WorldWideScience

Sample records for all-polymer paper-based batteries

  1. Ultrafast all-polymer paper-based batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Gustav; Razaq, Aamir; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif; Mihranyan, Albert

    2009-10-01

    Conducting polymers for battery applications have been subject to numerous investigations during the last two decades. However, the functional charging rates and the cycling stabilities have so far been found to be insufficient for practical applications. These shortcomings can, at least partially, be explained by the fact that thick layers of the conducting polymers have been used to obtain sufficient capacities of the batteries. In the present letter, we introduce a novel nanostructured high-surface area electrode material for energy storage applications composed of cellulose fibers of algal origin individually coated with a 50 nm thin layer of polypyrrole. Our results show the hitherto highest reported charge capacities and charging rates for an all polymer paper-based battery. The composite conductive paper material is shown to have a specific surface area of 80 m(2) g(-1) and batteries based on this material can be charged with currents as high as 600 mA cm(-2) with only 6% loss in capacity over 100 subsequent charge and discharge cycles. The aqueous-based batteries, which are entirely based on cellulose and polypyrrole and exhibit charge capacities between 25 and 33 mAh g(-1) or 38-50 mAh g(-1) per weight of the active material, open up new possibilities for the production of environmentally friendly, cost efficient, up-scalable and lightweight energy storage systems. PMID:19739594

  2. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g-1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g-1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  3. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm2. A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the...

  4. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  5. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Hang; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current collector instead of a rigid and heavy metal foil enables us to demonstrate a very thin Lithium-Ion Battery into ultra-thin (total thickness including encapsulation layers of less than 250 {\\mu}m) that is also light weight and highly flexible.

  6. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Hang; Hou, Jingshan; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current...

  7. All Polymer Micropump

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hassager, Ole

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing...

  8. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  9. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system...... room techniques. The conductive blend was coated with a layer of photoresist, exposed and developed. The resulting pattern was etched in a reactive ion etcher, yielding a well defined patterned with a resolution of approximately 2 J..lm. This technique was utilised to fabricate an ac electroosmotic...... a new short chained polyurethane. The resolution of the inkjet printer was in the order of 200 J-tm. The inkjet printed pattern is compared with the agarose stamping technique in a setup where the conductivity perpendicular to the stretching direction is measured on two electrodes fabricated by the two...

  10. All-Polymer Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert

    This thesis presents fabrication strategies to produce different types of all-polymer electrochemical sensors based on electrodes made of the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Three different systems are presented, fabricated either by using microdrilling or by hot...... arrays towards potassium ferrocyanide. A sensor application was demonstrated by amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the range of 0.1 to5 mM. Planar electrodes were fabricated by hot embossing of a microfluidic channel with sloped sidewalls into a PEDOT covered COC bulk material...

  11. Self-standing paper based anodes prepared from siliconcarbonitride-MoS2 composite for Li-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lamuel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-03-01

    We study synthesis of free-standing polymer derived SiCN/ MoS2 composite paper anode for Li-ion battery application. This was achieved following a two-step approach: First, polysilazane was interfaced with exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets which upon pyrolysis resulted in SiCN/MoS2 composite. Second, dispersion of SiCN/MoS2 in isopropanol was vacuum filtered resulting in formation of a self-standing composite paper. Physical and chemical characterization of the composite was carried out by use of electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR data indicated complete conversion of polysilazane precursor to SiCN ceramic, while electron microscopy confirmed layered structure of the paper. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed enhanced thermodynamic stability of the composite paper up to 800 °C. Electrochemical analysis of SiCN/MoS2 composite paper anodes showed that Li-ion can reversible intercalate in the voltage range of 0-2.5 V with a first cycle discharge capacity of 770 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

  12. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph;

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured...

  13. All-polymer based fabrication process for an all-polymer flexible and parallel optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jilin; Ge, Tao; Summitt, Chris; Wang, Sunglin; Milster, Tom; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2015-08-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a new all-polymer based fabrication process for an all-polymer flexible and parallel optical interconnect cable in which a vertical light coupler is integrated. The approach potentially cut down the cost by eliminating a metallization process for alignment of multiple masks. Throughout the process we used a polyimide as the substrate, coated by Epoclad as claddings, then AP2210B and WPR 5100 were used to fabricate waveguides and 45 degree mirror couplers, respectively. In addition, precisely aligned mirror couplers to waveguides are achieved by using polymer-based, non-metallic, and transparent phase-based alignment marks. We tested a feature specific phase-based alignment system. In addition, the shape and depth of the phase-based alignment marks are optimized for phase contrast and Schlieren imaging. Our results shows that a contrast of the image is enhanced compared to that of observed by a conventional imaging system. Such process enables to integrate polymer based waveguides by only using the polymer based alignment marks on the WPR 5100 layer.

  14. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J.

    2015-10-01

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  15. High efficiency all-polymer tandem solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Gu, Jinan; Shi, Guozheng; Sun, Jianxia; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Ma, Wanli

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have reported for the first time an efficient all-polymer tandem cell using identical sub-cells based on P2F-DO:N2200. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.70% was achieved, which is among the highest efficiencies for all polymer solar cells and 43% larger than the PCE of single junction cell. The largely improved device performance can be mainly attributed to the enhanced absorption of tandem cell. Meanwhile, the carrier collection in device remains efficient by optimizing the recombination layer and sub-cell film thickness. Thus tandem structure can become an easy approach to effectively boost the performance of current all polymer solar cells. PMID:27226354

  16. Enhanced electrochemical stability of all-polymer redox supercapacitors with modified polypyrrole electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A.M.P.; Kumar, A. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India)

    2006-10-27

    Redox supercapacitors are attracting increasing attention as high power electrochemical sources and can either be coupled with batteries to provide peak power or replace batteries for memory back-up. In the present work, all-polymer solid-state supercapacitors with LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} doped polypyrrole electrodes and P(VDF-HFP)-PMMA based polymer gel electrolyte are fabricated. The polypyrrole electrodes are irradiated with 160MeV Ni{sup 12+} ions at 5x10{sup 10}, 5x10{sup 11} and 5x10{sup 12}ionscm{sup -2}. A comparative study is made between unirradiated and irradiated supercapacitors with polypyrrole-based electrodes. An average capacitance of about 200Fgm{sup -1} is obtained. On successive charging and discharging, the capacitance decreases for supercapacitors with unirradiated electrodes but remains stable when irradiated electrodes are used. In addition, the capacitance is slightly decreased compared with that for unirradiated electrodes. Charge-discharge studies show a decrease in total charge-discharge time for supercapacitors with irradiated electrodes. The capacitance values calculated from cyclic voltammograms are higher than those determined from charge-discharge plots due to the added contribution of a leakage current. The coulombic efficiency of all the supercapacitors is about 90%. (author)

  17. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmi Koo; Vesselin N. Shanov; Yeoheung Yun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The de...

  19. All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: Parallel fabrication and encapsulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Kolew, Alexander; Kristensen, Anders; Lemmer, Uli; Mappes, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductor lasers are of particular interest as tunable visible laser light sources. For bringing those to market encapsulation is needed to ensure practicable lifetimes. Additionally, fabrication technologies suitable for mass production must be used. We introduce all-polymer chips...

  20. Paper-Based Electrical Respiration Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Firat; Ainla, Alar; Redston, Julia; Mosadegh, Bobak; Glavan, Ana; Martin, T J; Whitesides, George M

    2016-05-01

    Current methods of monitoring breathing require cumbersome, inconvenient, and often expensive devices; this requirement sets practical limitations on the frequency and duration of measurements. This article describes a paper-based moisture sensor that uses the hygroscopic character of paper (i.e. the ability of paper to adsorb water reversibly from the surrounding environment) to measure patterns and rate of respiration by converting the changes in humidity caused by cycles of inhalation and exhalation to electrical signals. The changing level of humidity that occurs in a cycle causes a corresponding change in the ionic conductivity of the sensor, which can be measured electrically. By combining the paper sensor with conventional electronics, data concerning respiration can be transmitted to a nearby smartphone or tablet computer for post-processing, and subsequently to a cloud server. This means of sensing provides a new, practical method of recording and analyzing patterns of breathing. PMID:27059088

  1. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  2. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-01

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ~90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of all-polymer, transparent ferroelectric capacitors on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2011-12-01

    All-polymer, transparent ferroelectric devices, based on the functional polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)], have been fabricated on flexible substrates. The performance of the all-polymer devices was studied and compared to devices with metal electrodes. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) [PEDOT:PSS] and platinum (Pt) electrode effects on the morphology, crystallinity and orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) films were investigated. The devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed similar hysteresis and switching current response compared to Pt electrodes but with tremendously improved fatigue performance. Further, the devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed lower coercive field and better fatigue performance than values reported for other polymer electrodes used with P(VDF-TrFE) on flexible substrates. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  5. Paper-based biodetection using luminescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qiang; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2016-05-10

    Point-of-care and in-field technologies for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of molecular biomarkers have attracted much interest. Rugged bioassay technology capable of fast detection of markers for pathogens and genetic diseases would in particular impact the quality of health care in the developing world, but would also make possible more extensive screening in developed countries to tackle problems such as those associated with water and food quality, and tracking of infectious organisms in hospitals and clinics. Literature trends indicate an increasing interest in the use of nanomaterials, and in particular luminescent nanoparticles, for assay development. These materials may offer attributes for development of assays and sensors that could achieve improvements in analytical figures of merit, and provide practical advantages in sensitivity and stability. There is opportunity for cost-efficiency and technical simplicity by implementation of luminescent nanomaterials as the basis for transduction technology, when combined with the use of paper substrates, and the ubiquitous availability of cell phone cameras and associated infrastructure for optical detection and transmission of results. Luminescent nanoparticles have been described for a broad range of bioanalytical targets including small molecules, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, saccharides and whole cells (e.g., cancer diagnostics). The luminescent nanomaterials that are described herein for paper-based bioassays include metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. These nanomaterials often have broad and strong absorption and narrow emission bands that improve opportunity for multiplexed analysis, and can be designed to provide emission at wavelengths that are efficiently processed by conventional digital cameras. Luminescent nanoparticles can be embedded in paper substrates that are designed to direct fluid flow, and the resulting combination of technologies can offer

  6. Demonstration of fluorescence enhancement via Bloch surface waves in all-polymer multilayer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasari, Lucia; Floris, Francesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Comoretto, Davide; Marabelli, Franco

    2016-05-18

    An all-polymer photonic structure constituted by a distributed Bragg reflector topped with an ultrathin fluorescent polymer film has been studied. A Bloch surface wave resonance has been exploited to improve pumping efficiency. A strongly polarization and angle dependent fluorescence signal is found with respect to the light pumping beam and the emitted wavelength. Matching the most favorable condition for the pump coupling and the collection geometry, the signal obtained from the structure appears to be two orders of magnitude larger than the one of the bare emitting film. PMID:27158698

  7. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst pressures could be estimated with an average accuracy of 5% using the presented numerical model. (paper)

  8. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Østergaard, Peter Friis;

    2014-01-01

    structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads to......Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going...... pressures could be estimated with an average accuracy of 5% using the presented numerical model....

  9. Design of all-polymer asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Sherman, Stanislav; Zappe, Hans

    2016-05-01

    New design concepts for all-polymer integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) optimized for environmental sensing are presented. Fabricated using large-area printing techniques, these polymer-based components are designed for low cost fabrication while maintaining suitable sensitivities to external refractive index changes. One key aspect in their design is obviating the need for an "interaction window" over one arm of the interferometer, as is usually defined in semiconductor or glass components, but requiring additional lithography, deposition and etching steps not suitable for polymer printing technology. We thus employ an asymmetric MZI, and derive the form of structures with optimized sensitivity and operating characteristics. Using the derived design criteria, experimental verification using a chemical test system finally demonstrates the utility of the approach. PMID:27140372

  10. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-24

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A stackable, two-chambered, paper-based microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-09-15

    We developed a stackable and integrable paper-based microbial fuel cell (MFC) for potentially powering on-chip paper-based devices. Four MFCs were prepared on a T-shaped filter paper which was eventually folded three times to connect these MFCs in series. Each MFC was fabricated by sandwiching multifunctional paper layers for two-chambered fuel cell configuration. One drop of bacteria-containing anolyte into the anodic inlet and another drop of potassium ferricyanide for cathodic reaction flowed through patterned fluidic pathways within the paper matrix, both vertically and horizontally, reaching each of the four MFCs and filling the reservoir of each device. Bacterial respiration then transferred electrons to the anode, which traveled across an external load to the cathode where they combined with protons. The MFC stack connected in series generated a high power density (1.2μW/cm(2)), which is two orders of magnitude higher than the previous report on the paper-based MFC stack. This work will represent the fusion of the art of origami and paper-based MFC technology, which could provide a paradigm shift for the architecture and design of paper-based batteries. PMID:27093487

  12. All-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, T; Kraemmer, S; Wondimu, S F; Siegle, T; Bog, U; Weinzierl, U; Schmidt, S; Becker, H; Kalt, H; Mappes, T; Koeber, S; Koos, C

    2015-09-21

    We present an all-polymer photonic sensing platform based on whispering-gallery mode microgoblet lasers integrated into a microfluidic chip. The chip is entirely made from polymers, enabling the use of the devices as low-cost disposables. The microgoblet cavities feature quality factors exceeding 10(5) and are fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using spin-coating, mask-based optical lithography, wet chemical etching, and thermal reflow. In contrast to silica-based microtoroid resonators, this approach replaces technically demanding vacuum-based dry etching and serial laser-based reflow techniques by solution-based processing and parallel thermal reflow. This enables scaling to large-area substrates, and hence significantly reduces device costs. Moreover, the resonators can be fabricated on arbitrary substrate materials, e.g., on transparent and flexible polymer foils. Doping the microgoblets with the organic dye pyrromethene 597 transforms the passive resonators into lasers. Devices have lasing thresholds below 0.6 nJ per pulse and can be efficiently pumped via free-space optics using a compact and low-cost green laser diode. We demonstrate that arrays of microgoblet lasers can be readily integrated into a state-of-the-art microfluidic chip replicated via injection moulding. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we show the viability of the lab-on-a-chip via refractometric sensing, demonstrating a bulk refractive index sensitivity (BRIS) of 10.56 nm per refractive index unit. PMID:26266577

  13. Electrochemical Sensing in Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Zhihong; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Gong, Jinlong; Chen, Xin; Kumachev, Alexander; Martinez, Andres W.; Narovlyansky, Max; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, μPEDs). The μPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g., carbon or Ag/AgCl). We demonstrated that the μPEDs are capable of quantifying the concentrations of various analytes (e.g., heavy-metal ions and glucos...

  14. Electrochemical sensing in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhihong; Nijhuis, Christian A; Gong, Jinlong; Chen, Xin; Kumachev, Alexander; Martinez, Andres W; Narovlyansky, Max; Whitesides, George M

    2010-02-21

    This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, microPEDs). The microPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g., carbon or Ag/AgCl). We demonstrated that the microPEDs are capable of quantifying the concentrations of various analytes (e.g., heavy-metal ions and glucose) in aqueous solutions. This low-cost analytical device should be useful for applications in public health, environmental monitoring, and the developing world. PMID:20126688

  15. All polymer photovoltaics: From small inverted devices to large roll-to-roll coated and printed solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Zhao, Xingang; Andreasen, Birgitta; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Helgesen, Martin; Norrman, Kion; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Inverted all polymer solar cells based on a blend of a perylene diimide based polymer acceptor and a dithienosilole based polymer donor were fabricated from small area devices to roll-to-roll (R2R) coated and printed large area modules. The device performance was successfully optimized by using...

  16. DNA barcoding via counterstaining with AT/GC sensitive ligands in injection-molded all-polymer nanochannel devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco; Reisner, Walter;

    2013-01-01

    /or requirement of specialized facilities/skill-sets. In this article we show that nanochannel-based mapping can be performed in all polymer chips fabricated via injection molding: a fabrication process so inexpensive that the devices can be considered disposable. Fluorescent intensity variations can be obtained...

  17. Tuning the Morphology of All-Polymer OPVs through Altering Polymer–Solvent Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Pavlopoulou, Eleni

    2014-09-09

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. In this work, we investigated the effects of solvent(s)-polymer(s) interactions on the morphology of all-polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layers cast from cosolutions. We demonstrate that altering the interactions between the solvent and both the donor and acceptor polymers in the cosolution prior to film-casting induces different solid-state morphological characteristics that subsequently leads to differences in the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, was codissolved poly[[N,N\\'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-napthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5 ′-(2,2 ′-bithiophene)], P(NDI2OD-T2), or otherwise known as ActivInk N2200, in dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and xylene. According to the qualitative interaction map we propose, all three solvents exhibit favorable interactions with P3HT. The extent of incompatibility these solvents exhibit with P(NDI2OD-T2), however, varies, with xylene as the worst solvent for P(NDI2OD-T2) among those examined. Polymer-polymer interactions in xylene are, thus, more favorable compared to P(NDI2OD-T2)-xylene interactions. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements on the cast films suggest that this preferential affinity between the two polymers disrupts crystallization in the blends; P(NDI2OD-T2) crystallinity decreases and, concurrently, results in shorter P3HT coherence lengths. Significant mixing of the two polymers is also evidenced. OPVs comprising P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) active layers cast from xylene exhibit the best device characteristics compared to OPVs whose active layers are cast from di- or mono-chlorobenzene. We attribute the improved OPV performance for the xylene-cast active layer to the presence of a more intermixed network of nanocrystalline domains of the two polymers, which originates from the affinity of P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) in the parent cosolution.

  18. Breaking the barriers of all-polymer solar cells: Solving electron transporter and morphology problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna

    All-polymer solar cells (APSC) are a class of organic solar cells in which hole and electron transporting phases are made of conjugated polymers. Unlike polymer/fullerene solar cell, photoactive material of APSC can be designed to have hole and electron transporting polymers with complementary absorption range and proper frontier energy level offset. However, the highest reported PCE of APSC is 5 times less than that of polymer/fullerene solar cell. The low PCE of APSC is mainly due to: i) low charge separation efficiency; and ii) lack of optimal morphology to facilitate charge transfer and transport; and iii) lack of control over the exciton and charge transport in each phase. My research work is focused towards addressing these issues. The charge separation efficiency of APSC can be enhanced by designing novel electron transporting polymers with: i) broad absorption range; ii) high electron mobility; and iii) high dielectric constant. In addition to with the above parameters chemical and electronic structure of the repeating unit of conjugated polymer also plays a role in charge separation efficiency. So far only three classes of electron transporting polymers, CN substituted PPV, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derived polymers and rylene diimide derived polymers, are used in APSC. Thus to enhance the charge separation efficiency new classes of electron transporting polymers with the above characteristics need to be synthesized. I have developed a new straightforward synthetic strategy to rapidly generate new classes of electron transporting polymers with different chemical and electronic structure, broad absorption range, and high electron mobility from readily available electron deficient monomers. In APSCs due to low entropy of mixing, polymers tend to micro-phase segregate rather than forming the more useful nano-phase segregation. Optimizing the polymer blend morphology to obtain nano-phase segregation is specific to the system under study, time consuming, and not

  19. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. PMID:27131999

  20. Engineering Paper-Based Sensors for Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Robert J; Negrete, Oscar A; Van Rompay, Koen K

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Latin America and Southeast Asia has created an urgent need for new, simple, yet sensitive, diagnostic tests. We highlight recent work using paper-based sensors coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 to detect ZIKV RNA as a new approach to achieve rapid development and deployment of field-ready diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27255410

  1. A disposable power source in resource-limited environments: A paper-based biobattery generating electricity from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Kwan, Landen; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-11-15

    We report a novel paper-based biobattery which generates power from microorganism-containing liquid derived from renewable and sustainable wastewater which is readily accessible in the local environment. The device fuses the art of origami and the technology of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and has the potential to shift the paradigm for flexible and stackable paper-based batteries by enabling exceptional electrical characteristics and functionalities. 3D, modular, and retractable battery stack is created from (i) 2D paper sheets through high degrees of folding and (ii) multifunctional layers sandwiched for MFC device configuration. The stack is based on ninja star-shaped origami design formed by eight MFC modular blades, which is retractable from sharp shuriken (closed) to round frisbee (opened). The microorganism-containing wastewater is added into an inlet of the closed battery stack and it is transported into each MFC module through patterned fluidic pathways in the paper layers. During operation, the battery stack is transformed into the round frisbee to connect eight MFC modules in series for improving the power output and simultaneously expose all air-cathodes to the air for their cathodic reactions. The device generates desired values of electrical current and potential for powering an LED for more than 20min. PMID:27179134

  2. An all-polymer micropump based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and a polyurethane channel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    An all-polymer micropunlp was realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) as the active cODlponent. The pUlnping effect originated fronl an ac potential applied to an aSylnlnetric array of interdigitat.ed electrodes. The PEDT electrodes were fabricated using...... of t.he conducting polylner electrodes by an insulating polYlTIer layer prevented electrode break-down at the cost of puolping efficiency. Continuous punlping for 40 nlin at 20 fJ..,m s-l without detectable pump degradation was delTIOnstrated in this configuration....

  3. Fabrication of an all-polymer electrochemical sensor by using a one-step hot embossing procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Larsen, Niels Bent; Skaarup, Steen;

    2010-01-01

    We present a fast one-step hot embossing procedure for fabricating an all-polymer electrochemical sen¬sor based on a thin, conductive film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a few 100s of nano¬meters in thickness, polymerised on top of a non-conductive TOPAS® (Cyclic Olefin Copolymer) car...... electrodes was achieved by spatial separation (Fig. 1). Functionality of the electrochemical system was shown by amperometric detection of physiologically relevant glucose concentrations (0–10 mM)....

  4. Paper-Based Electrochemical Cell Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Min; Perry, Richard H.

    2015-08-01

    On-line coupling of electrochemistry (EC) to mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach for identifying intermediates and products of EC reactions in situ. In addition, EC transformations have been used to increase ionization efficiency and derivatize analytes prior to MS, improving sensitivity and chemical specificity. Recently, there has been significant interest in developing paper-based electroanalytical devices as they offer convenience, low cost, versatility, and simplicity. This report describes the development of tubular and planar paper-based electrochemical cells (P-EC) coupled to sonic spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (P-EC/SSI-MS). The EC cells are composed of paper sandwiched between two mesh stainless steel electrodes. Analytes and reagents can be added directly to the paper substrate along with electrolyte, or delivered via the SSI microdroplet spray. The EC cells are decoupled from the SSI source, allowing independent control of electrical and chemical parameters. We utilized P-EC/SSI-MS to characterize various EC reactions such as oxidations of cysteine, dopamine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and diphenyl sulfide. Our results show that P-EC/SSI-MS has the ability to increase ionization efficiency, to perform online EC transformations, and to capture intermediates of EC reactions with a response time on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. The short response time allowed detection of a deprotonated diphenyl sulfide intermediate, which experimentally confirms a previously proposed mechanism for EC oxidation of diphenyl sulfide to pseudodimer sulfonium ion. This report introduces paper-based EC/MS via development of two device configurations (tubular and planar electrodes), as well as discusses the capabilities, performance, and limitations of the technique.

