WorldWideScience

Sample records for all-polymer paper-based batteries

  1. Paper-based batteries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu H; Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2014-04-15

    There is an extensively growing interest in using paper or paper-like substrates for batteries and other energy storage devices. Due to their intrinsic characteristics, paper (or paper-like) batteries show outstanding performance while retaining low cost, multifunctionality, versatility, flexibility and disposability. In this overview, we review recent achievements in paper (or paper-like) batteries as well as their applications. Various types of paper power devices are discussed including electrochemical batteries, biofuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and nanogenerators. Further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also discussed.

  2. Fabrication of an all-polymer battery based on derivatized polythiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofer, Y; Sarker, H; Killian, J G; Giaccai, J; Poehler, T O; Searson, P C

    1998-01-01

    Conducting polymers that can be switched between an insulating neutral state and a conducting doped state are of interest for charge-storage applications such as secondary batteries. The authors report on the fabrication of an all-polymer battery incorporating derivatized polythiophene films electropolymerized onto graphite-coated polymeric supports and a polymer gel electrolyte film. The cells had discharge voltages of about 2.4 V and capacities of 9.5 to 11.5 mAh g-1. The elimination of any metallic components or liquids and the lightweight and flexible construction provide a unique alternative for secondary battery technology.

  3. Origami paper-based fluidic batteries for portable electrophoretic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Sheng; Hu, Chih-Wei; Yu, I-Fan; Liao, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2014-06-21

    A manufacturing approach for paper-based fluidic batteries was developed based on the origami principle (three-dimension paper folding). Microfluidic channels were first created on a filter paper by a wax-printing method. Copper and aluminium sheets were then glued onto the paper as electrodes for the redox reaction. After the addition of copper sulphate and aluminium chloride, commonly available cellophane paper was attached as a membrane to separate the two electrodes. The resulting planar paper sheets were then folded into three-dimensional structures and compiled as a single battery with glue. The two half reactions (Al/Al(3+) and Cu/Cu(2+)) in the folded batteries provided an open-circuit potential from 0.82 V (one cell) to 5.0 V (eight cells in series) depending on the origami design. The prepared battery can provide a stable current of 500 μA and can light a regular LED for more than 65 min. These paper-based fluidic batteries in a set can also be compiled into a portable power bank to provide electric power for many electric or biomedical applications, such as LED lights and electrophoretic devices, as we report here.

  4. Paper-based, printed zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, M.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Clark, N. B.

    A flexible battery is printed on paper by screen-printing a zinc/carbon/polymer composite anode on one side of the sheet, polymerising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) cathode on the other side of the sheet, and applying a lithium chloride electrolyte between the two electrodes. The PEDOT cathode is prepared by inkjet printing a pattern of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate as a solution in butan-1-ol onto paper, followed by vapour phase polymerisation of the monomer. The electrolyte is prepared as a solution of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide and also applied by inkjet printing on to paper, where it is absorbed into the sheet cross-section. Measurements on a zinc/carbon-PEDOT/air battery in a similar configuration on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate shows a discharge capacity of up to 1.4 mAh cm -2 for an initial load of 2.5 mg zinc, equivalent to almost 70% of the zinc content of the anode, which generates 0.8 V at a discharge current of 500 μA. By comparison, the performance of the paper-based battery is lower, with an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V and a discharge capacity of 0.5 mAh cm 2. It appears that the paper/electrolyte combination has a limited ability to take up anode oxidation products before suffering a reduction in ionic mobility. The effects of different zinc/carbon/binder combinations, differences in application method for the zinc/carbon composite and various electrolyte compositions are discussed.

  5. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g-1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g-1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  6. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nojan Aliahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDH-HFP porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphoneimide (LiTFSI and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP, with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10−3 S cm−1. Combining ceramic (LATP with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO electrodes and (i standard metallic current collectors and (ii paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i 123 mAh g−1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii 99.5 mAh g−1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  7. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  8. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Hang; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current collector instead of a rigid and heavy metal foil enables us to demonstrate a very thin Lithium-Ion Battery into ultra-thin (total thickness including encapsulation layers of less than 250 {\\mu}m) that is also light weight and highly flexible.

