosity for a given mass-loss rate. Results: We find that O-rich AGB stars are concentrated toward the Galactic center and that the density decreases wi...

  20. Ground-based search for the brightest transiting planets with the Multi-site All-Sky CAmeRA - MASCARA

    CERN Document Server

    Snellen, Ignas; Navarro, Ramon; Bettonvil, Felix; Kenworthy, Matthew; de Mooij, Ernst; Otten, Gilles; ter Horst, Rik; Poole, Rudolf le

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-site All-sky CAmeRA MASCARA is an instrument concept consisting of several stations across the globe, with each station containing a battery of low-cost cameras to monitor the near-entire sky at each location. Once all stations have been installed, MASCARA will be able to provide a nearly 24-hr coverage of the complete dark sky, down to magnitude 8, at sub-minute cadence. Its purpose is to find the brightest transiting exoplanet systems, expected in the V=4-8 magnitude range - currently not probed by space- or ground-based surveys. The bright/nearby transiting planet systems, which MASCARA will discover, will be the key targets for detailed planet atmosphere observations. We present studies on the initial design of a MASCARA station, including the camera housing, domes, and computer equipment, and on the photometric stability of low-cost cameras showing that a precision of 0.3-1% per hour can be readily achieved. We plan to roll out the first MASCARA station before the end of 2013. A 5-station MASCA...

  1. The spatial clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei IV. More massive black holes reside in more massive dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, Mirko; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGN at 0.16

  2. All-sky coherent search for continuous gravitational waves in 6-7 Hz band with a torsion-bar antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Eda, Kazunari; Kuwahara, Yuya; Itoh, Yousuke; Ando, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    A torsion-bar antenna (TOBA) is a low-frequency terrestrial gravitational wave (GW) antenna which consists of two orthogonal bar-shaped test masses. We upgraded the prototype TOBA and achieved the strain sensitivity $10^{-10} \\text{Hz}^{-1/2}$ at around 1 Hz. We operated the upgraded TOBA (called the "Phase-II TOBA") located at Tokyo in Japan for 22.5 hours and perform an all-sky coherent search for continuous GWs using $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic. We place upper limits on continuous GWs from electromagnetically unknown sources in the frequency range from 6 Hz to 7 Hz with the first derivative of frequency less than $7.62 \\times 10^{-11} \\text{Hz}/\\text{s}$ using data from the TOBA. As a result, no significant GW signals are found in the frequency band 6-7 Hz. The most strict upper limit on the dimensionless GW strain with 95 % confidence level in this band is $3.6 \\times 10^{-12}$ at 6.84 Hz.

  3. Science Impacts of the SPHEREx All-Sky Optical to Near-Infrared Spectral Survey: Report of a Community Workshop Examining Extragalactic, Galactic, Stellar and Planetary Science

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Ashby, Matt; Banerjee, Pancha; Battaglia, Nick; Bauer, James; Benjamin, Robert A; Bleem, Lindsey E; Bock, Jamie; Boogert, Adwin; Bull, Philip; Capak, Peter; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chiar, Jean; Cohen, Seth H; Cooray, Asantha; Crill, Brendan; Cushing, Michael; de Putter, Roland; Driver, Simon P; Eifler, Tim; Feng, Chang; Ferraro, Simone; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Gaudi, B Scott; Greene, Tom; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Höflich, Peter A; Hsiao, Eric; Huffenberger, Kevin; Jansen, Rolf A; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Joshi, Bhavin; Kim, Duho; Kim, Minjin; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Kriek, Mariska; Leistedt, Boris; Li, Aigen; Lisse, Carey M; Mauskopf, Phil; Mechtley, Matt; Melnick, Gary; Mohr, Joseph; Murphy, Jeremiah; Neben, Abraham; Neufeld, David; Nguyen, Hien; Pierpaoli, Elena; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Rhodes, Jason; Sandstrom, Karin; Schaan, Emmanuel; Schlaufman, Kevin C; Silverman, John; Su, Kate; Stassun, Keivan; Stevens, Daniel; Strauss, Michael A; Tielens, Xander; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Tolls, Volker; Unwin, Stephen; Viero, Marco; Windhorst, Rogier A; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx is a proposed SMEX mission selected for Phase A. SPHEREx will carry out the first all-sky spectral survey and provide for every 6.2" pixel a spectra between 0.75 and 4.18 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$41.4] and 4.18 and 5.00 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$135]. The SPHEREx team has proposed three specific science investigations to be carried out with this unique data set: cosmic inflation, interstellar and circumstellar ices, and the extra-galactic background light. It is readily apparent, however, that many other questions in astrophysics and planetary sciences could be addressed with the SPHEREx data. The SPHEREx team convened a community workshop in February 2016, with the intent of enlisting the aid of a larger group of scientists in defining these questions. This paper summarizes the rich and varied menu of investigations that was laid out. It includes studies of the composition of main belt and Trojan/Greek asteroids; mapping the zodiacal light with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution; identifying and stud...

  4. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  5. A Large, Uniform Sample of X-ray Emitting AGN from the ROSAT All-Sky and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: the Data Release 5 Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, S F; Voges, W; Plotkin, R M; Syphers, D; Haggard, D; Collinge, M J; Meyer, J; Strauss, M A; Agüeros, M A; Hall, P B; Homer, L; Ivezic, Z; Richards, G T; Richmond, M W; Schneider, D P; Stinson, G; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang; Plotkin, Richard M.; Syphers, David; Haggard, Daryl; Collinge, Matthew J.; Meyer, Jillian; Strauss, Michael A.; Agueros, Marcel A.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Richards, Gordon T.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stinson, Gregory; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe further results of a program aimed to yield ~10^4 fully characterized optical identifications of ROSAT X-ray sources. Our program employs X-ray data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS), and both optical imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). RASS/SDSS data from 5740 deg^2 of sky spectroscopically covered in SDSS Data Release 5 (DR5) provide an expanded catalog of 7000 confirmed quasars and other AGN that are probable RASS identifications. Again in our expanded catalog, the identifications as X-ray sources are statistically secure, with only a few percent of the SDSS AGN likely to be randomly superposed on unrelated RASS X-ray sources. Most identifications continue to be quasars and Seyfert 1s with 15

  6. Excitation Mechanisms for HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) in Galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Privon, G C; Evans, A S; Iwasawa, K; Perez-Torres, M A; Armus, L; Diaz-Santos, T; Murphy, E J; Stierwalt, S; Aalto, S; Mazzarella, J M; Barcos-Munoz, L; Borish, H J; Inami, H; Kim, D -C; Treister, E; Surace, J A; Lord, S; Conway, J; Frayer, D T; Alberdi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present new IRAM 30m spectroscopic observations of the $\\sim88$ GHz band, including emission from the CCH (n=1-0) multiplet, HCN (1-0), HCO+ (1-0), and HNC (1-0), for a sample of 58 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). By combining our new IRAM data with literature data and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, we study the correspondence between these putative tracers of dense gas and the relative contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation to the mid-infrared luminosity of each system. We find the HCN (1-0) emission to be enhanced in AGN-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.84$), compared to composite and starburst-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.14$, and 0.88, respectively). However, some composite and starburst systems have L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}$ ratios comparable to those of AGN, indicating that enhanced HCN emission is not uniquely ass...

  7. First observations of SBAS/WAAS scintillations: Using collocated scintillation measurements and all-sky images to study equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledvina, B. M.; Makela, J. J.

    2005-07-01

    The first observations of amplitude scintillations on a Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS) satellite signal are presented. The scintillations occurred on the signal transmitted by a Wide Area Augmentation Satellite (WAAS) on 8-9 September 2004 from 2250-0045 LT. The GPS receiver that measured the scintillations is located on Haleakala, Hawaii (geomagnetic: 21.3°N, 271.4°E). With a maximum S4 = 0.35, corresponding to a peak-to-peak SNR variation of 8 dB, the scintillations are relatively weak, which is to be expected for a site poleward of the equatorial anomaly during declining solar conditions. Using a collocated all-sky imager, features of the irregularity structuring in the equatorial plasma bubbles are resolved. The satellite signals scintillate when the ray path intersects the three main bubbles. The scintillation intensity tends to peak near the walls, and decreases slightly in the interior of the bubbles. In this case, the bubbles' leading (east) walls contain smaller-scale-size irregularities than the trailing (west) walls.

  8. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey catalogue - VII. V1200 Centauri: a bright triple in the Hyades moving group

    CERN Document Server

    Coronado, J; Vanzi, L; Espinoza, N; Brahm, R; Jordán, A; Catelán, M; Ratajczak, M; Konacki, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the orbital and physical parameters of the detached eclipsing binary V1200~Centauri (ASAS~J135218-3837.3) from the analysis of spectroscopic observations and light curves from the \\textit{All Sky Automated Survey} (ASAS) and SuperWASP database. The radial velocities were computed from the high-resolution spectra obtained with the OUC 50-cm telescope and PUCHEROS spectrograph and with 1.2m Euler telescope and CORALIE spectrograph using the cross-correlation technique \\textsc{todcor}. We found that the absolute parameters of the system are $M_1= 1.394\\pm 0.030$ M$_\\odot$, $M_2= 0.866\\pm 0.015$ M$_\\odot$, $R_1= 1.39\\pm 0.15$ R$_\\odot$, $R_2= 1.10\\pm 0.25$ R$_\\odot$. We investigated the evolutionary status and kinematics of the binary and our results indicate that V1200~Centauri is likely a member of the Hyades moving group, but the largely inflated secondary's radius may suggest that the system may be even younger, around 30 Myr. We also found that the eclipsing pair is orbited by another, stellar-mas...

  9. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Torres, O.; Remer, L.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  10. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  11. Testing for Occult Heartworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdale, L.

    1984-01-01

    Heartworm infection in dogs is endemic in southern Ontario but occurs only sporadically throughout the remainder of Canada. The disease may either be associated with microfilariae in the patient's blood, a patent infection, or it may be occult. This paper describes a case of occult dirofilariasis in a dog, with emphasis on the diagnosis. A patent infection could be missed if the clinician tests an insufficient amount of blood. He should perform multiple concentration tests using either the modified Knott's technique or a filtration method. Occult infections occur in prepatent or unisexual infections, when the worms become sterile following therapy, or when the host produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the microfilariae. The recent release of a kit which detects the presence of antibodies to the adult heartworms now enables veterinarians to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of dogs. PMID:17422386

  12. Occult Participation: Its Impact on Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…

  13. Search for young stars among ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray sources in and around the R CrA dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.; Covino, E.; Alcalá, J. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Frink, S.; Guillout, P.; Sterzik, M. F.; Comerón, F.

    2000-10-01

    We present the ROSAT All-Sky Survey data in a 126 deg2 area in and around the CrA star forming region. With low-resolution spectroscopy of unidentified ROSAT sources we could find 19 new pre-main sequence stars, two of which are classical T Tauri stars, the others being weak-lined. The spectral types of these new T Tauri stars range from F7 to M6. The two new classical T Tauri stars are located towards two small cloud-lets outside of the main CrA cloud. They appear to be ~ 10 Myrs old, by comparing their location in the H-R diagram with isochrones for an assumed distance of 130 pc, the distance of the main CrA dark cloud. The new off-cloud weak-line T Tauri stars may have formed in similar cloudlets, which have dispersed recently. High-resolution spectra of our new T Tauri stars show that they have significantly more lithium absorption than zero-age main-sequence stars of the same spectral type, so that they are indeed young. From those spectra we also obtained rotational and radial velocities. For some stars we found the proper motion in published catalogs. The direction and velocity of the 3D space motion - south relative to the galatic plane - of the CrA T Tauri stars is consistent with the dark cloud being formed originally by a high-velocity cloud impact onto the galactic plane, which triggered the star formation in CrA. We also present VRIJHK photometry for most of the new T Tauri stars to derive their luminosities, ages, and masses. Partly based on observations collected at the 1.52 m and 3.5 m telescopes of the European Southern Observatory, Chile, in programs 55.E-0549, 57.E-0646, and 63.L-0023, and on observations collected at the 0.9 m, 1.5 m, and 4.0 m CTIO telescope.

  14. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  15. MR imaging of occult fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR imaging in detecting occult fractures. Methods: Sixteen cases with acute trauma were studied using radiography and MR imaging, three cases also underwent CT examinations. Three fractures occurred in the femur condyle, 8 in the proximal tibia and 5 in the thoracolumbar spine. Results: All sixteen cases had normal radiographic results. In 11 cases with femur condyle and tibia occult fracture, MR imaging demonstrated linear low signal in the subcortical region in 3 cases and irregular low signal from articular faces to shaft in 8 cases on both T1WI and T2WI, and high signal changes around low signal were seen on T2WI, and the width of low signal was less than 4 mm on both T1WI and T2WI. The high signal in T1 weighted-Fat saturated sequence was more remarkable and wider than that on T2WI. 3 cases with CT scanning showed no fracture signs. In five cases with thoracolumbar vertebral occult fractures, MR imaging demonstrated horizontal linear low signal in the center of vertebra on both T1WI and T2WI, and high signal changes around low signal were seen on T2WI. Conclusions: MR imaging could early determine the diagnosis of occult fractures. MRI should be the next examination of choice when plain films fail to reveal suspected fractures in the setting of suggestive symptoms and positive physical examination

  16. Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere structure during convective systems using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo

    stratosphere (UTLS) contributing to the troposphere-stratosphere transport and affecting the Earth global circulation and the climate changes. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique enables measurement of atmospheric density structure in any meteorological condition......, with extremely high accuracy, precision and vertical resolution, providing a global coverage of the Earth. The objective of this thesis is tounderstand if the radio occultation technique can be used to study the water vapor in the UTLS, and to characterize the convective processes. The contribution...

  17. Saturn's Equatorial Oscillation: Evidence of Descending Thermal Structure from Cassini Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinder, P. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; McGhee, C. A.; Kliore, A. J.; Rappaport, N. J.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Anabtawi, A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of near-equatorial radio occultations of Cassini by Saturn occurred in 2005 and again in 2009-2010. Comparison of the temperature-pressure profiles obtained from the two sets of occultations shows evidence of a descending pattern in the stratosphere that is similar to those associated with equatorial oscillations in Earth's middle atmosphere. This is the first time that this descent has been observed in another planetary atmosphere. If absorption of upwardly propagating waves drives the descent, the implied absorbed flux is 0.05 square meters per square second at least as large if not greater than on Earth.

  18. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  19. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  20. Detection of the martian atmosphere and ionosphere using spacecraft-earth radio occultation%星-地无线电掩星技术探测火星大气和电离层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素君; 平劲松; 洪振杰; 韩婷婷; 毛晓飞

    2009-01-01

    历史上几乎所有的行星探测任务都开展了无线电掩星实验,以探测行星的大气、电离层、行星环以及磁场,并取得了很多重要的科学成果.掩星发生时刻前后,测量航天器发出的信号穿过行星电离层和大气层时被遮掩而引起的信号频率、相位、幅度或极化等物理特性的变化,通过某种反演技术,可以得到大气的折射率廓线,推出中性大气的密度、温度、压强廓线以及电离层的电子浓度廓线.文章嗣绕中国"萤火1号"火星探测器(YH-1)火星探测计划中将要开展的星-地无线电掩星实验,介绍了该技术用于探测火星大气和电离层的相关情况.%Investigations of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, rings, and magnetic fields using radio science techniques have been conducted by almost every planetary mission, and have acquired many significant scientific results. Changes in the frequency, phase, amplitude and polarization of spacecraft radio signals, caused by passage through a planet's atmosphere and ionosphere, have been observed in rising and descending planet occultation events. Utilizing an inversion method, we can obtain the refractivity profiles of the atmosphere, as well as the density, temperature and pressure profiles of the neutral atmosphere, and the electron density profile of the ionosphere. In the first Chinese YH-1 Mars mission, characteristics of the Martian atmosphere and ionosphere will be detected by a radio occultation experiment. The details are presented in this paper.

  1. Occult HBV infection and HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A number of risk factors appear to play a role in Hepatocellularcinoma (HCC, HBV infection being one of the most important. Chronic inflammation and cytokines are key determinants in the development of fibrosis and liver cell proliferation. HBV DNA integration into host cellular DNA, has been extensively studied and may disrupt or promote expression of cellular genes that are important in cell growth and differentiation. Moreover, expression of HBV proteins may have a direct effect on cellular functions, and some of these gene products may lead to malignant transformation. Several HBV genes have been frequently found in infected tissues including truncated pre-S2/S, hepatitis B X gene, and a novel spliced transcript of HBV (hepatitis B spliced protein. The proteins expressed from these integrated genes have been shown to have intracellular activities, including effects on cellular growth and apoptosis. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is characterized by persistence of HBV DNA into the tissue of hep atitis B surface antigen-negative individuals. The clinical relevance of this peculiar infection, in particular, the impact of occult HBV infection in cases of HCC has been a matter of debate. Prevalence and molecular status of occult HBV in patients with HCC has been investigated in several studies. HCC patients from Italy, France, Japan, Morocco, the United States, Canada etc…..who had no detectable HBsAg in their serum have been studied. In these HBsAg-negative HCC patients, HBV DNA was detected in tumorous and/or in adjacent non tumorous liver tissue using polymerase chain reaction (PCR in almost half of the patients, being anti-HCV positive or not. Some of the patients are positive for anti-HBc antibodies as the only marker of HBV infection, but not all. Covalently closed circular HBV DNA may be detected indicating that at least some of these patients

  2. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer

  3. IUVS/MAVEN Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröller, Hannes; Yelle, Roger; Montmessin, Franck; Lacombe, Gaetan; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    We present the latest results from stellar occultations observed with the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on board of Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. So far 9 campaigns have been executed on average every two months since MAVEN began orbiting Mars. Approximately 50 occultations are recorded in each campaign. The IUVS instrument observes in two spectral regions, the far- and mid-UV. The FUV channel covers wavelengths from 110 to 190 nm and the MUV channel from 170 to 350 nm. By combining those two channels we cover the whole altitude range starting from around 30 km to 150 km. We present the geometric dependent CO2, O2, and O3 number densities from these occultations. The derived O2 mixing ratio varies between 1.5 × 10-3 and 5 × 10-3. In some of the MUV occultations we also can see aerosol extinction. In addition we present temperatures derived from the CO2 densities assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. We retrieved mean temperatures of around 180 K at lower altitudes, which decreasing with altitudes down to a mean of around 130 K at higher altitudes. We see a constantly cold layer with temperatures of 105 – 120 K at a pressure level at roughly 7 × 10-6 Pa, equivalent to an altitude of around 140 km. We also discuss possible wave structures with amplitudes between 5 and 15 K and wavelengths between 10 and 15 km in the obtained temperature profiles. The temperature profiles, retrieved with the IUVS instrument, are mostly in agreement with predicted values from the Mars Climate Database model, except where we see the cold layer around 140 km.

  4. Improving capabilities of broadband differential satellite navigation systems via radio occultation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslivtsev, T. O.; Nikiforov, S. V.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.; Savochkin, P. V.; Sakhno, I. V.; Semenov, A. A.; Troitsky, B. V.

    2016-07-01

    The existent satellite system for radio occultation monitoring the Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere (COSMIC) provides data to consumers in the regions with limited possibilities of constructing dense measurement networks (e.g., in the World Ocean area). A forthcoming increase of LEO small spacecrafts and the deployment of new satellite radio navigation systems will result in a pronounced increase in the efficiency of radio occultation method and its space resolution. As a result, the Space-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) broadband differential system will become global, or the quality of corrections delivered to single-frequency consumers of individual systems, e.g., the Augmentation and Monitoring System, will be improved. Therefore, the methods for processing and analyzing obtained radio occultation data should be improved. A simple method to reconstruct the electron density profile at radio occultation points, based on the total electron content measurement on the satellite-satellite path and the IRI-type ionospheric model has been proposed. The method needs initial information, it does not require refraction measurements, and it is free of the assumption that the ionosphere is spherically stratified in the occultation region. Verification of the proposed method based on data for 121 radio occultation cases across Europe in May 2013 demonstrated good agreement with the vertical sounding data.

  5. Occult Communications: On Instrumentation, Esotericism, and Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viewed from the perspective of the occult, formerly straight and narrow conduits of reason may even begin to resemble irregular relays composed of irregular twists and turns. This essay offers a brief overview of key literature on spiritualism and the occult, some larger reflections on the place of the occult within studies of science and communications, and brief summaries of the essays contained in this volume.

  6. Occult Communications: On Instrumentation, Esotericism, and Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan

    2015-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of the occult, formerly straight and narrow conduits of reason may even begin to resemble irregular relays composed of irregular twists and turns. This essay offers a brief overview of key literature on spiritualism and the occult, some larger reflections on the place of the occult within studies of science and communications, and brief summaries of the essays contained in this volume.

  7. A Method to Measure Cloudiness of All-sky Images in No-moon Nights%天文选址的夜间云量处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹佳; 钱璇; 姚永强; 王红帅; 李林; 尤显龙; 周云贺; 马江龙; 刘立勇; 李俊荣

    2012-01-01

    The site quality of astronomical observatory critically depends on cloud coverage, and the measurement of cloudiness is particularly important for selecting a telescope site. In recent site testing work, all-sky camera is widely employed to detect cloud. Due to the impact of moon light, the measurements of cloudiness of all-sky images are considered to be divided into two categories, no-moon nights and moonlit nights. The method is described in this paper to deal with all-sky images in no-moon nights. By identifying the positions of bright reference stars and making photometry for a set of all-sky images in clear nights, we can set up a reference image with median smoothing of the differential magnitude values. The standard image can be taken as the threshold for clear nights, and the detectivity of stars in other images can be utilize to reveal cloud coverage. Three types of all-sky images, icy lens, part of cloud, and full of cloud, are selected to check up the method, and the effect of threshold determination on cloud estimates is discussed. Finally, the limitation and uncertainty of the method are discussed.%云量是影响天文台址质量最重要的因素之一,对夜间云量的检测和处理尤为重要.采用地面云量相机对全天云量进行监测,所拍摄的图像需要有效的方法进行处理以量化云量.夜间云量图像受月光的影响严重,因此将夜间的云量图像分为有月夜和无月夜两类进行处理.针对无月夜情况,给出了夜间云量的处理过程.对图像中的亮星进行定位和测光,确定星等差.以晴夜图像中亮星的星等差为参照,将星等差低于阈值条件的亮星概率作为晴夜的概率标准.选取了3类图像对该方法进行测试并确定云量,分析了阈值条件对结果的影响.最后,讨论了该方法的适用范围和不确定性.