  5. Portable bioactive paper-based sensor for quantification of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavruk, Murat; Ozalp, Veli Cengiz; Oktem, Hüseyin Avni

    2013-01-01

    A paper-based biosensor was developed for the detection of the degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides. The biosensor quantifies acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in a fast, disposable, cheap, and accurate format. We specifically focused on the use of sugar or protein stabilizer to achieve a biosensor with long shelf-life. The new biosensor detected malathion with a detection limit of 2.5 ppm in 5 min incubation time. The operational stability was confirmed by testing 60 days storage at 4°C when glucose was used as stabilizer. PMID:23971002

  6. Portable Bioactive Paper-Based Sensor for Quantification of Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kavruk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based biosensor was developed for the detection of the degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides. The biosensor quantifies acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in a fast, disposable, cheap, and accurate format. We specifically focused on the use of sugar or protein stabilizer to achieve a biosensor with long shelf-life. The new biosensor detected malathion with a detection limit of 2.5 ppm in 5 min incubation time. The operational stability was confirmed by testing 60 days storage at 4°C when glucose was used as stabilizer.

  7. Portable Bioactive Paper-Based Sensor for Quantification of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kavruk; Veli Cengiz Özalp; Hüseyin Avni Öktem

    2013-01-01

    A paper-based biosensor was developed for the detection of the degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides. The biosensor quantifies acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in a fast, disposable, cheap, and accurate format. We specifically focused on the use of sugar or protein stabilizer to achieve a biosensor with long shelf-life. The new biosensor detected malathion with a detection limit of 2.5 ppm in 5 min incubation time. The operational stability was confirmed by testing 60 days stor...

  8. All-Polymer Photovoltaic Devices of Poly(3-(4- n -octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Holcombe, Thomas W.

    2009-10-14

    (Graph Presented) The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) and 0.05 cm2/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC61BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene) phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  10. Paper-based ultracapacitors with carbon nanotubes-graphene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian, E-mail: lijian@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Brand, Cameron; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael, E-mail: lijian@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Sun, Jianwei; Reeves, Mark [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, a paper-based ultracapacitors were fabricated by the rod-rolling method with the ink of carbon nanomaterials, which were synthesized by arc discharge under various magnetic conditions. Composites of carbon nanostructures, including high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene flakes were synthesized simultaneously in a magnetically enhanced arc. These two nanostructures have promising electrical properties and synergistic effects in the application of ultracapacitors. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures and their thin films. The sheet resistance of the SWCNT and composite thin films was also evaluated by four-point probe from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature as low as 90 K. In addition, measurements of cyclic voltammetery and galvanostatic charging/discharging showed the ultracapacitor based on composites possessed a superior specific capacitance of up to 100 F/g, which is around three times higher than the ultracapacitor entirely fabricated with SWCNT.

  11. Paper-based ultracapacitors with carbon nanotubes-graphene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sun, Jianwei; Brand, Cameron; Shashurin, Alexey; Reeves, Mark; Keidar, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a paper-based ultracapacitors were fabricated by the rod-rolling method with the ink of carbon nanomaterials, which were synthesized by arc discharge under various magnetic conditions. Composites of carbon nanostructures, including high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene flakes were synthesized simultaneously in a magnetically enhanced arc. These two nanostructures have promising electrical properties and synergistic effects in the application of ultracapacitors. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures and their thin films. The sheet resistance of the SWCNT and composite thin films was also evaluated by four-point probe from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature as low as 90 K. In addition, measurements of cyclic voltammetery and galvanostatic charging/discharging showed the ultracapacitor based on composites possessed a superior specific capacitance of up to 100 F/g, which is around three times higher than the ultracapacitor entirely fabricated with SWCNT.

  12. 3D Printed Paper-Based Microfluidic Analytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a pump-free and lightweight analytical tool, paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs attract more and more interest. If the flow speed of μPAD can be programmed, the analytical sequences could be designed and they will be more popular. This reports presents a novel μPAD, driven by the capillary force of cellulose powder, printed by a desktop three-dimensional (3D printer, which has some promising features, such as easy fabrication and programmable flow speed. First, a suitable size-scale substrate with open microchannels on its surface is printed. Next, the surface of the substrate is covered with a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS to seal the micro gap caused by 3D printing. Then, the microchannels are filled with a mixture of cellulose powder and deionized water in an appropriate proportion. After drying in an oven at 60 °C for 30 min, it is ready for use. As the different channel depths can be easily printed, which can be used to achieve the programmable capillary flow speed of cellulose powder in the microchannels. A series of microfluidic analytical experiments, including quantitative analysis of nitrite ion and fabrication of T-sensor were used to demonstrate its capability. As the desktop 3D printer (D3DP is very cheap and accessible, this device can be rapidly printed at the test field with a low cost and has a promising potential in the point-of-care (POC system or as a lightweight platform for analytical chemistry.

  13. Optical mapping of single-molecule human DNA in disposable, mass-produced all-polymer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Peter Friis; Lopacinska-Jørgensen, Joanna; Nyvold Pedersen, Jonas; Tommerup, Niels; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Marie, Rodolphe; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate all-polymer injection molded devices for optical mapping of denaturation-renaturation (DR) patterns on long, single DNA-molecules from the human genome. The devices have channels with ultra-low aspect ratio, only 110 nm deep while 20 μm wide, and are superior to the silica devices used previously in the field. With these polymer devices, we demonstrate on-chip recording of DR images of DNA-molecules stretched to more than 95% of their contour length. The stretching is done by opposing flows Marie et al (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 4893-8). The performance is validated by mapping 20 out of 24 Mbp-long DNA fragments to the human reference genome. We optimized fabrication of the devices to a yield exceeding 95%. This permits a substantial economies-of-scale driven cost-reduction, leading to device costs as low as 3 USD per device, about a factor 70 lower than the cost of silica devices. This lowers the barrier to a wide use of DR mapping of native, megabase-size DNA molecules, which has a huge potential as a complementary method to next-generation sequencing.

  14. Influence of aggregation on the performance of all-polymer solar cells containing low-bandgap naphthalenediimide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Marcel; Roland, Steffen; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Stiller, Burkhard; Neher, Dieter [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Dolfen, Daniel; Scherf, Ullrich [Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Frisch, Johannes; Koch, Norbert [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio [Polyera Corporation, 8045 Lamon Avenue, Illinois 60077 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present efficient all-polymer solar cells comprising two different low-bandgap naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based copolymers as acceptors and regioregular P3HT as the donor. It is shown that these naphthalene copolymers have a strong tendency to preaggregate in specific organic solvents, and that preaggregation can be completely suppressed when using suitable solvents with large and highly polarizable aromatic cores. Organic solar cells prepared from such nonaggregated polymer solutions show dramatically increased power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.4%, which is mainly due to a large increase of the short circuit current. In addition, optimized solar cells show remarkable high fill factors of up to 70%. The analysis of the blend absorbance spectra reveals a surprising anticorrelation between the degree of polymer aggregation in the solid P3HT:NDI copolymer blends and their photovoltaic performance. Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements reveal important information on the blend morphology. It is shown that films with high degree of aggregation and low photocurrents exhibit large-scale phase-separation into rather pure donor and acceptor domains. It is proposed that, by suppressing the aggregation of NDI copolymers at the early stage of film formation, the intermixing of the donor and acceptor component is improved, thereby allowing efficient harvesting of photogenerated excitons at the donor-acceptor heterojunction. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Optical mapping of single-molecule human DNA in disposable, mass-produced all-polymer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate all-polymer injection molded devices for optical mapping of denaturation–renaturation (DR) patterns on long, single DNA-molecules from the human genome. The devices have channels with ultra-low aspect ratio, only 110 nm deep while 20 μm wide, and are superior to the silica devices used previously in the field. With these polymer devices, we demonstrate on-chip recording of DR images of DNA-molecules stretched to more than 95% of their contour length. The stretching is done by opposing flows Marie et al (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 4893–8). The performance is validated by mapping 20 out of 24 Mbp-long DNA fragments to the human reference genome. We optimized fabrication of the devices to a yield exceeding 95%. This permits a substantial economies-of-scale driven cost-reduction, leading to device costs as low as 3 USD per device, about a factor 70 lower than the cost of silica devices. This lowers the barrier to a wide use of DR mapping of native, megabase-size DNA molecules, which has a huge potential as a complementary method to next-generation sequencing. (paper)

  16. Study of all-polymer-based waveguide resonant gratings and their applications for optimization of second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated theoretically and experimentally the optical properties of all-polymer-based one-dimensional waveguide resonant gratings (WRGs) and their important applications for the optimization of second-harmonic generation (SHG). We first studied the basic theory of the resonant modes of a simple grating-coupled waveguide realized on a material possessing a low refractive index contrast. The optical properties of any WRG were numerically simulated by using the finite-difference time domain method, performed by commercial Lumerical software. The polymer-based surface relief gratings were fabricated on azopolymer Disperse Red 1-Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (DR1–PMMA) thin films by using the two-beam interference method and mass transport effect. Their experimental reflection spectra measured as a function of incident light wavelength are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We then demonstrated a first application of such a polymer-based WRG for nonlinear optics. Thanks to the strong local electrical field in the WRG, due to a guided-mode resonance condition, the SHG signal of an infrared light beam was strongly enhanced by a factor of 25 as compared to the result obtained in a sample without a grating. (paper)

  17. All-polymer bistable resistive memory device based on nanoscale phase-separated PCBM-ferroelectric blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2012-11-21

    All polymer nonvolatile bistable memory devices are fabricated from blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and n-type semiconducting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The nanoscale phase separated films consist of PCBM domains that extend from bottom to top electrode, surrounded by a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Highly conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) polymer electrodes are used to engineer band offsets at the interfaces. The devices display resistive switching behavior due to modulation of this injection barrier. With careful optimization of the solvent and processing conditions, it is possible to spin cast very smooth blend films (Rrms ≈ 7.94 nm) and with good reproducibility. The devices exhibit high Ion/I off ratios (≈3 × 103), low read voltages (≈5 V), excellent dielectric response at high frequencies (Ïμr ≈ 8.3 at 1 MHz), and excellent retention characteristics up to 10 000 s. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Low-cost fabrication of optical waveguides, interconnects and sensing structures on all-polymer-based thin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezem, Maher; Kelb, Christian; Günther, Axel; Rahlves, Maik; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    Micro-optical sensors based on optical waveguides are widely used to measure temperature, force and strain but also to detect biological and chemical substances such as explosives or toxins. While optical micro-sensors based on silicon technology require complex and expensive process technologies, a new generation of sensors based completely on polymers offer advantages especially in terms of low-cost and fast production techniques. We have developed a process to integrate micro-optical components such as embedded waveguides and optical interconnects into polymer foils with a thickness well below one millimeter. To enable high throughput production, we employ hot embossing technology, which is capable of reel-to-reel fabrication with a surface roughness in the optical range. For the waveguide fabrication, we used the thermoplastic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as cladding and several optical adhesives as core materials. The waveguides are characterized with respect to refractive indices and propagation losses. We achieved propagation losses are as low as 0.3 dB/cm. Furthermore, we demonstrate coupling structures and their fabrication especially suited to integrate various light sources such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED) into thin polymer foils. Also, we present a concept of an all-polymer and waveguide based deformation sensor based on intensity modulation, which can be fabricated by utilizing our process. For future application, we aim at a low-cost and high-throughput reel-to-reel production process enabling the fabrication of large sensor arrays or disposable single-use sensing structures, which will open optical sensing to a large variety of application fields ranging from medical diagnosis to automotive sensing.

  19. Polymer Acceptor Based on Double B←N Bridged Bipyridine (BNBP) Unit for High-Efficiency All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaojing; Ding, Zicheng; Dou, Chuandong; Zhang, Jidong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-08-01

    A novel polymer acceptor based on the double B←N bridged bipyridine building block is reported. All-polymer solar cells based on the new polymer acceptor show a power conversion efficiency of as high as 6.26% at a photon energy loss of only 0.51 eV. PMID:27167123

  20. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible...

  1. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  2. All-Polymer Solar Cell Performance Optimized via Systematic Molecular Weight Tuning of Both Donor and Acceptor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Li, Ting I N G; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Guo, Peijun; Liao, Hsueh-Chung; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the number-average molecular weight (Mn) on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of all-polymer solar cells (APSCs) fabricated with the donor polymer poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-1,3-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-5,5-(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thiophene)] (PTPD3T) and acceptor polymer poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2); N2200) is systematically investigated. The Mn effect analysis of both PTPD3T and N2200 is enabled by implementing a polymerization strategy which produces conjugated polymers with tunable Mns. Experimental and coarse-grain modeling results reveal that systematic Mn variation greatly influences both intrachain and interchain interactions and ultimately the degree of phase separation and morphology evolution. Specifically, increasing Mn for both polymers shrinks blend film domain sizes and enhances donor-acceptor polymer-polymer interfacial areas, affording increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc). However, the greater disorder and intermixed feature proliferation accompanying increasing Mn promotes charge carrier recombination, reducing cell fill factors (FF). The optimized photoactive layers exhibit well-balanced exciton dissociation and charge transport characteristics, ultimately providing solar cells with a 2-fold PCE enhancement versus devices with nonoptimal Mns. Overall, it is shown that proper and precise tuning of both donor and acceptor polymer Mns is critical for optimizing APSC performance. In contrast to reports where maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are achieved for the highest Mns, the present two-dimensional Mn optimization matrix strategy locates a PCE "sweet spot" at intermediate Mns of both donor and acceptor polymers. This study provides synthetic methodologies to predictably access conjugated polymers with desired Mn and highlights the importance of optimizing Mn for both polymer

  3. Bacteria-powered battery on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2014-12-21

    Paper-based devices have recently emerged as simple and low-cost paradigms for fluid manipulation and analytical/clinical testing. However, there are significant challenges in developing paper-based devices at the system level, which contain integrated paper-based power sources. Here, we report a microfabricated paper-based bacteria-powered battery that is capable of generating power from microbial metabolism. The battery on paper showed a very short start-up time relative to conventional microbial fuel cells (MFCs); paper substrates eliminated the time traditional MFCs required to accumulate and acclimate bacteria on the anode. Only four batteries connected in series provided desired values of current and potential to power an LED for more than 30 minutes. The battery featured (i) a low-cost paper-based proton exchange membrane directly patterned on commercially available parchment paper and (ii) paper reservoirs for holding the anolyte and the catholyte for an extended period of time. Based on this concept, we also demonstrate the use of paper-based test platforms for the rapid characterization of electricity-generating bacteria. This paper-based microbial screening tool does not require external pumps/tubings and represents the most rapid test platform (<50 min) compared with the time needed by using traditional screening tools (up to 103 days) and even recently proposed MEMS arrays (< 2 days). PMID:25363848

  4. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  5. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  6. A microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of metabolic biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhao, Martin M Thuo and Xinyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as simple yet powerful platforms for performing low-cost analytical tests. This paper reports a microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of physiologically relevant metabolic biomarkers. Different from existing paper-based electrochemical devices, our device includes an array of eight electrochemical sensors and utilizes a handheld custom-made electrochemical reader (potentiostat) for signal readout. The b...

  7. A microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of metabolic biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao, Martin M Thuo and Xinyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as simple yet powerful platforms for performing low-cost analytical tests. This paper reports a microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of physiologically relevant metabolic biomarkers. Different from existing paper-based electrochemical devices, our device includes an array of eight electrochemical sensors and utilizes a handheld custom-made electrochemical reader (potentiostat for signal readout. The biosensor array can detect several analytes in a sample solution and produce multiple measurements for each analyte from a single run. Using the device, we demonstrate simultaneous detection of glucose, lactate and uric acid in urine, with analytical performance comparable to that of the existing commercial and paper-based platforms. The paper-based biosensor array and its electrochemical reader will enable the acquisition of high-density, statistically meaningful diagnostic information at the point of care in a rapid and cost-efficient way.

  8. A microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of metabolic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Thuo, Martin M.; Liu, Xinyu

    2013-10-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as simple yet powerful platforms for performing low-cost analytical tests. This paper reports a microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of physiologically relevant metabolic biomarkers. Different from existing paper-based electrochemical devices, our device includes an array of eight electrochemical sensors and utilizes a handheld custom-made electrochemical reader (potentiostat) for signal readout. The biosensor array can detect several analytes in a sample solution and produce multiple measurements for each analyte from a single run. Using the device, we demonstrate simultaneous detection of glucose, lactate and uric acid in urine, with analytical performance comparable to that of the existing commercial and paper-based platforms. The paper-based biosensor array and its electrochemical reader will enable the acquisition of high-density, statistically meaningful diagnostic information at the point of care in a rapid and cost-efficient way.

  9. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  10. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  11. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  12. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis

  13. Laser manufacturing for multi-analyte paper-based diagnostic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Katis, I.N.; He, P.J.W.; Eason, R. W.; Sones, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    We present here our work on the fabrication of paper-based multiplexed diagnostic sensors, using direct-write laser-based processes (Laser Induced Forward Transfer and photo-polymerisation), for the detection of glucose and proteins (BSA).

  14. 78 FR 211 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures; Proposed Rule #0... Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order) is favored by manufacturers (domestic...

  15. Manufacturing and Characterization of Paper-Based Magnetic Coatings : Projects in Engineering and Science Summer 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steggeman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Employing paper as an engineering material is emerging in industry today. Paper-based technology has grown in the last several years. Current technology includes, but is not limited to, foldable paper microscopes, a disk jockey board made from paper, and interactive wallpapers and newspapers. In terms of magnetic paper-based devices, these systems are limited to the use of hard magnetic materials for bitwise writing and reading, and actuating. At the Institute ...

  16. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.middleton@roq.net.au; Bradford, C. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Frantzis, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Ambler, A. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Sisson, T. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Montgomerie, D. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Martin, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  17. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  18. Microfluidic paper-based biomolecule preconcentrator based on ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Il; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kwak, Rhokyun; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2016-06-21

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for molecular detection have great potential in the field of point-of-care diagnostics. Currently, a critical problem being faced by μPADs is improving their detection sensitivity. Various preconcentration processes have been developed, but they still have complicated structures and fabrication processes to integrate into μPADs. To address this issue, we have developed a novel paper-based preconcentrator utilizing ion concentration polarization (ICP) with minimal addition on lateral-flow paper. The cation selective membrane (i.e., Nafion) is patterned on adhesive tape, and this tape is then attached to paper-based channels. When an electric field is applied across the Nafion, ICP is initiated to preconcentrate the biomolecules in the paper channel. Departing from previous paper-based preconcentrators, we maintain steady lateral fluid flow with the separated Nafion layer; as a result, fluorescent dyes and proteins (FITC-albumin and bovine serum albumin) are continuously delivered to the preconcentration zone, achieving high preconcentration performance up to 1000-fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the Nafion-patterned tape can be integrated with various geometries (multiplexed preconcentrator) and platforms (string and polymer microfluidic channel). This work would facilitate integration of various ICP devices, including preconcentrators, pH/concentration modulators, and micro mixers, with steady lateral flows in paper-based platforms. PMID:27199301

  19. Thermoelectric battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery for the power supply of heart pacemakers consists of a cylindrical case with a thermoelectric module consisting of thermoelectric elements which are fastened to each other in the form of a thermal column and a heat source made of PU-238. In order to reduce the radial sensitivity to shocks of the battery, a spring cage is arranged around the heat source at the free end of the module. Cushioning against longitudinal shocks is provided by another spring. (DG)

  20. NOSTOS: a paper-based ubiquitous computing healthcare environment to support data capture and collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Magnus; Larsson, Anders; Eriksson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to clinical workplace computerization that departs from the window-based user interface paradigm. NOSTOS is an experimental computer-augmented work environment designed to support data capture and teamwork in an emergency room. NOSTOS combines multiple technologies, such as digital pens, walk-up displays, headsets, a smart desk, and sensors to enhance an existing paper-based practice with computer power. The physical interfaces allow clinicians to retain mobile paper-based collaborative routines and still benefit from computer technology. The requirements for the system were elicited from situated workplace studies. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of augmenting a paper-based clinical work environment. PMID:14728131

  1. Quantifying oxygen in paper-based cell cultures with luminescent thin film sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Matthew W; Kenney, Rachael M; Truong, Andrew S; Lockett, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for generating 3D tissue-like cultures because paper is readily available and does not require specialized equipment to pattern, cut, or use. By controlling the exchange of fresh culture medium with the paper-based scaffolds, we can engineer diffusion-dominated environments similar to those found in spheroids or solid tumors. Oxygen tension directly regulates cellular phenotype and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and also has chemotactic properties. To date, gradients of oxygen generated in the paper-based cultures have relied on cellular response-based readouts. In this work, we prepared a luminescent thin film capable of quantifying oxygen tensions in apposed cell-containing paper-based scaffolds. The oxygen sensors, which are polystyrene films containing a Pd(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin dye, are photostable, stable in culture conditions, and not cytotoxic. They have a linear response for oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 160 mmHg O2, and a Stern-Volmer constant (K sv) of 0.239 ± 0.003 mmHg O2 (-1). We used these oxygen-sensing films to measure the spatial and temporal changes in oxygen tension for paper-based cultures containing a breast cancer line that was engineered to constitutively express a fluorescent protein. By acquiring images of the oxygen-sensing film and the fluorescently labeled cells, we were able to approximate the oxygen consumption rates of the cells in our cultures. Graphical Abstract Schematic of a paper-based culture seeded with fluorescent cells, and an oxygen-sensitive film. PMID:26667655

  2. An Evaluation of a Language for Paper-based Form Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farruglia, Phillip; Borg, Johnathan; Camilleri, K.P.;

    2006-01-01

    Designers still sketch on paper to externalize their early form concepts. The user-interface of current Computer-Aided Geometric Modeling (CAGM) systems lacks the fluidity of sketching. Yet, such systems are still useful in conceptual design since they assist designers in visualizing an evolving...... between paper-based form sketching and CAGM systems. Evaluation results revealed that whilst PSL is easy-to-learn, yet it requires improvements. Such a sketching language contributes a step towards simulating early form design solutions by the combined use of paper-based sketches and 3D models....

  3. The Importance of Preserving Paper-Based Artifacts in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The preservation of paper-based artifacts is an essential issue for collection management in academic libraries. In recent years, the library science profession has often favored reformatting through microfilm or digitization, assuming too quickly that information matters, whereas an artifact's medium does not. However, much recent humanities…

  4. 78 FR 187 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... packaging, maintain and expand existing markets, and develop new markets and marketing strategies. These... January 2, 2013 Part III Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1222 Paper... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1222 RIN 0581-AD21 Paper and Paper-Based Packaging...

  5. Computer-Based vs Paper-Based Examinations: Perceptions of University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Mubashrah; Tariq, R. H.; Shami, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    This research reported teachers' perceptions about computer-based (CB) vs. paper-based (PB) examinations. Teachers were divided into 7 major categories i.e., gender, departments, designations, qualifications, teaching experiences, computer training certifications and CB examination experiences, which were the key factors to be observed and…

  6. 78 FR 57005 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... on January 2, 2013 (78 FR 188). That rule provided for a 60-day comment period which ended on March 4...-based packaging. Bleaching is the chemical processing of pulp to remove the natural brown color and thus... and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Proposed Rule...