  9. A paper-based microbial fuel cell: instant battery for disposable diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Mukherjee, Sayantika; Sundermier, Steven; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Choi, Seokheun

    2013-11-15

    We present a microfabricated paper-based microbial fuel cell (MFC) generating a maximum power of 5.5 μW/cm(2). The MFC features (1) a paper-based proton exchange membrane by infiltrating sulfonated sodium polystyrene sulfonate and (2) micro-fabricated paper chambers by patterning hydrophobic barriers of photoresist. Once inoculum and catholyte were added to the MFC, a current of 74 μA was generated immediately. This paper-based MFC has the advantages of ease of use, low production cost, and high portability. The voltage produced was increased by 1.9 × when two MFC devices were stacked in series, while operating lifetime was significantly enhanced in parallel.

  10. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Leif; Nyström, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices.

  12. All-Polymer Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert

    This thesis presents fabrication strategies to produce different types of all-polymer electrochemical sensors based on electrodes made of the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Three different systems are presented, fabricated either by using microdrilling or by hot...

  13. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured...

  14. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph;

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured i...

  15. 基于SCI的锂离子电池文献计量分析%A BIBLIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF LI- ION BATTERIES PAPERS BASED ON SCI DATABASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the literatures indexed in the SCI database from 2000 to 2009, this paper analyzes the distribution of publication years, article types, authors, countries (or areas), affiliations, publications, and the cited frequencies in researches on the Li -ion batteries using bibliometric research methods.%采用文献计量学研究方法,基于数据库近10年的检索结果,定量分析了锂离子电池研究文献的年代、文献类型、作者、国家(地区)、机构、出版物、被引频次等分布.

  16. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-10-09

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  17. Ambipolar all-polymer bulk heterojunction field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szendrei, Krisztina; Jarzab, Dorota; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio; Loi, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate solution processable all-polymer based field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibiting comparable electron and hole mobilities. The semiconducting layer is a bulk heterojunction of poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)}

  18. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented...... bonded by ultrasonic welding. In the sub-projects of this PhD, improvements have been made to multiple aspects of fabricating and conducting droplet (or multiphase) microfluidics: • Design phase: Numerical prediction of the capillary burst pressure of a multiphase system. • Fabrication: Two new types...... here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation...

  19. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  20. A flexible future for paper-based electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tongfen; Zou, Xiyue; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper will review the origins and state of the art in paper-based electronics, suggesting the stage is set for future promising applications. Current interest in paper-based electronics can trace its roots to recent developments in paper-based microfluidics. With a need to improve the reliability and sensitivity of paperbased microfluidics for certain tasks, there were natural efforts to begin embedding sensing electrodes into microfluidic devices. Recognizing the general benefits of paper as an advanced material (e.g., its environmental friendliness, bendable nature, and low cost), efforts in paper-based electronics also began to take a life of their own with demonstrations of transistors, batteries and devices for energy storage, energy harvesting, sensors to improve situational awareness, acoustics, and displays. The state-of-the-art paper-based electronic devices have benefited and will continue to profit from technologies for printing and transferring electronic functionality onto the surfaces of paper-based substrates. Nonetheless, the authors suggest that many future promising applications will go beyond using paper as a carrier/substrate for electronic components to explore tuning of the electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties of the paper itself. With these technical advances, paper-based electronics will move closer to economically viable killer applications.

  1. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  2. Paper-based mobile access to databases

    OpenAIRE

    Signer, Beat; Norrie, Moira C.; Grossniklaus, Michael; Belotti, Rudi; Decurtins, Corsin; Weibel, Nadir

    2006-01-01

    Our demonstration is a paper-based interactive guide for visitors to the world's largest international arts festival that was developed as part of a project investigating new forms of context-aware information delivery and interaction in mobile environments. Information stored in a database is accessed from a set of interactive paper documents, including a printed festival brochure, a city map and a bookmark. Active areas are defined within the documents and selection of these using a special...

  3. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C K; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ∼90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  4. 3D fabrication of all-polymer conductive microstructures by two photon polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurselis, Kestutis; Kiyan, Roman; Bagratashvili, Victor N; Popov, Vladimir K; Chichkov, Boris N

    2013-12-16

    A technique to fabricate electrically conductive all-polymer 3D microstructures is reported. Superior conductivity, high spatial resolution and three-dimensionality are achieved by successive application of two-photon polymerization and in situ oxidative polymerization to a bi-component formulation, containing a photosensitive host matrix and an intrinsically conductive polymer precursor. By using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), the conductivity of 0.04 S/cm is reached, which is the highest value for the two-photon polymerized all-polymer microstructures to date. The measured electrical conductivity dependency on the EDOT concentration indicates percolation phenomenon and a three-dimensional nature of the conductive pathways. Tunable conductivity, biocompatibility, and environmental stability are the characteristics offered by PEG-DA/EDOT blends which can be employed in biomedicine, MEMS, microfluidics, and sensorics.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of all-polymer, transparent ferroelectric capacitors on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2011-12-01