  8. Wave optics-based LEO-LEO radio occultation retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the theory for performing retrieval of radio occultations that use probing frequencies in the XK and KM band. Normally, radio occultations use frequencies in the L band, and GPS satellites are used as the transmitting source, and the occultation signals are received by a GPS receiver on board a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite. The technique is based on the Doppler shift imposed, by the atmosphere, on the signal emitted from the GPS satellite. Two LEO satellites are assumed in the occultations discussed in this paper, and the retrieval is also dependent on the decrease in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites, while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS-based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high-frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing the retrieval of the water vapor content. Selecting the correct probing frequencies would make it possible to retrieve other information such as the content of ozone. The retrieval is performed through a number of processing steps which are based on the Full Spectrum Inversion (FSI) technique. The retrieval chain is therefore a wave optics-based retrieval chain, and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on five different frequencies are used. The five frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave optics-based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples, and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global European Centre for Medium

  9. Visualization and data sharing of COSMIC radio occultation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, W. J.; Chastang, J.; Murray, D.; McWhirter, J.; Integrated Data Viewer

    2010-12-01

    Visualizing the trajectory and the sounding profile of the COSMIC netCDF dataset, and its evolution through time is developed in Unidata's Integrated data Viewer (IDV). The COSMIC radio occultation data is located in a remote data server called RAMADDA, which is a content management system for earth science data. The combination of these two software packages provides a powerful visualization and analysis tools for sharing real time and archived data for research and education. In this presentation we would like to demonstrate the development and the usage of these two software packages.

  10. Occult hemorrhage in children with severe ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adolfo; Buchanan, George R

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the frequency and significance of clinically unapparent or occult hemorrhage in ITP. Therefore, we prospectively explored the sites and frequency of occult bleeding in children with severe ITP at diagnosis or upon symptomatic relapse in a prospective, single-institution cohort study of patients ≤ 18 years of age and a platelet count ≤ 10,000/mm(3) . Data collected included bleeding severity assessment, urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, and non-contrast brain MRI. Stool and urine samples were tested within 7 days of diagnosis or symptomatic relapse. Three months after diagnosis or relapse a noncontrast brain MRI evaluated hemosiderin deposits resulting from prior localized hemorrhage. Fifty-two ITP patients were enrolled with a mean platelet count of 4,000/mm(3) . A significant occurrence of occult hemorrhage was identified in the urine (27%) compared with clinically overt hematuria (0.91%, P occult bleeding in the urinary tract. There was no relationship between occult hemorrhage and bleeding manifestations on physical examination. Occult hemorrhage was not a harbinger of subsequent bleeding. Our findings suggest that occult hemorrhage occurs with greater frequency than overt bleeding in children with severe ITP. CNS microbleeding is a potential risk in this patient population. Assessment of brain microbleeds and microscopic hematuria in this patient population require additional study.

  11. Occultation observations of atmosphere and climate change from space: a backbone for the GCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.

    2003-04-01

    Since the early use of the occultation measurement principle for sounding planetary atmospheres, its exploitation has seen tremendous advances. A particular boost was felt since the late eighties when a variety of intriguing opportunities for application to the atmosphere of our home planet Earth were increasingly recognized, such as utilizing new signal sources like Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. Today we use and plan occultation sensors on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, which exploit solar, lunar, stellar, GNSS, and LEO-crosslink signals. The sensors, together, smartly utilize the whole electromagnetic spectrum from EUV/UV via VIS/IR and MW to Radio and exploit all kinds of atmosphere-radiation interaction such as absorption and scattering, both by molecules and aerosols, as well as refraction. The parameters obtained, from the Earth's surface up through the entire atmosphere, extend from the fundamental mass field variables temperature, pressure, and geopotential height via the fundamental variable trace gases water vapor and ozone (and many further important trace species) to key particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. All these measurements rest on one and the same occultation principle with its unique properties of providing self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data thus bear enormous utility for applications in climate monitoring and research but also in other fields such as numerical weather prediction and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The self-calibration property is particularly crucial for climate change monitoring, as it enables unique long-term stability in climate datasets. The latter can be built from occultation data of different satellites and times without inter-calibration efforts. In fact, a controversy such as the recent one on the tropospheric temperature record over the last two decades

  12. On the Use of Cherenkov Telescopes for Outer Solar System Body Occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Imaging Atmosphere Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) are arrays of very large optical telescopes that are well-suited for rapid photometry of bright sources. I investigate their potential in observing stellar occultations by small objects in the outer Solar System, Transjovian Objects (TJOs). These occultations cast diffraction patterns on the Earth. Current IACT arrays are capable of detecting objects smaller than 100 meters in radius in the Kuiper Belt and 1 km radius out to 5000 AU. The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will have even greater capabilities. Because the arrays include several telescopes, they can potentially measure the speeds of TJOs without degeneracies, and the sizes of the TJOs and background stars. I estimate the achievable precision using a Fisher matrix analysis. With CTA, the precisions of these parameter estimations will be as good as a few percent. I consider how often IACTs can observe occultations by members of different TJO populations, including Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects (KB...

  13. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  14. The Approach to Occult Gastrointestinal Bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naut, Edgar R

    2016-09-01

    Occult gastrointestinal bleeding is not visible and may present with a positive fecal occult blood test or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure bleeding can be overt or occult, with no source identified despite an appropriate diagnostic workup. A stepwise approach to this evaluation after negative upper and lower endoscopy has been shown to be cost effective. This includes repeat endoscopies if warranted, followed by video capsule endoscopy (VCE) if no obstruction is present. If the VCE is positive then specific endoscopic intervention may be possible. If negative, patients may undergo either repeat testing or watchful waiting with iron supplements.

  15. The occultation of Arcturus in the Vatican

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    The dome of Saint Peter's Basilica plays the role of the Moon during a stellar occultation and Arcturus is the target star. This occultation-like phenomenon is useful for introducing to occultation astronomy a class of student up to university level. It can be organized very easily at the convenience of the audience. Techical and didactical aspects are discussed; the video is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIfsj7t-u-c and has been realized with an ordinary camcorder.

  16. Reflective Occultation Mask for Evaluation of Occulter Designs for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Lyon, Richard; Shiri, Shahram; Roman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Advanced formation flying occulter designs utilize a large occulter mask flying in formation with an imaging telescope to block and null starlight to allow imaging of faint planets in exosolar systems. A paper describes the utilization of subscale reflective occultation masks to evaluate formation flying occulter designs. The use of a reflective mask allows mounting of the occulter by conventional means and simplifies the test configuration. The innovation alters the test set-up to allow mounting of the mask using standard techniques to eliminate the problems associated with a standard configuration. The modified configuration uses a reflective set-up whereby the star simulator reflects off of a reflective occulting mask and into an evaluation telescope. Since the mask is sized to capture all rays required for the imaging test, it can be mounted directly to a supporting fixture without interfering with the beam. Functionally, the reflective occultation mask reflects light from the star simulator instead of transmitting it, with a highly absorptive carbon nanotube layer simulating the occulter blocking mask. A subscale telescope images the star source and companion dim source that represents a planet. The primary advantage of this is that the occulter can be mounted conventionally instead of using diffractive wires or magnetic levitation.

  17. Oh Glorious Geometry: Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical objects are like a grand clockwork in the sky; they follow steady patterns in time. However, these bright objects we see are not just points of light but have finite dimensions and thus can get in each other's way. As a result, some stars puzzle us by brightening or dimming, or the Sun can frighten us by going out unexpectedly when something else blocks its light. There is nothing unusual about these eclipses, occultations, or transits—they are demonstrations of simple physics—and we take some for granted, like the rotation of Earth moving us into darkness each night. The periodic dimming of a bright star worried mankind for millennia and helped give astronomy a shove. And unexpected events, like a solar or lunar eclipse, can inspire awe and change the course of history. Now that we can observe through telescopes and travel by proxy throughout the solar system, we find the universe is rife with shadow and light shows. Those taking place within our solar system have been useful to astronomy (like the recent transits of Venus or the ever-present eclipses of the Jovian satellites), and were of considerable popular interest, allowing us to think beyond the confines of Earth. Now we detect distant exoplanets transiting their parent stars, announcing the presence of other solar systems in our corner of the Galaxy and changing the discussion about life elsewhere in the universe from mere speculation to plausible possibility. Distant galaxies can make visible ever-further galaxies by forming Einstein rings, allowing us to see behind them and make the structure of the universe more evident. This paper will discuss these phenomena, from those visible easily on Earth to those that can now be seen for the first time from probes in space. We will also discuss how this has expanded popular knowledge of the universe we live in. This paper is illustrated by a number of examples ranging from eclipses and transits throughout the solar system and the nearby stars to

  18. McDonald's and the Occult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Barry

    1979-01-01

    Discusses "occult" and "paranormal" literature which is often mistaken for nonfiction. Suggests that most publishers are unwilling to publish scientific perspectives on the paranormal because such writings would be unmarketable. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)

  19. Occultation Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha; Farmer, Alison J.

    2003-01-01

    The occultation of background stellar sources by foreground Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) can be used to survey physical properties of the KBO population. We discuss statistics related to a KBO occultation survey, such as the event duration distribution, and suggest that occultation searches can be effectively used to probe the KBO size distribution below 10 km. In particular, we suggest that occultation surveys may be best suited to search for a turnover radius in the KBO size distribution due to collisions between small-size objects. For occultation surveys that monitor stellar sources near the ecliptic over a few square degrees, with time sampling intervals of order 0.1 sec and sensitivity to flux variations of a few percent or more, a turnover radius between 0.1 and 1.0 km can be probed. While occultation surveys will probe the low-radius limit and imaging surveys will detect KBOs of size 100 km or more, statistics of objects with sizes in the intermediate range of around 1 km to 100 km will likely remain un...

  20. Method of Modeling and Simulation of Shaped External Occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G. (Inventor); Clampin, Mark (Inventor); Petrone, Peter, III (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to modeling an external occulter including: providing at least one processor executing program code to implement a simulation system, the program code including: providing an external occulter having a plurality of petals, the occulter being coupled to a telescope; and propagating light from the occulter to a telescope aperture of the telescope by scalar Fresnel propagation, by: obtaining an incident field strength at a predetermined wavelength at an occulter surface; obtaining a field propagation from the occulter to the telescope aperture using a Fresnel integral; modeling a celestial object at differing field angles by shifting a location of a shadow cast by the occulter on the telescope aperture; calculating an intensity of the occulter shadow on the telescope aperture; and applying a telescope aperture mask to a field of the occulter shadow, and propagating the light to a focal plane of the telescope via FFT techniques.

  1. Comparison of ionospheric radio occultation CHAMP data with IRI 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS radio occultation measurements on board low Earth orbiting satellites can provide vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere from satellite orbit heights down to the bottomside. Ionospheric radio occultation (IRO measurements carried out onboard the German CHAMP satellite mission since 11 April 2001 were used to derive vertical electron density profiles (EDP’s on a routine basis. About 150 vertical electron density profiles may be retrieved per day thus providing a huge data basis for testing and developing ionospheric models. Although the validation of the EDP retrievals is not yet completed, the paper addresses a systematic comparison of about 78 000 electron density profiles derived from CHAMP IRO data with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001. The results are discussed for quite different geophysical conditions, e.g. as a function of latitude, local time and geomagnetic activity. The comparison of IRO data with corresponding IRI data indicates that IRI generally overestimates the upper part of the ionosphere whereas it underestimates the lower part of the ionosphere under high solar activity conditions. In a first order correction this systematic deviation could be compensated by introducing a height dependence correction factor in IRI profiling.

  2. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  3. VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillet, Christian; Lai, Olivier; Salmon, Derrick; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2006-06-01

    Building on an extensive and successful experience in Adaptive Optics (AO) and on recent developments made in its funding nations, the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Corporation (CFHT) is studying the VASAO concept: an integrated AO system that would allow diffraction limited imaging of the whole sky in the visible as well as in the infrared. At the core of VASAO, Pueo-Hou (the new Pueo) is built on Pueo, the current CFHT AO bonnette. Pueo will be refurbished and improved to be able to image the isoplanetic field at 700 nm with Strehl ratios of 30% or better, making possible imaging with a resolution of 50 milliarcseconds between 500 and 700nm, and at the telescope limit of diffraction above. The polychromatic tip-tilt laser guide star currently envisioned will be generated by a single 330nm mode-less laser, and the relative position of the 330nm and 589nm artificial stars created on the mesosphere by the 330nm excitation of the sodium layer will be monitored to provide the atmospheric tip-tilt along the line of sight, following the philosophy developed for the ELP-OA project. The feasibility study of VASAO will take most of 2006 in parallel with the development of a science case making the best possible use of the unique capabilities of the system, If the feasibility study is encouraging, VASAO development could start in 2007 for a full deployment on the sky by 2011-2012.

  4. A linear scale height Chapman model supported by GNSS occultation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pulido, G.; Hernández-Pajares, M.; Aragón-Àngel, A.; Garcia-Rigo, A.

    2016-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) radio occultations allow the vertical sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, in particular, the ionosphere. The physical observables estimated with this technique permit to test theoretical models of the electron density such as, for example, the Chapman and the Vary-Chap models. The former is characterized by a constant scale height, whereas the latter considers a more general function of the scale height with respect to height. We propose to investigate the feasibility of the Vary-Chap model where the scale height varies linearly with respect to height. In order to test this hypothesis, the scale height data provided by radio occultations from a receiver on board a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite, obtained by iterating with a local Chapman model at every point of the topside F2 layer provided by the GNSS satellite occultation, are fitted to height data by means of a linear least squares fit (LLS). Results, based on FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS occultation data inverted by means of the Improved Abel transform inversion technique (which takes into account the horizontal electron content gradients) show that the scale height presents a more clear linear trend above the F2 layer peak height, hm, which is in good agreement with the expected linear temperature dependence. Moreover, the parameters of the linear fit obtained during four representative days for all seasons, depend significantly on local time and latitude, strongly suggesting that this approach can significantly contribute to build realistic models of the electron density directly derived from GNSS occultation data.

  5. First Stellar Occultation Observation with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward W.; Bida, T.; Bosh, A.; Collins, P.; Levine, S.; Person, M.; Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H.; Taylor, B.; Wiedemann, M.; Wolf, J.; Zuluaga, C.

    2012-01-01

    We successfully observed the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto with the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) instrument from Lowell Observatory and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC) from the Deutches SOFIA Institut (DSI) mounted on the SOFIA telescope. A major prediction astrometry effort focused at MIT combined with the willingness of the SOFIA project to entertain the idea of an in-flight change to the flight plan allowed us to target the center of the occultation shadow. This was accomplished by means of an in-flight prediction update by satellite telephone and a real-time onboard flight plan modification to accommodate the prediction update. We obtained excellent results with both channels of HIPO and the FDC with each light curve showing a small, extended brightening while the star was occulted. We will discuss analysis results as well as SOFIA's considerable potential for future occultation work. We thank the SOFIA program for its willingness to attempt this challenging observation at such an early stage of SOFIA science operations. Lowell's SOFIA work was supported by a grant from USRA, MIT's prediction work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and the National Science Foundation, and the FDC work was supported by the DSI. We thank the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station for allowing us to use their facilities to obtain our prediction astrometry observations.

  6. Ipsilateral occult hernias during endoscopic groin hernia repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Mayank; Khanna Shashi; Sen Bimalendu; Tantia Om

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of groin hernias allows the surgeon to have a complete view of the groin and pelvis to diagnose occult hernias both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. These occult hernias can then be treated simultaneously and may reduce the incidence of recurrence and persistent symptoms. The authors present four unusual cases where occult hernias were found ipsilaterally during an endoscopic repair. All these occult hernias were treated along with the clinically diagnosed hernia at the sa...

  7. Scintillation Caustics in Planetary Occultation Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha R.

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the GSC5249-01240 light curve obtained during its occultation by Saturn's North polar region. In addition to refractive scintillations, the power spectrum of intensity fluctuations shows an enhancement of power between refractive and diffractive regimes. We identify this excess power as due to high amplitude spikes in the light curve and suggest that these spikes are due to caustics associated with ray crossing situations. The flux variation in individual spikes follows the expected caustic behavior, including diffraction fringes which we have observed for the first time in a planetary occultation light curve. The presence of caustics in scintillation light curves require an inner scale cut off to the power spectrum of underlying density fluctuations associated with turbulence. Another possibility is the presence of gravity waves in the atmosphere. While occultation light curves previously showed the existence of refractive scintillations, a combination of small projected stellar size and a low rel...

  8. Evaluation for Occult Fractures in Injured Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Benjamin; Song, Lihai; Feudtner, Chris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine variation across US hospitals in evaluation for occult fractures in (1) children physical abuse and (2) infants abuse and to identify factors associated with such variation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in children physical abuse and in infants abuse diagnosis, in 51% of the 1574 infants with traumatic brain injury, and in 53% of the 859 infants with femur fractures. Hospitals varied substantially with regard to their rates of evaluation for occult fractures in all 3 groups. Occult fracture evaluations were more likely to be performed at teaching hospitals than at nonteaching hospitals (all P abuse or injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse highlights opportunities for quality improvement in this vulnerable population. PMID:26169425

  9. Ultrasonography of occult fractures: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occult fractures are a common clinical problem with significant morbidity. All bones may be affected, and routine radiography, the first line of investigation, is often limited in its ability to detect these fractures, despite multiple views. Further investigations in patients with bone or joint-related pain after trauma may include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging or radionuclide bone scan. These are relatively expensive imaging modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the use of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in detecting occult fractures, and reviews the implication of its use for first- or second-line investigation in suspected occult fractures. A variety of examples of different fractures will be shown with comparative CT, plain film images or MRI. The added value of power Doppler imaging will also be illustrated. (author)

  10. Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Turbulence Using GPS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shume, E. B.; Ao, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this abstract are twofold: (i) It presents estimates of tropospheric turbulence strength (namely, scintillation index) by analyzing radio occultation (RO) observations from the COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) satellites. The availability of global observation worth of several years of COSIMC RO profiles enabled us to calculate global maps of scintillation measures (such information are both difficult and expensive especially over the oceans) revealing the seasonal, latitudinal, and longitudinal characteristics of the turbulent troposphere in greater details, and (ii) the manuscript also presents the application of a multiple phase screen (MPS) model simulation to investigate and quantify the effects of tropospheric turbulence on L-band communication and navigation signals received in a GPS (Global Positioning System) to a LEO (Low Earth Orbiting) satellites radio links. The scintillation indices inferred from the MPS simulations are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with scintillation measures estimated from COSMIC RO observations.

  11. A FOURIER OPTICS METHOD FOR CALCULATING STELLAR OCCULTATION LIGHT CURVES BY OBJECTS WITH THIN ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stellar occultation occurs when a solar system object passes in front of a distant star. The light curves resulting from stellar occultations can reveal many aspects of the obscuring object. For airless bodies, the diffraction light curve specifies the object's size, distance and, if several chords are observed, shape. Occultation light curves are especially sensitive to the presence of atmospheres; the refraction light curve is a function of the atmosphere's density, pressure, and temperature profiles. The goal of this paper is to develop a practical algorithm to model the simultaneous effects of diffraction and refraction for objects in which both phenomena are observable. The algorithm we present is flexible: it can be used to calculate light curves by objects with arbitrary shapes and arbitrary atmospheres (including the presence of opacity sources such as hazes), provided that the atmosphere can be represented by a thin screen with a phase delay and an opacity defined at each location in the screen. Because the algorithm is limited at present to thin atmospheres (in which rays from a star are bent but undergo virtually no translation as they pass through an atmosphere), the gas giants, Earth, Mars, and Venus are not treated. Examples of stellar occultations are presented for round or irregularly shaped objects having thin atmospheres of various column densities.

  12. Strong scintillations during atmospheric occultations Theoretical intensity spectra. [radio scattering during spacecraft occultations by planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Each of the two Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 has completed a reconnaissance of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. In connection with occultation experiments, strong scintillations were observed. Further theoretical work is required before these scintillations can be interpreted. The present study is, therefore, concerned with the derivation of a theory for strong scattering during atmospheric occultation experiments, taking into account as fundamental quantity of interest the spatial spectrum (or spectral density) of intensity fluctuations. Attention is given to a theory for intensity spectra, and numerical calculations. The new formula derived for Phi-i accounts for strong scattering of electromagnetic waves during atmospheric occultations.

  13. Occult, massive hematomas following antegrade femoral angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small groin hematomas are not uncommon after percuatenous antegrade femoral angioplasty (PAFA) and are usually apparent clinically. The authors describe three patients of 235 who underwent PAFA, in whom occult, massive hemorrhage was detected after the procedure. All patients underwent fluoroscopically guided antegrade punctures, with adequate hemostasis achieved after the procedure. CT revealed extraperitoneal hematomas in two patients. One patient required surgical intervention with ligation of the inferior epigastric artery. The authors postulate that these hematomas arose due to inadvertent injury to a branch of the common femoral artery during the puncture. The radiologist should be aware of the chance occurrence of this occult, potentially life-threatening complication

  14. The Radio Occultation Processing Package ROPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Culverwell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Radio Occultation Processing Package, ROPP, a product of the EUMETSAT Radio Occultation Meteorology Satellite Application Facility (ROM SAF developed by a large number of scientists over many years. A brief review of the concepts, functionality and structure of ROPP is followed by more detailed descriptions of its key capabilities. Example results from a full chain of processing using some of the ROPP tools are presented. Some current and prospective uses of ROPP are given. Instructions on how to access the code and its supporting documentation are provided.