  7. Laser-direct-write methods for fabrication of paper-based medical diagnostic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C. L.; Katis, I.N.; He, P.J.W.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser-based direct-write methods, namely laser-induced forward transfer and laser-induced photo-polymerization as printing and patterning tools for the fabrication of paper-based fluidic sensors that enable affordable point-of-care medical diagnostics

  8. A Comparison of Onscreen and Paper-Based Marking in the Hong Kong Public Examination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study comparing paper-based marking (PBM) and onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong utilising English language essay scripts drawn from the live 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE) Year 11 English Language Writing Paper. In the study, 30 raters from the 2007 HKCEE Writing Paper marked on paper 100…

  9. Laser-direct-write technique for rapid prototyping of multiplexed paper-based diagnostic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peijun; Katis, Ioannis; Eason, Robert; Sones, Collin

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful demonstration of a laser-based direct-write technique for patterning of various porous materials to fabricate more diversified and multifunctional paper-based microfluidic devices that find applications in affordable point-of-care medical diagnostics

  10. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical nano-immunesensing using origami paper based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Patterned paper has characteristics that lead to miniaturized assays that run by capillary action with small volumes of fluids. These methods suggest a path for the development of simple, inexpensive, and portable diagnostic assays that can be useful in remote settings, where simple immunoassays are becoming increasingly important for detecting disease and monitoring health. Incorporation of nanomaterials plays a major role in sensing probe immobilization and detection sensitivity of paper-based devices. Nanomaterial properties, such as increased surface area, have aided with signal amplification and lower detection limits. This review focuses on application of nanomaterials as signal amplification elements on origami paper-based electro-analytical devices for immune biomarkers detection with a brief introduction about various fabrication techniques and designs, biological and detection methods. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the selected latest research articles from 2013 to May 2015 on application of nanomaterials in various types of origami paper based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical immunosensors. The review breaks into two parts. The first part devotes to the development and applications of nanomaterials in electrochemical immunesensing. The second part provides an overview of recent origami paper based photoelectrochemical immunosensors. PMID:26838927

  11. Efficient all polymer solar cells employing donor polymer based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guanqun; Yuan, Jianyu; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zeke; Shi, Guozheng; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Jiexiong; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Ma, Wanli

    2015-11-01

    We reported all polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) employing BDT-based donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (PyTZ) (PBPT-8 and PBPT-12) as donor and NDI-based n-type polymer Poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) (N2200) as acceptor. The influence of thermal annealing on the performance of all-PSCs was systematically investigated and discussed. It was found that the pre-annealing of the active blend films could significantly improve the all-PSCs performance. Both PBPT-8/PBPT-12:N2200 systems can deliver promising PCEs (4.12% and 4.25%) at the optimal annealing temperature of 160 oC due to the promoted film quality and charge transport properties. Morphology investigation and carrier mobility measurements have been carried out to analyze the effect of thermal annealing. This study suggests that BDT-based polymer:N2200 systems can be promising candidates for all-PSCs, with thermal annealing as an effective approach to promote the device performance.

  12. Side Chain Engineering of Naphthalenediimide-Based N-type Polymer for High-Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell near 6% Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Wonho; Kim, Taesu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Woo, Han Young; Wang, Cheng; Kim, Bumjoon; Pusan National University (PNU) Collaboration; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Despite the attractive features of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), i.e., enhanced absorption coefficients, the tunability of their energetic and chemical properties and their thermal and mechanical stabilities, they still face the great challenge of having significantly low power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of only 3-5%. The prominent origins of the poor efficiency of all-PSCs are the undesirable features of the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) blend morphology including the phase-separated large-scale domain size, reduced ordering of the polymer chains. Tuning side alkyl chains of conjugated polymers is an effective route for manipulating the blend morphology in BHJ type solar cells. However, the role of side chains in all-PSCs is poorly understood. Herein, we report high-performing all-PSCs with 5.96% efficiency by developing a series of naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors with different alkyl side chains. We demonstrated that the use of the PNDIT with hexyldecyl side chains produced highly-ordered polymer stackings with strong face-on geometry and at the same time, forming the optimal BHJ morphology with finely separated phase domains, all of which contributed together to induce well-balanced μe/ μh ratio and generate efficient all-PSCs with PCEs near 6%.

  13. The Synergy of Paper-Based and Digital Material for Ubiquitous Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Leone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods has allowed for access to ubiquitous global connections and to a large number of resources available to foreign language students at all age and levels of schooling. Further, the combination of traditional paper-based learning material with digital one in a ubiquitous learning environment may offer great innovation in the delivery of education, to foster a student-centred approach, and to accommodate the needs of ubiquitous learners’ personal lifestyles. In this direction, research has increasingly emphasised the importance of a technology-enhanced rather than technology-driven learning approach. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integration of paper-based and digital material through Quick Response (QR code for ubiquitous English language learners in three different scenarios. Results show that, despite some difficulties, flexibility and personalisation of learning have been perceived as an asset.

  14. Comparing the security risks of paper-based and computerized patient record systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Meissner, Marion C.; Tohme, Walid G.; Winchester, James F.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    How should hospital administrators compare the security risks of paper-based and computerized patient record systems. There is a general tendency to assume that because computer networks potentially provide broad access to hospital archives, computerized patient records are less secure than paper records and increase the risk of breaches of patient confidentiality. This assumption is ill-founded on two grounds. Reasons exist to say that the computerized patient record provides better access to patient information while enhancing overall information system security. A range of options with different trade-offs between access and security exist in both paper-based and computerized records management systems. The relative accessibility and security of any particular patient record management system depends, therefore, on administrative choice, not simply on the intrinsic features of paper or computerized information management systems.

  15. Transformation of paper-based occupational therapy assessment forms to a digital format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Bangsgaard; Lunn, Tine Bieber Kirkegaard; Helle, Tina;

    2016-01-01

    Background The growing digitalization process serves to modernize the health care systems, to improve documentation and the efficiency of the public sector. Consequently, the adoption of digitalization at large is critical for the development of occupational therapy (OT). Yet, most OT assessment...... forms are paper-based. The aim is to describe the process of transforming the paper-based Housing Enabler (HE) rating forms into a HE application (app) available on a tablet. Method The transformation process was conducted in two steps 1.Development: A participatory design, involving several workshops...... photo documentation and an easy overview of the accessibility score. To some OTs the tablet interfered with the relation to the client, whereas to other OTs the tablet increased the sense of professionalism. Still, there are technical challenges to overcome. Conclusion Digitalization of paper...

  16. Laser-assisted reduction of graphene oxide for paper based large area flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, E.; Andersson, H.; Engholm, M.; Forsberg, S.; Olin, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a promising method for fabrication of conductive tracks on paper based substrates by laser assisted reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO). Printed electronics on paper based substrates is be coming more popular due to lower cost and recyclability. Fabrication of conductive tracks is of great importance where metal, carbon and polymer inks are commonly used. An emerging option is reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), which can be a good conductor. Here we have evaluated reduction of GO by using a 532 nm laser source, showing promising results with a decrease of sheet resistance from >100 M Ω/Sqr for unreduced GO down to 126 Ω/Sqr. without any observable damage to the paper substrates.

  17. Rapid Detection of Transition Metals in Welding Fumes Using Paper-Based Analytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Cate, David M.; Nanthasurasak, Pavisara; Riwkulkajorn, Pornpak; L’Orange, Christian; Charles S. Henry; Volckens, John

    2014-01-01

    Metals in particulate matter (PM) are considered a driving factor for many pathologies. Despite the hazards associated with particulate metals, personal exposures for at-risk workers are rarely assessed due to the cost and effort associated with monitoring. As a result, routine exposure assessments are performed for only a small fraction of the exposed workforce. The objective of this research was to evaluate a relatively new technology, microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), fo...

  18. A Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device for Rapid Quantification of Particulate Chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanarat, Poomrat; Dungchai, Wijitar; Cate, David M.; Siangproh, Weena; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Charles S. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Occupational exposure to Cr is concerning because of its myriad of health effects. Assessing chromium exposure is also cost and resource intensive because the analysis typically uses sophisticated instrumental techniques like Inductively-Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Here, we report a novel, simple, inexpensive microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) for measuring total Cr in airborne particulate matter. In the µPAD, tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)) was used in a pretreatmen...

  19. High-Resolution Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Sub-Microliter Sample Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Tenda; Riki Ota; Kentaro Yamada; Terence G. Henares; Koji Suzuki; Daniel Citterio

    2016-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) suitable for the analysis of sub-microliter sample volumes. The wax-printing approach widely used for the patterning of paper substrates has been adapted to obtain high-resolution microfluidic structures patterned in filter paper. This has been achieved by replacing the hot plate heating method conventionally used to melt printed wax features into paper by simple hot lamination. This patterning techn...

  20. Quantification of Analyte Concentration from a Paper-Based Lateral Flow Assay Device Using Reflective Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Megan Z; Linnes, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is a growing field in global health due to the extreme portability, accuracy, affordability, and ease of use of these tests. Advancements in recent years have led to more accurate detection and improved functionality using multistep molecular diagnostics. Many such assays utilize lateral flow detection strips for visualization of diagnostic results by eye, which limits the results to qualitative Yes/No readouts. This project focused on combining rec...

  1. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904

  2. Paper-based flow fractionation system for preconcentration and field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokbin; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kim, Wonjung

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel paper-based flow fractionation system for preconcentration and field-flow fractionation. The paper fluidic system consisting of a straight channel connected with expansion regions can generate a fluid flow with a constant flow rate for 10 min without any external pumping devices. The flow bifurcates with a fraction ratio of up to 30 depending on the control parameters of the channel geometry. Utilizing this simple paper-based bifurcation system, we developed a continuous-flow preconcentrator and a field-flow fractionator on a paper platform. Our experimental results show that the continuous-flow preconcentrator can produce a 33-fold enrichment of the ion concentration and that the flow fractionation system successfully separates the charged dyes. Our study suggests simple, cheap ways to construct preconcentration and field-flow fractionation systems for paper-based microfluidic diagnostic devices. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (NRF-2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  3. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  4. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  5. Battery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System gives online and offline status of batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail.Continuous monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.Battery Monitoring System (BMS is a microprocessor based intelligent system capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the battery’s capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries.It continuously monitors each cell in the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure,identifies the net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

  6. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  7. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  8. Experimental and numerical studies on liquid wicking into filter papers for paper-based diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper-based diagnostics have shown promising potential applications in human disease surveillance and food safety analysis at the point-of-care (POC). The liquid wicking behavior in diagnostic fibrous paper plays an important role in development of paper-based diagnostics. In the current study, we performed experimental and numerical research on the liquid wicking height and mass with three width strips into filter paper. The effective porosity could be conveniently measured in the light of the linear correlation between wicking height and mass by the experimental system. A modified model with considering evaporation effect was proposed to predict wicking height and mass. The predicted wicking height and mass using the evaporation model was much closer to the experimental data compared with the model without evaporation. The wicking speed initially decreased significantly and then maintained at a constant value at lower level. The evaporation effect tends to reduce the wicking flow speed. More wicking mass could be obtained at larger strip width but the corresponding reagent loss became significant. The proposed model with evaporation paved a way to understanding the fundamental of fluid flow in diagnostic paper and was essential to provide meaningful and useful reference for the research and development of paper-based diagnostics devices. - Highlights: • A model with considering evaporation was proposed to predict wicking height and mass. • Flow characteristics of filter paper were experimentally and theoretically studied. • Effective porosity could be conveniently measured by the experimental platform. • The evaporation effect tended to reduce the wicking flow speed

  9. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:27185543

  10. Fabrication of digital microfluidic devices on flexible paper-based and rigid substrates via screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafia, Mohamed; Shukla, Saurabh; Najjaran, Homayoun

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a new fabrication method is presented for digital microfluidic (DMF) devices in which the electrodes are generated using the screen printing technique. This method is applicable to both rigid and flexible substrates. The proposed screen printing approach, as a batch printing technique, is advantageous to the widely reported DMF fabrication methods in terms of fabrication time, cost and capability of mass production. Screen printing provides an effective means for printing different types of conductive materials on a variety of substrates. Specifically, screen printing of conductive silver and carbon based inks is performed on paper, glass and wax paper. As a result, the fabricated DMF devices are characterized by being flexible, disposable and incinerable. Hence, the main advantage of screen printing carbon based inks on paper substrates is more pronounced for point-of-care applications that require a large number of low cost DMF chips, and laboratory setups that lack sophisticated microfabrication facilities. The resolution of the printed DMF electrodes generated by this technique is examined for proof of concept using manual screen printing, but higher resolution screens and automated machines are available off-the-shelf, if needed. Another contribution of this research is the improved actuation techniques that facilitate droplet transport in electrode configurations with relatively large electrode spacing to alleviate the disadvantage of lower resolution screens. Thus, we were able to reduce the cost of fabrication significantly without compromising the DMF performance. The paper-based devices have already shown to be effective in continuous microfluidics domain, so the investigation of their applicability in DMF systems is worthwhile. With this in mind, successful integration of a paper-based microchannel with paper-based digital microfluidic chip is demonstrated in this work.

  11. Laser direct write techniques for the fabrication of paper-based diagnostic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Katis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the use of laser direct-write techniques for the fabrication of point-of-care paper-based diagnostic sensors. These include laser-based deposition, laser ablation and laser-induced photo-polymerisation. Firstly, Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) was employed to deposit biomolecules from a donor film onto paper receivers. Paper was chosen as the ideal receiver because of its inherent properties which make it an efficient and suitable platform for point-of-care diagnostic s...

  12. A paper based microfluidic device for easy detection of uric acid using positively charged gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Hens, Abhiram; Arun, Ravi Kumar; Chatterjee, Monosree; Mahato, Kuldeep; Layek, Keya; Chanda, Nripen

    2015-03-21

    A paper based microfluidic device is fabricated that can rapidly detect very low concentrations of uric acid (UA) using 3,5,3',5'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), H2O2 and positively charged gold nanoparticles ((+)AuNPs). In the presence of (+)AuNPs, H2O2 reacts with TMB to produce a bluish-green colour which becomes colourless on reaction with UA. This colorimetric method can detect as low as 8.1 ppm of UA within <20 minutes on white filter paper. This technique provides an alternative way for UA detection. PMID:25655365

  13. Paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband fractal antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Two new designs, a miniaturised UWB monopole, which utilises a fractal matching network and is the smallest reported inkjet-printed UWB printed antenna to date, and a fourth-order Koch Snowflake monopole, which utilises a Sierpinski gasket fractal for ink reduction, are demonstrated. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication costs in inkjet-printed antennas, while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  14. Determination of Nitrite in Saliva using Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, Samir A.; Borba, Rubiane; Taba, Mario; Garcia, Carlos D.; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care platforms can provide fast responses, decrease the overall cost of the treatment, allow for in-home determinations with or without a trained specialist, and improve the success of the treatment. This is especially true for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPAD), which can enable the development of highly efficient and versatile analytical tools with applications in a variety of biomedical fields. The objective of this work was the development of μPADs to identify and...

  15. Impedimetric quantification of cells encapsulated in hydrogel cultured in a paper-based microchamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Huang, Chia-Hao; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-01-15

    Recently, 3D cell culture technique was proposed to provide a more physiologically-meaningful environment for cell-based assays. With the development of microfluidics technology, cellular response can be quantified by impedance measurement technique in a real-time and non-invasive manner. However, handling of these microfluidic systems requires a trained engineering personnel and the operation is not compatible to traditional biological research laboratories. In this work, we incorporated the impedance measurement technique to paper-based 3D cell culture model and demonstrated non-invasive quantification of cells encapsulated in hydrogel during the culture course. A cellulose filter paper was patterned with an array of circular microchambers. Cells were encapsulated in hydrogel and loaded to the microchambers for culturing cells in 3D environment. At the preset schedule during the culture course, the paper was placed on a glass substrate with measurement electrodes for the impedance measurement. Cells in each microchamber was represented by impedance magnitude and cell proliferation could be studied over time. Also, conventional bio-assay was performed to further confirm the feasibility of the impedimetric quantification of cells encapsulated in hydrogel cultured in the paper-based microchamber. This technique provides a convenient, fast, and non-invasive approach to monitor cells cultured in 3D environment. It has potential to be developed for routine 3D cell culture protocol in biological research laboratories. PMID:26592655

  16. Paper based platform for colorimetric sensing of dissolved NH3 and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zilberman, Yael; Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    Paper, a cheap and ubiquitous material, has great potential to be used as low-cost, portable and biodegradable platform for chemical and biological sensing application. In this paper, we are exploring a low-cost, flexible and reliable method to effectively pattern paper for capturing optical dyes and for flow-based delivery of target samples for colorimetric chemical sensing. In this paper, we target the detection of ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2), two of the important environmental and health biomarkers. By functionalizing the paper platform with diverse cross-reactive dyes sensitive to NH3 and CO2, their selective sensing within a certain pH range, as well as their detection at different concentrations can be achieved. The images of paper based device were captured by a flatbed scanner and processed in MATLAB(®) using a RGB model and PCA for quantitative analysis. Paper based devices with readout using ubiquitous consumer electronic devices (e.g. smartphones, flatbed scanner) are considered promising approaches for disease screening in developing countries with limited resources. PMID:25241151

  17. A Simple Paper-Based Colorimetric Device for Rapid Mercury(II) Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by mercury(II) ions (Hg(2+)) poses a serious threat to human health and ecosystems. Up to now, many reported Hg(2+) sensors require complex procedures, long measurement times and sophisticated instrumentation. We have developed a simple, rapid, low cost and naked-eye quantitative method for Hg(2+) environmental analysis using a paper-based colorimetric device (PCD). The sample solution to which platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been added is dispensed to the detection zone on the PCD, where the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate has been pre-loaded. The PtNPs effect a rapid oxidization of TMB, inducing blue colorization on the PCD. However, Hg(2+) in the solution rapidly interact with the PtNPs, suppressing the oxidation capacity and hence causing a decrease in blue intensity, which can be observed directly by the naked eye. Moreover, Hg(2+) at concentrations as low as 0.01 uM, can be successfully monitored using a fiber optic device, which gives a digital readout proportional to the intensity of the blue color change. This paper-based colorimetric device (PCD) shows great potential for field measurement of Hg(2+). PMID:27554633

  18. A paper-based cantilever array sensor: Monitoring volatile organic compounds with naked eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Lee, Hankeun; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) detection is critical for controlling industrial and commercial emissions, environmental monitoring, and public health. Simple, portable, rapid and low-cost VOC sensing platforms offer the benefits of on-site and real-time monitoring anytime and anywhere. The best and most practically useful approaches to monitoring would include equipment-free and power-free detection by the naked eye. In this work, we created a novel, paper-based cantilever sensor array that allows simple and rapid naked-eye VOC detection without the need for power, electronics or readout interface/equipment. This simple VOC detection method was achieved using (i) low-cost paper materials as a substrate and (ii) swellable thin polymers adhered to the paper. Upon exposure to VOCs, the polymer swelling adhered to the paper-based cantilever, inducing mechanical deflection that generated a distinctive composite pattern of the deflection angles for a specific VOC. The angle is directly measured by the naked eye on a 3-D protractor printed on a paper facing the cantilevers. The generated angle patterns are subjected to statistical algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA)) to classify each VOC sample and selectively detect a VOC. We classified four VOC samples with 100% accuracy using LDA. PMID:27343578

  19. A Simple Paper-Based Colorimetric Device for Rapid Mercury(II) Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by mercury(II) ions (Hg2+) poses a serious threat to human health and ecosystems. Up to now, many reported Hg2+ sensors require complex procedures, long measurement times and sophisticated instrumentation. We have developed a simple, rapid, low cost and naked-eye quantitative method for Hg2+ environmental analysis using a paper-based colorimetric device (PCD). The sample solution to which platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been added is dispensed to the detection zone on the PCD, where the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate has been pre-loaded. The PtNPs effect a rapid oxidization of TMB, inducing blue colorization on the PCD. However, Hg2+ in the solution rapidly interact with the PtNPs, suppressing the oxidation capacity and hence causing a decrease in blue intensity, which can be observed directly by the naked eye. Moreover, Hg2+ at concentrations as low as 0.01 uM, can be successfully monitored using a fiber optic device, which gives a digital readout proportional to the intensity of the blue color change. This paper-based colorimetric device (PCD) shows great potential for field measurement of Hg2+. PMID:27554633

  20. Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for directly detecting nucleic acids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis. PMID:26807518

  1. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  2. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-08-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  3. Mixed thread/paper-based microfluidic chips as a platform for glucose assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ariana; Estala, Lissette; Gaines, Michelle; Gomez, Frank A

    2016-07-01

    A novel microfluidic thread/paper-based analytical device (μTPAD) to detect glucose through a colorimetric assay is described. The μTPAD was fabricated from nylon thread trifurcated into three channels terminating at analysis sites comprised of circular zones of chromatography paper, which have previously been spotted with glucose of different concentrations. A solution of glucose oxidase (GOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and potassium iodide (KI) is transported via capillary action to the analysis sites where a yellow-brown color is observed indicating oxidation of iodide to iodine. The device was then dried, scanned, and analyzed yielding a correlation between yellow intensity and glucose concentrations. Both a flat platform constructed mainly of tape, and a cone platform constructed from tape and polyvinyl chloride, are described. Studies to quantitate glucose in artificial urine showed good correlation using the μTPAD. PMID:27060975

  4. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegoyen, Y; Nerín, C

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity of two active papers (based on solid and emulsion paraffin) with cinnamon essential oil was studied. Mushroom samples were introduced in macroperforated PET trays covered with the active papers, and weight loss and browning monitored for 9 days. The antioxidant capacity of the different papers was evaluated based on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, and the release of aromatic volatile oils was determined by HSPME-GC-MS. Differences in performance were observed: the active papers were more efficient at avoiding weight loss and mushroom browning when compared to the non-active paraffin-based papers. The efficiency increased when the bottom and walls of the trays were covered rather than the bottom alone. Better results were observed when cinnamon was incorporated as emulsion paraffin instead of a solid. PMID:25306314

  5. Low-cost rapid prototyping of flexible plastic paper based microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This research presents a novel rapid prototyping method for paper-based flexible microfluidic devices. The microchannels were fabricated using laser ablation on a piece of plastic paper (permanent paper), the dimensions of the microchannels was carefully studied for various laser powers and scanning speeds. After laser ablation of the microchannels on the plastic paper, a transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) film was thermally bonded to the plastic paper to enclose the channels. After connection of tubing, the device was ready to use. An example microfluidic device (droplet generator) was also fabricated using this technique. Due to the flexibility of the fabricated device, this technique can be used to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. The fabrication process was simple and rapid without any requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  7. Evaluation of enzyme immobilization methods for paper-based devices--A glucose oxidase study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-01-01

    Paper-based sensors gained almost explosive attention during the last few years. A large number of systems, often destined to resource limited settings is based on enzymatic reactions. Choice of an adequate immobilization method could significantly prolong the shelf-life of such sensors, especially in applications, where exposure to high temperatures during storage and transport is more than a threat. We are seeking to compare a variety of immobilization methods based on different phenomena (adsorption, entrapment in gel, microencapsulation, covalent linkage), with total of 33 methods tested. Glucose oxidase was used as a model enzyme. Enzymatic activity of immobilized samples was accompanied for a period of 24 weeks considering two sets of samples, one stored in 4 °C and other in ambient temperature. PMID:26498392

  8. The Effectiveness of Song Technique in Teaching Paper Based TOEFL (PBT’S Listening Comprehension Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Kuswoyo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT, many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT’s listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn language because music is a very powerful motivational tool for learning language. To reach the goal of this study, the researcher applied the grammar approach. It is an appropriate approach since the main idea of grammar-based listening exercises is to analyze the language by its components and reconstruct an incomplete text. Besides, the researcher employed an English song as the media the researcher uses the top- down model for the Listening Process.  In this research, the writer tries to share his experience in teaching listening in English department of Teknokrat College by implementing song technique.