    All-polymer, transparent ferroelectric devices, based on the functional polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)], have been fabricated on flexible substrates. The performance of the all-polymer devices was studied and compared to devices with metal electrodes. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) [PEDOT:PSS] and platinum (Pt) electrode effects on the morphology, crystallinity and orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) films were investigated. The devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed similar hysteresis and switching current response compared to Pt electrodes but with tremendously improved fatigue performance. Further, the devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed lower coercive field and better fatigue performance than values reported for other polymer electrodes used with P(VDF-TrFE) on flexible substrates. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature characterization of integrated optical all-polymer Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Wang, Ziyu; Langenecker, Alexa; Shermann, Stanislav; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Two new design concepts for all-polymer-based integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers in foil as chemical or bio-chemical sensors are presented. Fabricated with hot-embossing and printing techniques, these all polymer optical components are designed for low-cost fabrication and yield highly sensitive response to external refractive index changes. Compared to traditional semiconductor based systems, these polymer sensors do not need the interaction window and do not require a cleanroom for fabrication. The optical response of the asymmetric interferometers to temperature variations is determined theoretically and compared for two designs. Using the designed asymmetric interferometer, a chemical micro-fluidic test system with temperature controller experimentally demonstrates the sensors' temperature characteristics.

  7. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Østergaard, Peter Friis

    2014-01-01

    from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test...... to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst...

  8. All-printed paper-based memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-06-16

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described which can be prepared by a process that includes coating, using a screen printer, one or more areas of a paper substrate (102) with a conductor material (104), such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode, depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of resistance switching insulator material (106), such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of metal (108), such as silver, over one or more areas of the titanium dioxide to form a second electrode.

  9. Paper-based CRP Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Tseng, Chung-Yuh; Lai, Po-Liang; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chu, Shueh-Yao; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-12-01

    Here, we discuss the development of a paper-based diagnostic device that is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, robust, and capable of running simultaneous tests to monitor a relevant inflammatory protein for clinical diagnoses i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we first attempted to make a paper-based diagnostic device via the wax printing method, a process that was used in previous studies. This device has two distinct advantages: 1) reduced manufacturing and assay costs and operation duration via using wax printing method to define hydrophobic boundaries (for fluidic devices or general POC devices); and, 2) the hydrophilicity of filter paper, which is used to purify and chromatographically correct interference caused by whole blood components with a tiny amount of blood sample (only 5 μL). Diagnosis was based on serum stain length retained inside the paper channels of our device. This is a balanced function between surface tension and chromatographic force following immune reactions (CRP assays) with a paper-embedded biomarker.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  11. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  12. Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, José R. Castro; Zhang, Qi; Wannemacher, Reinhold; Wu, Longfei; Casado, Santiago; Xia, Ruidong; Rodriguez, Isabel; Cabanillas-González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of all polymer optical waveguides, based on a highly fluorescent conjugated polymer (CP) poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and a mechanically flexible and biodegradable polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), is reported. The replication by hot embossing of patterned surfaces in CA substrates, onto which high quality F8BT films can be easily processed by spin coating, is exploited to produce an entirely plastic device that exhibits low optical loss and low threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). As a result, highly transparent and flexible waveguides are obtained, with excellent optical properties that remain unaltered after bending, allowing them to be adapted in various flexible photonic devices. PMID:27686745

  13. Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, José R. Castro; Zhang, Qi; Wannemacher, Reinhold; Wu, Longfei; Casado, Santiago; Xia, Ruidong; Rodriguez, Isabel; Cabanillas-González, Juan

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of all polymer optical waveguides, based on a highly fluorescent conjugated polymer (CP) poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and a mechanically flexible and biodegradable polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), is reported. The replication by hot embossing of patterned surfaces in CA substrates, onto which high quality F8BT films can be easily processed by spin coating, is exploited to produce an entirely plastic device that exhibits low optical loss and low threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). As a result, highly transparent and flexible waveguides are obtained, with excellent optical properties that remain unaltered after bending, allowing them to be adapted in various flexible photonic devices.