  15. Optimal configuration of a planet-finding mission consisting of a telescope and a constellation of occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, Egemen

    Occulter-based telescopy offers a promising new terrestrial planet-finding methodology that involves the formation flying of a conventional space telescope with a large external occulter, which will block the light of a star and allow imaging of its dim, close-by planetary companion. Recent advances in shaped-pupil technology have enabled the design of occulters that have superior diffraction performance and that can be manufactured easily. This approach is attractive because it eliminates the precision-optical requirements of the alternative coronagraphic or interferometric approaches. However, it introduces new scientific challenges in the area of precise dynamics and control, which is the topic of this dissertation. Due to the large distances between satellites, realignment is fuel intensive, which increases the mission cost and reduces its lifetime. In order to overcome this problem, this dissertation focuses on the trajectory design of the mask satellite and conducts an optimization study to select the order and timing of imaging sessions. The optimal configuration of satellite formations consisting of a telescope and multiple occulters around Sun-Earth L2 Halo orbits is studied first. Focusing on the Quasi-Halo orbits, which are of interest for fuel-free occulter placement, the phase space around L2 is examined. The periodic orbits of interest around L2 are numerically computed and their stability properties analyzed. Quasi-Halos are good candidates for occulter placement, as they are fuel-free orbits and have large sky coverage with respect to the Halo orbit, where the telescope is placed. With the aim of identifying these orbits, a new fully numerical method that employs multiple Poincare sections to find quasi-periodic orbits is developed. This methodology has the advantage of very fast execution times and robust behavior near chaotic regions that leads to full convergence. Its numerical implementations for Lissajous and Quasi-Halo orbits are explained

  16. Exploración del catálogo de objetos en emisión H de Henize y All Sky Automated Survey: nuevas variables y tipos espectrales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; Barbá, R. H.; Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Arias, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    Large astronomical surveys allow us to do systematic studies of stellar populations with significant statistical weight. In this study, we have cross-correlated the Henize's (1976) catalog of stellar sources with H emission-line with “The All Sky Automated Survey'' database. After the positional cross-matching we have found that 1402 of 1926 H sources have ASAS light-curves. From that number, more than 50 (723 sources) are periodic variables with amplitude larger than 0.05 magnitudes, while 276 sources show photometric variations without a clear periodicity. Variable stars that we have found are of many different types, among them Miras, eclipsing binaries, bursting stars, etc. Also, only 133 stars are known previously as variable sources in ASAS catalogue, and 93 of them were studied previously in detail. In order to characterize the nature of the sources, we have started a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of the unstudied variable emission-line objects using the 2.15-m Jorge Sahade Telescope at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Argentina). At the moment, we have observed a set of 67 blue stars selected using 2MASS colors, being almost all of them Be-type stars. This set of bright new variable Be-type stars is ideal for follow-up monitoring for the study of the Be-phenomenon.

  17. Proton Irradiation Experiment for the X-ray Charge-Coupled Devices of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image mission onboard the International Space Station I. Experimental Setup and Measurement of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kouno, H; Mihara, M; Matsuta, K; Tsunemi, H; Tanaka, K; Minamisono, T; Tomida, H; Miyaguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a CCD to be employed in the Japanese X-ray astronomy mission including the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Since low energy protons release their energy mainly at the charge transfer channel, resulting a decrease of the charge transfer efficiency, we thus focused on the low energy protons in our experiments. A 171 keV to 3.91 MeV proton beam was irradiated to a given device. We measured the degradation of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a function of incremental fluence. A 292 keV proton beam degraded the CTI most seriously. Taking into account the proton energy dependence of the CTI, we confirmed that the transfer channel has the lowest radiation tolerance. We have also developed the different device architectures to reduce the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, the ``notch'' CCD, in which the buried channel implant concentration is increased, resulting in a deeper potential well than outsi...

  18. Occult spondyloarthritis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandinelli, Francesca; Manetti, Mirko; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a frequent extra-intestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although its real diffusion is commonly considered underestimated. Abnormalities in the microbioma and genetic predisposition have been implicated in the link between bowel and joint inflammation. Otherwise, up to date, pathogenetic mechanisms are still largely unknown and the exact influence of the bowel activity on rheumatic manifestations is not clearly explained. Due to evidence-based results of clinical studies, the interest on clinically asymptomatic SpA in IBD patients increased in the last few years. Actually, occult enthesitis and sacroiliitis are discovered in high percentages of IBD patients by different imaging techniques, mainly enthesis ultrasound (US) and sacroiliac joint X-ray examinations. Several diagnostic approaches and biomarkers have been proposed in an attempt to correctly classify and diagnose clinically occult joint manifestations and to define clusters of risk for patient screening, although definitive results are still lacking. The correct recognition of occult SpA in IBD requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach in order to identify common diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The use of inexpensive and rapid imaging techniques, such as US and X-ray, should be routinely included in daily clinical practice and trials to correctly evaluate occult SpA, thus preventing future disability and worsening of quality of life in IBD patients.

  19. Controversies about occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersan Ozaslan; Tugrul Purnak

    2009-01-01

    We read with great interest the paper written by Shi et al, reviewing the molecular characteristics and stages of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We think that some points in the definition of occult HBV infection (OBI) and their conclusion about the management of OBI may need further considerations.

  20. Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashov Vladimir V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an occult one is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of the development of occult infection, we compared the full-length HBV genome from a blood donor carrying an occult infection (d4 with global genotype D genomes. Results The phylogenetic analysis of polymerase, core and X protein sequences did not distinguish d4 from other genotype D strains. Yet, d4 surface protein formed the evolutionary outgroup relative to all other genotype D strains. Its evolutionary branch was the only one where accumulation of substitutions suggests positive selection (dN/dS = 1.3787. Many of these substitutiions accumulated specifically in regions encoding the core/surface protein interface, as revealed in a 3D-modeled protein complex. We identified a novel RNA splicing event (deleting nucleotides 2986-202 that abolishes surface protein gene expression without affecting polymerase, core and X-protein related functions. Genotype D strains differ in their ability to perform this 2986-202 splicing. Strains prone to 2986-202 splicing constitute a separate clade in a phylogenetic tree of genotype D HBVs. A single substitution (G173T that is associated with clade membership alters the local RNA secondary structure and is proposed to affect splicing efficiency at the 202 acceptor site. Conclusion We propose an evolutionary scenario for occult HBV infection, in which 2986-202 splicing generates intracellular virus particles devoid of surface protein, which subsequently accumulates mutations due to relaxation of coding constraints. Such viruses are deficient of autonomous propagation and cannot leave the host cell until it is lysed.

  1. Radio Occultation Measurements of Pluto's Atmosphere with New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Linscott, Ivan; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Bird, Mike; Ennico, Kimberly; Gladstone, Randy; Olkin, Catherine B.; Pätzold, Martin; Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael; Tyler, G. Leonard; Weaver, Harold A.; Woods, Will; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The reconnaissance of the Pluto System by New Horizons in July 2015 included a radio occultation at Pluto. The observation was performed with signals transmitted simultaneously by four antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network, two at the Goldstone complex in California and two at the Canberra complex in Australia. Each antenna radiated 20 kW without modulation at a wavelength of 4.17 cm. New Horizons received the four signals with its 2.1-m high-gain antenna, where the signals were split into pairs and processed independently by two identical REX radio science instruments. Each REX relied on a different ultra-stable oscillator as its frequency reference. The signals were digitized and filtered, and the data samples were stored on the spacecraft for later transmission to Earth. Six months elapsed before all data had arrived on the ground, and the results reported here are the first to utilize the complete set of observations. Pluto's tenuous atmosphere is a significant challenge for radio occultation sounding, which led us to develop a specialized method of analysis. We began by calibrating each signal to remove effects not associated with Pluto's atmosphere, including the diffraction pattern from Pluto's surface. We reduced the noise and increased our sensitivity to the atmosphere by averaging the results from the four signals, while using other combinations of the signals to characterize the noise. We then retrieved profiles of number density, pressure, and temperature from the averaged phase profiles at both occultation entry and exit. Finally, we used a combination of analytical methods and Monte Carlo simulations to determine the accuracy of the measurements. The REX profiles provide the first direct measure of the surface pressure and temperature structure in Pluto's lower atmosphere. There are significant differences between the structure at entry (193.5°E, 17.0°S, sunset) and exit (15.7°E, 15.1°N, sunrise), which arise from spatial variations in surface

  2. Star formation and dust extinction properties of local galaxies from the AKARI-GALEX all-sky surveys . First results from the most secure multiband sample from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Giovannoli, E.; Yuan, F.-T.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Murata, K. L.; Burgarella, D.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We explore spectral energy distributions (SEDs), star formation (SF), and dust extinction properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Methods: The AKARI all-sky survey provided the first bright point source catalog detected at 90 μm. Beginning with this catalog, we selected galaxies by matching the AKARI sources with those in the IRAS point source catalog redshift survey. We measured the total GALEX FUV and NUV flux densities with a photometry software we specifically developed for this purpose. In a further step we matched this sample with the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) and 2 micron all sky survey (2MASS) galaxies. With this procedure we obtained a basic sample which consists of 776 galaxies. After removing objects whose photometry was contaminated by foreground sources (mainly in the SDSS), we defined the “secure sample” which contains 607 galaxies. Results: The sample galaxies have redshifts of ⪉0.15, and their 90-μm luminosities range from 106 to 1012 L_⊙, with a peak at 1010 L_⊙. The SEDs display a large variety, especially more than four orders of magnitude at the mid-far-infrared (M-FIR), but if we sort the sample with respect to 90 μm, the average SED shows a coherent trend: the more luminous an SED at 90 μm, the redder the global SED becomes. The Mr - NUV - r color-magnitude relation of our sample does not show bimodality, and the distribution is centered on the green valley. We established formulae to convert the FIR luminosity from the AKARI bands to the total IR (TIR) luminosity LTIR. The luminosity related to the SF activity (LSF) is dominated by LTIR even if we take into account the FIR emission from dust heated by old stars. At a high SF rate (SFR) (>20 M_⊙ yr-1), the fraction of the directly visible SFR, SFRFUV, decreases. We also estimated the FUV attenuation AFUV from the FUV-to-TIR luminosity ratio. We examined the LTIR/LFUV-UV slope (FUV - NUV) relation. The majority of the sample has LTIR/LFUV ratios five to ten

  3. The ACCURATE concept and the infrared laser occultation technique : mission design and assessment of retrieval performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate is a concept for a satellite mission enabling simultaneous measurement of thermodynamical, dynamical and chemical atmospheric variables. In particular, very accurate profiles of pressure, temperature, specific humidity, line-of-sight wind velocity, and the volume mixing ratio of greenhouse gases (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO, HDO, H218O, 13CO2, C18OO) can be retrieved. Byproducts are profiles of cloud layering, aerosol extinction, turbulence strength, cloud liquid water content and cloud ice water content. The measurement principle applied is the so-called occultation technique, operated from satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is known for providing unbiased, long-term stable measurements which are evenly distributed all around the Earth. Especially, a combination between the novel LEO-LEO Infrared Laser Occultation (LIO) and the LEO-LEO Microwave Occultation technique is used. The LIO uses laser signals in the short wave infrared spectral region, in particular between 2 μm and 2.5 μm, which are sensitive to absorption of the trace gases mentioned above. From the transmissions of the signals between two occultation satellites, the concentrations of the gases can be retrieved. Wind can be deduced from differences in transmissions resulting from wind-induced Doppler shift. This thesis presents the mission concept of ACCURATE and gives detailed insight into the LIO technique. In particular, the sensitivity of LIO signals to various atmospheric influences is investigated and first estimations of the trace species and wind retrieval accuracy are shown. The results indicate that trace gases and wind velocity can be retrieved with unprecedented accuracy under all atmospheric conditions outside clouds throughout the whole upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These results are very encouraging and underline the high potential of ACCURATE and its high value for monitoring of climate and atmospheric composition as well as their variability and change

  4. Proton irradiation experiment for X-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky X-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 1. Experimental setup and measurement of the charge transfer inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be employed in the Japanese X-ray astronomy mission including the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI) onboard the international space station (ISS). Since low-energy protons release their energy mainly at the charge transfer channel, resulting in a decrease of the charge transfer efficiency, we focused on low-energy protons in our experiments. A 171 keV to 3.91 MeV proton beam was irradiated onto a given device. We measured the degradation of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a function of incremental fluence. A 292 keV proton beam degraded the CTI critically. Taking into account the proton energy dependence of the CTI, we confirmed that the transfer channel has the lowest radiation tolerance. We have also developed different device architectures to reduce the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, the 'notch' CCD, in which the buried channel implant concentration is increased, resulting in a potential well deeper than outside, has a three times higher radiation tolerance than that of the normal CCD. We then estimated the CTI of the CCD in the orbit of the ISS, considering the proton energy spectrum. The CTI value is estimated to be 1.1x10-5 per transfer after two years of mission life in the worst case analysis if the highest radiation tolerant device is employed. This value is well within the acceptable limit and we have confirmed the high radiation-tolerance of CCDs for the MAXI mission. (author)

  5. Angiographically occult arteriovenous malformations causing intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had experienced 5 cases of angiographically occult AVMs led to intracerebral hemorrhage and progressive neurologic deficit and seizure. Cerebral angiography in each case failed to demonstrate the vascular nature of the lesion and conventional skull radiography was no use. Computed tomography (CT), in 4 cases out of 5, showed well demarcated, slightly hyperdense and ovoid masses which turned out resolving hematomas. These lesions had also contained focal areas of high densities. In one case we observed definitively enhanced area in the resolving hematoma and it was corresponded to histopathologically proved AVM. CT appearance of acute hemorrhage at the subcortical region of cerebral hemisphere was showed in another case. We believe that CT can afford important supplementary information regarding an associated hematoma for angiographically occult AVM. Caution is advised in assuming that angiographically avascular lesion demonstrable by CT is not vascular malformation.

  6. CASSINI UVIS STELLAR OCCULTATION OBSERVATIONS OF SATURN's RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini spacecraft's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) includes a high-speed photometer (HSP) that has observed more than 100 stellar occultations by Saturn's rings. Here, we document a standardized technique applied to the UVIS-HSP ring occultation datasets delivered to the Planetary Data System as higher level data products. These observations provide measurements of ring structure that approaches the scale of the largest common ring particles (∼5 m). The combination of multiple occultations at different viewing geometries enables reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of the rings. This inversion of the occultation data depends on accurate calibration of the data so that occultations of different stars taken at different times and under different viewing conditions can be combined to retrieve ring structure. We provide examples of the structure of the rings as seen from several occultations at different incidence angles to the rings, illustrating changes in the apparent structure with viewing geometry.

  7. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nivean, M; Muttuvelu, Danson V; Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia;

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report the first case of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) presenting before bladder cancer diagnosis. A 71-year-old woman with a history of bilateral vision loss underwent subsequent complete ophthalmic examination include a fluorescein angiography, full-field electroretinogram ...... photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool....

  8. Ultrasound detection of nonpalpable mammographically occult malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult malignancy with screening breast ultrasound. All ultrasound-guided core needle breast biopsies performed between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were identified during screening breast ultrasound in high-risk women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality in either breast, a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in the contralateral breast, or a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in a different quadrant of the same breast. All ultrasound-detected lesions were histologically verified. Six hundred and fifty-two women with a mean age of 49 years underwent 698 biopsies during the study period. Three hundred and forty-nine of these lesions were detected at screening breast ultrasound. Out of 349, 11 (3.2%) had a mammographically and clinically occult malignancy. Nine cancers were found in women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality. Two cancers were found in the same breast as the mammographic or palpable abnormality. None were found in the breast contralateral to a palpable or mammographic abnormality. Screening breast ultrasound of high-risk women has a similar detection rate for occult carcinoma as screening mammography, but has a low positive predictive value in cases where biopsy is performed. (author)

  9. OCCULT-ORSER complete conversational user-language translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Young, K.

    1981-01-01

    Translator program (OCCULT) assists non-computer-oriented users in setting up and submitting jobs for complex ORSER system. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data. OCCULT is designed for those who would like to use ORSER but cannot justify acquiring and maintaining necessary proficiency in Remote Job Entry Language, Job Control Language, and control-card formats. OCCULT is written in FORTRAN IV and OS Assembler for interactive execution.

  10. What can the Occult do for you? STarlight Attenuation & Reddening Survey of Multiple Occulting Galaxies (STARSMOG)

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar dust is still the dominant uncertainty in Astronomy, limiting precision in e.g., cosmological distance estimates and models of how light is re-processed within a galaxy. When a foreground galaxy serendipitously overlaps a more distant one, the latter backlights the dusty structures in the nearer foreground galaxy. Such an overlapping or occulting galaxy pair can be used to measure the distribution of dust in the closest galaxy with great accuracy. The STARSMOG program uses HST observation of occulting galaxy pairs to accurately map the distribution of dust in foreground galaxies in fine ($<$100 pc) detail. Furthermore, Integral Field Unit observations of such pairs will map the effective extinction curve in these occulting galaxies, disentangling the role of fine-scale geometry and grain composition on the path of light through a galaxy. The overlapping galaxy technique promises to deliver a clear understanding of the dust in galaxies: the dust geometry, a probability function of the amount of...

  11. Ipsilateral occult hernias during endoscopic groin hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Mayank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic repair of groin hernias allows the surgeon to have a complete view of the groin and pelvis to diagnose occult hernias both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. These occult hernias can then be treated simultaneously and may reduce the incidence of recurrence and persistent symptoms. The authors present four unusual cases where occult hernias were found ipsilaterally during an endoscopic repair. All these occult hernias were treated along with the clinically diagnosed hernia at the same surgery with excellent results and no post-operative morbidity.

  12. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependence of the dark current enables us to determine the electron trap level that generates the dark current. We fitted dark current as a function of temperature by the theoretical models and found that the dark current increase after proton irradiations is caused by, at least, two kinds of electron trap levels. The shallow trap level (Ec - Et c and Et are the energy at the bottom of the conduction band and the energy level of electron trap) might be associated with oxygen which is dominant at the operating temperature of >210 K. On the other hand, another trap level is located roughly at the center of the silicon bandgap which might be associated with divacancies or P-V traps. We finally investigated the spatial distribution of the low-energy protons in the orbit of the ISS. Their density has a peak around l - 20deg and b - 55deg independent of the altitude. The peak value is roughly two orders of magnitude higher than that at the South Atlantic Anomaly. (author)

  13. Impact of tropospheric scintillation in the Ku/K bands on the communications between two LEO satellites in a radio occultation geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Freni, A.; Facheris, L.;

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the impact of clear-air tropospheric scintillation on a radio occultation link between two low Earth orbit satellites in K- and Ku-bands is presented, with particular reference to differential approaches for the measure of the total content of water vapor. The troposphere...

  14. Validation of ionospheric electron density profiles inferred from GPS occultation observations of the GPS/MET experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Todd Mori

    In April of 1995, the launch of the GPS Meteorology Experiment (GPS/MET) onboard the Orbview-1 satellite, formerly known as Microlab-1, provided the first technology demonstration of active limb sounding of the Earth's atmosphere with a low Earth orbiting spacecraft utilizing the signals transmitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Though the experiment's primary mission was to probe the troposphere and stratosphere, GPS/MET was also capable of making radio occultation observations of the ionosphere. The application of the GPS occultation technique to the upper atmosphere created a unique opportunity to conduct ionospheric research with an unprecedented global distribution of observations. For operational support requirements, the Abel transform could be employed to invert the horizontal TEC profiles computed from the L1 and L2 phase measurements observed by GPS/MET into electron density profiles versus altitude in near real time. The usefulness of the method depends on how effectively the TEC limb profiles can be transformed into vertical electron density profiles. An assessment of GPS/MET's ability to determine electron density profiles needs to be examined to validate the significance of the GPS occultation method as a new and complementary ionospheric research tool to enhance the observational databases and improve space weather modeling and forecasting. To that end, simulations of the occultation observations and their inversions have been conducted to test the Abel transform algorithm and to provide qualitative information about the type and range of errors that might be experienced during the processing of real data. Comparisons of the electron density profiles inferred from real GPS/MET observations are then compared with coincident in situ measurements from the satellites of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and ground-based remote sensing from digisonde and incoherent scatter radar facilities. The principal focus of

  15. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Carre(n)o; Javier Bartolomé; Inmaculada Castillo; Juan Antonio Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,defined as the presence of HCV RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable viral RNA in serum by standard assays,can be found in anti-HCV positive patients with normal serum levels of liver enzymes and in anti-HCV negative patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology.Occult HCV infection is distributed worldwide and all HCV genotypes seem to be involved in this infection.Occult hepatitis C has been found not only in anti-HCV positive subjects with normal values of liver enzymes or in chronic hepatitis of unknown origin but also in several groups at risk for HCV infection such as hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV.This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease.Occult HCV infection seems to be less aggressive than chronic hepatitis C although patients affected by occult HCV may develop liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma.Thus,anti-HCV negative patients with occult HCV may benefit from antiviral therapy with pegylatedinterferon plus ribavirin.The persistence of very low levels of HCV RNA in serum and in PBMCs,along with the maintenance of specific T-cell responses against HCV-antigens observed during a long-term follow-up of patients with occult hepatitis C,indicate that occult HCV is a persistent infection that is not spontaneously eradicated.This is an updated report on diagnosis,epidemiology and clinical implications of occult HCV with special emphasis on anti-HCV negative cases.

  16. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Proschek, V.; G. Kirchengast; Schweitzer, S.; Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Thomas, C. B.; J.-G. Wang; Tereszchuk, K. A.; G. González Abad; Hargreaves, R. J.; C. A. Beale; Harrison, J J; Martin, P. A.; V. L. Kasyutich; C. Gerbig

    2015-01-01

    The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife. For two nights from 21 to 22 July 2011 the experiment delivered the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measureme...