  9. Glossiness of Colored Papers based on Computer Graphics Model and Its Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Teizo

    In the case of colored papers, the color of surface effects strongly upon the gloss of its paper. The new glossiness for such a colored paper is suggested in this paper. First, using the Achromatic and Chromatic Munsell colored chips, the author obtained experimental equation which represents the relation between lightness V ( or V and saturation C ) and psychological glossiness Gph of these chips. Then, the author defined a new glossiness G for the colored papers, based on the above mentioned experimental equations Gph and Cook-Torrance's reflection model which are widely used in the filed of Computer Graphics. This new glossiness is shown to be nearly proportional to the psychological glossiness Gph. The measuring system for the new glossiness G is furthermore descrived. The measuring time for one specimen is within 1 minute.

  10. Advances in Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Food and Water Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Shayne Alamo Busa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Food and water contamination cause safety and health concerns to both animals and humans. Conventional methods for monitoring food and water contamination are often laborious and require highly skilled technicians to perform the measurements, making the quest for developing simpler and cost-effective techniques for rapid monitoring incessant. Since the pioneering works of Whitesides’ group from 2007, interest has been strong in the development and application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs for food and water analysis, which allow easy, rapid and cost-effective point-of-need screening of the targets. This paper reviews recently reported μPADs that incorporate different detection methods such as colorimetric, electrochemical, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and electrochemiluminescence techniques for food and water analysis.

  11. A fluorometric paper-based sensor array for the discrimination of heavy-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Li, Hui; Niu, Li-Ya; Guan, Ying-Shi; Duan, Chun-Feng; Guan, Ya-Feng; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2013-04-15

    A fluorometric paper-based sensor array has been developed for the sensitive and convenient determination of seven heavy-metal ions at their wastewater discharge standard concentrations. Combining with nine cross-reactive BODIPY fluorescent indicators and array technologies-based pattern-recognition, we have obtained the discrimination capability of seven different heavy-metal ions at their wastewater discharge standard concentrations. After the immobilization of indicators and the enrichment of analytes, identification of the heavy-metal ions was readily acquired using a standard chemometric approach. Clear differentiation among heavy-metal ions as a function of concentration was also achieved, even down to 10(-7)M. A semi-quantitative estimation of the heavy-metal ion concentration was obtained by comparing color changes with a set of known concentrations. The sensor array was tentatively investigated in spiked tap water and sea water, and showed possible feasibility for real sample testing. PMID:23601876

  12. A Paper-Based "Pop-up" Electrochemical Device for Analysis of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chung; Hennek, Jonathan W; Ainla, Alar; Kumar, Ashok A; Lan, Wen-Jie; Im, Judy; Smith, Barbara S; Zhao, Mengxia; Whitesides, George M

    2016-06-21

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a "pop-up" electrochemical paper-based analytical device (pop-up-EPAD) to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)-a biomarker for diabetic ketoacidosis-using a commercial combination BHB/glucometer. Pop-up-EPADs are inspired by pop-up greeting cards and children's books. They are made from a single sheet of paper folded into a three-dimensional (3D) device that changes shape, and fluidic and electrical connectivity, by simply folding and unfolding the structure. The reconfigurable 3D structure makes it possible to change the fluidic path and to control timing; it also provides mechanical support for the folded and unfolded structures that enables good registration and repeatability on folding. A pop-up-EPAD designed to detect BHB shows performance comparable to commercially available plastic test strips over the clinically relevant range of BHB in blood when used with a commercial glucometer that integrates the ability to measure glucose and BHB (combination BHB/glucometer). With simple modifications of the electrode and the design of the fluidic path, the pop-up-EPAD also detects BHB in buffer using a simple glucometer-a device that is more available than the combination BHB/glucometer. Strategies that use a "3D pop-up"-that is, large-scale changes in 3D structure and fluidic paths-by folding/unfolding add functionality to EPADs (e.g., controlled timing, fluidic handling and path programming, control over complex sequences of steps, and alterations in electrical connectivity) and should enable the development of new classes of paper-based diagnostic devices. PMID:27243791

  13. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition. PMID:25144164

  14. Flexible and printable paper-based strain sensors for wearable and large-area green electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinqin; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Qingliang; Liang, Qijie; Ou, Yang; Xu, Minxuan; Li, Minghua; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based (PB) green electronics is an emerging and potentially game-changing technology due to ease of recycling/disposal, the economics of manufacture and the applicability to flexible electronics. Herein, new-type printable PB strain sensors (PPBSSs) from graphite glue (graphite powder and methylcellulose) have been fabricated. The graphite glue is exposed to thermal annealing to produce surface micro/nano cracks, which are very sensitive to compressive or tensile strain. The devices exhibit a gauge factor of 804.9, response time of 19.6 ms and strain resolution of 0.038%, all performance indicators attaining and even surpassing most of the recently reported strain sensors. Due to the distinctive sensing properties, flexibility and robustness, the PPBSSs are suitable for monitoring of diverse conditions such as structural strain, vibrational motion, human muscular movements and visual control.Paper-based (PB) green electronics is an emerging and potentially game-changing technology due to ease of recycling/disposal, the economics of manufacture and the applicability to flexible electronics. Herein, new-type printable PB strain sensors (PPBSSs) from graphite glue (graphite powder and methylcellulose) have been fabricated. The graphite glue is exposed to thermal annealing to produce surface micro/nano cracks, which are very sensitive to compressive or tensile strain. The devices exhibit a gauge factor of 804.9, response time of 19.6 ms and strain resolution of 0.038%, all performance indicators attaining and even surpassing most of the recently reported strain sensors. Due to the distinctive sensing properties, flexibility and robustness, the PPBSSs are suitable for monitoring of diverse conditions such as structural strain, vibrational motion, human muscular movements and visual control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02172g

  15. Validation of a Low-Cost Paper-Based Screening Test for Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Z Piety

    Full Text Available The high childhood mortality and life-long complications associated with sickle cell anemia (SCA in developing countries could be significantly reduced with effective prophylaxis and education if SCA is diagnosed early in life. However, conventional laboratory methods used for diagnosing SCA remain prohibitively expensive and impractical in this setting. This study describes the clinical validation of a low-cost paper-based test for SCA that can accurately identify sickle trait carriers (HbAS and individuals with SCA (HbSS among adults and children over 1 year of age.In a population of healthy volunteers and SCA patients in the United States (n = 55 the test identified individuals whose blood contained any HbS (HbAS and HbSS with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both visual evaluation and automated analysis, and detected SCA (HbSS with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for visual evaluation and 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for automated analysis. In a population of post-partum women (with a previously unknown SCA status at a primary obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola (n = 226 the test identified sickle cell trait carriers with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity using visual evaluation (none of the women had SCA. Notably, our test permits instrument- and electricity-free visual diagnostics, requires minimal training to be performed, can be completed within 30 minutes, and costs about $0.07 in test-specific consumable materials.Our results validate the paper-based SCA test as a useful low-cost tool for screening adults and children for sickle trait and disease and demonstrate its practicality in resource-limited clinical settings.

  16. A comparison of smartphones to paper-based questionnaires for routine influenza sentinel surveillance, Kenya, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Njuguna, Henry N.; Caselton, Deborah L; Arunga, Geoffrey O; Gideon O Emukule; Kinyanjui, Dennis K; Kalani, Rosalia M; Kinkade, Carl; Muthoka, Phillip M; Katz, Mark A.; Mott, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For disease surveillance, manual data collection using paper-based questionnaires can be time consuming and prone to errors. We introduced smartphone data collection to replace paper-based data collection for an influenza sentinel surveillance system in four hospitals in Kenya. We compared the quality, cost and timeliness of data collection between the smartphone data collection system and the paper-based system. Methods Since 2006, the Kenya Ministry of Health (MoH) with technical...

  17. Collecting battery data with Open Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth L.; Harrison, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have collected so far and make some observations. We then introduce the fluid queue model which we hope may prove a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces.

  18. Paper-based microfluidic devices for analysis of clinically relevant analytes present in urine and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasner, Scott A; Price, Alexander K; Hoeman, Kurt W; Wilson, Rashaun S; Bell, Kayla J; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2010-07-01

    We report the use of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated from a novel polymer blend for the monitoring of urinary ketones, glucose, and salivary nitrite. Paper-based devices were fabricated via photolithography in less than 3 min and were immediately ready for use for these diagnostically relevant assays. Patterned channels on filter paper as small as 90 microm wide with barriers as narrow as 250 microm could be reliably patterned to permit and block fluid wicking, respectively. Colorimetric assays for ketones and nitrite were adapted from the dipstick format to this paper microfluidic chip for the quantification of acetoacetate in artificial urine, as well as nitrite in artificial saliva. Glucose assays were based on those previously demonstrated (Martinez et al., Angew Chem Int Ed 8:1318-1320, 1; Martinez et al., Anal Chem 10:3699-3707, 2; Martinez et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 50:19606-19611, 3; Lu et al., Electrophoresis 9:1497-1500, 4; Abe et al., Anal Chem 18:6928-6934, 5). Reagents were spotted on the detection pad of the paper device and allowed to dry prior to spotting of samples. The ketone test was a two-step reaction requiring a derivitization step between the sample spotting pad and the detection pad, thus for the first time, confirming the ability of these paper devices to perform online multi-step chemical reactions. Following the spotting of the reagents and sample solution onto the paper device and subsequent drying, color images of the paper chips were recorded using a flatbed scanner, and images were converted to CMYK format in Adobe Photoshop CS4 where the intensity of the color change was quantified using the same software. The limit of detection (LOD) for acetoacetate in artificial urine was 0.5 mM, while the LOD for salivary nitrite was 5 microM, placing both of these analytes within the clinically relevant range for these assays. Calibration curves for urinary ketone (5 to 16 mM) and salivary nitrite (5 to 2,000 microM) were

  19. University Students' Perceptions of Web-Based vs. Paper-Based Homework in a General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Neset

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine students' perceptions toward web-based versus paper-based homework and identify any differences based on homework performance score and grade point average. A 21-item perception of online vs. paper-based homework survey was administered to 103 students (54 were male and 49 were female) in general…

  20. Paper-based microreactor array for rapid screening of cell signaling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Hao; Lei, Kin Fong; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of cell signaling pathways is important for the study of pathogenesis of cancer. However, the related operations used in these studies are time consuming and labor intensive. Thus, the development of effective therapeutic strategies may be hampered. In this work, gel-free cell culture and subsequent immunoassay has been successfully integrated and conducted in a paper-based microreactor array. Study of the activation level of different kinases of cells stimulated by different conditions, i.e., IL-6 stimulation, starvation, and hypoxia, was demonstrated. Moreover, rapid screening of cell signaling cascades after the stimulations of HGF, doxorubicin, and UVB irradiation was respectively conducted to simultaneously screen 40 kinases and transcription factors. Activation of multi-signaling pathways could be identified and the correlation between signaling pathways was discussed to provide further information to investigate the entire signaling network. The present technique integrates most of the tedious operations using a single paper substrate, reduces sample and reagent consumption, and shortens the time required by the entire process. Therefore, it provides a first-tier rapid screening tool for the study of complicated signaling cascades. It is expected that the technique can be developed for routine protocol in conventional biological research laboratories. PMID:27377153

  1. Paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Liu, Yi-Ju; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell separation is among the most useful techniques in biochemical research, diagnosis and various industrial applications. Microalgae species have great economic importance as industrial raw materials. Microalgae species collected from environment are typically a mixed and heterogeneous population of species that must be isolated and purified for examination and further application. Conventional methods, such as serial dilution and a streaking-plate method, are intensive of labor and inefficient. We developed a paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga. The fabrication was simply conducted with a common laser printer and required only a few minutes without lithographic instruments and clean-room. The driving force of the paper device was simple capillarity without a complicated pump connection that is part of most devices for microfluidics. The open-structure design of the paper device makes it operable with a common laboratory micropipette for sample transfer and manipulation with a naked eye or adaptable to a robotic system with functionality of high-throughput retrieval and analysis. The efficiency of isolating a single cell from mixed microalgae species is seven times as great as with a conventional method involving serial dilution. The paper device can serve also as an incubator for microalgae growth on simply rinsing the paper with a growth medium. Many applications such as highly expressed cell selection and various single-cell analysis would be applicable. PMID:26459444

  2. High-Resolution Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Sub-Microliter Sample Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Tenda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs suitable for the analysis of sub-microliter sample volumes. The wax-printing approach widely used for the patterning of paper substrates has been adapted to obtain high-resolution microfluidic structures patterned in filter paper. This has been achieved by replacing the hot plate heating method conventionally used to melt printed wax features into paper by simple hot lamination. This patterning technique, in combination with the consideration of device geometry and the influence of cellulose fiber direction in filter paper, led to a model µPAD design with four microfluidic channels that can be filled with as low as 0.5 µL of liquid. Finally, the application to a colorimetric model assay targeting total protein concentrations is shown. Calibration curves for human serum albumin (HSA were recorded from sub-microliter samples (0.8 µL, with tolerance against ±0.1 µL variations in the applied liquid volume.

  3. Direct writing electrodes using a ball pen for paper-based point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zedong; Li, Fei; Hu, Jie; Wee, Wei Hong; Han, Yu Long; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-08-21

    The integration of paper with an electrochemical device has attracted growing attention for point-of-care testing, where it is of great importance to fabricate electrodes on paper in a low-cost, easy and versatile way. In this work, we report a simple strategy for directly writing electrodes on paper using a pressure-assisted ball pen to form a paper-based electrochemical device (PED). This method is demonstrated to be capable of fabricating electrodes on paper with good electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance, holding great potential to be employed in point-of-care applications, such as in human health diagnostics and food safety detection. As examples, the PEDs fabricated using the developed method are applied for detection of glucose in artificial urine and melamine in sample solutions. Furthermore, our developed strategy is also extended to fabricate PEDs with multi-electrode arrays and write electrodes on non-planar surfaces (e.g., paper cup, human skin), indicating the potential application of our method in other fields, such as fabricating biosensors, paper electronics etc. PMID:26079757

  4. Pressure-assisted low-temperature sintering for paper-based writing electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of preparing paper-based writing electronics, a kind of conductive pen was made with nano-silver ink as the conductive component and a rollerball pen as the writing implement. This was used to direct-write conductive patterns on Epson photo paper. In order to decrease the sintering temperature, pressure was introduced to enhance the driving forces for sintering. Compared with hot sintering without pressure, hot-pressure can effectively improve the conductivity of silver coatings, reduce the sintering time and thus improve productivity. Importantly, pressure can achieve a more uniform and denser microstructure, which increases the connection strength of the silver coating. At the optimum hot-pressure condition (sintering temperature 120 ° C/sintering pressure 25 MPa/sintering time 15 min), a typical measured resistivity value was 1.43 × 10−7 Ω m, nine greater than that of bulk silver. This heat treatment process is compatible with paper and does not cause any damage to the paper substrates. Even after several thousand bending cycles, the resistivity values of writing tracks by hot-pressure sintering stay almost the same (from 1.43 × 10−7 to 1.57 × 10−7 Ω m). The stability and flexibility of the writing circuits are good, which demonstrates the promising future of writing electronics. (paper)

  5. A paper based graphene-nanocauliflower hybrid composite for point of care biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S L; Bhargava, M; Sidhu, R; Kiernan-Lewis, J; Gomes, C; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2016-11-15

    We demonstrate the first report of graphene paper functionalized with fractal platinum nanocauliflower for use in electrochemical biosensing of small molecules (glucose) or detection of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy show that graphene oxide-coated nanocellulose was partially reduced by both thermal treatment, and further reduced by chemical treatment (ascorbic acid). Fractal nanoplatinum with cauliflower-like morphology was formed on the reduced graphene oxide paper using pulsed sonoelectrodeposition, producing a conductive paper with an extremely high electroactive surface area (0.29±0.13cm(2)), confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The platinum surface was functionalized with either glucose oxidase (via chitosan encapsulation) or a RNA aptamer (via covalent linking) for demonstration as a point of care biosensor. The detection limit for both glucose (0.08±0.02μM) and E. coli O157:H7 (≈4 CFUmL(-1)) were competitive with, or superior to, previously reported devices in the biosensing literature. The response time (6s for glucose and 12min for E. coli) were also similar to silicon biochip and commercial electrode sensors. The results demonstrate that the nanocellulose-graphene-nanoplatinum material is an excellent paper-based platform for development of electrochemical biosensors targeting small molecules or whole cells for use in point of care biosensing. PMID:27209574

  6. DEACIDIFICATION FOR THE CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF PAPER-BASED WORKS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Baty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Embrittlement threatens the useful lifetime of books, maps, manuscripts, and works of art on paper during storage, circulation, and display in libraries, museums, and archives. Past studies have traced much of the embrittlement to the Brønsted-acidic conditions under which printing papers have been made, especially during the period between the mid 1800s to about 1990. This article reviews measures that conservators and collection managers have taken to reduce the acidity of books and other paper-based materials, thereby decreasing the rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and other changes leading to embrittlement. Technical challenges include the selection of an alkaline additive, selecting and implementing a way to distribute this alkaline substance uniformly in the sheet and bound volumes, avoiding excessively high pH conditions, minimizing the rate of loss of physical properties such as resistance to folding, and avoiding any conditions that cause evident damage to the documents one is trying to preserve. Developers have achieved considerable progress, and modern librarians and researchers have many procedures from which to choose as a starting point for further developments.

  7. Chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-06-14

    We developed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in natural water. The μPAD consisted of ten reaction zones and ten detection zones connected through narrow channels to a sample zone located at the center. Buffer solutions with a pH of 10 or 13 were applied to all surfaces of the channels and zones. Different amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the reaction zones and a consistent amount of a metal indicator (Eriochrome Black T or Calcon) was added to the detection zones. The total concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (total hardness) in the water were measured using a μPAD containing a buffer solution with a pH of 10, whereas only Ca(2+) was titrated using a μPAD prepared with a potassium hydroxide solution with a pH of 13. The μPADs permitted the determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in mineral water, river water, and seawater samples within only a few minutes using only the naked eye-no need of instruments. PMID:27181645

  8. Determination of Apparent Amylose Content in Rice by Using Paper-Based Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianqiao; Lu, Lin; Fang, Changyun; Duan, Binwu; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-11-11

    Determination of apparent amylose content in rice is a key function for rice research and the rice industry. In this paper, a novel approach with paper-based microfluidic chip is reported to determine apparent amylose content in rice. The conventional color reaction between amylose and iodine was employed. Blue color of amylose-iodine complex generated on-chip was converted to gray and measured with Photoshop after the colored chip was scanned. The method for preparation of the paper chip is described. In situ generation of iodine for on-chip color reaction was designed, and factors influencing color reaction were investigated in detail. Elimination of yellow color interference of excess iodine by exploiting color removal function of Photoshop was presented. Under the optimized conditions, apparent amylose content in rice ranging from 1.5 to 26.4% can be determined, and precision was 6.3%. The analytical results obtained with the developed approach were in good agreement with those with the continuous flow analyzer method. PMID:26495809

  9. Paper-based membraneless hydrogen peroxide fuel cell prepared by micro-fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Ehteshami, Seyyed Mohsen; Asadnia, Mohsen; Tan, Swee Ngin; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A paper-based membraneless single-compartment hydrogen peroxide power source prepared by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is reported. The cell utilizes hydrogen peroxide as both fuel and oxidant in a low volume cell fabricated on paper. The fabrication method used is a simple method where precise, small-sized patterns are produced which include the hydrophilic paper bounded by hydrophobic resin. Open circuit potentials of 0.61 V and 0.32 V are achieved for the cells fabricated with Prussian Blue as the cathode and aluminium/nickel as the anode materials, respectively. The power produced by the cells is 0.81 mW cm-2 at 0.26 V and 0.38 mW cm-2 at 0.14 V, respectively, even after the cell is bent or distorted. Such a fuel cell provides an easily fabricated, environmentally friendly, flexible and cost saving power source. The cell may be integrated within a self-sustained diagnostic system to provide the on-demand power for future bio-sensing applications.

  10. Electrochemical detection in paper-based analytical devices using microwire electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jaclyn A; Henry, Charles S

    2015-09-01

    Microwire electrodes are presented as an alternative to screen-printed electrodes for detection in electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). Compared to carbon ink electrodes, microwire electrodes offer lower resistance and a significant increase in current density relative to carbon ink electrodes. Various microwire compositions and diameters, including 30 μm Pt, 25 μm Au, 18 μm Pt with 8% W, and 15 μm Pt with 20% Ir, were tested and compared to theoretically predicted behavior. The measured current in static solution was below predicted levels for cylindrical microelectrodes but greater than levels predicted for hemi-cylindrical electrodes most likely as a result of the proximity of the electrode to the paper surface. Furthermore, the current response was indicative of semi-thin layer behavior, likely due to the confined solution volume in the paper. After electrode characterization, a device was developed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose, fructose, and sucrose using a Cu electrode in alkaline solution. The limits of detection for glucose, fructose, and sucrose were 270 nM, 340 nM, and 430 nM, respectively, which are significantly below sugar concentrations found in sweetened beverages or glucose levels in serum. PMID:26388383

  11. Aggregation-induced emissive nanoparticles for fluorescence signaling in a low cost paper-based immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jan F; Roose, Jesse; Zhai, Demi Shuang; Yip, Ka Man; Lee, Mei Suet; Tang, Ben Zhong; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    Low cost paper based immunoassays are receiving interest due to their fast performance and small amounts of biomolecules needed for developing an immunoassay complex. In this work aggregation-induced emissive (AIE) nanoparticles, obtained from a diastereoisomeric mixture of 1,2-di-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-diphenylethene (TPEDH) in a one-step top-down method, are characterized through Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Zeta potential. By measuring the Zeta potential before and after labeling the nanoparticles with antibodies we demonstrate that the colloidal system is stable in a wide pH-range. The AIE-active nanoparticles are deposited on chitosan and glutaraldehyde modified paper pads overcoming the common aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect. Analyte concentrations from 1000ng and below are applied in a model immunocomplex using Goat anti-Rabbit IgG and Rabbit IgG. In the range of 7.81ng-250ng, linear trends with a high R(2) are observed, which leads to a strong increase of the blue fluorescence from the TPEDH nanoparticles. PMID:27037781

  12. Raman Characterization of Nanoparticle Transport in Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices (μPADs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Rebecca Halvorson; Wallace, Grant C; Vikesland, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    There is great interest in the use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for low-cost diagnostics. In this contribution, we illustrate the utility of Raman spectral imaging for both μPAD characterization and for quantification of the transport of applied reagents and analytes within these devices. We evaluated the transport of nanoscale particles within μPADs using a suite of differentially functionalized gold (AuNP) and silver (AgNP) nanoparticles with diameters of 8-64 nm. Nanoparticle transport within the cellulose matrix was characterized by collection of both Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectral maps that enabled differentiation of cellulose fibers and characterization of analyte deposition patterns. The transport of citrate (cit), BSA, PEG, PVP, and DNA functionalized AuNP and AgNP in wax-printed μPADs was primarily affected by nanoparticle surface chemistry rather than particle size or core composition. Sample pH (3-10) influenced the transport of 15 nm BSA-cit-AuNP, but not 15 nm cit-AuNP, because of the effects of solution pH on the charge and conformation of BSA. Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory (DLVO) and extended DLVO (xDLVO) theory are used to explain the collected experimental results. PMID:25853463

  13. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  14. Alkaline quinone flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise Ann; Valle, Alvaro West; Hardee, D.; Gordon, Roy Gerald; Aziz, Michael J.; Marshak, M

    2015-01-01

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe f...