  14. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-24

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: Parallel fabrication and encapsulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductor lasers are of particular interest as tunable visible laser light sources. For bringing those to market encapsulation is needed to ensure practicable lifetimes. Additionally, fabrication technologies suitable for mass production must be used. We introduce all-polymer chips...... tris(8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2- methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM) are hermetically sealed by thermally bonding a polymer lid. The organic thin film is placed in a basin within the substrate and is not in direct contact to the lid...... comprising encapsulated distributed feedback organic semiconductor lasers. Several chips are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint of the feedback grating on 4? wafer scale out of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). The lasers consisting of the organic semiconductor...

  16. Donor/Acceptor Molecular Orientation-Dependent Photovoltaic Performance in All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jiangang; Li, Mingguang; Yu, Xinhong; Xing, Rubo; Han, Yanchun

    2015-11-18

    The correlated donor/acceptor (D/A) molecular orientation plays a crucial role in solution-processed all-polymer solar cells in term of photovoltaic performance. For the conjugated polymers PTB7-th and P(NDI2OD-T2), the preferential molecular orientation of neat PTB7-th films kept face-on regardless of the properties of processing solvents. However, an increasing content of face-on molecular orientation in the neat P(NDI2OD-T2) films could be found by changing processing solvents from chloronaphthalene (CN) and o-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) to chlorobenzene (CB). Besides, the neat P(NDI2OD-T2) films also exhibited a transformation of preferential molecular orientation from face-on to edge-on when extending film drying time by casting in the same solution. Consequently, a distribution diagram of molecular orientation for P(NDI2OD-T2) films was depicted and the same trend could be observed for the PTB7-th/P(NDI2OD-T2) blend films. By manufacture of photovoltaic devices with blend films, the relationship between the correlated D/A molecular orientation and device performance was established. The short-circuit current (Jsc) of devices processed by CN, oDCB, and CB enhanced gradually from 1.24 to 8.86 mA/cm(2) with the correlated D/A molecular orientation changing from face-on/edge-on to face-on/face-on, which could be attributed to facile exciton dissociation at D/A interface with the same molecular orientation. Therefore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices processed by CN, oDCB, and CB improved from 0.53% to 3.52% ultimately.

  17. Comparative study on aptamers as recognition elements for antibiotics in a label-free all-polymer biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dapra, Johannes; Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2013-01-01

    We present an all-polymer electrochemical microfluidic biosensor using Topas ® as substrate and a conductive polymer bilayer as electrode material. The conductive bilayer consists of tosylate doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:TsO) and the hydroxymethyl derivative PEDOT-OH:TsO, which...

  18. A stackable, two-chambered, paper-based microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-09-15

    We developed a stackable and integrable paper-based microbial fuel cell (MFC) for potentially powering on-chip paper-based devices. Four MFCs were prepared on a T-shaped filter paper which was eventually folded three times to connect these MFCs in series. Each MFC was fabricated by sandwiching multifunctional paper layers for two-chambered fuel cell configuration. One drop of bacteria-containing anolyte into the anodic inlet and another drop of potassium ferricyanide for cathodic reaction flowed through patterned fluidic pathways within the paper matrix, both vertically and horizontally, reaching each of the four MFCs and filling the reservoir of each device. Bacterial respiration then transferred electrons to the anode, which traveled across an external load to the cathode where they combined with protons. The MFC stack connected in series generated a high power density (1.2μW/cm(2)), which is two orders of magnitude higher than the previous report on the paper-based MFC stack. This work will represent the fusion of the art of origami and paper-based MFC technology, which could provide a paradigm shift for the architecture and design of paper-based batteries.

  19. Tuning the Morphology of All-Polymer OPVs through Altering Polymer–Solvent Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Pavlopoulou, Eleni

    2014-09-09

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. In this work, we investigated the effects of solvent(s)-polymer(s) interactions on the morphology of all-polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layers cast from cosolutions. We demonstrate that altering the interactions between the solvent and both the donor and acceptor polymers in the cosolution prior to film-casting induces different solid-state morphological characteristics that subsequently leads to differences in the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, was codissolved poly[[N,N\\'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-napthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5 ′-(2,2 ′-bithiophene)], P(NDI2OD-T2), or otherwise known as ActivInk N2200, in dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and xylene. According to the qualitative interaction map we propose, all three solvents exhibit favorable interactions with P3HT. The extent of incompatibility these solvents exhibit with P(NDI2OD-T2), however, varies, with xylene as the worst solvent for P(NDI2OD-T2) among those examined. Polymer-polymer interactions in xylene are, thus, more favorable compared to P(NDI2OD-T2)-xylene interactions. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements on the cast films suggest that this preferential affinity between the two polymers disrupts crystallization in the blends; P(NDI2OD-T2) crystallinity decreases and, concurrently, results in shorter P3HT coherence lengths. Significant mixing of the two polymers is also evidenced. OPVs comprising P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) active layers cast from xylene exhibit the best device characteristics compared to OPVs whose active layers are cast from di- or mono-chlorobenzene. We attribute the improved OPV performance for the xylene-cast active layer to the presence of a more intermixed network of nanocrystalline domains of the two polymers, which originates from the affinity of P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) in the parent cosolution.