  17. GPS Radio Occultation: A Potential New Data Source for Improvement of Antarctic Pressure Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Sheng-jie; C. K. Shum; J. Wickert; Ch. Reigber

    2003-01-01

    Radio occultation technique, first demonstrated by the GPS/MET experiment in 1995[1], has the potential to provide improved spatial and temporal resolution in the probing of the Earth's neutral atmosphere, including pressure,temperature and water vapor profiles, in addition to traditional measurements (e.g.,radiosonde, spaceborne radiometers) and ground-based GPS networks for precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements. This paper provides an overview of the radio occultation concept and retrieval procedure and current technical limitations including lower troposphere inhomogeneities, signal penetration, multipath, and water vapor ambiguity. The current limitations using atmospheric model pressure fields (ECMWF and NCEP) for the modeling of atmospheric mass load over Antarctica, for its separation from climate sensitive signals observed by gravity mapping satellite,GRACE, are quantified. Atmospheric pressure fields over Antarctica are poorly known and higher temporal variability of pressure causes an "aliasing" error in GRACE-observed climate-sensitive signals such as hydrology, mass balance and oceanic mass variations. In particular, comparison of ECMWF 6-hour data with the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) in Antarctica indicates mean differences of 5 hPa,and rms of 1.7 hPa, exceeding the accuracy requirement for GRACE. Aliasing effec tmanifests as high-frequency errors in GRACE-observed gravity signals and are more pronounced over Antarctica. The possibility of using current operating satellite(SAC-C, CHAMP and GRACE) occultation data to improve Antarctic surface pressure fields is proposed. Preliminary results indicate that in the absence of water vapor over Antarctica, retrieved CHAMP pressure profile agrees well with radiosonde data from Neumayer station, and that occultation signals reach near the surface.

  18. Data analysis of 2005 Regulus occultation and simulation of the 2014 occultation

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Flatrès, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    On March 20, 2014 at 6:06 UT (2:06 New York time) Regulus, the 1.3 magnitude brighter star of Leo constellation, is going to be occulted by the asteroid 163 Erigone. The unusual event, visible to the naked eye over NYC, can allow to measure the shape of the asteroid, with reaching a space resolution below the diffraction limit of the eye, and of all instruments not based on interferometry. Ultimately the aperture of the instrument is related to the amount of scintillation affecting the light curve of the occultation, limitating the accuracy of video recorded data. The asteroid profile scans the surface of the star at a velocity of 6 mas/s; the diameter of the star is about 1.3 mas and the detection of the stellar limb darkening signature is discussed, taking into consideration also the Fresnel fringes. New data reduction with R-OTE software of the 2005 Regulus occultation and simulations of the 2014 occultation with Fren_difl software are presented.

  19. Vertical structure and size distributions of Martian aerosols from solar occultation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, E.; Blamont, J. E.; Krasnopol'skii, V. A.; Korablev, O. I.; Atreya, S. K.; West, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Phobos 2 spectrometer measurements of solar occultations close to the evening terminator have furnished data on the vertical structure of the Martian aerosols near the northern spring equinox. Since the thermal structure derived from saturated IR profiles of water vapor does not allow the reaching of the CO2 frost point at cloud altitudes, said clouds' particles may be formed by H2O ice. Dust was also monitored at two wavelengths; it is assumed that the dust particles are levitated by eddy mixing. A parallel is drawn between these thin clouds and the polar mesospheric clouds observed on earth.

  20. The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

    This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all cross-references. Cross-references are likewise…

  1. Occult HCV in Egyptian volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Amin 1, Kouka S. E. Abdel-Wahab 2 and Adel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aims to investigate the risk of post-transfusion transmission of hepatitis c virus (HCV in the circumstances of occult HCV when anti-HCV is undetectable by ELISA and HCV-RNA is detected by RT-PCR in the plasma and or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of donor blood and the recipients are immunocompromised. Patients & methods: The study covered 18 chronic renal failure patients (CRF [12 males (66.7% their age ranged from 28 to 65 years and 6 females (33.3 % their age ranged from 15 to 55 years] undergoing hemodialysis in Nile Hospital as part of their therapy have to receive blood transfusions (275 blood units for the first time. Commercial ELISA kits for anti-HCV and nested-RT-PCR (N-RT-PCR kits were used. Results: Anti-HCV was positive in one serum from the eighteen (5.5% poly transfused CRF patients at the end of the study while the seventeen sera were negative. This serum was also positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. Out of the 20 transfused blood units, one blood unit (three components were tested by blood banking anti-HCV negative by ELISA, were positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. The collective markers of this blood unit represent an occult HCV. The risk of acquiring post-transfusion HCV infection from an occult HCV blood unit is 5%. Real time PCR showed variation in the viral load of the serum of the infected CRF patient, the plasma of blood unit, the PBMCs of this blood unit whether activated by PHA-M or not.

  2. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Luisa Gutiérrez-García; Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledo-Navarro; Ingrid Buhigas-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is characterized by the persistence of HBV DNA in the liver tissue in individuals negative for the HBV surface antigen. The prevalence of OBI is quite variable depending on the level of endemic disease in different parts of the world,the different assays utilized in the studies, and the different populations studied. Many studies have been carried out on OBI prevalence in different areas of the world and categories of individuals. The studies show that OBI prevalence seems to be higher among subjects at high risk for HBV infection and with liver disease than among individuals at low risk of infection and without liver disease.

  3. A digital video system for observing and recording occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, M A; Pavlov, Hristo; Hanna, William; McEwan, Alistair; Filipovic, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Stellar occultations by asteroids and outer solar system bodies can offer ground based observers with modest telescopes and camera equipment the opportunity to probe the shape, size, atmosphere and attendant moons or rings of these distant objects. The essential requirements of the camera and recording equipment are: good quantum efficiency and low noise, minimal dead time between images, good horological faithfulness of the image time stamps, robustness of the recording to unexpected failure, and low cost. We describe the Astronomical Digital Video occultation observing and recording System (ADVS) which attempts to fulfil these requirements and compare the system with other reported camera and recorder systems. Five systems have been built, deployed and tested over the past three years, and we report on three representative occultation observations: one being a 9 +/-1.5 second occultation of the trans-Neptunian object 28978 Ixion (mv=15.2) at 3 seconds per frame, one being a 1.51 +/-0.017 second occultation ...

  4. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  5. Radio occultation experiments with INAF-IRA radiotelescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.

    The Radio Occultation research program performed at the Medicina and Noto Radioastronomical Stations of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) includes observations of spacecraft by satellite and satellite by satellite events. The Lunar Radio Occultation (LRO) part of the program consists in collecting data of the lunar Total Electron Content (TEC), at different limb longitudes and at different time, in order to study long term variation of the Moon's ionosphere. The LRO program started at Medicina in September 2006 with the observation of the European probe SMART-1 during its impact on the lunar soil. It proceeded in 2007 with the observation of the lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus, and with the observation of Mars in 2008. On this occasion the probes Cassini, Venus Express, Mars Express, Mars Reconaissance Orbiter and Mars Odissey were respectively occulted by the moon. On Dec 1st 2008 a Venus lunar occultation occurred. On that occasion we performed the first Italian-VLBI (I-VLBI) tracking experiment by detecting the carrier signals coming from the Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft with both the IRA radiotelescopes together with the Matera antenna of the Italian Space Agency. The second part of the radio occultation program includes the observation of satellite by satellite occultation events, as well as mutual occultations of Jupiter satellites. These events are referred to as mutual phenomena (PHEMU). These observations are aimed to measure the radio flux variation during the occultation and to derive surface spatial characteristics such as Io's hot spots. In this work preliminary results of the Radio Occultation program will be presented.

  6. Occult choriocarcinoma: Detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occult choriocarcinoma, manifested only by an elevated B-hCG level, can be a difficult management problem. The authors evaluated the ability of I-131-labeled 5F9.3, a murine monoclonal antibody reactive with choriocarcinomas but not hCG, to detect foci of choriocarcinoma in five patients referred with elevated B-hCG levels but in whom the location of residual disease was uncertain. I-131 5F9.3, 0.5-1.0 mCi, was injected intravenously in each patient and images with dynamic background subtraction of TcHSA were obtained at later time points. In four patients chest studies were true positive (confirmed surgically in all), the chest CT scans in these patients had been interpreted as not definitely showing active disease. In the fifth patient no abnormal focus of uptake was seen and subsequent B-hCG levels normalized. In two of the patients with chest lesions, foci of abdominal uptake were seen that were not due to tumor. One of these patients had a partial small bowel obstruction; the other appeared to have a false-positive study. I-131 5F9.3 is a promising agent for the detection of occult choriocarcinomas

  7. Evaluation of occult fracture around the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries in the vicinity of the knee joint are often seen in daily medical care. Occult fractures are fractures which do not show up on roentgenograms in the first examination, but in follow-up examinations. In this study, we investigated 60 cases of occult fractures around the knee joint treated at our department which did not appear in initial roentgenograms. Their ages ranged from 15 to 96 years old, with a mean age of 71.5 years old. They consisted of eight men and 52 females. Fifty-nine cases were diagnosed by MRI. All samples were treated by conservative management. At week 8 from the first examination, symptoms were found to have disappeared in 82.1%. Fractures tend to occur easily in elderly women. More than 75% are caused by moderate external force, suggesting relation with osteoporosis. When elderly women fall, if swelling of the knee joint and hemarthrosis are seen, fractures should be suspected even if they do not appear on X-ray, and MRI should be useful for such diagnosis. (author)

  8. The occultation of Kappa Geminorum by Eros. [stellar occultation observed for asteroid size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleary, B.; Marsden, B. G.; Dragon, R.; Hauser, E.; Mcgrath, M.; Backus, P.; Robkoff, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses predictions and observations of the occultation of Kappa Gem by (433) Eros on January 24, 1975. Several positive and negative observations made in western New England are described. Local circumstances for the occultation are reconstructed, and the size and shape of Eros are determined analytically as well as graphically. The calculations yield two extremes for the cross section: a circle 23 km in diameter or a somewhat irregular figure 20 km by 6 or 7 km. Arguments based on the expected albedo of the asteroid suggest that the circle should be warped into an ellipse 21 by 13 km or that the irregular figure might be one component of a dumbbell-like profile.

  9. The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network: A System for Coordinated TNO Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Keller, John M.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a new system and method for collecting coordinated occultation observations of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited span of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations as small as contact systems. Traditional occultation efforts strive to get a prediction sufficiently good to place mobile ground stations in the shadow track. Our system takes a new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km so that we ensure two chords at our limiting size. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from International Occultation Timing Association members. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing the inner regions for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We present a full description of the system we have developed for the continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.

  10. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  11. The stellar occultation by Makemake on 2011 April 23

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, J. L.; Sicardy, B.; Assafin, M.; Alvarez-Candal, A; Ivanov, V. D.; Camargo, J; Littlefair, S.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Braga-Ribas, F.; Lellouch, E.; Morales, N.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Duffard, R.

    2011-01-01

    We have taken advantage of a stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Makemake on 2011 April 23, to determine several of its main physical properties. We present results from a multisite campaign with 8 positive occultation detections from 5 different sites, including data from the 8-m VLT and 3.5-m NTT telescopes in Chile, which have very high temporal resolution. Because the star was significantly fainter than Makemake (setting a record in the magnitude of a star whose occultation has been d...

  12. Scattering and extinction: interpreting hazes in stellar occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Levine, Stephen; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Person, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    There has been debate concerning interpretation of stellar occultation data and whether those data contain evidence for hazes within Pluto's atmosphere. Multiple layers of haze have been imaged in at Pluto with the New Horizons spacecraft; color-dependent differences in minimum flux from stellar occultations also suggests haze. We look at a purely geometric approach, to evaluate whether it is valid to sidestep details of atmospheric temperature structure and, in an approximate manner, conduct an analysis of the 2015 stellar occultation data that is consistent with the New Horizons imaging results. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  13. CT detection of occult pneumothorax in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective evaluation for occult pneumothorax was performed in 25 consecutive patients with serious head trauma by combining a limited chest CT examination with the emergency head CT examination. Of 21 pneuomothoraces present in 15 patients, 11 (52%) were found only by chest CT and were not identified clinically or by supine chest radiograph. Because of pending therapeutic measures, chest tubes were placed in nine of the 11 occult pneumothoraces, regardless of the volume. Chest CT proved itself as the most sensitive method for detection of occult pneumothorax, permitting early chest tube placement to prevent transition to a tension pneumothorax during subsequent mechanical ventilation or emergency surgery under general anesthesia

  14. The Uranus Occultation of 10 June 1979. I. The Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, P. D.; Matthews, K; Goldreich, P.

    1981-01-01

    Observations and analysis of a stellar occultation by the rings of Uranus on 10 June 1979 are presented. Occultations by rings 4, ɑ, β, y, δ, and є are identified, and radii and azimuths of the occulting segments in the plane of the rings calculated. Results for rings y and δ are consistent with the hypothesis (Elliot et al. 1978; Nicholson et ɑl. 1978) that these two rings are circular and coplanar, and an approximate upper limit of 8 X 10^(-5) is placed on the eccentricity of either ring...

  15. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinicalimportance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection(OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI mayimpact in several clinical contexts, which include thepossible transmission of the infection, the contributionto liver disease progression, the development ofhepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation.There are several articles that have published on OBI inEgyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE databasewas undertaken for relevant articles to clarify theepidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is theonly detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients.Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronicHCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, andcryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidenceof OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy.The available data suggested that screening for OBI mustbe a routine practice in these groups of patients. Furtherstudies needed for better understand of the epidemiologyof OBI among Egyptian young generations after the eraof hepatitis B vaccination.

  16. Convective towers detection using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.;

    The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapour mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. To gain a better understanding of deep convective processes, the study of tropical cyclones could play an import...... (ACES) payload on the International Space Station....... 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 hours and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS RO signal is typically larger than the climatology above the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes...... and GOES analyses will also be shown to support our hypothesis and to corroborate the idea that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space...

  17. What can the occult do for you?

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar dust is still a dominant uncertainty in Astronomy, limiting precision in e.g., cosmological distance estimates and models of how light is re-processed within a galaxy. When a foreground galaxy serendipitously overlaps a more distant one, the latter backlights the dusty structures in the nearer foreground galaxy. Such an overlapping or occulting galaxy pair can be used to measure the distribution of dust in the closest galaxy with great accuracy. The STARSMOG program uses Hubble to map the distribution of dust in foreground galaxies in fine (<100 pc) detail. Integral Field Unit (IFU) observations will map the effective extinction curve, disentangling the role of fine-scale geometry and grain composition on the path of light through a galaxy. The overlapping galaxy technique promises to deliver a clear understanding of the dust in galaxies: geometry, a probability function of dimming as a function of galaxy mass and radius, and its dependence on wavelength.

  18. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nivean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to report the first case of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR presenting before bladder cancer diagnosis. A 71-year-old woman with a history of bilateral vision loss underwent subsequent complete ophthalmic examination include a fluorescein angiography, full-field electroretinogram (ERG, serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in occult spinal dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study was carried out in 100 cases of suspected occult spinal dysraphic anomalies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in order to determine its diagnostic efficacy as the initial imaging modality. MR imaging provided accurate preoperative information in 91 out of 92 cases (98.9%). Some of the unusual and interesting findings in the series were: presence of intrinsic cord abnormality in 19 out of 21 cases (90.4%) with a normal plain radiography, 4 cases of diastematomyelia with a dermoid in the dorsal and lumbar region associated with syringohydromyelia, intradural fibrous/glial bands, syringo-hydromyelia/myelomalacia of the conus with tethered cord syndrome having a normally paced conus, and myelocystocele. It is concluded that MRI is an excellent primary diagnostic tool, together with a plain radiography, for complete preoperative evaluation of mid-line spinal anomalies. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Verifying timestamps of occultation observation systems

    CERN Document Server

    A., M; Gault, Dave; Bolt, Greg; McEwan, Alistair; Filipovic, Miroslav D; White, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    We describe an image timestamp verification system to determine the exposure timing characteristics and continuity of images made by an imaging camera and recorder, with reference to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The original use was to verify the timestamps of stellar occultation recording systems, but the system is applicable to lunar flashes, planetary transits, sprite recording, or any area where reliable timestamps are required. The system offers good temporal resolution (down to 2 msec, referred to UTC) and provides exposure duration and interframe dead time information. The system uses inexpensive, off-the- shelf components, requires minimal assembly and requires no high-voltage components or connections. We also describe an application to load FITS (and other format) image files, which can decode the verification image timestamp. Source code, wiring diagrams and built applications are provided to aid the construction and use of the device.

  1. Occult breast carcinoma presenting as axillary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Breast carcinoma presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy and no clinical or radiological evidence of a primary tumor is a rare presentation. We aimed to examine the management of the breast by observation, radiation therapy, or mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Departmental records from 1979 to 1996 of unknown primary presentations and cases of T0N1-2M0 breast carcinoma were reviewed to find cases of occult breast carcinoma presenting as axillary lymphadenopathy with no clinical or imaging evidence of a primary tumor. Results: There were 6047 presentations of breast carcinoma with 20 cases of occult breast carcinoma meeting the criteria. The breast was treated by observation in 6 cases, mastectomy in 2 cases, and radiotherapy to the intact breast in 12 cases. Eighty-three percent of patients (5 of 6 patients) who had observation of the breast had a local recurrence, compared to 25% who had radiotherapy to the intact breast (3 of 12 patients) and 0% who had a mastectomy (0 of 2 patients). The median recurrence-free survival was 7 months in patients who had observation of the breast, compared to 182 months in patients who had local treatment. Three of the 6 patients who underwent breast observation have died whereas 1 of the 14 who had local treatment have died, with a mean follow-up of 73 months. It was found that patients having observation of the breast had a poorer recurrence-free survival (p = 0.003) and overall survival (p = 0.05) compared to those having local treatment of the breast. Conclusions: Patients with such a presentation should have a complete physical examination, mammography, ultrasound, and MRI of the breasts. If there remains no evidence of a primary tumor, an axillary dissection should be carried out and the breast treated by radiotherapy or mastectomy. Observation of the breast is not a recommended option

  2. Intensity Scintillations in Planetary Ring Occultations: Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, E.

    2003-12-01

    A combined analytical and numerical simulation approach is used to investigate the first, second, and fourth statistical averages of the signal observed during a ring occultation experiment. The rings are modeled as a randomly blocked diffraction screen. The field behind the screen (the rings) assumes binary values: zero if located in the shadow area cast by ring particles and the full incident field otherwise. The stochastic geometry of the union of shadow areas cast behind the rings defines a so-called Boolean model. Either the random wavefront formed behind the screen or it's statistical averages can be propagated to an observer (a detector) some distance away from the diffraction screen. The parabolic approximation of the wave equation is used to model near-forward diffraction effects over the free-space path from the ring plane to the observation plane. The first and second moments were previously shown to correspond to the well-known coherent and scattered signal components observed during radio occultation experiments. Of particular interest here is the fourth moment of the random field at the observer, which determines the intensity scintillation index. Numerical simulations are used to investigate its behavior as a function of relevant model parameters, in particular, the ring particle radius and the Fresnel scale of observation. A monodispersion of ring particles is assumed to keep the model as simple as possible so as to investigate conditions under which the particle size may be recoverable from the intensity scintillation measurements. The model is also idealized to one-dimensional diffraction screen in order to speed up the computations; however, simulations of the more realistic two-dimensional diffraction screen models are also carried out.

  3. Association of preS/S Mutations with Occult Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in South Korea: Transmission Potential of Distinct Occult HBV Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Kim; Bum-Joon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is characterized by HBV DNA positivity but HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negativity. Occult HBV infection is associated with a risk of HBV transmission through blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and liver transplantation. Furthermore, occult HBV infection contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We recently reported the characteristic molecular features of mutations in the preS/S regions among Korean individuals with occult...

  4. Asteroid occultations today and tomorrow: toward the GAIA era

    CERN Document Server

    Tanga, P

    2008-01-01

    Context: Observation of star occultations is a powerful tool to determine shapes and sizes of asteroids. This is key information necessary for studying the evolution of the asteroid belt and to calibrate indirect methods of size determination, such as the models used to analyze thermal infrared observations. Up to now, the observation of asteroid occultations is an activity essentially secured by amateur astronomers equipped with small, portable equipments. However, the accuracy of the available ephemeris prevents accurate predictions of the occultation events for objects smaller than ~100 km. Aims: We investigate current limits in predictability and observability of asteroid occultations, and we study their possible evolution in the future, when high accuracy asteroid orbits and star positions (such as those expected from the mission Gaia of the European Space Agency) will be available. Methods: We use a simple model for asteroid ephemeris uncertainties and numerical algorithms for estimating the limits impo...

  5. Analysis from Stellar Occultation and Lightcurve Observation of 582 Olympia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Sugimoto, S.; Mayu Shibata; Watanabe, D.

    2012-05-01

    Our aim is to estimate 3D shape of an asteroid. We tried to find the shape of 582 Olympia. We conducted two observations: stellar occulation and lightcurve of an asteroid. We have observed lightcurves and occultations of several asteroid.

  6. Sizes, Shapes, and Satellites of Asteroids from Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Herald, David; Preston, Steve; Timerson, Brad; Maley, Paul; Frappa, Eric; Hayamizu, Tsutomu; Talbot, John; Poro, Atila

    2016-01-01

    For 40 years, the sizes and shapes of many dozens of asteroids have been determined from observations of asteroidal occultations, and over a thousand high-precision positions of the asteroids relative to stars have been measured. Some of the first evidence for satellites of asteroids was obtained from the early efforts; now, the orbits and sizes of some satellites discovered by other means have been refined from occultation observations. Also, several close binary stars have been discovered, and the angular diameters of some stars have been measured from analysis of these observations. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) coordinates this activity worldwide, from predicting and publicizing the events, to accurately timing the occultations from as many stations as possible, and publishing and archiving the observations.

  7. Ambulatory Pessary Trial Unmasks Occult Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Chughtai

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. An ambulatory pessary trial is an effective, easy, and inexpensive method to approximate anatomic results achieved by surgery under real-life conditions. In our series, 20% of patients with occult SUI were identified by pessary trial alone.