  15. Accuracy of open-source software segmentation and paper-based printed three-dimensional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to verify the accuracy of models created with the help of open-source Slicer 3.6.3 software (Surgical Planning Lab, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA) and the Mcor Matrix 300 paper-based 3D printer. Our study focused on the accuracy of recreating the walls of the right orbit of a cadaveric skull. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the skull was performed (0.25-mm pixel size, 0.5-mm slice thickness). Acquired DICOM data were imported into Slicer 3.6.3 software, where segmentation was performed. A virtual model was created and saved as an .STL file and imported into Netfabb Studio professional 4.9.5 software. Three different virtual models were created by cutting the original file along three different planes (coronal, sagittal, and axial). All models were printed with a Selective Deposition Lamination Technology Matrix 300 3D printer using 80 gsm A4 paper. The models were printed so that their cutting plane was parallel to the paper sheets creating the model. Each model (coronal, sagittal, and axial) consisted of three separate parts (∼200 sheets of paper each) that were glued together to form a final model. The skull and created models were scanned with a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner (Breuckmann smart SCAN) and were saved as .STL files. Comparisons of the orbital walls of the skull, the virtual model, and each of the three paper models were carried out with GOM Inspect 7.5SR1 software. Deviations measured between the models analysed were presented in the form of a colour-labelled map and covered with an evenly distributed network of points automatically generated by the software. An average of 804.43 ± 19.39 points for each measurement was created. Differences measured in each point were exported as a .csv file. The results were statistically analysed using Statistica 10, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. The average number of points created on models for each measurement was 804

  16. A paper based graphene-nanocauliflower hybrid composite for point of care biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S. L.; Sidhu, R.; Bhargava, M.; Kiernan-Lewis, J.; Schwalb, N.; Rong, Y.; Gomes, C.; Claussen, J.; Vanegas, D. C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene paper has diverse applications in printed circuit board electronics, bioassays, 3D cell culture, and biosensing. Although development of nanometal-graphene hybrid composites is commonplace in the sensing literature, to date there are only a few examples of nanometal-decorated graphene paper for use in biosensing. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of Pt nano cauliflower-functionalized graphene paper for use in electrochemical biosensing of small molecules (glucose, acetone, methanol) or detection of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to show that graphene oxide deposited on nanocellulose crystals was partially reduced by both thermal and chemical treatment. Fractal platinum nanostructures were formed on the reduced graphene oxide paper, producing a conductive paper with an extremely high electroactive surface area, confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To show the broad applicability of the material, the platinum surface was functionalized with three different biomaterials: 1) glucose oxidase (via chitosan encapsulation); 2) a DNA aptamer (via covalent linking), or 3) a chemosensory protein (via his linking). We demonstrate the application of this device for point of care biosensing. The detection limit for both glucose (0.08 +/- 0.02 μM) and E. coli O157:H7 (1.3 +/- 0.1 CFU mL-1) were competitive with, or superior to, previously reported devices in the biosensing literature. The response time (6 sec for glucose and 10 min for E. coli) were also similar to silicon biochip and commercial electrode sensors. The results demonstrate that the nanocellulose-graphene-nanoplatinum material is an excellent paper-based platform for development of electrochemical biosensors targeting small molecules or whole cells for use in point of care biosensing.

  17. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood. PMID:22094609

  18. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  19. Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Almeida, M Inês G S; McCullough, Michael J; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-01

    A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer. Due to the 2-step nature of the analytical reaction, the two paper layers are separated by a cellulose acetate interleaving sheet to allow for the reaction between the aldehydes in the saliva sample with MBTH to proceed first with the formation of an azine, followed by a blue coloured reaction between the azine and the oxidized by iron(III) form of MBTH, produced after the removal of the interleaving sheet. After obtaining a high resolution image of the detection side zone of the device using a flatbed scanner, the intensity of the blue colour within each detection zone is measured with Image J software. Under optimal conditions, the μPAD is characterised by a working range of 20.4-114.0 μM, limit of detection of 6.1 μM, and repeatability, expressed as RSD, of less than 12.7% (n = 5). There is no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the results obtained by the μPAD and the reference method (Student's t-test: 0.090 < 0.38). The optimized μPAD is stable for more than 41 days

  20. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuliang Wang; Peng Mao; Hu He

    2016-01-01

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing sys...

  1. Development of a Fax-Based System for Incorporating Nondigital Paper-Based Data into DICOM Imaging Examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rothpearl, Allen; Sanguinetti, Rafael; Killcommons, John

    2008-01-01

    We describe the development of software that allows and automates the routine inclusion of nondigital paper-based data directly into DICOM examinations. No human intervention is required. The software works by allowing the direct faxing of nondigital paper-based patient data directly into DICOM imaging examinations and is added as the first series in the examination. The software is effective in any typical PACS/DICOM server environment.

  2. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  3. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  4. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  5. Battery Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  6. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  7. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-01

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10-8 (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10-8 to 5.08 × 10-8 (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  8. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  9. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1... areas. (2) Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery and...

  10. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  11. Triboelectric effect as a new strategy for sealing and controlling the flow in paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Everson T S G; Santhiago, Murilo; de Souza, Fabrício R; Coltro, Wendell K T; Kubota, Lauro T

    2015-04-01

    We reported here for the first time that triboelectric charges on PET sheets can be used to seal and control the flow rate in paper-based devices. The proposed method exhibits simplicity and low cost, provides reversible sealing and minimizes the effect of sample evaporation. PMID:25686364

  12. Fabrication of a Paper-Based Microfluidic Device to Readily Determine Nitrite Ion Concentration by Simple Colorimetric Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices (µPAD) are a burgeoning platform of microfluidic analysis technology. The method described herein is for use in undergraduate and high school chemistry laboratories. A simple and convenient µPAD was fabricated by easy patterning of filter paper using a permanent marker pen. The usefulness of the device was…

  13. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. PMID:26763294

  14. Computer-Based and Paper-Based Reading Comprehension in Adolescents with Typical Language Development and Language-Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pradyumn; Gray, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the global expansion of technology, our reading platform has shifted from traditional text to hypertext, yet little consideration has been given to how this shift might help or hinder students' reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to compare reading comprehension of computer-based and paper-based texts in adolescents…

  15. Paper-Based and Computer-Based Concept Mappings: The Effects on Computer Achievement, Computer Anxiety and Computer Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…

  16. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  17. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  19. Lithium ion battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ► Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ► Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ► Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime

  20. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  1. Batteries in PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohedano Martínez, Javier Bernabé

    2011-01-01

    This report presents fundamentals of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) Systems,with an introduction on the PV Systems itself. This project is a compilation of information from several sources, including research reports and data from component manufacturers. Comparisons are given for various battery technologies, and considerations for battery subsystem design, auxiliary systems, maintenance and safety are discussed. Daily operatio...

  2. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  3. Nanotubes for Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlinder, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years, and are now also being considered for battery applications. Reducing the particle size of some electrode materials can increase battery performance considerably, especially with regard to capacity, power and rate capability. This thesis presents a study focused on the performance of such a material, vanadium oxide nanotubes, as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. These nanotubes were synthesized by a sol-gel process...

  4. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  5. The Effectiveness of Song Technique in Teaching Paper Based TOEFL (PBT)’S Listening Comprehension Section

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Kuswoyo

    2013-01-01

    Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT), many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT’s listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn language because music is a very powerful motivational tool for learning language. To reach the goal of this study, the researcher applied the gramma...

  6. Fabrication of paper-based devices by lacquer spraying method for the determination of nickel (II) ion in waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurak, Thara; Praphairaksit, Narong; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-30

    A spraying method with lacquer was developed for the fabrication of paper-based devices. A patterned iron mask was initially placed on a filter paper and held tightly attached by a magnetic plate placed on the opposite side. After that, acrylic lacquer was sprayed on the filter paper to create a hydrophobic area while the hydrophilic area was protected with the iron mask. The optimal conditions for the fabrication of this device were studied including lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper. Gloss spray lacquer and filter paper No. 4 were chosen as optimal lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper, respectively. To evaluate its efficiency, the paper-based devices were used to determine nickel using electrochemical detection. Cu-enhancer solution was employed to increase sensitivity of nickel determination with the optimal concentration of 4.5 ppm. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was observed in the range of 1-50 ppm with a coefficient of determination of 0.9971. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.5 and 1.97 ppm, respectively. Moreover, these paper-based devices coupled with electrochemical detection were applied to determine nickel in waste water of a jewelry factory and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that there were no significant variations between this proposed method (4.15±0.043 ppm) and the ICP-OES method (4.06±0.013 ppm). Therefore, this spraying method was found to be an excellent alternative for the fabrication of paper-based devices due to its ease of use, affordability and simplicity. PMID:23953473

  7. A simple paper-based sensor fabricated by selective wet etching of silanized filter paper using a paper mask

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Longfei; Xu, Chunxiu; Lin, ShuoHong; Luo, Jiating; Wu, Meidie; Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel strategy for fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) by selective wet etching of hydrophobic filter paper using a paper mask having a specific design. The fabrication process consists of two steps. First, the hydrophilic filter paper was patterned hydrophobic by using trimethoxyoctadecylsilane (TMOS) solution as the patterning agent. Next, a paper mask penetrated with NaOH solution (containing 30% glycerol) was aligned onto the hydrophobic filte...

  8. Development of a Whole Blood Paper-Based Device for Phenylalanine Detection in the Context of PKU Therapy Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Robinson; Liam Wong; Monnat, Raymond J.; Elain Fu

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory-based testing does not allow for the sufficiently rapid return of data to enable optimal therapeutic monitoring of patients with metabolic diseases such as phenylketonuria (PKU). The typical turn-around time of several days for current laboratory-based testing is too slow to be practically useful for effective monitoring or optimizing therapy. This report describes the development of a rapid, paper-based, point-of-care device for phenylalanine detection using a small volume (40 μL)...

  9. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  10. Dry release of all-polymer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefliger, D.; Nordstrøm, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Andreas;

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple dry release technique which uses a thin fluorocarbon film for efficient removal of plastic microdevices from a mould or a handling substrate by reducing the adhesion between the two. This fluorocarbon film is deposited on the substrate in an advanced Si dry etch device utilisi...... 100% were demonstrated on wafer-scale. The fluorocarbon film showed excellent compatibility with metal etch processes and polymer baking and curing steps. It further facilitates demoulding of polydimethylsiloxane stamps suitable for soft-lithography....

  11. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...... channel chip parts resulted from a separate injection molding process. The microfluidic chip part and the nanostructured chip part were successfully bonded to form a sealed microfluidic system using air plasma assisted thermal bonding....

  12. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-06-01

    Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.

  13. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  14. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  15. Isotope heated thermal batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deferred action thermal battery is described that includes a quantity of radioactive isotope normally positioned so that only a small part of the thermal energy generated by the isotope is received by the battery, but adapted, when the battery is rendered active, to be moved automatically to a position where a large part of the thermal energy is received. The battery may comprise a chamber containing its cells and a second chamber part of which is remote from the cells for normal storage of the isotope and part of which is adjacent to the cells; the isotope is moved to the latter part when the battery is activated. The cell chamber is preferably toroidal and surrounds the second portion of the isotope chamber. The isotope may be contained in a carriage held by a retaining means adapted for release when the battery is activated, resilient means then moving the carriage to the active position. The retaining means may be a wire that disintegrates on the passage of electric current, the current also igniting a combustible composition to activate the battery. The object is to provide thermal batteries having an extended life. (U.K.)

  16. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  17. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  18. Paper-based solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor using poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lou, Baohua; Lv, Zhaozi; Zhou, Zhixue; Zhang, Libing [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang, Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2013-02-06

    Highlights: ► Solid-state ECL sensor was introduced into paper-based chips for the first time. ► Composite film of functionalized graphene/Nafion was used for sensor fabrication. ► Excellent reproducibility and long-term stability were obtained for the sensor. ► Single-base mismatch detection in human urine was realized on paper-based chips. -- Abstract: Herein, highly efficient solid-state ECL sensor was introduced for the first time onto the screen printed electrodes of the paper-based chips (PCs) based on the composite film of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene (PSSG) and Nafion. Attributed to the cooperative characteristics of both PSS and graphene, PSSG ensured both effective Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} immobilization and fast electron transfer of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the composite film. The ECL behaviors at the developed sensor were investigated using tripropylamine as a representative analyte and low detection limit (S N{sup −1} = 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained. It also exhibited more excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviations of 0.63% for continuous 45 cycles) and long-term stability (∼80% of its initial ECL intensity could be retained over 3 months). More importantly, assisted by the developed ECL sensor, discrimination of 1.0 nM single-nucleotide mismatch in human urine matrix could be realized on the PCs for the first attempt. Thus, the developed sensor was confirmed with the advantages of highly sensitivity, long-term stability, simplicity, low cost, disposability, high efficiency and potential applicability.

  19. Evaluation of cognitive loads imposed by traditional paper-based and innovative computer-based instructional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Wilhite, Dewey R

    2010-01-01

    Strategies of presenting instructional information affect the type of cognitive load imposed on the learner's working memory. Effective instruction reduces extraneous (ineffective) cognitive load and promotes germane (effective) cognitive load. Eighty first-year students from two veterinary schools completed a two-section questionnaire that evaluated their perspectives on the educational value of a computer-based instructional program. They compared the difference between cognitive loads imposed by paper-based and computer-based instructional strategies used to teach the anatomy of the canine skeleton. Section I included 17 closed-ended items, rated on a five-point Likert scale, that assessed the use of graphics, content, and the learning process. Section II included a nine-point mental effort rating scale to measure the level of difficulty of instruction; students were asked to indicate the amount of mental effort invested in the learning task using both paper-based and computer-based presentation formats. The closed-ended data were expressed as means and standard deviations. A paired t test with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine the overall mean difference between the two presentation formats. Students positively evaluated their experience with the computer-based instructional program with a mean score of 4.69 (SD=0.53) for use of graphics, 4.70 (SD=0.56) for instructional content, and 4.45 (SD=0.67) for the learning process. The mean difference of mental effort (1.50) between the two presentation formats was significant, t=8.26, p≤.0001, df=76, for two-tailed distribution. Consistent with cognitive load theory, innovative computer-based instructional strategies decrease extraneous cognitive load compared with traditional paper-based instructional strategies. PMID:21135402

  20. Paper-based energy-storage devices comprising carbon fiber-reinforced polypyrrole-cladophora nanocellulose composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaq, Aamir; Sjoedin, Martin; Stroemme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Nyholm, Leif [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and Cladophora nanocellulose, reinforced with 8 {mu}m-thick chopped carbon filaments, can be used as electrode materials to obtain paper-based energy-storage devices with unprecedented performance at high charge and discharge rates. Charge capacities of more than 200 C g{sup -1} (PPy) are obtained for paper-based electrodes at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s{sup -1}, whereas cell capacitances of {proportional_to}60-70 F g{sup -1} (PPy) are reached for symmetric supercapacitor cells with capacitances up to 3.0 F (i.e.,0.48 F cm{sup -2}) when charged to 0.6 V using current densities as high as 31 A g{sup -1} based on the PPy weight (i.e., 99 mA cm{sup -2}). Energy and power densities of 1.75 Wh kg{sup -1} and 2.7 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively, are obtained when normalized with respect to twice the PPy weight of the smaller electrode. No loss in cell capacitance is seen during charging/discharging at 7.7 A g{sup -1} (PPy) over 1500 cycles. It is proposed that the nonelectroactive carbon filaments decrease the contact resistances and the resistance of the reduced PPy composite. The present straightforward approach represents significant progress in the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly paper-based energy-storage devices for high-power applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users...

  2. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  3. A novel label-free microfluidic paper-based immunosensor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Huiren; Luo, Jinping; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Li; Fan, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a highly sensitive label-free paper-based electrochemical immunosensor employing screen-printed working electrode (SPWE) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was fabricated. In order to raise the detection sensitivity and immobilize anti-CEA, amino functional graphene (NH2-G)/thionine (Thi)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposites were synthesized and coated on SPWE. The principle of the immunosensor determination was based on the fact that the decreased response currents of Thi were proportional to the concentrations of corresponding antigens due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Experimental results revealed that the immunoassay enabled the determination of standard CEA solutions with linear working ranges of 50pgmL(-1) to 500ngmL(-1), the limit of detections for CEA is 10pgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and its corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.996. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor could be used for the determination of clinical serum samples. A large number of clinical serum samples were detected and the relative errors between measured values and reference concentrations were calculated. Results showed that this novel paper-based electrochemical immunosensor could provide a new platform for low cost, sensitive, specific, and point-of-care diagnosis in cancer detection. PMID:27132007

  4. Printed biotin-functionalised polythiophene films as biorecognition layers in the development of paper-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Petri; Pesonen, Markus; Sund, Pernilla; Viitala, Tapani; Määttänen, Anni; Sarfraz, Jawad; Wilén, Carl-Erik; Österbacka, Ronald; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-02-01

    The integration of flexible electronic sensors in clinical diagnostics is visioned to significantly reduce the cost of many diagnostic tests and ultimately make healthcare more accessible. This study concentrates on the characterisation of inkjet-printed bio-functionalised polythiophene films on paper-based ultrathin gold film (UTGF) electrodes and their possible application as biorecognition layers. Physicochemical surface properties (topography, chemistry, and wetting) and electrochemical characteristics of water-soluble regioirregular tetraethylene-glycol polythiophene (TEGPT) and biotin-functionalised TEGPT (b-TEGPT) films were examined and compared. In addition, their specificity towards streptavidin protein was tested. The results show that stable supramolecular biorecognition layers of insulating b-TEGPT and streptavidin were successfully fabricated on a paper-based UTGF by inkjet-printing. Good adhesion of thiophene to UTGF can be attributed to covalent linkage between sulphur and gold, whereas the stability of the streptavidin layer is due to the high affinity between biotin and streptavidin. The device introduced can be utilised in the development of biosensors for clinically relevant analytes e.g. for detecting complementary DNA oligomers or antibody-antigen complexes.

  5. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for colorimetric detection of urinary tract infection biomarkers on adult diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaohao Chen; Tao Dong

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common infection diseases in elderly patients. The conventional method of detecting UTI involves the collection of significant urine samples from the elderly patients. However, this is a very difficult and time-consuming procedure. This paper addresses the development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) to detect UTI from urine collected from adult diapers. The design and fabrication for the μPAD is shown. The fabrication process involves melting solid wax on top of filter paper using a hot plate, followed by pattern transfer using a mold with rubbed wax. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the μPAD with deposited nitrite reagent had detected different concentrations of nitrite solutions from 0.5 ppm to 100 ppm spiked in urine samples. A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the gray scale intensity values against the various nitrite concentrations. The results showed that the proposed paper-based device holds great potential as low-cost, disposable solution to sensitively detect UTI markers in urine sampled from diapers. PMID:26737632

  6. A 3D paper-based enzymatic fuel cell for self-powered, low-cost glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christopher; Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel low-cost, self-powered paper-based biosensor for glucose monitoring. The device operating mechanism is based on a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell using an electrochemical energy conversion as a transducing element for glucose monitoring. The self-powered glucose biosensor features (i) a 3D origami paper-based structure for easy system integration onto paper, (ii) an air-cathode on paper for low-cost production and easy operation, and (iii) a screen printed chitosan/glucose oxidase anode for stable current generation as an analytical signal for glucose monitoring. The sensor showed a linear range of output current at 1-5mM glucose (R(2)=0.996) with a sensitivity of 0.02 µA mM(-1). The advantages offered by such a device, including a low cost, lack of external power sources/sophisticated external transducers, and the capacity to rapidly generate reliable results, are well suited for the clinical and social settings of the developing world. PMID:26706941

  7. Paper-based three-dimensional microfluidic device for monitoring of heavy metals with a camera cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Ya-jie; Wei, Jun-feng; Xu, Ji-run; Wang, Yun-hua; Zheng, Guo-xia

    2014-05-01

    A 3D paper-based microfluidic device has been developed for colorimetric determination of selected heavy metals in water samples by stacking layers of wax patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. It has the capability of wicking fluids and distributing microliter volumes of samples from single inlet into affrays of detection zones without external pumps, thus a range of metal assays can be simply and inexpensively performed. We demonstrate a prototype of four sample inlets for up to four heavy metal assays each, with detection limits as follows: Cu (II) = 0.29 ppm, Ni(II) = 0.33 ppm, Cd (II) = 0.19 ppm, and Cr (VI) = 0.35 ppm, which provided quantitative data that were in agreement with values gained from atomic absorption. It has the ability to identify these four metals in mixtures and is immune to interferences from either nontoxic metal ions such as Na(I) and K(I) or components found in reservoir or beach water. With the incorporation of a portable detector, a camera mobile phone, this 3D paper-based microfluidic device should be useful as a simple, rapid, and on-site screening approach of heavy metals in aquatic environments. PMID:24618990

  8. Do not Lose Your Students in Large Lectures: A Five-Step Paper-Based Model to Foster Students’ Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hassan Aburahma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the pharmacy colleges in developing countries with high population growth, public pharmacy colleges in Egypt are experiencing a significant increase in students’ enrollment annually due to the large youth population, accompanied with the keenness of students to join pharmacy colleges as a step to a better future career. In this context, large lectures represent a popular approach for teaching the students as economic and logistic constraints prevent splitting them into smaller groups. Nevertheless, the impact of large lectures in relation to student learning has been widely questioned due to their educational limitations, which are related to the passive role the students maintain in lectures. Despite the reported feebleness underlying large lectures and lecturing in general, large lectures will likely continue to be taught in the same format in these countries. Accordingly, to soften the negative impacts of large lectures, this article describes a simple and feasible 5-step paper-based model to transform lectures from a passive information delivery space into an active learning environment. This model mainly suits educational establishments with financial constraints, nevertheless, it can be applied in lectures presented in any educational environment to improve active participation of students. The components and the expected advantages of employing the 5-step paper-based model in large lectures as well as its limitations and ways to overcome them are presented briefly. The impact of applying this model on students’ engagement and learning is currently being investigated.