  20. All polymer photovoltaics: From small inverted devices to large roll-to-roll coated and printed solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Zhao, Xingang;

    2013-01-01

    Inverted all polymer solar cells based on a blend of a perylene diimide based polymer acceptor and a dithienosilole based polymer donor were fabricated from small area devices to roll-to-roll (R2R) coated and printed large area modules. The device performance was successfully optimized by using...... solution processibility and R2R coated and printed large area (4.2 cm 2) solar cells exhibited a PCE of 0.20%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  1. Formatting a Paper-based Survey Questionnaire: Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fanning

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes best practices with regard to paper-based survey questionnaire design. Initial design considerations, the cover and cover page, directions, ordering of questions, navigational path (branching, and page design are discussed.

  2. Characterization of Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Microfluidic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walji, Noosheen; MacDonald, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have been presented as a viable low-cost alternative with the versatility to accommodate many applications in disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Current microfluidic designs focus on the use of silicone and PDMS structures, and several models have been developed to describe these systems; however, the design process for paper-based devices is hindered by a lack of prediction capability. In this work we simplify the complex underlying physics of the capillary-driven flow mechanism in a porous medium and generate a practical numerical model capable of predicting the flow behaviour. We present our key insights regarding the properties that dictate the behaviour of fluid wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices. We compare the results from our model to experiments and discuss the application of our model to design of paper-based microfluidic devices for arsenic detection in drinking water in Bangladesh.

  3. Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wang, ShuQi; Wang, Lin; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-15

    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.

  4. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  5. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed.

  6. All-polymer photovoltaic devices of poly(3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Thomas W; Woo, Claire H; Kavulak, David F J; Thompson, Barry C; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2009-10-14

    The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 x 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s) and 0.05 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC(61)BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%.

  7. All-Polymer Photovoltaic Devices of Poly(3-(4- n -octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Holcombe, Thomas W.

    2009-10-14

    (Graph Presented) The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) and 0.05 cm2/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC61BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene) phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Comparing students’ perceptions of paper-based and electronic portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wesel, Maarten; Prop, Anouk

    2008-01-01

    Electronic portfolios offer many advantages to their paper-based counterparts, including, but not limited to working on ICT skills, adding multimedia and easier sharing of the portfolio. Previous research showed that the quality of a portfolio does not depend on the medium used. In this article the

  9. From Paper Based Clinical Practice Guidelines to Declarative Workflow Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2009-01-01

    a sub workflow can be described in a declarative workflow management system: the Resultmaker Online Consultant (ROC). The example demonstrates that declarative primitives allow to naturally extend the paper based flowchart to an executable model without introducing a complex cyclic control flow graph....

  10. Direct DNA Analysis with Paper-Based Ion Concentration Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Max M; Nosrati, Reza; San Gabriel, Maria C; Zini, Armand; Sinton, David

    2015-11-01

    DNA analysis is essential for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Conventional DNA testing is generally limited to the laboratory. Increasing access to relevant technologies can improve patient care and outcomes in both developed and developing regions. Here, we demonstrate direct DNA analysis in paper-based devices, uniquely enabled by ion concentration polarization at the interface of patterned nanoporous membranes in paper (paper-based ICP). Hepatitis B virus DNA targets in human serum are simultaneously preconcentrated, separated, and detected in a single 10 min operation. A limit of detection of 150 copies/mL is achieved without prior viral load amplification, sufficient for early diagnosis of hepatitis B. We clinically assess the DNA integrity of sperm cells in raw human semen samples. The percent DNA fragmentation results from the paper-based ICP devices strongly correlate (R(2) = 0.98) with the sperm chromatin structure assay. In all cases, agreement was 100% with respect to the clinical decision. Paper-based ICP can provide inexpensive and accessible advanced molecular diagnostics.