  8. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.;

    2008-01-01

    To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus changes. Retrospective case series. Two consecutive patients with bilateral AZOOR with photopsia corresponding to areas of visual field loss and a normal fundus appearance were...

  9. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.;

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...

  10. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus changes. METHODS: Retrospective case series. Two consecutive patients with bilateral AZOOR with photopsia corresponding to areas of visual field loss and a normal fundus...

  11. An Outrigger Component for a Deployable Occulter System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II, Roccor proposes to build upon the results of Phase I to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of the NASA JPL deployable external occulter. An...

  12. Occult foreign bodies in the aero digestive tracts in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Mishra, Saibal; Chakraborty, D. D.; Sengupta, Subhabrata; Mondal, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract in infancy is difficult to diagnose sometimes. In this review of five unusual cases of occult foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract has been presented and their management discussed

  13. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  14. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  15. Sensitivity of GPS occultation to the stratopause height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas Morville; Ao, Chi; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    We scrutinize temperature profiles collected with radio occultation measurement for an imprint of the stratopause. In the retrieval step that integrates bending angle data to atmospheric refractivity, the falloff toward infinite altitude is constrained in a boundary condition with statistical...... rate, not isothermal conditions. Keeping the model seed for temperature conversion to subsequent retrieval steps eliminates external information from the deconvolved refractivity. It will help argue for radio occultation as independent vehicle for climate monitoring....

  16. Diagnostic value of mammography for occult breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of mammography in occult breast cancer. Methods: 23 cases of non- palpable breast lesions were examined with stereotactic-guided or surgical biopsy. Results: Pathological diagnosis included ductal carcinoma in sim (7), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (5), lobular carcinoma in sim (2), carcinoma simplex (3), 4 intraductal papillary carcinoma (4), scirrhous carcinoma (1), metastatic adenocarcinoma (1) in the axilla. Conclusion: Mammography is a commonly used and effective method in diagnosis of occult breast cancer. (authors)

  17. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, defined as the presence of HCV RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable viral RNA in serum by standard assays, can be found in anti-HCV positive patients with normal serum levels of liver enzymes and in anti-HCV negative patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology. Occult HCV infection is distributed worldwide and all HCV genotypes seem to be involved in this infection. Occul...

  18. Venous thromboembolism and occult cancer: impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheshmy, Afshan; Carrier, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first manifestation of cancer. Given this relationship between unprovoked VTE and cancer, it is appealing for clinicians to screen their patients with a first episode of acute unprovoked VTE for a potential occult malignancy. Five different studies have compared a limited (thorough history and physical exam, basic bloodwork) to a more extensive occult cancer screening strategy (e.g. computed tomography, fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, etc.). Most of these studies have failed to show that an extensive occult cancer screening strategy diagnoses more occult cancer (including early cancers), misses fewer cancers during follow-up or improves overall and/or cancer-related mortality suggesting that extensive occult cancer screening should not be performed routinely. Therefore, patients with a first unprovoked VTE should undergo a limited cancer screening only and clinicians should ensure that their patients are up to date regarding age- and gender- specific cancer screening (colon, breast, cervix and prostate) as per their national recommendations. Current evidence does not support a net clinical benefit to perform an extensive occult cancer screening on all patients, and a decision to do additional testing should be made on a case by case basis.

  19. Diagnostic strategy for occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Ocana; Maria Luisa Casas; Ingrid Buhigas; Jose Luis Lledo

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the European Association for the study of the liver (EASL) defined occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) as the "presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative by currently available assays". Several aspects of occult HBV infection are still poorly understood, including the definition itself and a standardized approach for laboratory-based detection, which is the purpose of this review. The clinical significance of OBI has not yet been established; however, in terms of public health, the clinical importance arises from the risk of HBV transmission. Consequently, it is important to detect high-risk groups for occult HBV infection to prevent transmission. The main issue is, perhaps, to identify the target population for screening OBI. Viremia is very low or undetectable in occult HBV infection, even when the most sensitive methods are used, and the detection of the viral DNA reservoir in hepatocytes would provide the best evaluation of occult HBV prevalence in a defined set of patients. However, this diagnostic approach is obviously unsuitable: blood detection of occult hepatitis B requires assays of the highest sensitivity and specificity with a lower limit of detection < 10 IU/mL for HBV DNA and < 0.1 ng/mL for HBsAg.

  20. The effect of solar radio bursts on the GNSS radio occultation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wei, Yong; Lei, Jiuhou; Solomon, Stan; Rocken, Christian

    2013-09-01

    radio burst (SRB) is the radio wave emission after a solar flare, covering a broad frequency range, originated from the Sun's atmosphere. During the SRB occurrence, some specific frequency radio wave could interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and therefore disturb the received signals. In this study, the low Earth orbit- (LEO-) based high-resolution GNSS radio occultation (RO) signals from multiple satellites (COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, SAC-C, Metop-A, and TerraSAR-X) processed in University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) were first used to evaluate the effect of SRB on the RO technique. The radio solar telescope network (RSTN) observed radio flux was used to represent SRB occurrence. An extreme case during 6 December 2006 and statistical analysis during April 2006 to September 2012 were studied. The LEO RO signals show frequent loss of lock (LOL), simultaneous decrease on L1 and L2 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) globally during daytime, small-scale perturbations of SNR, and decreased successful retrieval percentage (SRP) for both ionospheric and atmospheric occultations during SRB occurrence. A potential harmonic band interference was identified. Either decreased data volume or data quality will influence weather prediction, climate study, and space weather monitoring by using RO data during SRB time. Statistically, the SRP of ionospheric and atmospheric occultation retrieval shows ~4% and ~13% decrease, respectively, while the SNR of L1 and L2 show ~5.7% and ~11.7% decrease, respectively. A threshold value of ~1807 SFU of 1415 MHz frequency, which can result in observable GNSS SNR decrease, was derived based on our statistical analysis.

  1. Starshade Design for Occulter Based Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark W.; Lisman, P. Douglas; Helms, Richard; Walkemeyer, Phil; Kissil, Andrew; Polanco, Otto; Lee, Siu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    We present a lightweight starshade design that delivers the requisite profile figure accuracy with a compact stowed volume that permits launching both the occulter system (starshade and spacecraft) and a 1 to 2m-class telescope system on a single existing launch vehicle. Optimal figure stability is achieved with a very stiff and mass-efficient deployable structure design that has a novel configuration. The reference design is matched to a 1.1m telescope and consists of a 15m diameter inner disc and 24 flower-like petals with 7.5m length. The total tip-to-tip diameter of 30m provides an inner working angle of 75 mas. The design is scalable to accommodate larger telescopes and several options have been assessed. A proof of concept petal is now in production at JPL for deployment demonstrations and as a testbed for developing additional elements of the design. Future plans include developing breadboard and prototype hardware of increasing fidelity for use in demonstrating critical performance capabilities such as deployed optical edge profile figure tolerances and stability thereof.

  2. Occult celiac disease prevents penetrance of hemochromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Geier; Siegfried Matern; Carsten Gartung; Igor Theurl; Guenter Weiss; Frank Lammert; Christoph G. Dietrich; Ralf Weiskirchen; Heinz Zoller; Benita Hermanns

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To report a patient with C282Y homozygocity, depleted body iron and intestinal atrophy caused by celiac disease (CD) who experienced resolution of the enteropathy with subsequent normalization of iron metabolism upon glutenfree diet.METHODS: To obtain information on the tissue distribution and quantitative expression of proteins involved in duodenal iron trafficking, we determined the expression of divalent-metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (FP1) and transferrin receptor (TfR1) by means of immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR in duodenal biopsies of this patient.RESULTS: Whereas in hereditary hemochromatosis patients without CD, DMT1 expression was up-regulated leading to excessive uptake of iron, we identified a significant reduction in protein and mRNA expression of DMT1 as acompensatory mechanism in this patient with HH and CD.CONCLUSION: Occult CD may compensate tot increased DMT1 expression in a specific subset of individuals withhomozygous C282Y mutations in the hemochromatosis(HFE) gene, thus contributing to the low penetrance of HH.

  3. MRI of radiographically occult ischial apophyseal avulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Acute avulsions of unossified ischial apophyses in children may go undetected on radiography. Therapy includes rest and rehabilitation; however, substantial displacement may require surgery. Our purpose is to illustrate the utility of MRI in the detection of these radiographically occult injuries in skeletally immature children. This retrospective study of more than 5 years included children with ischial avulsions who were evaluated with both radiography and MRI within 3 weeks of acute injury. Initially, radiographs were reviewed to identify those children with unossified ischial apophyses. Subsequently, their MRI examinations were assessed for physeal disruption, bone/soft tissue edema, periosteal/perichondrial elevation and disruption. Initial and follow-up radiographs (if available) were reviewed. Patient age, symptoms and offending activity were determined from clinical records. Five children met inclusion criteria. All initial radiographs were normal. MRI showed: edema (n = 5), periosteal elevation (n = 4), periosteal/perichondrial disruption (n = 4), >5.5 mm displacement (n = 0). Follow-up radiographs in two children (2 and 2.5 months from MRI) showed osseous ischial irregularity. The apophyses remained unossified. Acute unossified ischial apophyseal avulsions in children may be radiographically undetected. In the setting of correlative clinical symptoms, MRI can be used to identify these injuries and to help direct appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  4. Not all occult papillary carcinomas are minimal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occult papillary carcinomas are characterized as small papillary tumors of less than 1.5 cm in maximum diameter, with or without bulky metastatic deposits in cervical nodes. The primary lesion is usually not palpable, and although the clinical behavior usually follows a benign course, tumors with unfavorable histologic features (invasiveness, multifocality) or extrathyroidal disease or a combination of both may not do so. In this report six cases are presented to illustrate this entity. No patient had a history of irradiation to the head or neck. All had primary lesions smaller than 1.5 cm. None had a palpable nodule or abnormal thyroid scan results, and the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on cervical lymph node or lung biopsy specimens, which revealed papillary thyroid cancer. All of the patients underwent total or near-total thyroidectomies and were found to have small, invasive papillary lesions with additional metastases to cervical nodes noted at the time of thyroidectomy. Adjunctive treatment consisted of a 5 mCi iodine-131 scan, ablative iodine-131 therapy, and suppression with L-thyroxine. Although distant metastasis to lung or other organs is uncommon and the mortality rate is low (as in larger papillary cancers), these invasive lesions--despite their small size--have a high propensity for recurrence and should be considered to behave more like encapsulated papillary tumors with extrathyroidal extension than like their small, unencapsulated intrathyroidal counterparts

  5. The Extinction Law in an Occulting Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Berlind, Andreas A; Pogge, R W; Sellgren, K; Berlind, Andreas A.

    1997-01-01

    We measure the extinction law in a galaxy's spiral arm and interarm regions using a visual and infrared (BVRJHK) imaging study of the interacting galaxies NGC 2207 and IC 2163. This is an overlapping spiral galaxy pair in which NGC 2207 partially occults IC 2163. This geometry enables us to directly measure the extinction of light from the background galaxy as it passes through the disk of the foreground galaxy. We measure the extinction as a function of wavelength, and find that there is less extinction in the optical bands than expected from a normal Galactic extinction law. This deviation is significantly larger in the interarm region than in the spiral arm. The extinction curve in the spiral arm resembles a Milky Way $R_V=5.0$ dust model and the interarm extinction curve is flatter (``greyer'') still. We examine the effect of scattering of background galaxy light into the line of sight and find that it is negligible. We also examine the effect of an unresolved patchy dust distribution using a simple two-c...

  6. Characterizing GPS radio occultation loss of lock due to ionospheric weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Pedatella, Nicholas M.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Transient loss of lock is one of the key space weather effects on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations during 2007-2011, we have analyzed the signal cycle slip (CS) occurrence comprehensively and its correlation to the ionospheric weather phenomena such as sporadic E (Es), equatorial F region irregularity (EFI), and the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The high vertical resolution of RO observations enables us to distinguish the CS resulting from different ionospheric layers clearly on a global scale. In the E layer, the CS is dominated by the Es occurrence, while in the F layer, the CS is mainly related to the EIA and EFI at low and equatorial latitudes. In the polar region, the CS is primarily related to polar cap electron density gradients. The overall average CS (>6 cycles) occurrence is ~23% per occultation, with the E (50-150 km) and F (150-600 km) layers contributing ~8.3% and ~14.7%, respectively. Awareness of the effect of the ionospheric weather on the CS of the low Earth orbit (LEO)-based GNSS signal could be beneficial to a variety of applications, including the LEO-based GNSS data processing and the corresponding hardware/firmware design.

  7. Spectroscopic requirements for ACCURATE, a microwave and infrared-laser occultation satellite mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed satellite mission ACCURATE consists of a small constellation of satellites in low Earth orbit, combining microwave occultation for thermodynamic state profiling with infrared-laser occultation for greenhouse gas and line-of-sight wind profiling. The mission aims to detect six greenhouse gas molecules with four additional isotopologues (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO, 13CO2, OC18O, HDO, and H218O) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the 4000-5000 cm-1 spectral region. Greenhouse gas profiles will be retrieved to within 1-2% accuracy using a 'differential' method, requiring two spectral points for each species - one to sample the spectral line and the other nearby to sample the baseline. An estimation of retrieval errors for the ACCURATE mission reveals that errors in spectroscopic line parameters dominate all other error sources. Poor knowledge of the spectroscopy introduces systematic errors into the retrieved greenhouse gas profiles. Using a simple approach, it was shown that the best line parameters currently available are too large to allow retrievals of greenhouse gases to within the stated ACCURATE mission goals of 1% accuracy for CO2 and 2% for all other species. Therefore, spectroscopic line parameters for targeted lines need to be improved before the ACCURATE mission can be launched. Requirements have been formulated in this direction, and laboratory experiments outlined that could meet these requirements.

  8. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  9. THE 1998 NOVEMBER 14 OCCULTATION OF GSC 0622-00345 BY SATURN. II. STRATOSPHERIC THERMAL PROFILE, POWER SPECTRUM, AND GRAVITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 1998 November 14, Saturn and its rings occulted the star GSC 0622-00345. The occultation latitude was 55.05 S. This paper analyzes the 2.3 μm light curve derived by Harrington and French. A fixed-baseline isothermal fit to the light curve has a temperature of 140 ± 3 K, assuming a mean molecular mass of 2.35 AMU. The thermal profile obtained by numerical inversion is valid between 1 and 60 μbar. The vertical temperature gradient is > 0.2 K km-1 more stable than the adiabatic lapse rate, but it still shows the alternating-rounded-spiked features seen in many temperature gradient profiles from other atmospheric occultations and usually attributed to breaking gravity (buoyancy) waves. We conduct a wavelet analysis of the thermal profile, and show that, even with our low level of noise, scintillation due to turbulence in Earth's atmosphere can produce large temperature swings in light-curve inversions. Spurious periodic features in the 'reliable' region of a wavelet amplitude spectrum can exceed 0.3 K in our data. We also show that gravity-wave model fits to noisy isothermal light curves can lead to convincing wave 'detections'. We provide new significance tests for localized wavelet amplitudes, wave model fits, and global power spectra of inverted occultation light curves by assessing the effects of pre- and post-occultation noise on these parameters. Based on these tests, we detect several significant ridges and isolated peaks in wavelet amplitude, to which we fit a gravity wave model. We also strongly detect the global power spectrum of thermal fluctuations in Saturn's atmosphere, which resembles the 'universal' (modified Desaubies) curve associated with saturated spectra of propagating gravity waves on Earth and Jupiter.

  10. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Proschek, V.; G. Kirchengast; Schweitzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This ...

  11. Mutations Associated With Occult Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Eleanor A.; Gededzha, Maemu P; Rentz, Michael; Rakgole, Nare J.; Selabe, Selokela G.; Seleise, Tebogo A.; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B is characterized by the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) but the presence of HBV DNA. Because diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically includes HBsAg detection, occult HBV remains largely undiagnosed. Occult HBV is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation to chronic HBV during immune suppression, and transmission during blood transfusion and liver transplant. The mechanisms leading to occult HBV infection are unclear, alth...

  12. Probing Planetary Formation and Evolution Through Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; KELT Team

    2016-01-01

    The circumstellar environments of young stellar objects (YSOs) involve complex dynamical interactions between dust and gas that directly influence the formation of planets. However, our understanding of the evolution from the material in the circumstellar disk to the thousands of planetary systems discovered to date, is limited. One means to better constrain the size, mass, and composition of this planet-forming material is to observe a YSO being eclipsed by its circumstellar disk. Through this dissertation project, we are discovering and characterizing both disk eclipsing systems and exoplanets using the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project. KELT is a photometric survey for transiting planets orbiting bright stars (8 < V < 11); such bright planet host targets are well-suited for atmospheric characterization of the planets. KELT has discovered 15 planets transiting stars brighter than V ~11 to date. I will present some of the recently discovered planets from the survey and discuss their potential to advance our understanding of planetary atmospheres. In addition, KELT provides photometric monitoring of ~3 million stars, presenting the opportunity to perform multi-year studies of stellar variability generally and rare disk occultations specifically. Using time-series photometry from KELT we are conducting the Disk Eclipse Search with KELT (DESK) survey to look for disk eclipsing events, specifically in young stellar associations. To date, the survey has discovered and analyzed four previously unknown large dimming events around the stars RW Aurigae, V409 Tau, AA Tau, and TYC 2505-672-1, the latter now representing the longest-period eclipsing object known (period ~ 69 years). I will describe our results for planet atmosphere characterization and for protoplanetary disk structure and composition, and discuss how to search for these kinds of systems in future surveys such as LSST.

  13. Occult sporadic insulinoma:Localization and surgical strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Insulinomas continue to pose a diagnostic challenge to physicians,surgeons and radiologists alike.Most are intrapancreatic,benign and solitary.Biochemical diagnosis is obtained and imaging techniques to localize lesions continue to evolve.Surgical resection is the treatment of choice.Despite all efforts,an occult insulinoma (occult insulinoma refers to a biochemically proven tumor with indeterminate anatomical site before operation) may still be encountered.New localization preoperative techniques decreases occult cases and the knowledge of the site of the mass before surgery allows to determine whether enucleation of the tumor or pancreatic resection is likely to be required and whether the tumor is amenable to removal via a laparoscopic approach.In absence of preoperative localization and intraoperative detection of an insulinoma,blind pancreatic resection is not recommended.

  14. Probing the Martian atmosphere with MAVEN/IUVS stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröller, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Koskinen, T. T.; Montmessin, F.; Lacombe, G.; Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Jain, S. K.; Chaffin, M. S.; Crismani, M. M. J.; Stiepen, A.; Lefèvre, F.; McClintock, W. E.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bougher, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-11-01

    The first campaign of stellar occultations with the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on board of Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission was executed between 24 and 26 March 2015. From this campaign 13 occultations are used to retrieve CO2 and O2 number densities in the altitude range between 100 and 150 km. Observations probe primarily the low-latitude regions on the nightside of the planet, just past the dawn and dusk terminator. Calculation of temperature from the CO2 density profiles reveals that the lower thermosphere is significantly cooler than predicted by the models in the Mars Climate Database. A systematically cold layer with temperatures of 105-120 K is seen in the occultations at a pressure level around 7 × 10-6 Pa.

  15. Tropical Tropopause Structure and Processes as Observed with GPS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    delaTorre Juarez, Manuel; Schroder, Thomas M.; Ao, Chi O.

    2004-01-01

    The vertical temperature structure of the tropical atmosphere has been explained as controlled by the combined effect of three green house gases: water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. Absorption by water vapor of the light reflected off the Earth's surface would determine the temperature lapse rate in the lower troposphere up to the bottom of the Tropical Transition Layer (TTL); radiative absorption by carbon dioxide would dominate the temperature lapse rate between the bottom of the TTL and the coldest point in the upper-troposphere, the cold point tropopause (CPT), and; absorption of incoming solar radiation by ozone would control the temperature above the CPT. The TTL region can thus be very sensitive to changes in the relative abundances of these greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the seasonal evolution of temperature profiles in the TTL and their longitudinal structure using GPS radio occultation.

  16. The occultation of Surrealism: a study of the relationship between Bretonian Surrealism and western esotericism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Bauduin

    2012-01-01

    It has been said that Surrealism was nothing if not deeply involved with occultism and Western esotericism. Others claim that there was no such involvement or even that Surrealism was directly opposed to the occult and esoteric. ‘The occultation of Surrealism’ offers a fresh view of this complex and

  17. Unique Observation of a Solar Flare by Lunar Occultation During the 2010 Annular Solar Eclipse Through Ionospheric Disturbances of VLF Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Surya K.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Sushanta K.

    2012-06-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves propagate through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Irregularities caused by excess or deficient extreme ultra-violet and X-rays, which otherwise sustain the ionosphere, change the waveguide properties and hence the signals are modified. We report the results of monitoring of the NWC transmitter (19.8 kHz) by a receiver placed at Khukurdaha (22°27'N, 87°45'E) during the partial solar eclipse (75 %) of 15th January, 2010. The propagation path from the transmitter to the receiver crosses the annular eclipse belt. We got a clear depression in the data during the period of the eclipse. Most interestingly, there was also a X-ray flaring activity in the sun on that day which reached its peak (C-type) right after the time when the eclipse reached its maximum. We saw the effects of the occultation of this flare in our VLF signal since a part of the X-ray active region was clearly blocked by the moon. We quantitatively compared by using analogies with previous observations and found best fitting parameters for the time when the flare was occulted. We then reconstructed the VLF signal in the absence of the occulted flare. To our knowledge, this is the first such incident where the solar flare was observed through lunar occultation and that too during a partial eclipse.