  9. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Hydrogels for Storage and Delivery of Reagents to Paper-Based Analytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydn T. Mitchell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermally responsive hydrogel N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide-cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM was developed and evaluated as a reagent storage and delivery system for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs. PNIPAM was shown to successfully deliver multiple solutions to microPADs in specific sequences or simultaneously in laminar-flow configuration and was found to be suitable for delivering four classes of reagents to the devices: Small molecules, enzymes, antibodies and DNA. PNIPAM was also able to successfully deliver a series of standard glucose solutions to microPADs equipped to perform a colorimetric glucose assay. The results of these tests were used to produce an external calibration curve, which in turn was used to determine the concentration of glucose in sample solutions. Finally, PNIPAM was used to store the enzyme horseradish peroxidase for 35 days under ambient conditions with no significant loss of activity. The combination of PNIPAM and microPADs may allow for more complex assays to be performed on paper-based devices, facilitate the preparation of external calibration curves in the field, and extend the shelf life of microPADs by stabilizing reagents in an easy-to-use format.

  10. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery... (h) of this section and in §§ 173.220 and 173.222; and any battery or battery-powered device must be..., but not limited to: (i) Packaging each battery or each battery-powered device when practicable,...

  11. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics Traction Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Szumanowski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The assumed method and effective model are very accurate according to error checking results of the NiMH and Li-Ion batteries. The modeling method is valid for different types of batteries. The model can be conveniently used for vehicle simulation because the battery model is accurately approximated by mathematical equations. The model provides the methodology for designing a battery management system and calculating the SOC. The influence of temperature on battery performance is analyzed acc...

  13. Bipolar battery construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  14. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  15. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing

  16. Development of a Whole Blood Paper-Based Device for Phenylalanine Detection in the Context of PKU Therapy Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based testing does not allow for the sufficiently rapid return of data to enable optimal therapeutic monitoring of patients with metabolic diseases such as phenylketonuria (PKU. The typical turn-around time of several days for current laboratory-based testing is too slow to be practically useful for effective monitoring or optimizing therapy. This report describes the development of a rapid, paper-based, point-of-care device for phenylalanine detection using a small volume (40 μL of whole blood. The quantitative resolution and reproducibility of this device with instrumented readout are described, together with the potential use of this device for point-of-care monitoring by PKU patients.

  17. Highly porous magnetite/graphene nanocomposites for a solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor on paper-based chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lv, Zhaozi; Xia, Yong; Han, Yanchao; Lou, Baohua; Wang, Erkang

    2013-04-01

    Graphene-nanosheet-based highly porous magnetite nanocomposites (GN-HPMNs) have been prepared using a simple solvothermal method and used as an immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor on paper-based chips. Highly porous Fe3O4 nanocrystal clusters were coated with acrylate and wrapped tightly on the skeleton of graphene nanosheets. The structures and sizes of the GN-HPMNs could be tuned by varying the proportions of the solvents ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Then, the relatively highly porous ones with an average diameter of about 65 nm were combined with Nafion to form composite films on an electrode surface for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). Because of their porosity, negatively charged surface, and cooperative characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials and graphene, under an external magnetic field, the GN-HPMNs ensured effective immobilization, excellent electron transfer, and long-term stability of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the composite film. The sensor developed exhibited excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 0.65% for 30 continuous cycles. It was found to be much more favorable for detecting compounds containing tertiary amino groups and DNAs with guanine and adenine. A detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained for tripropylamine. As an application example, 0.5 nM single-nucleotide mismatch could be detected. This was the first attempt to introduce magnetic nanomaterials and an external magnetic field into paper-based chips. The sensor developed has the advantages of high sensitivity, good stability, and wide potential applicability as well as simplicity, low cost, and good disposability. PMID:23132543

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  20. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  1. Battery packaging - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production

  2. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxin Fan; Hongwen He; Rui Xiong

    2011-01-01

    To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV) applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP) model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separat...

  4. Artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets with excellent mechanical and thermally conductive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Ye, Lei; Yu, Shuhui; Li, Hao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-21

    Inspired by the nano/microscale hierarchical structure and the precise inorganic/organic interface of natural nacre, we fabricated artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (NF-BNNSs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a vacuum-assisted self-assembly technique. The artificial nacre-like papers exhibit excellent tensile strength (125.2 MPa), on a par with that of the natural nacre, and moreover display a 30% higher toughness (2.37 MJ m(-3)) than that of the natural nacre. These excellent mechanical properties result from an ordered 'brick-and-mortar' arrangement of NF-BNNSs and PVA, in which the long-chain PVA molecules act as the bridge to link NF-BNNSs via hydrogen bonds. The resulting papers also render high thermal conductivity (6.9 W m(-1) K(-1)), and reveal their superiority as flexible substrates to support light-emitting-diode chips. The combined mechanical and thermal properties make the materials highly desirable as flexible substrates for next-generation commercial portable electronics. PMID:25807278

  5. Paper-based analytical device for sampling, on-site preconcentration and detection of ppb lead in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarpai, Thiphol; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2016-07-01

    A simple and cost effectiveness procedure based on a paper based analytical device (PAD) for sampling, on-site preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) in water samples was developed. The inkjet printing method was used for patterning of PAD. Colorimetric assay was developed on a PAD for Pb(II) detection in µgL(-1) level. This µgL(-1) level detection limit was achieved by in situ- and on-site preconcentration of Pb(II) onto adsorption filter paper disc with a home-made holder before color development. Water sample was loaded onto a circular filter paper coated with zirconium silicate in 3% sodium carboxymethylcellulose for Pb(II) preconcentration. Subsequently, sodium rhodizonate in tartrate buffer solution (pH 2.8) was used as colorimetric reagent for direct Pb(II) detection on a PAD. Detection was achieved by measuring the pink color and recorded by scanner or digital camera. ImageJ software was used for measuring grey scale values. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10µgL(-1) and 100µgL(-1), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II) in drinking water, tap water and surface water near electronic waste storage and the results were compared with those by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) with good agreement. PMID:27154707

  6. Size-tunable copper nanocluster aggregates and their application in hydrogen sulfide sensing on paper-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chi; Ma, Jia-Yin; Huang, Jia-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2016-04-01

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a strong polyelectrolyte, was used to prepare red photoluminescent PSS-penicillamine (PA) copper (Cu) nanoclusters (NC) aggregates, which displayed high selectivity and sensitivity to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The size of the PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be readily controlled from 5.5 μm to 173 nm using different concentrations of PSS, which enabled better dispersity and higher sensitivity towards H2S. PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates provided rapid H2S detection by using the strong Cu-S interaction to quench NC photoluminescence as a sensing mechanism. As a result, a detection limit of 650 nM, which is lower than the maximum level permitted in drinking water by the World Health Organization, was achieved for the analysis of H2S in spring-water samples. Moreover, highly dispersed PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be incorporated into a plate-format paper-based analytical device which enables ultra-low sample volumes (5 μL) and feature shorter analysis times (30 min) compared to conventional solution-based methods. The advantages of low reagent consumption, rapid result readout, limited equipment, and long-term storage make this platform sensitive and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms and mechanical properties of selected paper-based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 3 selected paper-based packaging materials, that is, vegetable parchment (VP) paper, Kraft paper, and solid-bleached-sulfate (SBS) paperboard, were determined at 3 different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 degrees C). The GAB isotherm model was found to fit adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the paper samples. The monolayer moisture content of the paper samples decreased with increase in temperature, which is in the range of 0.0345 to 0.0246, 0.0301 to 0.0238, and 0.0318 to 0.0243 g water/g solid for the MG paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively. The net isosteric heats of sorption (q(st)) for the paper samples decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content after reaching the maximum values of 18.51, 27.39, and 26.80 kJ/mol for the VP paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively, at low-moisture content. The differential enthalpy and entropy of 3 paper samples showed compensation phenomenon with the isokinetic temperature of 399.7 K indicating that water vapor had been adsorbed onto the paper samples with the same mechanism. Depending on the paper material, tensile strength of paper samples was affected by moisture content. PMID:20492112

  8. Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase Detection on Paper-Based Analytical Devices with Inkjet Printer-Sprayed Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General biochemistry detection on paper-based microanalytical devices (PADs uses pipette titration. However, such an approach is extremely time-consuming for large-scale detection processes. Furthermore, while automated methods are available for increasing the efficiency of large-scale PAD production, the related equipment is very expensive. Accordingly, this study proposes a low-cost method for PAD manufacture, in which the reagent is applied using a modified inkjet printer. The optimal reaction times for the detection of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT are shown to be 6 and 7 min, respectively, given AST and ALT concentrations in the range of 5.4 to 91.2 U/L (R2 = 0.9932 and 5.38 to 86.1 U/L (R2 = 0.9944. The experimental results obtained using the proposed PADs for the concentration detection of AST and ALT in real human blood serum samples are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a traditional spectrophotometric detection method by National Cheng Kung University hospital.

  9. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches. PMID:23116304

  10. One-touch-activated blood multidiagnostic system using a minimally invasive hollow microneedle integrated with a paper-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng Guo; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Noh, Hyungrye; Song, Mun-Bum; Kim, Min-Gon; Jung, Hyungil

    2015-08-21

    The development of real-time innocuous blood diagnosis has been a long-standing goal in healthcare; an improved, miniature, all-in-one point-of-care testing (POCT) system with low cost and simplified operation is highly desired. Here, we present a one-touch-activated blood multidiagnostic system (OBMS) involving the synergistic integration of a hollow microneedle and paper-based sensor, providing a number of unique characteristics for simplifying the design of microsystems and enhancing user performance. In this OBMS, all functions of blood collection, serum separation, and detection were sequentially automated in one single device that only required one-touch activation by finger-power without additional operations. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated the operation of this system in vivo in glucose and cholesterol diagnosis, showing a great possibility for human clinical application and commercialization. Additionally, this novel system offers a new approach for the use of microneedles and paper sensors as promising intelligent elements in future real-time healthcare monitoring devices. PMID:26190447

  11. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce.

  12. Intelligent Battery Management System Analyzing & Optimizing of Multicell Battery Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthi, C; P.M.Sarma; M. Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a batt...

  13. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  14. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  15. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  16. Developments in redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tangirala, Ravichandra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the electrochemistry principles, technology, construction and composition of the electrode materials, electrolyte and additives used in redox flow batteries. The aim was to study a flow battery system with an appreciable working performance. The study explores and compares mainly three different redox flow battery technologies; all-vanadium, soluble lead-acid and a novel copper-lead dioxide flow batteries. The first system is based in sulfuric acid e...

  17. Battery Monitoring Unit Using SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Pandya; Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Battery Management System (BMS) means different things to different people. To some it is simply battery monitoring, keeping a check on the key operational parameters during charging and discharging such as voltages and currents and the battery internal and ambient temperature. The monitoring circuits would normally provide inputs to protection device which would generate alarms or disconnects the battery from the load or charger should any of the parameters be...

  18. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  19. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  20. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as an increasingly important technology. They are used almost ubiquitously in laptops and cell phones because of their relatively high energy densities when compared to other battery chemistries. More recently, lithium-ion batteries have been employed in the automotive sector in both pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. However, one of the major barriers in the widespread adoption of lithium-ion batteries in electric ...

  1. Artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets with excellent mechanical and thermally conductive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Ye, Lei; Yu, Shuhui; Li, Hao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the nano/microscale hierarchical structure and the precise inorganic/organic interface of natural nacre, we fabricated artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (NF-BNNSs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a vacuum-assisted self-assembly technique. The artificial nacre-like papers exhibit excellent tensile strength (125.2 MPa), on a par with that of the natural nacre, and moreover display a 30% higher toughness (2.37 MJ m-3) than that of the natural nacre. These excellent mechanical properties result from an ordered `brick-and-mortar' arrangement of NF-BNNSs and PVA, in which the long-chain PVA molecules act as the bridge to link NF-BNNSs via hydrogen bonds. The resulting papers also render high thermal conductivity (6.9 W m-1 K-1), and reveal their superiority as flexible substrates to support light-emitting-diode chips. The combined mechanical and thermal properties make the materials highly desirable as flexible substrates for next-generation commercial portable electronics.Inspired by the nano/microscale hierarchical structure and the precise inorganic/organic interface of natural nacre, we fabricated artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (NF-BNNSs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a vacuum-assisted self-assembly technique. The artificial nacre-like papers exhibit excellent tensile strength (125.2 MPa), on a par with that of the natural nacre, and moreover display a 30% higher toughness (2.37 MJ m-3) than that of the natural nacre. These excellent mechanical properties result from an ordered `brick-and-mortar' arrangement of NF-BNNSs and PVA, in which the long-chain PVA molecules act as the bridge to link NF-BNNSs via hydrogen bonds. The resulting papers also render high thermal conductivity (6.9 W m-1 K-1), and reveal their superiority as flexible substrates to support light-emitting-diode chips. The combined mechanical and thermal properties make

  2. Intelligent battery charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  3. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  4. Paper-based biosensor relying on flower-like reduced graphene guided enzymatically deposition of polyaniline for Pb(2+) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-06-15

    A multi-amplified paper-based electrochemical strategy using Pb(2+) dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit for Pb(2+) detection was developed. In this work, flower-like reduced graphene (FrGO) was prepared utilizing flower-like ZnO as template, which was first one step grown on the gold nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE). After being treated with acid and then modified with Au, a novel sensor platform named Au/FrGO/Au-PWE with large specific surface area and good electrical conductivity was fabricated. The Mn2O3 nanoparticle-assembled hierarchical hollow spheres (H-Mn2O3) was served as nanocarrier to immobilize GOx, HRP and signal strand (S3), resulting to the formation of S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations. In the presence of Pb(2+), the DNAzyme (S1) was activated and the substrate strand (S2) was cleaved. After the incubation with S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx in 0.1M HAc-NaAc solution (pH 4.3) containing 30 mM aniline and 15 mM glucose, a readily measurable "turn-on" electrochemical signal could be measured. On the basis of the signal amplification strategy of Au/FrGO/Au-PWE sensing platform and S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations, the developed biosensor exhibited a good linear response toward over a wide range of concentration from 0.005 to 2000 nM. PMID:26851578

  5. Highly Stable and Sensitive Paper-Based Bending Sensor Using Silver Nanowires/Layered Double Hydroxides Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Chen, Shilong; Li, Fucheng; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Lan

    2015-07-01

    Highly sensitive flexible piezoresistive materials using silver nanowires (AgNWs) composites have been widely researched due to their excellent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Intrinsically, AgNWs tend to aggregate in polymer matrix because of the intense depletion-induced interactions, which seriously influence the percolation threshold of the composites. In this study, we report a highly stable and sensitive paper-based bending sensor using the AgNWs and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to construct a hybrid conductive network in waterborne polyurethane that is easy to destruct and reconstruct under bending deformation. The nonconductive 2D LDH nanosheets are embedded into AgNWs network and assist dispersion of AgNWs, which depends on the hydrogen bonding between the two nanostructures. The percolation threshold of the composites decreases from 10.8 vol % (55 wt %) to 3.1 vol % (23.8 wt %), and the composites reaches a very low resistivity (10(-4) Ω·cm) with a small amount of AgNWs (8.3 vol %) due to the dispersion improvement of AgNWs with the effect of LDH nanosheets. The as-prepared conductive composites with low percolation threshold can be manufactured on paper via various methods such as rollerball pen writing, inkjet printing, or screen printing. The bending sensor prepared by manufacturing the composites on paper shows low-cost, excellent conductivity, flexibility (>3000 bending cycles), sensitivity (0.16 rad(-1)), fast response (120 ms) and relaxation time (105 ms), and nontoxicity. Therefore, a simple but efficient wearable sensor is developed to monitor the human motions (such as fingers and elbow joints movements) and presents good repeatability, stability, and responsiveness, making the bending sensor possibly able to meet the needs in numerous applications for robotic systems. PMID:26083146

  6. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing. PMID:27126791

  7. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  8. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  9. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  10. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  11. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  12. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  13. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  14. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  15. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  16. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  17. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  18. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  19. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  20. Optimal control of battery for grid-connected wind-storage system

    OpenAIRE

    L. Liang; Zhong, J.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration level of large-scale wind farms is restricted by the output uncertainties of wind power generations. Energy storage systems with fast response time and high operation efficiencies, such as, flywheel and battery could be used as one of the solutions for large-scale wind power integration to power grid. To mitigate the power fluctuation of wind farm, an optimal control method of battery energy storage system is proposed for grid-connected wind system in this paper. Based on one-...

  1. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  2. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  3. Photoelectrochemical solar battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the field of solar energy conversion and can be used to the elaboration of photoelectrochemical solar batteries. Summary of the invention consists in the fact that in the photoelectrochemical solar battery comprising of a photo electrode and a counter-electrode, placed into an electrolyte solution, comprising the oxidation-reduction system, the photo electrode is made of a semiconductor of n-type ZnIn2S4 and as electrolyte is used aqueous solution Na2S4 - Na2S2. The technical result of the invention consists in the sulphur ions inter exchange from the photo electrode surface and from the electrolyte solution that leads to the reduction of photo electrode photo corrosion

  4. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  5. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  6. Composite battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

  7. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  8. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  9. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem i...

  10. Waste battery collection and handling

    OpenAIRE

    Degenek, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the following thesis, we focused on waste battery collection and handling. Since batteries are known for their possible containing of dangerous substances, it seems sensible to collect and reuse them - not only from the perspective of economy, but also when it comes to regaining some valuable raw materials. That is why the battery issue is not only topical, but also in need of thorough analysis and discussion. Wrongly disposed batterries are a huge environmental issue, since they pollute g...

  11. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  12. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Hou; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separa...

  13. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  14. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  15. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  16. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  17. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  18. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  19. Advanced Battery Diagnosis for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Chudamani

    2008-01-01

    Summary Literatures on battery technologies and diagnosis of its parameters were studied. The innovative battery technologies from basic knowledge to world standard testing procedures were analysed and discussed in the report. The established battery test station and flowchart was followed during the battery test preparation and testing. In order to understand and verify the battery performance, the well established test procedures developed by USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consorti...

  20. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Joeri Van Mierlo; Peter Van den Bossche; Noshin Omar; Mailier Antoine; Mohamed Daowd

    2013-01-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, ...

  1. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  2. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. N.; Veigas, B.; Jacob, J. M.; Santos, D. S.; Gomes, J.; Baptista, P. V.; Martins, R.; Inácio, J.; Fortunato, E.

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  3. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  4. A Simple Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for the Determination of the Total Amino Acid Content in a Tea Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Chen, Zefeng

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was developed to demonstrate a microfluidic device in the analytical chemistry (instrumental analysis) laboratory. Students made the paper-based microfluidic device with a wax pen and a piece of filter paper and used it to determine the total quantity of amino acids in a green tea leaf

  5. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  6. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  7. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  8. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a hi

  9. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  10. A Nation-Sized Battery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intermittency Challenge and the approaching need for massive storage of rapidly dispatchable energy has led the concept of the National Battery, a unified facility that holds the aggregated outputs from an array of intrinsically episodic renewable sources, releasing energy as demand requires. In this contribution, the original demonstration of Murphy that lead-acid batteries are inappropriate is first reviewed and then extended to show that no commercially available battery technology is at present appropriate. However, prospectively, underground pumped hydro storage could suffice, and at a lesser cost than suitable batteries. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy poses an Intermittency Challenge requiring massive storage. ► This challenge will force the USA to store at least 5 TWd of dispatchable energy. ► No commercially available type of battery is demonstrably up to this task. ► Underground pumped hydro seems capable of meeting this need.

  11. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  12. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  13. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  14. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  15. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  16. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  17. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  18. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  19. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  20. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  1. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  2. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Mailable Mailable No more than 3 (individual batteries). batteries. 3. Each secondary cell must not contain.... In addition, the Postal Service has moved the lithium battery standards as it relates to... than 1.0 gram (g) of lithium content per cell. 2. Each battery must contain no more than 2.0...

  3. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline engine. (c) If compliance with paragraph (b) of this section is not practicable, the battery must...

  4. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  5. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5...

  6. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  7. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  8. Models of novel battery architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Talin, Alec

    2013-03-01

    We use a 1-dimensional model of electronic and ionic transport, coupled with experimental data, to extract the interfacial electrochemical parameters for LiCoO2-LIPON-Si thin film batteries. TEM imaging of batteries has shown that charge/discharge cycles can lead to breakdown of the interfaces, which reduces the effective area through which further Li ion transfer can occur. This is modeled phenomenologically by changing the effective cross sectional area, in order to correlate this structural change with the change in charge/discharge I-V curves. Finally, by adopting the model to radial coordinates, the geometrical effect of nanowire architectures for batteries is investigated.

  9. Developing Web-oriented Homework System to Assess Students’ Introductory Physics Course Performance and Compare to Paper-based Peer Homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neset DEMIRCI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web influences education and our lives in many ways. Nowadays, Web-based homework has been becoming widespread practice in physics courses and some other courses as well. Although are some disputes whether this is an encouraging or risky development for student learning, there is limited research assessing the pedagogical effect of changing the medium from written, hand-graded homework to online oriented, computer-graded homework. In this study, web-oriented homework system is developed to assess students’ introductory physics course performance. Later on, these results are compared with paper-based (peer homework performance for mid enrollment physics courses. One of two identical sections of introductory physics course students received paper-based, hand graded group homework while the other received the individual web-based homework. Then two groups’ on conceptual and problem-solving performance measures are compared. No significant differences were found in students’ Force Concept Inventory (FCI test scores; however, average homework performance scores were significant that could be attributed to the homework method used in favor of paper-based peer homework group.

  10. Conversion of a laboratory-based test for phenylalanine detection to a simple paper-based format and implications for PKU screening in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Gregory; Robinson, Robert; De Los Reyes, Kim; Monnat, Raymond J; Fu, Elain

    2015-01-21

    Laboratory-based testing does not reach many individuals in lower-resource settings who could benefit from access to appropriate tests for diagnosis and therapy. A critical issue is laboratory-based testing often requires an environment with a high level of resources and supporting infrastructure that is not available in many areas of the world. The current report describes the conversion of a laboratory-based test for phenylalanine detection to a simple paper-based test appropriate for use in low-resource settings. The paper-based test is easy to operate, with all reagents stored dry on the card, is compatible with visible detection for clinically relevant concentrations of phenylalanine, and has a time to result of 10 minutes. Next steps for test development are discussed in the context of the potential for the paper-based Phe test to be used as a newborn PKU screening test in settings that are not well served by existing screening approaches. PMID:25427275

  11. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  12. Photoelectrochemical solar battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to the field of solar-to electric energy conservation and may be used for the creation of photoelectrochemical regenerating converters. Summary of the invention consists in that the photoelectrochemical solar battery includes a semiconducting photo-electrodes and a counter-electrode , placed into the electrolyte solution. The photo-electrode is made of the compounds A3B5, and in the capacity of electrolyte solution is used an aqueoua solution Na2SiO3. The result of the invention consists in the absorbtion from the electrtolyte solution of the ions SiO3 and HSiO3 on the photo-electrode working surface, that leads to a decrease in the corrosion of the latter

  13. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  14. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  15. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  16. Neutron Scattering for battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteries are a key technology in today’s society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Since the “lithium-ion” configuration has been widely accepted, significant efforts have been devoted to attain high energy and power densities to produce an excellent energy storage system without any safety issues. To improve battery characteristics, deep insights into the structure of the materials during the battery reactions are necessary. Neutron Scatteringclarifies a wide range of structures for battery materials; from local to long range structures, and these structure characteristics are related to the battery properties. New materials with high electrochemical properties are necessary to improve future battery systems. Structure and property relationships for the battery electrodes and electrolytes are important information for designing new energy storage systems. An example of new materials is solid electrolytes. An all solid-state configuration is the most promising for future devices to improve the reliability of batteries. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes, promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of batteries. The material, Li10GeP2S12 shows high ionic conductivity, which exceeds the conductivity value of liquid electrolyte. Neutron Scatteringis one of the best methods to provide information of structure containing lithium and conduction mechanism determined by Neutron Scattering makes the materials design concept clear. In-situ and perando experimental techniques are another important subjects for clarifying battery reactions. An in situ technique for directly observing surface structural changes has been developed that employs thin-film model electrodes and surface X-ray and Neutron Scattering techniques. The surface structural changes commence with the formation of an electrical double layer

  17. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structu...

  18. Gate-controllable spin battery

    OpenAIRE

    Long, W.; Sun, QF; H. Guo; J. Wang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing)

    2003-01-01

    We propose a gate-controllable spin-battery for spin current. The spin battery consists of a lateral double quantum dot under a uniform magnetic field. A finite dc spin current is driven out of the device by controlling a set of gate voltages. Spin current can also be delivered in the absence of charge current. The proposed device should be realizable using present technology at low temperature. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  20. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  1. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  2. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  3. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  4. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  5. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  6. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np3+,Np4+||NpO2+,NpO22+|(+), and U battery (-)|[UIIIT2]-,[UIVT2]0||[UVO2T]-,[UVIO2T]0|(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  7. 声表面波辅助实现纸基微流分析%Paper-Based Microfluidic Analysis by Help of Surface Acoustic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 章安良; 查燕; 尉一卿; 韩庆江

    2012-01-01

    It is usually difficult for a paper-based microfluidic device to implement pretreatment operation for samples. A new method for fabricating paper-based microchannels was presented,by which paper-based microfluidic analysis with pretreatment operation was demonstrated. Pattern of microchannels was designed using Protel soft and fabricated on a copper sheet using printing circuit technology. Paraffin was coated on the copper sheet,on which a filter paper was mounted. The paraffin was melted and penetrated into the filter paper to perform paper-based micro-channels by heating another side of the copper sheet using an electric iron. A microfluid to be analyzed was transported along 128° YX-LiNbO3 substrate to the paper-based microfluidic device by surface acoustic wave,which was generated by an interdigital transducer, and reacted with indicator in the detection zone of the paper channels-Glucose and protein were concurrently detected using the presented method. The work was valuable for a paper-based microfluidic device to implement microfluidic analysis due to its simple fabrication process and pretreatment operation.%纸基微流器件往往难以实现样品前处理操作.提出了一种简单的纸基微通道制作方法及兼具有前处理操作功能的纸基微流分析方法.采用Protel设计微通道图案,采用印刷电路技术制作铜模板,并涂覆石蜡、覆盖滤纸,而后用电烙铁加热铜模板另一侧,熔融石蜡渗透入滤纸形成纸基微通道.制作的纸基器件放置于128°YX-LiNbO3压电基片上,当其上的叉指换能器在电信号作用下激发声表面波,输运待测微流体到达纸基微通道入口,并进而与其检测区中指示剂进行反应,实现微流分析.应用所提出的方法实现了葡萄糖和蛋白质的并行检测.该工作为纸基微流分析提供了一种新的纸基微通道的制作方法,同时,也为其解决了样品前处理操作难的问题,具有一定的参考价值.

  8. Terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates: the development of a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe for mercury(II) and a paper-based visual sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-08-21

    In this work, a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe was developed for rapid, highly accurate, sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)) based on terbium(III)/gold nanocluster conjugates (Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNCs), in which bovine serum albumin capped gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) acted as the signal indicator and terbium(III) (Tb(3+)) was used as the build-in reference. Our proposed ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited unique specificity toward Hg(2+) against other common environmentally and biologically important metal ions, and had high accuracy and sensitivity with a low detection limit of 1 nM. In addition, our proposed probe was effectively employed to detect Hg(2+) in the biological samples from the artificial Hg(2+)-infected rats. More significantly, an appealing paper-based visual sensor for Hg(2+) was designed by using filter paper embedded with Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC conjugates, and we have further demonstrated its feasibility for facile fluorescent sensing of Hg(2+) in a visual format, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of Hg(2+), the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would undergo a distinct fluorescence color change from red to green, which can be readily observed with naked eyes even in trace Hg(2+) concentrations. The Tb(3+)/BSA-AuNC-derived paper-based visual sensor is cost-effective, portable, disposable and easy-to-use. This work unveiled a facile approach for accurate, sensitive and selective measuring of Hg(2+) with self-calibration. PMID:26140286

  9. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  10. Vehicles testing of near-term batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. C.; Hardy, K. S.; Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Vehicles test results are reported for nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and improved lead-acid batteries developed under the Near-Term Battery Program sponsored by the Department of Energy. The batteries have demonstrated a range improvement of up to 90% over current lead-acid batteries due to improved energy density and ampere-hour capacity, combined with relatively small weight and volume. However, the nickel-iron battery requires a substantial development effort in packaging the circulating electrolyte system and handling the generated hydrogen volume, while the nickel-zinc batteries tested suffer from short cycle life.

  11. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O2), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes

  12. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  13. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  14. Rapid detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in herbal specimens by a simple, bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Plubcharoensook, Pattra; Prasongsuk, Sehanat

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest herbal product contamination with mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi represents a potentially carcinogenic hazard. Aspergillus flavus is a major cause of this issue. Available mold detection methods are PCR-based and rely heavily on laboratories; thus, they are unsuitable for on-site monitoring. In this study, a bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform was developed to rapidly detect toxigenic Aspergillus spp. DNA. The 3.0-4.0 cm(2) chip is fabricated using Whatman™ filter paper, fishing line and a simple plastic lamination process and has nucleic acid amplification and signal detection components. The Aspergillus assay specifically amplifies the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, aflR, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP); hybridization between target DNA and probes on blue silvernanoplates (AgNPls) yields colorimetric results. Positive results are indicated by the detection pad appearing blue due to dispersed blue AgNPls; negative results are indicated by the detection pad appearing colorless or pale yellow due to probe/target DNA hybridization and AgNPls aggregation. Assay completion requires less than 40 min, has a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aflR copies, and has high specificity (94.47%)and sensitivity (100%). Contamination was identified in 14 of 32 herbal samples tested (43.75%). This work demonstrates the fabrication of a simple, low-cost, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform suitable for rapid-detection applications. PMID:27168276

  15. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. PMID:27179564

  16. 3D origami-based multifunction-integrated immunodevice: low-cost and multiplexed sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay on microfluidic paper-based analytical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Shoumei; Song, Xianrang; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2012-09-01

    A novel 3D microfluidic paper-based immunodevice, integrated with blood plasma separation from whole blood samples, automation of rinse steps, and multiplexed CL detections, was developed for the first time based on the principle of origami (denoted as origami-based device). This 3D origami-based device, comprised of one test pad surrounded by four folding tabs, could be patterned and fabricated by wax-printing on paper in bulk. In this work, a sandwich-type chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was introduced into this 3D origami-based immunodevice, which could separate the operational procedures into several steps including (i) folding pads above/below and (ii) addition of reagent/buffer under a specific sequence. The CL behavior, blood plasma separation, washing protocol, and incubation time were investigated in this work. The developed 3D origami-based CL immunodevice, combined with a typical luminuol-H(2)O(2) CL system and catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles, showed excellent analytical performance for the simultaneous detection of four tumor markers. The whole blood samples were assayed and the results obtained were in agreement with the reference values from the parallel single-analyte test. This paper-based microfluidic origami CL detection system provides a new strategy for a low-cost, sensitive, simultaneous multiplex immunoassay and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:22763468

  17. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  18. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. PMID:22609660

  19. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver;

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of...... wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  20. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  1. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  2. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  3. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  5. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  6. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  7. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  8. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  9. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  10. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Aishwarya Parasuraman; Tuti Mariana Lim; Suminto Winardi; Helen Prifti

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  11. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin;

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  12. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  13. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  14. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  15. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  16. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing interest in high specific energy lithium rechargeable batteries with improved discharge/charge cycles. Some of the promising battery systems under development are Li/CoO2, Li/V2O5 and Li/MnO2. A major factor that controls the specific performance of these batteries is the electrolyte. Recent advances made in the liquid electrolyte area for lithium high energy cathode systems are reviewed. Experimental work on the processing of solid thin film polymer electrolytes using plasticizers such as polyethylene glycol dimethoxy ether (PEGDME) and the properties such as conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry of polymer film electrolytes are presented. The advantages and the disadvantages of polymer thin film electrolytes are discussed

  17. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  19. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  20. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  1. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each installed battery must not move more than one inch in any direction when a pulling force of 90 pounds or twice the battery weight, whichever is less, is applied through the center of gravity of the battery as follows: (1) Vertically for a duration of one minute. (2) Horizontally and parallel...

  2. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  3. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources... installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries... batteries. Each small battery installation must be located in a well ventilated space and protected...

  4. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  5. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  6. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  7. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhar, Kaihan; Hastings, Erin; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Zeilman, Pam; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. Background Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). Methods A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002–2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Sta...

  8. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  9. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaihan Fakhar; Erin Hastings; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Pam Zeilman; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. ...

  10. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  11. Translating 10 lessons from lean six sigma project in paper-based training site to electronic health record-based primary care practice: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma is a well-proven methodology to enhance the performance of any business, including health care. The strategy focuses on cutting out waste and variation from the processes to improve the value and efficiency of work. This article walks through the journey of "green belt" training using a Lean Six Sigma approach and the implementation of a process improvement project that focused on wait time for patients to be examined in an urban academic primary care clinic without requiring added resources. Experiences of the training and the project at an urban paper-based satellite clinic have informed the planning efforts of a data and performance team, including implementing a 15-minute nurse "pre-visit" at primary care sites of an accountable care organization. PMID:23807134

  12. Highly selective and sensitive paper-based colorimetric sensor using thiosulfate catalytic etching of silver nanoplates for trace determination of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyo, Sudkate; Siangproh, Weena; Apilux, Amara; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2015-03-25

    A novel, highly selective and sensitive paper-based colorimetric sensor for trace determination of copper (Cu(2+)) ions was developed. The measurement is based on the catalytic etching of silver nanoplates (AgNPls) by thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)). Upon the addition of Cu(2+) to the ammonium buffer at pH 11, the absorption peak intensity of AuNPls/S2O3(2-) at 522 nm decreased and the pinkish violet AuNPls became clear in color as visible to the naked eye. This assay provides highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) over other metal ions (K(+), Cr(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), As(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), Al(3+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Hg(2+) and Bi(3+)). A paper-based colorimetric sensor was then developed for the simple and rapid determination of Cu(2+) using the catalytic etching of AgNPls. Under optimized conditions, the modified AgNPls coated at the test zone of the devices immediately changes in color in the presence of Cu(2+). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1.0 ng mL(-1) by visual detection. For semi-quantitative measurement with image processing, the method detected Cu(2+) in the range of 0.5-200 ng mL(-1)(R(2)=0.9974) with an LOD of 0.3 ng mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to detect Cu(2+) in the wide range of real samples including water, food, and blood. The results were in good agreement according to a paired t-test with results from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). PMID:25732695

  13. Microfluidic Distance Readout Sweet Hydrogel Integrated Paper-Based Analytical Device (μDiSH-PAD) for Visual Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaofeng; Tian, Tian; Jia, Shasha; Zhu, Zhi; Ma, Yanli; Sun, Jianjun; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-02-16

    A disposable, equipment-free, versatile point-of-care testing platform, microfluidic distance readout sweet hydrogel integrated paper-based analytical device (μDiSH-PAD), was developed for portable quantitative detection of different types of targets. The platform relies on a target-responsive aptamer cross-linked hydrogel for target recognition, cascade enzymatic reactions for signal amplification, and microfluidic paper-based analytic devices (μPADs) for visual distance-based quantitative readout. A "sweet" hydrogel with trapped glucoamylase (GA) was synthesized using an aptamer as a cross-linker. When target is present in the sample, the "sweet" hydrogel collapses and releases enzyme GA into the sample, generating glucose by amylolysis. A hydrophilic channel on the μPADs is modified with glucose oxidase (GOx) and colorless 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as the substrate. When glucose travels along the channel by capillary action, it is converted to H2O2 by GOx. In addition, DAB is converted into brown insoluble poly-3,3'-diaminobenzidine [poly(DAB)] by horseradish peroxidase, producing a visible brown bar, whose length is positively correlated to the concentration of targets. The distance-based visual quantitative platform can detect cocaine in urine with high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. Because the target-induced cascade reaction is triggered by aptamer/target recognition, this method is widely suitable for different kinds of targets. With the advantages of low cost, ease of operation, general applicability, and disposability with quantitative readout, the μDiSH-PAD holds great potential for portable detection of trace targets in environmental monitoring, security inspection, personalized healthcare, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:26765320

  14. Status of life cycle inventories for batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cradle-to-gate (ctg) energy and emissions compared among five battery systems. ► Calculate material production values fall well within observed ranges. ► Values based on recycled materials in poor agreement with observed ranges. ► Material production data needed for recycled and some virgin battery materials. ► Battery manufacturing data range widely and hence also need updating. - Abstract: This study reviews existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) results for cradle-to-gate (ctg) environmental assessments of lead-acid (PbA), nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), sodium-sulfur (Na/S), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. LCI data are evaluated for the two stages of cradle-to-gate performance: battery material production and component fabrication and assembly into purchase ready batteries. Using existing production data on battery constituent materials, overall battery material production values were calculated and contrasted with published values for the five battery technologies. The comparison reveals a more prevalent absence of material production data for lithium ion batteries, though such data are also missing or dated for a few important constituent materials in nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, and sodium sulfur batteries (mischmetal hydrides, cadmium, β-alumina). Despite the overall availability of material production data for lead acid batteries, updated results for lead and lead peroxide are also needed. On the other hand, LCI data for the commodity materials common to most batteries (steel, aluminum, plastics) are up to date and of high quality, though there is a need for comparable quality data for copper. Further, there is an almost total absence of published LCI data on recycled battery materials, an unfortunate state of affairs given the potential benefit of battery recycling. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and

  15. Solid-state lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  16. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to charac...

  17. Dielectric properties of battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    An effort was made to determine the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the terminal properties of electrochemical cells. Various constituents of the battery were measured to determine basic electromagnetic properties. These properties were used to predict how much radiation would be absorbed by a battery in a particular field configuration. The frequency range covered from 0 to 40 GHz with the greatest emphasis on the microwave range from 2.6 to 40 GHz. The measurements were made on NiCd, AgZn, and Pb acid cells. Results from observation show nothing which suggested any interaction between radiation and cells, and no incidence of any peaks of energy absorption was observed.

  18. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  19. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  20. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  1. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  3. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  4. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Budhi Anto; Edy Hamdani; Rizki Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  5. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  6. Testing batteries for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, A. E.; Butler, P. C.; Bush, D. M.; Miller, D. W.

    A battery evaluation laboratory was established to investigate the application of various battery technologies for energy storage in a photovoltaic power system. The evaluation laboratory provides a controlled test environment in which batteries can be exposed to any one or all of the following: (1) long term performance testing; (2) accelerated life testing; (3) simulated photovoltaic power system operational testing. Several battery systems are being tested. A description is presented of the laboratory and the tests currently being conducted and a brief description of the battery systems under test.

  7. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wu; Guifang Qiao; Jian Ge; Hongtao Sun; Guangming Song

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap stati...

  8. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  9. Certification Process for Commercial Batteries for Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of electric batteries in space applications. Batteries are high energy devices that are used to power hardware for space applications The applications include IVA (Intra-Vehicular Activity) and EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) use. High energy batteries pose hazards such as cell/battery venting leading to electrolyte (liquid or gas) leakage, high temperatures, fire and explosion (shrapnel). It reviews the process of certifying of Commercial batteries for space applications in view of the multi-national purchasing for the International Space Station. The documentation used in the certification is reviewed.

  10. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  11. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 an...

  12. Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

  13. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  14. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  15. Cardiac pacemakers and nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the introduction giving the indications for cardiac pacemaker therapy with special regard to the use of pacemakers powered by nuclear batteries, reference is made to the resulting radiation exposure of the patient. The activities of the Federal Health Office in this field such as recommendations and surveys including the entire Federal Republic are outlined. (orig.)

  16. Batteries for implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special requirements of power cells for a variety of medical applications and the technical means by which the needs have been met are taken up in 11 contributed chapters. Both chemicals (lithium/halogen, nickel/cadmium, etc.) and nuclear batteries are considered

  17. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security.

  18. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  19. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  20. Efficiencies of Internet-based digital and paper-based scientific surveys and the estimated costs and time for different-sized cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E Uhlig

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the relative efficiencies of five Internet-based digital and three paper-based scientific surveys and to estimate the costs for different-sized cohorts. METHODS: Invitations to participate in a survey were distributed via e-mail to employees of two university hospitals (E1 and E2 and to members of a medical association (E3, as a link placed in a special text on the municipal homepage regularly read by the administrative employees of two cities (H1 and H2, and paper-based to workers at an automobile enterprise (P1 and college (P2 and senior (P3 students. The main parameters analyzed included the numbers of invited and actual participants, and the time and cost to complete the survey. Statistical analysis was descriptive, except for the Kruskal-Wallis-H-test, which was used to compare the three recruitment methods. Cost efficiencies were compared and extrapolated to different-sized cohorts. RESULTS: The ratios of completely answered questionnaires to distributed questionnaires were between 81.5% (E1 and 97.4% (P2. Between 6.4% (P1 and 57.0% (P2 of the invited participants completely answered the questionnaires. The costs per completely answered questionnaire were $0.57-$1.41 (E1-3, $1.70 and $0.80 for H1 and H2, respectively, and $3.36-$4.21 (P1-3. Based on our results, electronic surveys with 10, 20, 30, or 42 questions would be estimated to be most cost (and time efficient if more than 101.6-225.9 (128.2-391.7, 139.8-229.2 (93.8-193.6, 165.8-230.6 (68.7-115.7, or 188.2-231.5 (44.4-72.7 participants were required, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study efficiency depended on the technical modalities of the survey methods and engagement of the participants. Depending on our study design, our results suggest that in similar projects that will certainly have more than two to three hundred required participants, the most efficient way of conducting a questionnaire-based survey is likely via the Internet with a digital questionnaire

  1. Ratiometric fluorescence transduction by hybridization after isothermal amplification for determination of zeptomole quantities of oligonucleotide biomarkers with a paper-based platform and camera-based detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Hrovat, David [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Moazami-Goudarzi, Maryam [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Espie, George S. [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Solid-phase QD-FRET transduction of isothermal tHDA amplicons on paper substrates. • Ratiometric QD-FRET transduction improves assay precision and lowers the detection limit. • Zeptomole detection limit by an iPad camera after isothermal amplification. • Tunable assay sensitivity by immobilizing different amounts of QD–probe bioconjugates. - Abstract: Paper is a promising platform for the development of decentralized diagnostic assays owing to the low cost and ease of use of paper-based analytical devices (PADs). It can be challenging to detect on PADs very low concentrations of nucleic acid biomarkers of lengths as used in clinical assays. Herein we report the use of thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) in combination with a paper-based platform for fluorescence detection of probe-target hybridization. Paper substrates were patterned using wax printing. The cellulosic fibers were chemically derivatized with imidazole groups for the assembly of the transduction interface that consisted of immobilized quantum dot (QD)–probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as the acceptor dye in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based transduction method. After probe-target hybridization, a further hybridization event with a reporter sequence brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs, triggering a FRET sensitized emission that served as an analytical signal. Ratiometric detection was evaluated using both an epifluorescence microscope and a low-cost iPad camera as detectors. Addition of the tHDA method for target amplification to produce sequences of ∼100 base length allowed for the detection of zmol quantities of nucleic acid targets using the two detection platforms. The ratiometric QD-FRET transduction method not only offered improved assay precision, but also lowered the limit of detection of the assay when compared with the non

  2. Towards an All-Polymer Biosensor for Early Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Heegaard, Niels

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is quickly evolving into one of the biggest and most costly health issues in Europe and the United States. AD is a protein misfolding disease, caused by accumulation of abnormally folded β-amyloid and tau protein in the brain. The build-up of protein is believed to...

  3. Towards an All-Polymer Biosensor for Early Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Heegaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is quickly evolving into one of the biggest and most costly health issues in Europe and the United States. AD is a protein misfolding disease, caused by accumulation of abnormally folded β-amyloid and tau protein in the brain. The build-up of protein is believed to degenerate the brain tissue literally shrinking the brain. This slowly destroys function of these parts of the brain. It has been discovered that the concentration of A42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a b...

  4. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    , droplet packing, imaging and amplification (heating). The project has been broken into sub-projects, in which several devices of simpler application have been developed. Most of these employ gravity for concentrating and packing droplets, which has been made possible by the use of large area chambers...... energy directors for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems have been presented: 1. Tongue-and-groove energy directors. 2. Laser ablated micropillar energy directors. • Fabrication: Annealing of polymer devices for use with hydrocarbon based multiphase systems. • Experimental design and data analysis...

  5. Concepts for a new class of all-polymer micropumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverich, Jacob J; Kanno, Isaku; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents a polymer-based micropump addressing the cost, performance, and system compatibility issues that have limited the integration of on-chip micropumps into microanalysis systems. This pump uses dielectric elastomer actuation to periodically displace fluid, and a pair of elastomeric check valves to rectify the fluid's resulting movement. Its significant features include the use of a transparent substrate, self-priming capability, insensitivity to gas bubbles, and the ability to admit particles. A pump occupying less than 10 mm2 of chip space produced a 77 microl min(-1) flow rate. The pump has a high thermodynamic efficiency and exhibits little performance degradation over 10 hours of operation. In addition to its notable performance, the pump can be fabricated at low cost and directly integrated into microfluidic chips that use planar softlithography-formed structures. The new pump concept, fabrication, and experimental performance are discussed herein. PMID:16929393

  6. Analysis of an electric Equivalent Circuit Model of a Li-Ion battery to develop algorithms for battery states estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Mohammad Haris

    2016-01-01

    Batteries have imparted momentum to the process of transition towards a green future. However, mass application of batteries is obstructed due to their explosive nature, a trait specific to Li-Ion batteries. To cater to an efficient battery utilization, an introduction of a battery management system would provide an ultimate solution. This thesis deals with different aspects crucial in designing a battery management system for high energy as well as high power applications. To build a battery...