  18. Advanced Electrocardiography Can Identify Occult Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljak, M.; Petric, A. Domanjko; Wilberg, M.; Olsen, L. H.; Stepancic, A.; Schlegel, T. T.; Starc, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, multiple advanced resting electrocardiographic (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in detection of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. This study investigated whether 12-lead A-ECG recordings could accurately identify the occult phase of DCM in dogs. Short-duration (3-5 min) high-fidelity 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 31 privately-owned, clinically healthy Doberman Pinschers (5.4 +/- 1.7 years, 11/20 males/females). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 healthy dogs with normal echocardiographic M-mode measurements: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd . 47mm) and in systole (LVIDs . 38mm) and normal 24-hour ECG recordings (occult DCM: 11/12 dogs had increased M-mode measurements (LVIDd . 49mm and/or LVIDs . 40mm) and 5/11 dogs had also >100 VPCs/24h; 1/12 dogs had only abnormal 24-hour ECG recordings (>100 VPCs/24h). ECG recordings were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate multiple parameters of high-frequency (HF) QRS ECG, heart rate variability, QT variability, waveform complexity and 3-D ECG. Student's t-tests determined 19 ECG parameters that were significantly different (P occult DCM. For the 5 selected parameters the prediction of occult DCM was performed using a binary logistic regression model with Chi-square tested significance (P occult ECG with sensitivity 89% and specificity 83%. Results suggest that 12-lead A-ECG might improve diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in earlier detection of canine DCM as five selected ECG parameters can with reasonable accuracy identify occult DCM in Doberman Pinschers. Future extensive clinical studies need to clarify if 12-lead A-ECG could be useful as an additional screening test for canine DCM.

  19. Constraints on Pluto's Hazes from 2-Color Occultation Lightcurves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Kara; Barry, T.; Carriazo, C. Y.; Cole, A.; Gault, D.; Giles, B.; Giles, D.; Hill, K. M.; Howell, R. R.; Hudson, G.; Loader, B.; Mackie, J. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Rannou, P.; Regester, J.; Resnick, A.; Rodgers, T.; Sicardy, B.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Wasserman, L. H.; Watson, C. R.; Young, E. F.; Young, L. A.; Buie, M. W.; Nelson, M.

    2015-11-01

    The controversial question of aerosols in Pluto's atmosphere first arose in 1988, when features in a Pluto occultation lightcurve were alternately attributed to haze opacity (Elliot et al. 1989) or a thermal inversion (Eshleman 1989). A stellar occultation by Pluto in 2002 was observed from several telescopes on Mauna Kea in wavelengths ranging from R- to K-bands (Elliot et al. 2003). This event provided compelling evidence for haze on Pluto, since the mid-event baseline levels were systematically higher at longer wavelengths (as expected if there were an opacity source that scattered more effectively at shorter wavelengths). However, subsequent occultations in 2007 and 2011 showed no significant differences between visible and IR lightcurves (Young et al. 2011).The question of haze on Pluto was definitively answered by direct imaging of forward-scattering aerosols by the New Horizons spacecraft on 14-JUL-2015. We report on results of a bright stellar occultation which we observed on 29-JUN-2015 in B- and H-bands from both grazing and central sites. As in 2007 and 2011, we see no evidence for wavelength-dependent extinction. We will present an analysis of haze parameters (particle sizes, number density profiles, and fractal aggregations), constraining models of haze distribution to those consistent with and to those ruled out by the occultation lightcurves and the New Horizons imaging.References:Elliot, J.L., et al., "Pluto's Atmosphere." Icarus 77, 148-170 (1989)Eshleman, V.R., "Pluto's Atmosphere: Models based on refraction, inversion, and vapor pressure equilibrium." Icarus 80 439-443 (1989)Elliot, J.L., et al., "The recent expansion of Pluto's atmosphere." Nature 424 165-168 (2003)Young, E.F., et al., "Search for Pluto's aerosols: simultaneous IR and visible stellar occultation observations." EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, held 2-7 October 2011 in Nantes, France (2011)

  20. Presentation of Axillary Metastases from Occult Breast Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Axillary presentation from occult breast cancer is uncommon and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.Once the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma metastatic to an axillary lymph node has been confirmed,a preoperative workup should be done.The current experience is based on several relatively small retrospective reviews and case reports.It is difficult to determine the best management of occult breast cancer.However,treatmenl of axillary Iymph node dissection is recommended for local control and complete staging information.Treatment of breast should be a choice between breast conservation with whole-breast radiotherapy and mastectomy.Adjuvant systemic treatment should be offered.

  1. Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant ...... Ensemble in Space (ACES) payload on the International Space Station....... signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS radio occultation missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 h and a space window of 300 km from the eye...

  2. Forthcoming Occultations of Astrometric Radio Sources by Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, Victor; Malkin, Zinovy; Tsekmeister, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Astrometric observations of radio source occultations by solar system bodies may be of large interest for testing gravity theories, dynamical astronomy, and planetary physics. In this paper, we present an updated list of the occultations of astrometric radio sources by planets expected in the coming years. Such events, like solar eclipses, generally speaking can only be observed in a limited region. A map of the shadow path is provided for the events that will occurr in regions with several VLBI stations and hence will be the most interesting for radio astronomy experiments.

  3. An occultation of the inner Seyfert nucleus of NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightness of the unresolved nucleus of NGC 4151 was monitored over five months in 1983. Variations of ≅ 0.1 mag/day were observed in the U-band and no significant variation was found of the -OIII] 5007 A emission line. However, an event that was observed on the nights of the 10/11 and 11/12 February 1983 in the continuum around 5672 A has all the characteristics of an occultation. It is proposed that an inner synchrotron nucleus of ≅ 3 a.u. diameter was occulted by an opaque cloud ≅ 6 a.u. across on those two nights

  4. [Pitfalls in the diagnosis of occult elbow fractures in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, A; Calvelli, N; Bourgeois, E; Eid, A; Griffet, J

    2016-08-01

    Elbow injuries are frequent but occult fractures are difficult to diagnose on x-rays. However, any delay in the diagnosis may severely impair the prognosis of some fractures. Simple tips may help the clinician read x-rays properly and avoid the classical pitfalls of elbow injuries in children. The chronology of appearance of ossification nuclei around the elbow is important to distinguish normal features from abnormality. Drawing simple geometric constructions on the x-rays may clarify most occult elbow fractures in children. PMID:27345552

  5. Occult laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Karin P Q; Modi, Vikash K

    2013-09-01

    Classic laryngomalacia presents in the awake infant with progressive stridor when agitated. Occult laryngomalacia usually presents with stridor in children older than 2 years and is limited to sleep or exercise. There have been no documented cases of occult laryngomalacia causing obstructive sleep apnea in infants. We report the youngest documented case of an infant with state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in severe obstructive sleep apnea. This patient was successfully treated with supraglottoplasty, with resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea may present in children younger than 12 months of age. In these individuals, supraglottoplasty should be considered. PMID:23911113

  6. Atmospheric and precipitation sounding with polarimetric radio-occultations aboard PAZ LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulles, Ramon; Cardellach, Estel; Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Rius, Antonio; de la Torre, Manuel; Turk, Joseph; Ao, Chi; Kursinski, Robert; Shreiner, Bill; Ector, Dave; Cucurull, Lidia; Wickert, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter (ROHP-PAZ) is a mission of opportunity: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) approved in 2009 a proposal to include a polarimetric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio-Occultation (RO) payload on board of the Spanish Earth Observation satellite PAZ. This will be a new technique that has never been tested before, that aims to improve the knowledge of the precipitation through simultaneous thermodynamic and vertical rain profiles. The concept is similar to that used in some polarimetric weather radars: to measure the differential phase shift between the two polarimetric antennas, although here we will use the forward scattering geometry instead of the backscattering.The depolarization effect increases as the propagation line aligns with the plane of the drops' flattening (nominally perpendicular to the local gravity, i.e., parallel to the local horizon). The RO signals cross the lower troposphere tangentially, i.e., along the local horizon, which should maximize the depolarization effect. The satellite launch is scheduled for March 2015, and it will be followed by a 6-month commissioning phase period and has an expected life of 7 years, with a goal of 10 years. A sensitivity analysis have been performed, showing that we should be able to detect the 90% of all the events with along-ray averaged rain rate higher than 5 mm/h. Also, a ground field campaign has been conducted prior to the launch of the satellite. Results from the campaign also show a good correlation between phase shifts increases and heavy rain events. We will present here the status of the mission, which will have been launched few weeks before the EGU, together with some preliminary data analysis from both the actual satellite data and the prior-to-launch work.

  7. Generation of a Bending Angle Radio Occultation Climatology (BAROCLIM and its use in radio occultation retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scherllin-Pirscher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a bending angle radio occultation climatology (BAROCLIM based on Formosat-3/COSMIC (F3C data. This climatology represents the monthly-mean atmospheric state from 2006 to 2012. Bending angles from radio occultation (RO measurements are obtained from the accumulation of the change in the raypath direction of Global Positioning System (GPS signals. Best quality of these near-vertical profiles is found from the middle troposphere up to the mesosphere. Beside RO bending angles we also use data from the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Radar (MSIS model to expand BAROCLIM in a spectral model, which (theoretically reaches from the surface up to infinity. Due to the very high quality of BAROCLIM up to the mesosphere, it can be used to detect deficiencies in current state-of-the-art analysis and reanalysis products from numerical weather prediction (NWP centers. For bending angles derived from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis fields from 2006 to 2012, e.g., we find a positive bias of 0.5% to % at 40 km, which increases to more than 2% at 50 km. BAROCLIM can also be used as a priori information in RO profile retrievals. In contrast to other a priori information (i.e., MSIS we find that the use of BAROCLIM better preserves the mean of raw RO measurements. Global statistics of statistically optimized bending angle and refractivity profiles also confirm that BAROCLIM outperforms MSIS. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of BAROCLIM.

  8. Occultations of stars by solar system objects. VIII - Occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, Titan, and Triton in 1990 and 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, L. H.; Bowell, E.; Millis, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    Predictions are given for occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, Titan, and Triton in 1990 and 1991. The predictions are based on a computerized comparison of the occulting bodies' ephemerides and nine major star catalogs. The search is complete for all numbered asteroids whose angular diameters exceed 0.08 arcsec during the search years. Preliminary ground tracks are shown for the more favorable occultations.

  9. Is Occult Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding a Definite Indication for Capsule Endoscopy? A Retrospective Analysis of Diagnostic Yield in Patients with Occult versus Overt Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ikue Watari; Shiro Oka; Shinji Tanaka; Makoto Nakano; Taiki Aoyama; Shigeto Yoshida; Kazuaki Chayama

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) for diagnosing small-bowel lesions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been reported. Most reports have addressed the clinical features of overt OGIB, with few addressing occult OGIB. We aimed to clarify whether occult OGIB is a definite indication for CE. Methods. We retrospectively compared the cases of 102 patients with occult OGIB and 325 patients with overt OGIB, all having undergone CE. The diagnostic yield o...

  10. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    the popular and academic understanding of three key terms (vodun, sorcery and occult). The paper will thus both focus on the role of religious encounters during early Christian missions in Benin and on the recent expansion of evangelical churches and strengthen of neo vodun cults as well as on the dynamics...

  11. Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biondi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS radio occultation missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET, we selected 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 h and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger than the climatology in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and that a double tropopause during deep convection can easily be detected using this technique. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes and GOES analyses are also shown to support the hypothesis that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES payload on the International Space Station.

  12. The Effect of Diurnal Variations on Ionospheric Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi; Withers, Paul; Schinder, Paul J.; Moses, Julianne I.; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radio occultations are a powerful technique for the study of atmospheres and ionospheres by planetary spacecraft. For missions to the outer solar system, the occultations always probe the terminator region of the planet. The analysis of radio occultations typically assumes symmetry along the ray path in the horizontal direction about the tangent point. While this is an excellent assumption for the neutral atmosphere where the scale length of horizontal gradients is large, it is suspect for the ionosphere where electron densities decrease rapidly from day to night. Diurnal variations in peak electron density are often several orders of magnitude and may occur over a region of a few degrees. We investigate the consequences of diurnal variations on ionospheric occultations with a ray tracing calculation for the angular deflection and frequency residual of the radio wave. The calculations are based on photochemical/diffusion models for the ionospheres of Saturn and Titan. Differences from analysis based on the assumption of horizontal symmetry are most pronounced in the bottom side ionosphere where chemical time constants are short.

  13. Counseling the Occult-Involved Student: Guidelines and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that counselors working with public school students needs to be aware of the four main levels of involvement in the occult (fun-and-games, dabblers, serious involvement, and criminal involvement). Each of the four levels is described, warning signs are identified, and the counselor's role is explained as one of support and prevention. (NB)

  14. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  15. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam and Aizawl (Mizoram. Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif­ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60% followed by pet (29.16% and stray dogs (17.75%.Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. 

  16. Treatment outcomes of occult breast carcinoma and prognostic analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; ZHANG Ye-fan; WANG Xin; WANG Jian; YANG Xue; GAO Yin-qi; FANG Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background The surgical management of occult breast cancer is controversial.We compared the outcomes of different treatments of occult breast cancer and evaluated the potential prognostic factors for overall survival and recurrence.Methods We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients who presented to our hospital from 1968 to 2011 with a diagnosis of occult breast cancer.Patients were divided into three groups:42 patients (63%) were treated with modified radical mastectomy+axillary lymph node dissection (ALND),16 patients (24%) were treated with ALND+postoperative radiotherapy,and 9 patients (13%) with only ALND.Survival analyses were undertaken to compare the efficacy of these three treatments.Results Of the 77 patients with occult breast cancer,2 patients were lost to follow-up and 8 patients refused surgical treatment:67 patients (90.4%) were included in this analysis.The median follow-up was 62.2 (0.6-328.0)months.Kaplan-Meier analyses showed no significant difference in overall survival and recurrence-free survival between the three groups (P=0.494 and 0.397,respectively).The prevalence of local recurrence was 11.9% for the mastectomy+ALND,18.8% for ALND+radiotherapy,and 11.1% for ALND-only groups,and those for distant recurrence were 2.4%,12.5%,and 11.1%,respectively.Compared with progesterone receptor-negative subjects,progesterone receptor-positive patients had better overall survival and lower recurrence rates (P=0.057 and 0.062,respectively).Conclusions There was no significant difference in outcomes between mastectomy and breast-preserving surgery.Expression of the progesterone receptor should be taken into account when evaluating the prognosis of occult breast cancer.

  17. OCCULTATION OBSERVATIONS OF SATURN'S B RING AND CASSINI DIVISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outer edge of Saturn's B ring is strongly affected by the nearby 2:1 inner Lindblad resonance of Mimas and is distorted approximately into a centered elliptical shape, which at the time of the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters was oriented with its periapse toward Mimas. Subsequent observations have shown that the actual situation is considerably more complex. We present a complete set of historical occultation measurements of the B-ring edge, including the 1980 Voyager 1 and 1981 Voyager 2 radio and stellar occultations, the 1989 occultation of 28 Sgr, two independently analyzed occultations observed with the Hubble Space Telescope in 1991 and 1995, and a series of ring profiles from 12 diametric (ansa-to-ansa) occultations observed in 2005, using the Cassini Radio Science Subsystem (RSS). After making an approximate correction for systematic errors in the reconstructed spacecraft trajectories, we obtain orbit fits to features in the rings with rms residuals well under 1 km, in most cases. Fits to the B-ring edge in the RSS data reveal a systematic variation in the maximum optical depth at the very edge of the ring as a function of its orbital radius. We compare the B-ring measurements to an m = 2 distortion aligned with Mimas, and show that there have been substantial phase shifts over the past 25 years. Finally, we present freely precessing equatorial elliptical models for 16 features in the Cassini Division. The inner edges of the gaps are generally eccentric, whereas the outer edges are nearly circular, with ae < 0.5 km.

  18. SPACE: the SPectroscopic, All-Sky Cosmic Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimatti, A.; Robberto, M.; Baugh, C.; Beckwith, S. W. V.; Content, R.; Daddi, E.; deLucia, G.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Kauffmann, G.; Lehnert, M.; Maccagni, D.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Pasian, F.; Reid, I. N.; Rosati, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Stiavelli, M.; Wang, Y.; ZapateroOsorio, M.; Balcells, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Gardner, J.P.; Kimble, R.; Clampin, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the scientific motivations, the mission concept and the instrumentation of SPACE, a class-M mission proposed for concept study at the first call of the ESA Cosmic-Vision 2015-2025 planning cycle. SPACE aims at producing the largest three-dimensional evolutionary map of the Universe over the past 10 billion years by taking near-IR spectra and measuring redshifts of more than half a billion galaxies at 0 baryonic acoustic oscillations imprinted when matter and radiation decoupled, the distance-luminosity relation of cosmological supernovae, the evolution of the cosmic expansion rate, the growth rate of cosmic large-scale structure, the large scale distribution of galaxies. The datasets from the SPACE mission will represent a long lasting legacy that will be data mined for many years to come.

  19. Transiting Planet Simulations from the All Sky Extrasolar Planets Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, S R; Kane, Stephen R.; Ge, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Many of the planets discovered via the radial velocity technique are hot Jupiters in 3-5 day orbits with ~10$% chance of transiting their parent star. However, radial velocity surveys for extra-solar planets generally require substantial amounts of large telescope time in order to monitor a sufficient number of stars due to the single-object capabilities of the spectrograph. A multi-object Doppler survey instrument has been developed which is based on the dispersed fixed-delay interferometer design. We present simulations of the expected results from the Sloan Doppler survey based on calculated noise models and sensitivity for the instrument and the known distribution of exoplanetary system parameters. We have developed code for automatically sifting and fitting the planet candidates produced by the survey to allow for fast follow-up observations to be conducted. A transit ephemeris is automatically calculated by the code for each candidate and updated when new data becomes available. The techniques presented...

  20. Towards SI-traceable radio occultation excess phase processing with integrated uncertainty estimation for climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerkofler, Josef; Pock, Christian; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schwaerz, Marc; Jaeggi, Adrian; Schwarz, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    The GNSS Radio Occultation (RO) measurement technique is highly valuable for climate monitoring of the atmosphere as it provides accurate and precise measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere regions with global coverage, long-term stability, and virtually all-weather capability. The novel Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS), currently under development at the WEGC at University of Graz aims to process raw RO measurements into essential climate variables, such as temperature, pressure, and tropospheric water vapor, in a way which is SI-traceable to the universal time standard and which includes rigorous uncertainty propagation. As part of this rOPS climate-quality processing system, accurate atmospheric excess phase profiles with new approaches integrating uncertainty propagation are derived from the raw occultation tracking data and orbit data. Regarding the latter, highly accurate orbit positions and velocities of the GNSS transmitter satellites and the RO receiver satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) need to be determined, in order to enable high accuracy of the excess phase profiles. Using several representative test days of GPS orbit data from the CODE and IGS archives, which are available at accuracies of about 3 cm (position) / 0.03 mm/s (velocity), and employing Bernese 5.2 and Napeos 3.3.1 software packages for the LEO orbit determination of the CHAMP, GRACE, and MetOp RO satellites, we achieved robust SI-traced LEO orbit uncertainty estimates of about 5 cm (position) / 0.05 mm/s (velocity) for the daily orbits, including estimates of systematic uncertainty bounds and of propagated random uncertainties. For COSMIC RO satellites, we found decreased accuracy estimates near 10-15 cm (position) / 0.1-0.15 mm/s (velocity), since the characteristics of the small COSMIC satellite platforms and antennas provide somewhat less favorable orbit determination conditions. We present the setup of how we (I) used the Bernese and Napeos package in mutual

  1. ACCURATE: Influence of Cloud Layers and Aerosol on Infrared Laser Occultation Signals for Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, V.; Schweitzer, S.; Emde, C.; Ladstädter, F.; Fritzer, J.; Kirchengast, G.

    2009-04-01

    ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer), a new climate satellite concept, enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the well-studied but not yet flown LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. As intrinsic to the space-borne occultation technique, the measurements are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and high accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 m in the case of ACCURATE) which are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. From signal transmission measurements, profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived given that temperature and pressure are accurately known from LMO. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O) with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction and scintillation strength. This contribution presents an overview on the ACCURATE mission design and the expected accuracy of retrieved atmospheric variables and further focuses on the influence of clouds and aerosols on propagating LIO signals. Special emphasis will be given to sub-visible cirrus clouds which are semi-transparent to infrared signals. A simple frequency dependent cloud extinction parametrization was included into the occultation propagation software EGOPS and evaluated against results of the

  2. Occultation studies of the Solar system. Semiannual status report, 1 July-31 December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planetary occultation program began at Lowell Observatory in 1973 with a worldwide campaign to observe mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean Satellites. Then the temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere was measured from data taken during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum, the Rings of Uranus were discovered as they occulted SAO 158687, and the dimensions of Pallas were measured when that minor planet occulted SAO 85009. In 1979 the present grant was initiated, providing funds for portable photometric instrumentation used to observe occultations by asteroids as well as by Uranus and Neptune. Software for predicting occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, and comets was written in 1983. Lowell currently provides most of the available predictions for asteroid occultations. Realizing in 1983 that the lack of a high-quality astrometric telescope dedicated to occultation work was limiting progress, an 18-inch, F/8 lens was acquired and adapted to an existing mounting at Lowell. Although acquisition of the lens and implementation of the new telescope has been accomplished primarily with non-grant funds, the instrument makes a major contribution to occultation research

  3. Visible spectral imager for occultation and nightglow (VISION) for the PICASSO Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Vanhellemont, Filip

    2015-10-01

    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK), and the Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. will deliver the Visible Spectral Imager for Occultation and Nightglow (VISION) for the PICASSO mission. The VISION targets primarily the observation of the Earth's atmospheric limb during orbital Sun occultation. By assessing the radiation absorption in the Chappuis band for different tangent altitudes, the vertical profile of the ozone is retrieved. A secondary objective is to measure the deformation of the solar disk so that stratospheric and mesospheric temperature profiles are retrieved by inversion of the refractive raytracing problem. Finally, occasional full spectral observations of polar auroras are also foreseen. The VISION design realized with commercial of the shelf (CoTS) parts is described. The VISION instrument is small, lightweight (~500 g), Piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot Interferometer (PFPI) tunable spectral imager operating in the visible and near-infrared (430 - 800 nm). The spectral resolution over the whole wavelength range will be better than 10 nm @ FWHM. VISION has is 2.5° x 2.5° total field of view and it delivers maximum 2048 x 2048 pixel spectral images. The sun image size is around 0.5° i.e. ~500 pixels. To enable fast spectral data image acquisition VISION can be operated with programmable image sizes. VTT has previously developed PFPI tunable filter based AaSI Spectral Imager for the Aalto-1 Finnish CubeSat. In VISION the requirements of the spectral resolution and stability are tighter than in AaSI. Therefore the optimization of the of the PFPI gap control loop for the operating temperature range and vacuum conditions has to be improved. VISION optical, mechanical and electrical design is described.

  4. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  5. Is Occult Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding a Definite Indication for Capsule Endoscopy? A Retrospective Analysis of Diagnostic Yield in Patients with Occult versus Overt Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikue Watari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE for diagnosing small-bowel lesions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB has been reported. Most reports have addressed the clinical features of overt OGIB, with few addressing occult OGIB. We aimed to clarify whether occult OGIB is a definite indication for CE. Methods. We retrospectively compared the cases of 102 patients with occult OGIB and 325 patients with overt OGIB, all having undergone CE. The diagnostic yield of CE and identification of various lesion types were determined in cases of occult OGIB versus overt OGIB. Results. There was no significant difference in diagnostic yield between occult and overt OGIB. The small-bowel lesions in cases of occult OGIB were diagnosed as ulcer/erosive lesions (n=18, 18%, vascular lesions (n=11, 11%, and tumors (n=4, 3%, and those in cases of overt OGIB were diagnosed as ulcer/erosive lesions (n=51, 16%, vascular lesions (n=31, 10%, and tumors (n=20, 6%. Conclusion. CE detection rates and CE identification of various small-bowel diseases do not differ between patients with occult versus overt OGIB. CE should be actively performed for patients with either occult or overt OGIB.

  6. Association of preS/S Mutations with Occult Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in South Korea: Transmission Potential of Distinct Occult HBV Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is characterized by HBV DNA positivity but HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negativity. Occult HBV infection is associated with a risk of HBV transmission through blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and liver transplantation. Furthermore, occult HBV infection contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We recently reported the characteristic molecular features of mutations in the preS/S regions among Korean individuals with occult infections caused by HBV genotype C2; the variants of preS and S related to severe liver diseases among chronically infected patients were also responsible for the majority of HBV occult infections. We also reported that HBsAg variants from occult-infected Korean individuals exhibit lower HBsAg secretion capacity but not reduced HBV DNA levels. In addition, these variants exhibit increased ROS-inducing capacity compared with the wild-type strain, linking HBV occult infections to liver cell damage. Taken together, our previous reports suggest the transmission potential of distinct HBV occult infection-related variants in South Korea.

  7. Conducting the deepest all-sky pulsar survey ever: the all-sky High Time Resolution Universe survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cherry; HTRU Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared among the MPIfR in Germany, ATNF/CASS and Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, University of Manchester in the UK and INAF in Italy. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. While a general overview of HTRU has been given by Keith at this conference, here we focus on three further aspects of HTRU discoveries and highlights. These include the `Diamond-planet pulsar' binary J1719-1438 and a second similar system recently discovered. In addition, we provide specifications of the HTRU-North survey and an update of its status. In the last section we give an overview of the search for highly-accelerated binaries in the Galactic plane region. We discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the petabyte-sized HTRU survey data. We present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discovering highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, potentially including pulsar-black-hole binaries.

  8. Conducting the deepest all-sky radio pulsar survey ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cherry

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of aspects of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey; a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with new advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. Observations from Parkes have recently been completed and it is thus a suitable moment to review the success of the survey. In my talk I will discuss the discovery highlights such as the magnetar, two “planet-pulsar” binaries and the Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) from cosmological distances. The HTRU low-latitude data promises to provide the deepest large-scale search ever for the Galactic plane region. I will present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discoveries of highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, including the potential pulsar-black-hole binaries. I will also provide an update on the survey status for the Northern survey with Effelsberg, which has led to the recent discovery of a highly eccentric binary millisecond pulsar.

  9. Conducting The Deepest All-Sky Pulsar Survey Ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Cherry; Collaboration, the HTRU

    2014-01-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared...

  10. Conducting The Deepest All-Sky Pulsar Survey Ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared among the MPIfR in Germany, ATNF/CASS and Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, University of Manchester in the UK and INAF in Italy. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. While a general overview of HTRU has been given by Keith at this conference, here we focus on three further aspects of HTRU discoveries and highlights...

  11. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  12. Inversion, error analysis, and validation of GPS/MET occultation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, A.K.; Kirchengast, G. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik; Ladreiter, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The global positioning system meteorology (GPS/MET) experiment was the first practical demonstration of global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based active limb sounding employing the radio occultation technique. This method measures, as principal observable and with millimetric accuracy, the excess phase path (relative to propagation in vacuum) of GNSS-transmitted radio waves caused by refraction during passage through the Earth`s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere in limb geometry. It shows great potential utility for weather and climate system studies in providing an unique combination of global coverage, high vertical resolution and accuracy, long-term stability, and all-weather capability. We first describe our GPS/MET data processing scheme from excess phases via bending angles to the neutral atmospheric parameters refractivity, density, pressure and temperature. Special emphasis is given to ionospheric correction methodology and the inversion of bending angles to refractivities, where we introduce a matrix inversion technique (instead of the usual integral inversion). The matrix technique is shown to lead to identical results as integral inversion but is more directly extendable to inversion by optimal estimation. The quality of GPS/MET-derived profiles is analyzed with an error estimation analysis employing a Monte Carlo technique. We consider statistical errors together with systematic errors due to upper-boundary initialization of the retrieval by a priori bending angles. Perfect initialization and properly smoothed statistical errors allow for better than 1 K temperature retrieval accuracy up to the stratopause. 28 refs.

  13. Design and performance of the halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) remote sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. L.; Mauldin, L. E., III; Russell, J. M., III

    1986-01-01

    HALOE is an optical remote sensor that measures extinction of solar radiation caused by the earth's atmosphere in eight channels, ranging in wavelength from 2.5 to 10.1 microns. These measurements, which occur twice each satellite orbit during solar occultation, are inverted to yield vertical distributions of middle atmosphere ozone (O3), water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, and methane. A channel located in the 2.7 region is used to infer the tangent point pressure by measuring carbon dioxide absorption. The HALOE instrument consists of a two-axis gimbal system, telescope, spectral discrimination optics and a 12-bit data system. The gimbal system tracks the solar radiometric centroid in the azimuthal plane and tracks the solar limb in the elevation plane, placing the instrument's instantaneous field-of-view 4 arcmin down from the solar top edge. The instrument gathers data for tangent altitudes ranging from 150 km to the earth's horizon. Prior to an orbital sunset and after an orbital sunrise, HALOE automatically performs calibration sequences to enhance data interpretation. The instrument is presently being tested at the NASA Langley Research Center in preparation for launch on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite near the end of this decade. This paper describes the instrumenmt design, operation, and functional performance.

  14. Titan's haze as seen by VIMS during solar occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Ken; Xu, Fang; West, Robert; Brown, Robert; Baines, Kevin; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger; Micholson, Phil

    2016-06-01

    This study describe solar occultation observations of Titan's atmosphere by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. These observations include two recent observations made in the last few months. The solar occultation observations have been made at different latitudes and seasons, which allows us to investigate the variability of the density profile of aerosols. We present the line curves in the different atmospheric windows, and the data processing and the inversion method to retrieve vertical density profile. This unique data set provides information on Titan's opacity in the atmospheric windows, which is important to retrieve the surface properties. It also provides information on the cross-subsection of the aerosols as a function of wavelength in the wavelength range 1 to 5 micron.

  15. Externally Occulted Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: Simulations and Sensitivities

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, Richard G; Lo, Amy; Cash, Webster; Starkman, Glenn D; Vanderbei, Robert J; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Copi, Craig J

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of coronagraphic techniques for the space-based direct detection and characterization of exo-solar terrestrial planets are actively being pursued by the astronomical community. Typical coronagraphs have internal shaped focal plane and/or pupil plane occulting masks which block and/or diffract starlight thereby increasing the planet's contrast with respect to its parent star. Past studies have shown that any internal technique is limited by the ability to sense and control amplitude, phase (wavefront) and polarization to exquisite levels - necessitating stressing optical requirements. An alternative and promising technique is to place a starshade, i.e. external occulter, at some distance in front of the telescope. This starshade suppresses most of the starlight before entering the telescope - relaxing optical requirements to that of a more conventional telescope. While an old technique it has been recently been advanced by the recognition that circularly symmetric graded apodizers can be well appro...

  16. New insights to occult gastrointestinal bleeding: From pathophysiology to therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio; Damián; Sánchez-Capilla; Paloma; De; La; Torre-Rubio; Eduardo; Redondo-Cerezo

    2014-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is still a clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. The recent development of novel technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of different bleeding causes has allowed a better management of patients, but it also determines the need of a deeper comprehension of pathophysiology and the analysis of local expertise in order to develop a rational management algorithm. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding can be divided in occult, when a positive occult blood fecal test is the main manifestation, and overt, when external sings of bleeding are visible. In this paper we are going to focus on overt gastrointestinal bleeding, describing the physiopathology of the most usual causes, analyzing the diagnostic procedures available, from the most classical to the novel ones, and establishing a standard algorithm which can be adapted depending on the local expertise or availability. Finally, we will review the main therapeutic options for this complex and not so uncommon clinical problem.

  17. An overview of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeinab Nabil Ahmed Said

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI), alternatively defined as occult hepatitis B (OHB), is a challenging clinical entity. It is recognized by two main characteristics: absence of HBsAg, and low viral replication. The previous two decades have witnessed a remarkable progress in our nderstanding of OBI and its clinical implications. Appropriate diagnostic techniques must be adopted. Sensitive HBV DNA amplification assay is the gold standard assay for detection of OBI. Viral as well as host factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of OBI. However, published data reporting the infectivity of OBI by transfusion are limited. Several aspects including OBI transmission, infectivity and its relation to the development of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma have to be resolved. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent data on OBI with a focus on its virological diagnosis and clinical outcome.

  18. Occult pneumothorax in the mechanically ventilated trauma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Chad G.; Hameed, S. Morad; Evans, Dave; Kortbeek, John B.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2003-01-01

    The term occult pneumothorax (OP) describes a pneumothorax that is not suspected on the basis of clinical examination or plain radiography but is ultimately detected with thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT). This situation is increasingly common in trauma care with the increased use of CT. The rate is approximately 5% in injured people presenting to hospital, with CT revealing at least twice as many pneumothoraces as suspected on plain radiography. Whereas pneumothorax is a common and t...

  19. Occult persistence and lymphotropism of hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tram NQ Pham; Tomasz I Michalak

    2008-01-01

    Recent discovery of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection persisting after spontaneous or antiviral therapy-induced resolution of hepatitis C was made possible by the introduction of nucleic acid amplification assays capable of detecting HCV RNA at sensitivities superseding those offered by clinical tests. Although individuals with this seemingly silent HCV infection are usually anti-HCV antibody reactive and have normal liver function tests, occult HCV infection has also been reported in anti-HCV-negative individuals with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology. Studies have shown that HCV RNA can persist for years in serum, iymphomononuciear cells and liver in the absence of clinical symptoms, although histological evidence of a mild inflammatory liver injury can be occasionally encountered. Furthermore, while HCV RNA can be detected in circulating lymphoid cells in approximately 30% of cases, a short-term culture under stimulatory conditions augments HCV replication in these cells allowing detection of virus in otherwise HCV-negative cases. HCV infects different immune cell subsets, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells and monocytes. Studies employing cional sequencing and single-stranded conformational polymorphism analyses have revealed unique HCV variants residing in immune cells, further strengthening the notion of HCV lymphotropism. Overall, the data accumulated suggest that occult HCV infection is a common consequence of resolution of symptomatic hepatitis C and that examination of the cells of the immune system is an effective approach to diagnosis of HCV infection and its long-term persistence. Further work is required to fully realize pathogenic and epidemiological consequences of occult HCV persistence.

  20. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete;

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  1. [Occult pneumothorax: Does it take drain before elective surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensghir, M; Moutaoukil, M; Meziane, M; Jaafari, A; Hemmaoui, B; Haimeur, C

    2016-08-01

    Pneumothorax occult is defined by the presence of a non-visible to standard asymptomatic pneumothorax and pulmonary diagnosed only by X-ray computed tomography. The presence of this type of pneumothorax before planned surgery is a rare situation. What to do remains non-consensual. Through two clinic cases and a literature review, the authors discuss the modalities of management of this entity. PMID:27113614

  2. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly ...

  3. Buoyancy waves in Pluto's high atmosphere: Implications for stellar occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B; Kulesa, C A; Benecchi, S D; Person, M J; Elliot, J L; Gulbis, A A S

    2009-01-01

    We apply scintillation theory to stellar signal fluctuations in the high-resolution, high signal/noise, dual-wavelength data from the MMT observation of the 2007 March 18 occultation of P445.3 by Pluto. A well-defined high wavenumber cutoff in the fluctuations is consistent with viscous-thermal dissipation of buoyancy waves (internal gravity waves) in Pluto's high atmosphere, and provides strong evidence that the underlying density fluctuations are governed by the gravity-wave dispersion relation.

  4. The Structure of Titan's Atmosphere from Cassini Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinder, Paul J.; Flasar, F. Michael; Marouf, Essam A.; French, Richard G.; McGhee, Colleen A.; Kliore, Arvydas J.; Rappaport, Nicole J.; Barbinis, Elias; Fleischman, Don; Anabtawi, Aseel

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the two radio occultations of the Cassini spacecraft by Titan in 2006, which probed mid-southern latitudes. Three of the ingress and egress soundings occurred within a narrow latitude range, 31.34 deg S near the surface, and the fourth at 52.8 deg S. Temperature - altitude profiles for all four occultation soundings are presented, and compared with the results of the Voyager 1 radio occultation (Lindal et al., 1983), the HASI instrument on the Huygens descent probe (Fulchignoni et al., 2005), and Cassini CIRS results (Flasar et al., 2005; Achterberg et al., 2008b). Sources of error in the retrieved temperature - altitude profiles are also discussed, and a major contribution is from spacecraft velocity errors in the reconstructed ephemeris. These can be reduced by using CIRS data at 300 km to make along-track adjustments of the spacecraft timing. The occultation soundings indicate that the temperatures just above the surface at 31-34 deg S are about 93 K, while that at 53 deg S is about 1 K colder. At the tropopause, the temperatures at the lower latitudes are all about 70 K, while the 53 deg S profile is again 1 K colder. The temperature lapse rate in the lowest 2 km for the two ingress (dawn) profiles at 31 and 33 deg S lie along a dry adiabat except within approximately 200m of the surface, where a small stable inversion occurs. This could be explained by turbulent mixing with low viscosity near the surface. The egress profile near 34 deg S shows a more complex structure in the lowest 2 km, while the egress profile at 53 deg S is more stable.

  5. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur; Dilip Kumar-Deka; Saidul Islam; Prabhat Chandra-Sarmah

    2015-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm i...

  6. Lunar occultation observation of μ Sgr: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunar Occultation (LO) is an event where limb of the Moon passing over a particular heavenly bodies such as stars, asteroids, or planets. In other words, during the event, stars, asteroids and planets are occulted by the Moon. When occulted objects contact the lunar limb, there will be a diffraction fringe(s) which can be measured photometrically, until the signal vanishes into noise. This event will give us a valuable information about binarities (of stars) and/or angular diameters estimation (of stars, planets, asteroids) in milliarcsecond resolution, by fitting with theoretical LO pattern. CCDs are common for LO observation because of its fast read out, and recently are developed for sub-meter class telescope. In this paper, our LO observation attempt of μ Sgr and its progress report are presented. The observation was conducted on July 30th, 2012 at Bosscha Observatory, Indonesia, using 45cm f/12 GOTO telescope combined with ST-9 XE CCD camera and Bessel B filter. We used drift-scan method to obtain light curve of the star as it was disappearing behind Moon's dark limb. Our goal is to detect binarity (or multiplicity) of this particular object

  7. Renal trauma in occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to present CT findings of occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction in patients with renal trauma and to describe the clinical signs and singular CT features that are characteristically observed with trauma and are relevant to management of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 82 helical CT studies in patients with renal trauma referred to our institution. We found 13 cases of occult preexisting renal pathology, six of which were occult ureteropelvic junction obstructions. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings of trauma according to the Federle classification, and CT findings of obstructed ureteropelvic junction are presented. We found three category-I lesions (one in a horseshoe kidney), two of them treated with nephrostomy because of increased ureteropelvic junction obstruction due to pelvic clots; two category-II lesions (parenchymal and renal pelvis lacerations) that had presented only with microhematuria; and one category-IV lesion (pelvic laceration alone). Pelvic extension was demonstrated in all the cases with perirenal collections. The CT studies in all the cases with suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction showed decreased parenchymal thickness and enhancement, and dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyx, with a normal ureter. Computed tomography can provide information to confidently diagnose underlying ureteropelvic junction obstruction in renal trauma, categorize the traumatic injury (at times clinically silent) and facilitate proper management according to the singularities observed, such us rupture of the renal pelvis alone (Federle category IV) and increasing ureteropelvic obstruction due to clots which can be decompressed by nephrostomy. (orig.)

  8. Pathogenesis of occult chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio Aller de la Fuente; María L Gutiérrez; Javier Garcia-Samaniego; Conrado Fernández-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledó; Gregorio Castellano

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns. Occult HBV status is associated in some cases with mutant viruses undetectable by HBsAg assays; but more frequently it is due to a strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression. OBI is an entity with world-wide diffusion. The failure to detect HBsAg, despite the persistence of the viral DNA, is due in most cases to the strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression that characterizes this "occult" HBV infection; although the mechanisms responsible for suppression of HBV are not well understood. The majority of OBI cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low viremia level suppressed by a strong immune response together with histological derangements which occurred during acute or chronic HBV infection. Much evidence suggests that it can favour the progression of liver fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Occult hepatitis C virus infection: A new form of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Carre(n)o

    2006-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new recently characterized entity. This occult infection can be present in two different clinical situations: in anti-HCV negative,serum HCV-RNA negative patients with abnormal liver function tests and in anti-HCV positive subjects with normal values of liver enzymes and without serum HCV-RNA. This review describes recent studies of occult HCV infection in both kinds of patients.(c) 2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnitudes of selected stellar occultation candidates for Pluto and other planets, with new predictions for Mars and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybert, C. B.; Bosh, A. S.; Sauter, L. M.; Elliot, J. L.; Wasserman, L. H.

    1992-01-01

    Occultation predictions for the planets Mars and Jupiter are presented along with BVRI magnitudes of 45 occultation candidates for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Pluto. Observers can use these magnitudes to plan observations of occultation events. The optical depth of the Jovian ring can be probed by a nearly central occultation on 1992 July 8. Mars occults an unusually red star in early 1993, and the occultations for Pluto involving the brightest candidates would possibly occur in the spring of 1992 and the fall of 1993.

  11. The 1998 November 14 Occultation of GSC 0622-00345 by Saturn. I. Techniques for Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Joseph; 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/398

    2010-01-01

    On 1998 November 14, Saturn and its rings occulted the star GSC 0622-00345. We observed atmospheric immersion with NSFCAM at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Immersion occurred at 55.5\\circ S planetocentric latitude. A 2.3 {\\mu}m, methane-band filter suppressed reflected sunlight. Atmospheric emersion and ring data were not successfully obtained. We describe our observation, light-curve production, and timing techniques, including improvements in aperture positioning, removal of telluric scintillation effects, and timing. Many of these techniques are known within the occultation community, but have not been described in the reviewed literature. We present a light curve whose signal-to-noise ratio per scale height is 267, among the best ground-based signals yet achieved, despite a disadvantage of up to 8 mag in the stellar flux compared to prior work.

  12. THE 1998 NOVEMBER 14 OCCULTATION OF GSC 0622-00345 BY SATURN. I. TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND-BASED STELLAR OCCULTATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 1998 November 14, Saturn and its rings occulted the star GSC 0622-00345. We observed atmospheric immersion with NSFCAM at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Immersion occurred at 55.05 S planetocentric latitude. A 2.3 μm, CH4-band filter suppressed reflected sunlight. Atmospheric emersion and ring data were not successfully obtained. We describe our observation, light curve production, and timing techniques, including improvements in aperture positioning, removal of telluric scintillation effects, and timing. Many of these techniques are known within the occultation community, but have not been described in the reviewed literature. We present a light curve whose signal-to-noise ratio per scale height is 267, among the best ground-based signals yet achieved, despite a disadvantage of up to 8 mag in the stellar flux compared to prior work.

  13. The 1998 November 14 Occultation of GSC 0622-00345 by Saturn. II. Stratospheric Thermal Profile, Power Spectrum, and Gravity Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Joseph; Matcheva, Katia; 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/404

    2010-01-01

    On 1998 November 14, Saturn and its rings occulted the star GSC 0622-00345. The occultation latitude was 55.5 degrees S. This paper analyzes the 2.3 {\\mu}m light curve derived by Harrington & French. A fixed-baseline isothermal fit to the light curve has a temperature of 140 +/- 3 K, assuming a mean molecular mass of 2.35 AMU. The thermal profile obtained by numerical inversion is valid between 1 and 60 {\\mu}bar. The vertical temperature gradient is >0.2 K/km more stable than the adiabatic lapse rate, but it still shows the alternating-rounded-spiked features seen in many temperature gradient profiles from other atmospheric occultations and usually attributed to breaking gravity (buoyancy) waves. We conduct a wavelet analysis of the thermal profile, and show that, even with our low level of noise, scintillation due to turbulence in Earth's atmosphere can produce large temperature swings in light-curve inversions. Spurious periodic features in the "reliable" region of a wavelet amplitude spectrum can excee...