  7. Self-Powered Wireless Affinity-Based Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled RFID Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless, self-powered, affinity-based biosensor based on the integration of paper-based microfluidics with our previously reported method for self-assembling radio-frequency (RF) antennas. At the core of the proposed approach is a silver-enhancement technique that grows portions of a RF antenna in regions where target antigens hybridize with target specific affinity probes. The hybridization regions are defined by a network of nitrocellulose based microfluidic channels which implement a self-powered approach to sample the reagent and control its flow and mixing. The integration substrate for the biosensor has been constructed using polyethylene and the patterning of the antenna on the substrate has been achieved using a low-cost ink-jet printing technique. The substrate has been integrated with passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to demonstrate that the resulting sensor-tag can be used for continuous monitoring in a food supply-chain where direct measurement of analytes is typically considered to be impractical. We validate the proof-of-concept operation of the proposed sensor-tag using IgG as a model analyte and using a 915 MHz Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tagging technology. PMID:27214914

  8. Paper-based enzymatic microfluidic fuel cell: From a two-stream flow device to a single-stream lateral flow strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Maria José; del Campo, F. Javier; Esquivel, Juan Pablo; Giroud, Fabien; Minteer, Shelley D.; Sabaté, Neus

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a first approach towards the development of a cost-effective enzymatic paper-based glucose/O2 microfluidic fuel cell in which fluid transport is based on capillary action. A first fuel cell configuration consists of a Y-shaped paper device with the fuel and the oxidant flowing in parallel over carbon paper electrodes modified with bioelectrocatalytic enzymes. The anode consists of a ferrocenium-based polyethyleneimine polymer linked to glucose oxidase (GOx/Fc-C6-LPEI), while the cathode contains a mixture of laccase, anthracene-modified multiwall carbon nanotubes, and tetrabutylammonium bromide-modified Nafion (MWCNTs/laccase/TBAB-Nafion). Subsequently, the Y-shaped configuration is improved to use a single solution containing both, the anolyte and the catholyte. Thus, the electrolytes pHs of the fuel and the oxidant solutions are adapted to an intermediate pH of 5.5. Finally, the fuel cell is run with this single solution obtaining a maximum open circuit of 0.55 ± 0.04 V and a maximum current and power density of 225 ± 17 μA cm-2 and 24 ± 5 μW cm-2, respectively. Hence, a power source closer to a commercial application (similar to conventional lateral flow test strips) is developed and successfully operated. This system can be used to supply the energy required to power microelectronics demanding low power consumption.

  9. Identification and Severity Determination of Wheat Stripe Rust and Wheat Leaf Rust Based on Hyperspectral Data Acquired Using a Black-Paper-Based Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Liu; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qi; Ma, Zhanhong; Li, Xiaolong; Cheng, Pei; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    It is important to implement detection and assessment of plant diseases based on remotely sensed data for disease monitoring and control. Hyperspectral data of healthy leaves, leaves in incubation period and leaves in diseased period of wheat stripe rust and wheat leaf rust were collected under in-field conditions using a black-paper-based measuring method developed in this study. After data preprocessing, the models to identify the diseases were built using distinguished partial least squares (DPLS) and support vector machine (SVM), and the disease severity inversion models of stripe rust and the disease severity inversion models of leaf rust were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS) and support vector regression (SVR). All the models were validated by using leave-one-out cross validation and external validation. The diseases could be discriminated using both distinguished partial least squares and support vector machine with the accuracies of more than 99%. For each wheat rust, disease severity levels were accurately retrieved using both the optimal QPLS models and the optimal SVR models with the coefficients of determination (R2) of more than 0.90 and the root mean square errors (RMSE) of less than 0.15. The results demonstrated that identification and severity evaluation of stripe rust and leaf rust at the leaf level could be implemented based on the hyperspectral data acquired using the developed method. A scientific basis was provided for implementing disease monitoring by using aerial and space remote sensing technologies. PMID:27128464

  10. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  11. Development of MnO2 cathode inks for flexographically printed rechargeable zinc-based battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoqian; Winslow, Rich; Madan, Deepa; Wright, Paul K.; Evans, James W.; Keif, Malcolm; Rong, Xiaoying

    2014-12-01

    A novel roll-to-roll flexographic printing process for rechargeable zinc-based battery manufacturing was presented in this paper. Based on the fundamental operating mechanism of flexography, key criteria for developing functional flexographic printing inks were established, including composite ink rheology (steady-state viscosity and yield stress), ink wettability as well as ink dispersing qualities. A variety of MnO2 cathode inks were developed and analyzed comprehensively based on these criteria. A novel type of aqueous cathode ink based on PSBR polymeric binder showed excellent flexographic printability as well as promising electrochemical performance.

  12. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  13. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  15. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  16. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  17. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... aggregate lithium content must not exceed 2 g per battery. e. The batteries installed in the equipment must... (Wh) per cell. d. The total aggregate lithium content must not exceed 100 Wh per battery. e. Each battery must bear the ``Watt-hour'' or ``Wh'' marking on the battery to determine if it is within...

  18. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... the final rule published on May 14, 2012, (77 FR 28259-28261), the Postal Service implemented new.... d. The total aggregate lithium content must not exceed 2 g per battery. e. The batteries installed... per battery. e. Each battery must bear the Wh marking on the battery to determine if it is within...

  19. Chromatic analysis by monitoring unmodified silver nanoparticles reduction on double layer microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for selective and sensitive determination of mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelapsom, Rattapol; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Chairam, Sanoe; Kulsing, Chadin; Shen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates chromatic analysis based on a simple red green blue (RGB) color model for sensitive and selective determination of mercury(II). The analysis was performed by monitoring the color change of a microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPAD). The device was fabricated by using alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)-inkjet printing and doped with unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were disintegrated when being exposed to mercury(II). The color intensity was detected by using an apparatus consisting of a digital camera and a homemade light box generating constant light intensity. A progressive increase in color intensity of the tested area on the µPAD (3.0mm) was observed with increasing mercury(II) concentration. The developed system enabled quantification of mercury(II) at low concentration with the detection limit of 0.001mgL(-1) (3 SD blank/slope of the calibration curve) and small sample volume uptake (2µL). The linearity range of the calibration curve in this technique was demonstrated from 0.05 to 7mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with good precision (RSD less than 4.1%). Greater selectivity towards mercury(II) compared with potential interference ions was also observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked water samples were in an acceptable range which was in agreement with the values obtained from the conventional method utilizing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CVAAS). The proposed technique allows a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analysis of trace mercury(II) in water samples. PMID:27216673

  20. Paper-Based Medical Records: the Challenges and Lessons Learned from Studying Obstetrics and Gynaecological Post-Operation Records in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Yisau Abdulkadir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: With the background knowledge that auditing of Medical Records (MR for adequacy and completeness is necessary if it is to be useful and reliable in continuing patient care; protection of the legal interest of the patient, physicians, and the Hospital; and meeting requirements for researches, we scrutinized theatre records of our hospital to identify routine omissions or deficiencies, and correctable errors in our MR system. METHOD: Obstetrics and Gynaecological post operation theatre records between January 2006 and December 2008 were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for details that included: hospital number; Patients age; diagnosis; surgery performed; types and modes of anesthesia; date of surgery; patients’ ward; Anesthetists names; surgeons and attending nurses names, and abbreviations used with SPSS 15.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Hardly were any of the 1270 surgeries during the study period documented without an omission or an abbreviation. Hospital numbers and patients’ age were not documented in 21.8% (n=277 and 59.1% (n=750 respectively. Diagnoses and surgeries were recorded with varying abbreviations in about 96% of instances. Surgical team names were mostly abbreviated or initials only given. CONCLUSION: To improve the quality of Paper-based Medical Record, regular auditing, training and good orientation of medical personnel for good record practices, and discouraging large volume record book to reduce paper damages and sheet loss from handling are necessary else what we record toady may neither be useful nor available tomorrow. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 427-432

  1. Immobilized pH gradient-driven paper-based IEF: a new method for fractionating complex peptide mixtures before MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshi Beerelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The vast difference in the abundance of different proteins in biological samples limits the determination of the complete proteome of a cell type, requiring fractionation of proteins and peptides before MS analysis. Methods We present a method consisting of electrophoresis of complex mixtures of peptides using a strip of filter paper cut into 20 sections laid end to end over a 24-cm-long IPG strip, the pH gradient of which would drive the electrophoresis. Peptides absorbed onto individual paper pads after electrophoresis are subsequently recovered into a buffer solution, thus dividing a complex peptide mixture according to pI into 20 liquid fractions. This paper-based IEF method (PIEF was compared side-by-side with a similar but liquid-based Offgel electrophoresis (OGE by analyzing iTRAQ-labeled peptide mixtures of membrane proteins from four different cell types. Results PIEF outperformed OGE in resolving acidic peptides, whereas OGE did a better job in recovering relatively basic peptides. OGE and PIEF were quite comparable in their coverage, identifying almost equal number of distinct proteins (PIEF =1174; OGE = 1080. Interestingly, however, only 675 were identified by both of them, each method identifying many unique proteins (PIEF = 499; OGE = 415. Thus, the two methods uncovered almost 40% more proteins compared to what is obtained by only one method. Conclusion: This initial investigation demonstrates the technical feasibility of PIEF for complementing OGE. PIEF uses standard IPG IEF equipment, requires no specialized apparatus (e.g., OGE fractionator and may be integrated into peptide mapping strategies for clinical samples.

  2. The sodium-sulphur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I. W.

    1981-09-01

    The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the relatively low temperatures of 300-400 C. The cells have a solid electrolyte, made by sintering alumina containing 10% sodium oxide, while the electrodes are liquid at operating temperatures. Ceramic element lives in excess of 1000 cycles have been achieved. Attention is given such design details as the thermal and physical properties of glass/ceramic seals and current collector materials and structure.

  3. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  4. Organic active materials for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  5. Flow batteries : Status and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dumancic, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    New ideas and solutions are necessary to face challenges in the electricity industry. The application of electricity storage systems (ESS) can improve the quality and stability of the existing electricity network. ESS can be used for peak shaving, instead of installing new generation or transmission units, renewable energy time-shift and many other services. There are few ESS technologies existing today: mechanical, electrical and electrochemical storage systems. Flow batteries are electroche...

  6. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  7. Analysis of diffusion battery data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the use of diffusion batteries to obtain size information about ultrafine aerosol particles. Accurate formulas are included for the penetration functions of circular tube and parallel plate diffusion cells. After noting the usefulness of some previously suggested data inversion techniques, a new method for obtaining a 'complete' solution, is outlined. The techniques are illustrated by the analysis of some experimental data. (author)

  8. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  10. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  11. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  12. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  13. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the battery SoC, and even more important the remaining time of use, becomes more and more important. Therefore, many leading semiconductor companies, e.g. NXP Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Microch...

  14. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  15. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  16. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  17. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Heather; Park Haram; Paolini Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  18. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical-chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation. The model takes into account the thermodynamics, kinetics and diffusion processes occurring at/in both electrodes and in the electrolyte

  19. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A; Notten, P. H. L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation. The model takes into account the thermodynamics, kinetics and diffusion processes occurring at/in both electrodes and in the electrolyte.

  20. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  1. On electric vehicle battery charger modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José; Balcells Sendra, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) battery chargers connected to electric networks could lead to future harmonic problems in power systems. These loads are nonlinear devices that inject harmonic currents and pollute network voltages. Thus, battery charger modeling must be studied in detail to determine their harmonic emissions and prevent future problems. This paper investigates EV battery charger behavior, analyzes its equivalent circuit and reports a model for each ...

  2. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  3. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  4. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  5. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  6. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  7. Batteries used to power implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  8. RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Lova

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current fl...

  9. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  10. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. PMID:26404647

  11. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  12. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  13. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  14. Advanced lithium battery chemistries for sustainable transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is today 200 Wh/kg, a value not sufficient to power fully electric vehicles with a driving range of 400 km which requires a battery pack of 90 kWh. To deliver such energy the battery weight should be higher than 400 kg and the corresponding increase of vehicle mass would narrow the driving range to 280 km. Two main strategies are pursued to improve the energy of the rechargeable lithium batteries up to the transportation targets. The first i...

  15. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  16. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  17. Microfluidic paper-based analytical device for photoelectrochemical immunoassay with multiplex signal amplification using multibranched hybridization chain reaction and PdAu enzyme mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Sun, Guoqiang; Liang, Linlin; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-05-15

    Combining multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR), the photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was fabricated with a microfluidic paper-based analytical devices using different sizes of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized flower-like 3D ZnO superstructures as photoactive materials. Firstly, 4-aminothiophenol (PATP) functioned ZnO was anchored on gold-paper working electrode. With the aid of PATP, large-sized CdTe-COOH QDs (QDs1) were conjugated onto the ZnO surface because of the formation of a strong bond (Zn-S) between the thiol of PATP molecule and the ZnO, and the remaining amino group formed an amide bond with carboxylic acid group capping CdTe. Then the small-sized CdTe-NH2 QDs (QDs2) were modified on the QDs1 by forming amide bond, which leaded to a very strong photocurrent response because of the formation of cosensitized structure. The designed mHCR produced long products with multiple branched arms, which could attached multiple PdAu nanoparticles and catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as anoxidant. Double strands DNA with multiple branched arms (mdsDNA) was formed by mHCR. In the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), PdAu-mdsDNA conjugates-labeled CEA antibody was captured. The concentrations of CEA were measured through the decrease in photocurrent intensity resulting from the increase in steric hindrance of the immunocomplex and the polymeric oxidation product of HQ. In addition, the oxidation product of HQ deposited on the as-obtained electrode, which could efficiently inhibit the photoinduced electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the PEC immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical performance: the detection range of CEA was from 0.001 to 90ngmL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.33pgmL(-1). The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited excellent precision, prominent specificity, acceptable stability and reproducibility, and could be used for the detection of CEA in real samples. The proposed assay opens a promising

  18. Research on Activators for Lead-Acid Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Michio; Kozawa, Akiya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract : The ITE Battery Research group has developed a new organic battery activator for new and used lead-acid batteries. Ten years of investigation have established the validity of the ITE activator that prolongs the useful life of lead-acid batteries. It has been shown that the specific gravity of spent batteries can be restored to the original level in automotive, motive power; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and stationary energy storage batteries. Our results show that the disca...

  19. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  20. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  1. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  2. Battery performance monitoring by internal ohmic measurements: Application guidelines for stationary batteries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various routine inspections and checks offer a general indication of a battery's health and its state of charge. However, none of these routine checks provide definitive information about a battery's actual capacity. Consequently, capacity discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery capacity is confirmed. Although technically prudent, the time and expense associated with capacity discharge testing is increasingly at odds with pressures to reduce operating and maintenance budgets. These pressures, in combination with new battery types that cannot be inspected by conventional mans, spurred development efforts for more cost-effective battery test techniques. Resulting advancements in battery monitoring equipment have produced new methods of evaluating battery health and reliability. The results presented here are based on a detailed research program to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. For each evaluated battery, internal ohmic measurements were recorded for individual cells prior to conducting a capacity discharge test of the battery. The discharge test results were then evaluated with respect to the internal ohmic measurements to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. The project goal was to obtain the necessary data to demonstrate the technology's value while also providing users with practical information about (1) the relationship between battery capacity and internal ohmic measurements, (2) how to use the test equipment in the field for best results, and (3) suggested guidelines for interpreting the measurements

  3. Battery diagnosis and battery monitoring in hybrid electric vehicles; Batteriediagnostik und Batteriemonitoring in Hybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.; Kowal, J.; Waag, W.; Gerschler, J.B.; Sauer, D.U. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA)

    2007-07-01

    Even in conventional passenger cars the load on the batteries is at its limit due to the increasing number of electrical loads. It is therefore of special importance to know the status and the power capability of the battery at any time. To fulfil these requirements it is necessary that the battery diagnostics has a precise current measurement available in addition to the voltage and temperature measurements. Battery diagnosis is most successful of different algorithms are combined and errors from the measurements and the algorithms are taken actively into account. The general structure of battery diagnosis algorithms can be used for lead-acid, lithium-ion and NiMH batteries. However, the complexity is highest for lead-acid batteries. (orig.)

  4. Integrated multilevel converter and battery management

    OpenAIRE

    K. Wilkie; Stone, D.; Bingham, C.; Foster, M.

    2008-01-01

    A cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter is proposed as a BLDC drive incorporating real-time battery management. Intelligent H-bridges are used to monitor battery cells whilst simultaneously increasing their performance by reducing the variation between cells and controlling their discharge profiles.

  5. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  6. Battery. [improved plates with magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello, D.

    1977-08-16

    A battery is described in which, to improve its discharging performance, the liquid electrolyte is maintained at a specific gravity that is optimum for electrical conductivity, a magnetic flux is imposed upon the battery plates, and other such conditions which also favor electrical conductivity, saturation, storage, and desaturation are maintained. 2 figures.

  7. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  8. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  9. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  10. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  11. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  12. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez;

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  13. The Ball Aptitude Battery (Test Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alfred E.

    1985-01-01

    The 12 subtests of the Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) listed in the administration manual were described. The reviewer believes this aptitude battery, designed for use with high school students and adults in job selection and placement, needs major improvements. It is suggested that the BAB be used solely for research purposes. (DWH)

  14. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable. PMID:26961215

  15. Planar high density sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  16. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  17. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  18. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  19. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  20. Impacts of EV battery production and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

    1996-06-01

    Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  1. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  2. Comparison study on the battery models used for the energy management of batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The seven representative battery models are summarized. ► The model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online method. ► An evaluation is performed on the battery models by an experiment approach. ► The equivalent circuit model with two RC networks has an optimal performance. - Abstract: Battery model plays an important role in the simulation of electric vehicles (EVs) and states estimation of the batteries in the development of the model-based battery management system. To build a battery model with enough precision and suitable complexity, firstly this paper summarizes the seven representative battery models, which belong to the simplified electrochemical models or the equivalent circuit models. Then the model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online parameter identification method. The battery test bench is built and the experiment schedule is designed. Finally an evaluation is performed on the seven battery models by an experiment approach from the aspects of the estimation accuracy of the terminal voltages. To evaluate the effect of the number of RC networks on the model’s precision, the battery general equivalent circuit models (GECMs) with different RC networks are also discussed further. The results indicate the equivalent circuit model with two RC networks, the DP model, has an optimal performance.

  3. Brazilian policy on battery disposal and its practical effects on battery recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise; Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Alberto Soares Tenório, Jorge

    The disposal of batteries is a problem that has grown in the last few years, due to the increase in the use of portable devices. Batteries may contain toxic metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead, so their disposal must be controlled. Brazil was the first country in Latin America to regulate the disposal and treatment of batteries. Limits were established on the concentration of heavy metals within batteries, so that they could be disposed along with domestic waste. Since batteries are products used broadly, it is very difficult to control their disposal. In order to have an efficient collection, the population must be engaged, and that can only happen if they are informed about the laws and regulations regarding the subject, as well as the importance of disposing of batteries with higher concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances separately from domestic garbage. Around the world, there are some long-established recycling processes for batteries. In Brazil, automotive (lead-acid) batteries have been recycled for several years, whereas the recycling of other types of batteries is just starting. This work does an analysis of the Brazilian law for battery recycling and presents some suggestions and examples of the initiatives of other countries, in order to manage of this kind of dangerous waste.

  4. Environmental consequences of the use of batteries in low carbon systems: The impact of battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Lithium based batteries show the most significant GHG and metal depletion impacts. ► Nickel metal hydride batteries perform worst in terms of cumulative energy demand. ► Charge and discharge cycles will have significant effect on the environmental impact. ► Limited data on the life cycle impacts of some types of batteries is available. - Abstract: Adoption of small scale micro-generation is sometimes coupled with the use of batteries in order to overcome daily variability in the supply and demand of energy. For example, photovoltaic cells and small wind turbines can be coupled with energy storage systems such as batteries. When used effectively with renewable energy production, batteries can increase the versatility of an energy system by providing energy storage that enables the systems to satisfy the highly variable electrical load of an individual dwelling, therefore changing usage patterns on the national grid. A significant shift towards electric or hybrid cars would also increase the number of batteries required. However, batteries can be inefficient and comprise of materials that have high environmental and energy impacts. In addition, some materials, such as lithium, are scarce natural resources. As a result, the overall impact of increasing our reliance on such “sustainable or “low carbon” systems may in fact have an additional detrimental impact. This paper reviews the currently available data and calculated and highlights the impact of the production of several types of battery in terms of energy, raw materials and greenhouse gases. The impact of the production of batteries is examined and presented in order that future studies may be able to include the impact of batteries more easily within any system. It is shown that lithium based batteries have the most significant impact in many environmental areas in terms of production. As the use phases of batteries are extremely variable within different situations this has not been

  5. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jumper battery is connected to a battery in a vehicle, the ground lead shall connect to ground away from the vehicle's battery. Ignition, lights and accessories on the vehicle shall be turned off before... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section...

  6. SMS/GOES cell and battery data analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The nickel-cadmium battery design developed for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) provided background and guidelines for future development, manufacture, and application of spacecraft batteries. SMS/GOES battery design, development, qualification testing, acceptance testing, and life testing/mission performance characteristics were evaluated for correlation with battery cell manufacturing process variables.

  7. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  8. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  9. B#: A battery emulator and power-profiling instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Park, C. S.; Liu, J. F.; Chou, P H

    2005-01-01

    B# (B sharp) is a programmable power supply that emulates battery behavior. It measures current load, calls a battery simulation program to compute voltage in real time, and controls a linear regulator to mimic a battery's voltage output. The instrument enables validation of battery-aware power optimization techniques with accurate, controllable, reproducible results.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  11. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all... time specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the potential of the storage battery must be at...

  12. 46 CFR 120.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each battery must be located as high above the bilge as practicable, secured to protect against...) Batteries must be accessible for maintenance and removal. (d) Connections must be made to battery terminals... the electrolyte. (f) Battery chargers must have an ammeter connected in the charging circuit. (g)...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  14. BATTERIES. Topological defect dynamics in operando battery nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, A; Singer, A; Clark, J N; Cho, H M; Kim, J W; Harder, R; Maser, J; Meng, Y S; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-06-19

    Topological defects can markedly alter nanomaterial properties. This presents opportunities for "defect engineering," where desired functionalities are generated through defect manipulation. However, imaging defects in working devices with nanoscale resolution remains elusive. We report three-dimensional imaging of dislocation dynamics in individual battery cathode nanoparticles under operando conditions using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging. Dislocations are static at room temperature and mobile during charge transport. During the structural phase transformation, the lithium-rich phase nucleates near the dislocation and spreads inhomogeneously. The dislocation field is a local probe of elastic properties, and we find that a region of the material exhibits a negative Poisson's ratio at high voltage. Operando dislocation imaging thus opens a powerful avenue for facilitating improvement and rational design of nanostructured materials. PMID:26089511

  15. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  16. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  17. Mapping the Challenges of Magnesium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaehee; Sahadeo, Emily; Noked, Malachi; Lee, Sang Bok

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable Mg battery has been considered a major candidate as a beyond lithium ion battery technology, which is apparent through the tremendous works done in the field over the past decades. The challenges for realization of Mg battery are complicated, multidisciplinary, and the tremendous work done to overcome these challenges is very hard to organize in a regular review paper. Additionally, we claim that organization of the huge amount of information accumulated by the great scientific progress achieved by various groups in the field will shed the light on the unexplored research domains and give clear perspectives and guidelines for next breakthrough to take place. In this Perspective, we provide a convenient map of Mg battery research in a form of radar chart of Mg electrolytes, which evaluates the electrolyte under the important components of Mg batteries. The presented radar charts visualize the accumulated knowledge on Mg battery and allow for navigation of not only the current research state but also future perspective of Mg battery at a glance. PMID:27088555

  18. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  19. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  20. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)