  14. Unique observation of a Solar Flare by Lunar Occultation during the 2010 Annular Solar Eclipse through ionospheric disturbances in VLF waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta Maji, Surya; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves propagate through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Irregularities caused by excess or deficient solar extreme ultra-violet and X-rays, which otherwise sustain the ionosphere, changes the waveguide properties and hence the signals are modified. We report the results of monitoring of the NWC transmitter (19.8kHz) by a receiver placed at Khukurdaha (~80 km away from Kolkata) during the partial solar eclipse (75%) of 15th January, 2010. The receiving station and the transmitter were on two opposite sides of the annular eclipse belt. We got a clear depression in the data during the period of partial eclipse. Most interestingly, there was also a flaring activity in the sun on that day which reached its peak (C-type) just after the time when the eclipse was near maximum. We saw effects of the occultation of this flare in our VLF signal since a part of the active region was clearly blocking the moon. We model this occultation, and reconstructed the VLF signal in the absence of the flare. To our knowledge, this is the first such incident where the solar flare was observed through lunar occultation and that too during a partial eclipse.

  15. Development of an occult metric for common motor vehicle crash injuries - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Detection of occult injuries, which are not easily recognized and are life-threatening, in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is crucial in order to reduce fatalities. An Occult Injury Database (OID) was previously developed by the Center for Transportation Injury Research (CenTIR) using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 1997-2001 which identified occult and non-occult head, thorax, and abdomen injuries. The objective of the current work was to develop an occult injury model based on underlying injury characteristics to derive an Occult Score for common MVC-induced injuries. A multiple logistic regression model was developed utilizing six injury parameters to generate a probability formula which assigned an Occult Score for each injury. The model was applied to a list of 240 injuries comprising the top 95 percent of injuries occurring in NASS-CDS 2000-2011. The parameters in the model included a continuous Cause MRR/year variable indicating the annual proportion of occupants sustaining a given injury whose cause of death was attributed to that injury. The categorical variables in the model were AIS 2-3 vs. 4-6, laceration, hemorrhage/hematoma, contusion, and intracranial. Results indicated that injuries with a low Cause MRR/year and AIS severity of 4-6 had an increased likelihood of being occult. In addition, the presence of a laceration, hemorrhage/hematoma, contusion, or intracranial injury also increased the likelihood of an injury being occult. The Occult Score ranges from zero to one with a threshold of 0.5 as the discriminator of an occult injury. Of the considered injuries, it was determined that 54% of head, 26% of thorax, and 23% of abdominal injuries were occult injuries. No occult injuries were identified in the face, spine, upper extremity, or lower extremity body regions. The Occult Score generated can be useful in advanced automatic crash notification research and for the detection of serious occult injuries in

  16. Mutations associated with occult hepatitis B in HIV-positive South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eleanor A; Gededzha, Maemu P; Rentz, Michael; Rakgole, Nare J; Selabe, Selokela G; Seleise, Tebogo A; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2015-03-01

    Occult hepatitis B is characterized by the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) but the presence of HBV DNA. Because diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically includes HBsAg detection, occult HBV remains largely undiagnosed. Occult HBV is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation to chronic HBV during immune suppression, and transmission during blood transfusion and liver transplant. The mechanisms leading to occult HBV infection are unclear, although viral mutations are likely a significant factor. In this study, sera from 394 HIV-positive South Africans were tested for HBV DNA and HBsAg. For patients with detectable HBV DNA, the overlapping surface and polymerase open reading frames (ORFs) were sequenced. Occult-associated mutations-those mutations found exclusively in individuals with occult HBV infection but not in individuals with chronic HBV infection from the same cohort or GenBank references-were identified. Ninety patients (22.8%) had detectable HBV DNA. Of these, 37 had detectable HBsAg, while 53 lacked detectable surface antigen. The surface and polymerase ORFs were cloned successfully for 19 patients with chronic HBV and 30 patients with occult HBV. In total, 235 occult-associated mutations were identified. Ten occult-associated mutations were identified in more than one patient. Additionally, 15 amino acid positions had two distinct occult-associated mutations at the same residue. Occult-associated mutations were common and present in all regions of the surface and polymerase ORFs. Further study is underway to determine the effects of these mutations on viral replication and surface antigen expression in vitro.

  17. ACCURATE: Greenhouse Gas Profiles Retrieval from Combined IR-Laser and Microwave Occultation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schweitzer, Susanne; Fritzer, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The new climate satellite concept ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the already better studied LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. Resulting occultation events are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 μm for ACCURATE). These signals are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. Profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived from signal transmission measurements. Accurately known temperature, pressure and humidity profiles derived from simultaneously measured LMO signals are essential pre-information for the retrieval of the trace species profiles. These LMO signals lie in the microwave band region from 17-23 GHz and, optionally, 178-195 GHz. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (GHG) (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O), with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction, and scintillation strength. We introduce the methodology to retrieve GHG profiles from quasi-realistic forward-simulated intensities of LIO signals and thermodynamic profiles retrieved in a preceding step from LMO signals. Key of the retrieval methodology is the differencing of two LIO transmission signals, one being GHG sensitive on a target

  18. Incidentaloma at Radial Artery Forearm Free Flap Harvest: An Occult Volar Wrist Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Nambi, G.I.; M Dhiwakar

    2012-01-01

    Occult volar wrist ganglion originating from radioscaphoid interval and having adherence to flexor carpi radialis tendon [Fcr] and radial artery is an uncommon occurrence. We report such a case which was occult and asymptomatic during pre-operative assessment and presented as an incidentaloma during radial artery forearm free flap harvest for oral cancer reconstruction.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of occult fractures of the proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the painful hip in the elderly osteoporotic patient with normal plain radiographs can be difficult. We studied 15 osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and suspected hip fractures with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and found MR to be an excellent aid in detecting occult fractures. A clear fracture was seen in 10 of the 15 patients, who then underwent surgical repair based on the MR study. The remaining patients had no MR-demonstrable fracture and were successfully treated nonoperatively. Some believe that a negative bone scan in this population of patients should be repeated within 3 days prior to a definitive ''no fracture'' decision being made. Unfortunately, bone scanning lacks spatial resolution, and increased osteoblastic activity may be caused by other pathologic processes besides fracture. Two of the 15 patients had MR-demonstrated bone infarcts near the fracture. One patient also had femoral head osteonecrosis on the side of the fracture. One patient with metastatic prostatic carcinoma had a hip fracture and one patient with metastatic breast carcinoma had no fracture. Not only is MR imaging an excellent technique for delineating occult fractures, but due to its spatial resolution, associated bone disorders adjacent to fractures can be detected in most instances. From a cost perspective, rapid diagnosis and early treatment of an occult femoral fracture is advisable. A reduced hospital stay pending diagnosis and the early institution of definitive therapy also decrease the chance that a simple non-displaced fracture will displace and require more complex management with resultant increased morbidity and cost. We propose that, especially in elderly, osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and a high index of suspicion for hip fracture, MR can serve as the sole additional imaging study in most instances. (orig.)

  20. Radio Occultation Investigation of the Rings of Saturn and Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Essam A.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed work addresses two main objectives: (1) to pursue the development of the random diffraction screen model for analytical/computational characterization of the extinction and near-forward scattering by ring models that include particle crowding, uniform clustering, and clustering along preferred orientations (anisotropy). The characterization is crucial for proper interpretation of past (Voyager) and future (Cassini) ring, occultation observations in terms of physical ring properties, and is needed to address outstanding puzzles in the interpretation of the Voyager radio occultation data sets; (2) to continue the development of spectral analysis techniques to identify and characterize the power scattered by all features of Saturn's rings that can be resolved in the Voyager radio occultation observations, and to use the results to constrain the maximum particle size and its abundance. Characterization of the variability of surface mass density among the main ring, features and within individual features is important for constraining the ring mass and is relevant to investigations of ring dynamics and origin. We completed the developed of the stochastic geometry (random screen) model for the interaction of electromagnetic waves with of planetary ring models; used the model to relate the oblique optical depth and the angular spectrum of the near forward scattered signal to statistical averages of the stochastic geometry of the randomly blocked area. WE developed analytical results based on the assumption of Poisson statistics for particle positions, and investigated the dependence of the oblique optical depth and angular spectrum on the fractional area blocked, vertical ring profile, and incidence angle when the volume fraction is small. Demonstrated agreement with the classical radiative transfer predictions for oblique incidence. Also developed simulation procedures to generate statistical realizations of random screens corresponding to uniformly packed

  1. Buoyancy waves in Pluto's high atmosphere: Implications for stellar occultations

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, W. B.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kulesa, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A.A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We apply scintillation theory to stellar signal fluctuations in the high-resolution, high signal/noise, dual-wavelength data from the MMT observation of the 2007 March 18 occultation of P445.3 by Pluto. A well-defined high wavenumber cutoff in the fluctuations is consistent with viscous-thermal dissipation of buoyancy waves (internal gravity waves) in Pluto’s high atmosphere, and provides strong evidence that the underlying density fluctuations are governed by the gravity-wave dispersion rela...

  2. Presentation of occult Chiari I malformation following spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan P Ankichetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiari I malformation (CM-I manifests with tonsillar herniation below foramen magnum. These patients are at high risk of respiratory depression and bulbar dysfunction in the perioperative period with underlying obstructive sleep apnea. However, the safe use of both general and regional anaesthesia has been documented in a known CM-I parturients. We describe the successful management of a patient who had hypercapnic respiratory failure in the post-anaesthetic care unit following an uneventful subarachnoid block for left knee replacement surgery. This patient was retrospectively diagnosed with occult CM-I and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in the postoperative period.

  3. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong Hee; Whang, Dong Hee; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusion medicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blood donors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody (HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donors in HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmission of non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains in use for preventing of potential transmission of HBV from hepatitis B su...

  4. Rosemary Hill Observatory lunar occultation summary for 1983-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn; Anderson, Chris

    1993-04-01

    The results from photometric observations of 21 previously unreported occultation disappearances obtained during the period from March 24, 1983 through March 12, 1984, with the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory 76-cm reflecting telescope are presented. Statistically significant determinations of stellar diameters are indicated for two stars: 32 Librae (12.2 mas) and BD + 22 deg 1032 (5.45 mas). Diameter measurements of marginal statistical significance are noted for two other stars (9 Cancri and 37 Capricorni). New duplicity determinations are reported for five stellar systems in this sample.

  5. Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-01-01

    chain is therefore a wave optics based retrieval chain and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on 5 different frequencies are used. The 5 frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave...... optics based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global ECMWF analysis model. This model is used in a forward propagator that simulates the electromagnetic field amplitudes and phases at the receiver on board...

  6. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig;

    The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant ...... on the International Space Station....... than the annual mean of the atmosphere around the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located CALIPSO products and GOES analyses will also be shown. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) payload...

  7. The significance of mammographic signs in clinically occult disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of various radiographic signs in 183 patients with clinically occult breast disease is described. 30.6% hat a carcinoma of the breast or a carcinoma in situ. The radiological features have varying predictive values and there is variation in the incidence of lymph node metastases. It is considered useful to classify the radiological appearances under the headings of round foci, star-shaped opacities, diffuse opacities, opacities with calcification and groups of micro-calcification. Despite the early diagnosis, 24% of patients already had lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  8. Upper tibial hyperextension fractures in infants: another occult toddler's fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the radiographic findings associated with occult upper tibial fractures in infants and young children and offer an explanation for the underlying mechanism from which they result. These fractures tend to be subtle, just as the classic spiral tibial fracture originally described by Dunbar et al. (1964, J Can Assoc Radiol 15: 136-144). The fracture we describe results from a hyperextension injury to the knee, and the knowledge of the mechanism of injury, the subtle radiographic findings, and the findings on physical examination allow one to diagnose this fracture with confidence. Otherwise, it easily can go undetected. (orig.)

  9. Detection of Small Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, R

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the Kuiper Belt is currently limited to those objects that can be detected directly. Objects with diameters less than $\\sim$10km reflect too little light to be detected. These smaller bodies could contain most of the mass in the Kuiper Belt while the abundance of these bodies may constrain the distribution of mass. The overall size distribution of bodies within the Kuiper Belt can also be inferred from the relative abundances of sub-km and larger bodies. Stellar occultations are ...

  10. The nighttime ionosphere of Mars from Mars-4 and Mars-5 radio occultation dual-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, N. A.; Samovol, V. A.; Vasilyev, M. B.; Vyshlov, A. S.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Shtern, D. Y.

    1976-01-01

    Dual frequency radio sounding of the Martian nighttime ionosphere was carried out during the exits from behind the planet of the Mars-4 spacecraft on February 2, 1974 and the Mars-5 spacecraft on February 18, 1974. In these experiments, the spacecraft transmitter emitted two coherent monochromatic signals in decimeter and centimeter wavelength ranges. At the Earth receiving station, the reduced phase difference (or frequencies) of these signals was measured. The nighttime ionosphere of Mars measured in both cases had a peak electron density of approximately 5 X 1,000/cu cm at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. At the times of spacecraft exit, the solar zenith angles at the point of occultation were 127 deg and 106 deg, respectively. The height profiles of electron concentration were obtained assuming spherical symmetry of the Martian ionosphere.

  11. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mecha...

  12. Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...

  13. Occult hepatitis B infection and its possible impact on chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollahi Peiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a well-recognized clinical phenomenon, persistent detectable viral genome in liver or sera in the absence of other serological markers for active hepatitis B virus (HBV replication is called occult HBV infection. The main mechanism through which occult infection occurs is not completely understood and several possible explanations, such as integration into human genome and maintenance in peripheral mononuclear cells, exist. Occult HBV infection has been reported in different populations, especially among patients with Hepatitis C (HCV related liver disease. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients with chronic HCV infection has been previously investigated and the evidence suggests a possible correlation with lower response to anti-viral treatment, higher grades of liver histological changes, and also developing hepatocellular carcinoma. However, in the absence of conclusive results, further studies should be conducted to absolutely assess the impact of occult HBV contamination on the HCV related liver disease.

  14. Discover Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  15. Potential radio frequency interference with the GPS L5 band for radio occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Radio Occultation (RO receivers are planned to utilize the newly implemented Global Positioning System (GPS L5 signal centered at 1176.45 MHz. Since there are currently no operational GPS L5 receivers used for space-based RO applications, the interference environment is unclear. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME and Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN stations share the same frequency band as the GPS L5 signal. DME/TACAN signals have been identified to be a means of interference for any GPS L5 receiver. This study focuses on implementing a Systems Tools Kit (STK simulation to gain insight into the power received by a RO satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO from a DME/TACAN transmission. In order to confirm the validity of utilizing STK for communication purposes, a theoretical scenario was recreated as a simulation and the results were confirmed. Once the method was validated, STK was used to output a received power level aboard a RO satellite from a DME/TACAN station as well as a tool to predict the number of interfering DME/TACAN stations at any point in time. Taking a conservative approach, the signal power received was much greater than the typical power level received by a RO satellite from a GPS satellite transmission. This relatively high received power along with a high number of interfering DME/TACAN stations as an RO satellite passes over North America or Western Europe indicate that DME/TACAN interference may conflict with RO receivers.

  16. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hee Seo; Dong Hee Whang; Eun Young Song; Kyou Sup Han

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusionmedicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing(NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blooddonors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody(HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donorsin HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmissionof non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains inuse for preventing of potential transmission of HBVfrom hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negativeblood donors, even though anti-hepatitis C virus testshave been introduced. Studies of anti-HBc-positivedonors have revealed an HBV DNA positivity rate of0%-15%. As of 2012, 30 countries have implementedHBV NAT. The prevalence of OBI in blood donors wasestimated to be 8.55 per 1 million donations, accordingto a 2008 international survey. OBI is transmissible byblood transfusion. The clinical outcome of occult HBVtransmission primarily depends on recipient immunestatus and the number of HBV DNA copies present in theblood products. The presence of donor anti-HBs reducesthe risk of HBV infection by approximately five-fold. Therisk of HBV transmission may be lower in endemic areasthan in non-endemic areas, because most recipientshave already been exposed to HBV. Blood safety forHBV, including OBI, has substantially improved, but thepossibility for OBI transmission remains.

  17. CT herniography in the diagnosis of occult groin hernias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markos, V. [Department of Radiology, Gloucester Royal Hospital, Gloucester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: vmarkos@hotmail.com; Brown, E.F. [Department of Radiology, Gloucester Royal Hospital, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) after herniography in the diagnosis and management of primary and recurrent groin hernias not detectable on clinical examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients underwent CT post-herniography over a 6-year period for suspected primary or recurrent inguinal hernia. The herniography and post-herniography CT findings were retrospectively compared with clinical and surgical follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the role of herniography and CT post-herniography in the primary and recurrent groups. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients investigated for occult inguinal hernia, 19 had previous hernia repair with possible recurrence. The most common symptom at presentation was groin pain or discomfort (84%). Seventy-five percent in the primary group and 84% in the recurrent group had no findings on herniography or CT. Nine percent in the primary group and 16% in the recurrent group had hernias diagnosed by herniography. CT did not enhance the detection of hernia. Sensitivity for herniography and CT herniography in the primary groin hernia group was 75% as against specificity, which was 100 and 90%, respectively. For the recurrent groin hernias, sensitivity was 60% for herniography and 40% for CT herniography and specificity 100% for both. CONCLUSION: CT performed post-herniography did not provide any benefit over performing herniography alone in the diagnosis of occult primary or recurrent inguinal hernias.

  18. CT herniography in the diagnosis of occult groin hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) after herniography in the diagnosis and management of primary and recurrent groin hernias not detectable on clinical examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients underwent CT post-herniography over a 6-year period for suspected primary or recurrent inguinal hernia. The herniography and post-herniography CT findings were retrospectively compared with clinical and surgical follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the role of herniography and CT post-herniography in the primary and recurrent groups. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients investigated for occult inguinal hernia, 19 had previous hernia repair with possible recurrence. The most common symptom at presentation was groin pain or discomfort (84%). Seventy-five percent in the primary group and 84% in the recurrent group had no findings on herniography or CT. Nine percent in the primary group and 16% in the recurrent group had hernias diagnosed by herniography. CT did not enhance the detection of hernia. Sensitivity for herniography and CT herniography in the primary groin hernia group was 75% as against specificity, which was 100 and 90%, respectively. For the recurrent groin hernias, sensitivity was 60% for herniography and 40% for CT herniography and specificity 100% for both. CONCLUSION: CT performed post-herniography did not provide any benefit over performing herniography alone in the diagnosis of occult primary or recurrent inguinal hernias

  19. Image guidance improves localization of sonographically occult colorectal liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L.; Adams, Lauryn B.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Kingham, T. Peter

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the therapeutic benefit of surgical navigation systems is a challenging problem in image-guided surgery. The exact clinical indications for patients that may benefit from these systems is not always clear, particularly for abdominal surgery where image-guidance systems have failed to take hold in the same way as orthopedic and neurosurgical applications. We report interim analysis of a prospective clinical trial for localizing small colorectal liver metastases using the Explorer system (Path Finder Technologies, Nashville, TN). Colorectal liver metastases are small lesions that can be difficult to identify with conventional intraoperative ultrasound due to echogeneity changes in the liver as a result of chemotherapy and other preoperative treatments. Interim analysis with eighteen patients shows that 9 of 15 (60%) of these occult lesions could be detected with image guidance. Image guidance changed intraoperative management in 3 (17%) cases. These results suggest that image guidance is a promising tool for localization of small occult liver metastases and that the indications for image-guided surgery are expanding.

  20. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29 deg N and 64 deg S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L(sub s) = 264 deg - 308 deg. The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. wavelengths approximately 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29 deg N and 10 deg S, usually in regions of "interesting" topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30 deg of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4-mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are "breaking" and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  1. The occultation of gamma Geminorum by the asteroid 381 Myrrha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, I.; Soma, M.; Hirose, T.

    1993-04-01

    The occultation of Gamma Geminorum by asteroid 381 Myrrha on January 13, 1991, observed in Japan and China, was the brightest event ever seen of a stellar occultation by an asteroid. By the analysis of the timing data of this event measured in Japan, it is shown that the cross section of Myrrha is well fitted with an ellipse of (147.2 +/- 2.4) km x (126.6 +/- 7.9) km. An upper limit of the diameter of Gamma Geminorum is also estimated to be 2.6 milliarcsec. The companion of Gamma Geminorum of about 7.5 mag was sited at separation (64 +/- 8) milliarcsec in the direction P = 129 deg +/- 59 deg, and the relative position of Myrrha to Gamma Geminorum was determined to an accuracy of about 1 milliarcsec. Direct constraints on Myrrha's 3D shape and the direction of its rotation axis are obtained on the assumption of it being a triaxial ellipsoid with isotropic orientation.

  2. Dust occultation at Titan measured by CDA onboard Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srama, Ralf; CDA science team

    2016-10-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini characterized successfully the dust environment at Saturn since 2004. The instrument measures the primary charge, speed, mass and composition of individual submicron and micron sized dust grains. The detection threshold scales with speed^3.5 such that the detection of fast nanograins (~100 km/s) is possible. Saturn's nanodust environment (streams) is studied many years. However, a special geometric condition of Saturn, Cassini and Titan during a Titan flyby in 2014 (DOY 65) provided a special dust occultation opportunity. Titan and its atmosphere blocked the stream of fast nanoparticles such that CDA registered a clear drop in impact rate around closest approach. An analysis of the data allows to constrain the source region of the nanograins, which is compatible with a source region in the ring plane at distances from Saturn between 4 and 8 Saturn radii. Backward and forward modeling was performed leading to dust grain sizes between 3 and 9 nm and speeds between 80 and 150 km/s. The new modeling results also show that Enceladus acts a direct source for nanodust streams leading to the observation of periodic impact rates in the outer Saturn system. Such periodicities were observed recently by CDA and showed a clear signature of the Enceladus orbital period. A second dust occultation opportunity using Titan is planned august 2016.

  3. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his