  11. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  12. A disposable power source in resource-limited environments: A paper-based biobattery generating electricity from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Kwan, Landen; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-11-15

    We report a novel paper-based biobattery which generates power from microorganism-containing liquid derived from renewable and sustainable wastewater which is readily accessible in the local environment. The device fuses the art of origami and the technology of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and has the potential to shift the paradigm for flexible and stackable paper-based batteries by enabling exceptional electrical characteristics and functionalities. 3D, modular, and retractable battery stack is created from (i) 2D paper sheets through high degrees of folding and (ii) multifunctional layers sandwiched for MFC device configuration. The stack is based on ninja star-shaped origami design formed by eight MFC modular blades, which is retractable from sharp shuriken (closed) to round frisbee (opened). The microorganism-containing wastewater is added into an inlet of the closed battery stack and it is transported into each MFC module through patterned fluidic pathways in the paper layers. During operation, the battery stack is transformed into the round frisbee to connect eight MFC modules in series for improving the power output and simultaneously expose all air-cathodes to the air for their cathodic reactions. The device generates desired values of electrical current and potential for powering an LED for more than 20min.

  13. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years.

  14. Rapid Laser Printing of Paper-Based Multilayer Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Feng, Qing-Ping; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Li, Na; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2016-09-27

    Laser printing has been widely used in daily life, and the fabricating process is highly efficient and mask-free. Here we propose a laser printing process for the rapid fabrication of paper-based multilayer circuits. It does not require wetting of the paper, which is more competitive in manufacturing paper-based circuits compared to conventional liquid printing process. In the laser printed circuits, silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are used as conducting material for their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. By repeating the printing process, multilayer three-dimensional (3D) structured circuits can be obtained, which is quite significant for complex circuit applications. In particular, the performance of the printed circuits can be exactly controlled by varying the process parameters including Ag-NW content and laminating temperature, which offers a great opportunity for rapid prototyping of customized products with designed properties. A paper-based high-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) label with optimized performance is successfully demonstrated. By adjusting the laminating temperature to 180 °C and the top-layer Ag-NW areal density to 0.3 mg cm(-2), the printed RFID antenna can be conjugately matched with the chip, and a big reading range of ∼12.3 cm with about 2.0 cm over that of the commercial etched Al antenna is achieved. This work provides a promising approach for fast and quality-controlled fabrication of multilayer circuits on common paper and may be enlightening for development of paper-based devices.

  15. Large-scale production of paper-based Li-ion cells

    CERN Document Server

    Zolin, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    This book describes in detail the use of natural cellulose fibers for the production of innovative, low-cost, and easily recyclable lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells by means of fast and reliable papermaking procedures that employ water as a solvent. In addition, it proposes specific methods to optimize the safety features of these paper-based cells and to improve the electronic conductivity of the electrodes by means of a carbonization process– an interesting novel technology that enables higher current rate capabilities to be achieved. The in-depth descriptions of materials, methods, and techniques are complemented by the inclusion of a general overview of electrochemical devices and, in particular, of different Li-ion battery configurations. Presenting the outcomes of this important research, the work is of wide interest to electrochemical engineers in both research institutions and industry.

  16. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    (ACEO) micropump. The ACEO pump consists of an array of interdigitated small and large PEDOTjPMMA encapsulated in a polyurethane (PUR) channel system. The pumping velocity was detected using fluorescent microspheres and a confocal microscope. The pump characteristics resembled those of pumps based...... polymer was developed by mixing polyurethane in to the solution from which the PEDOT was cast. The resulting PEDOTjPUR material showed good conductivity. The film was elongated 50 % ten times and apart from a small irreversible increase in resistance during the first elongation, the film resistance was...... a new short chained polyurethane. The resolution of the inkjet printer was in the order of 200 J-tm. The inkjet printed pattern is compared with the agarose stamping technique in a setup where the conductivity perpendicular to the stretching direction is measured on two electrodes fabricated by the two...

  17. Portable Bioactive Paper-Based Sensor for Quantification of Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kavruk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based biosensor was developed for the detection of the degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides. The biosensor quantifies acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in a fast, disposable, cheap, and accurate format. We specifically focused on the use of sugar or protein stabilizer to achieve a biosensor with long shelf-life. The new biosensor detected malathion with a detection limit of 2.5 ppm in 5 min incubation time. The operational stability was confirmed by testing 60 days storage at 4°C when glucose was used as stabilizer.

  18. Rapid light transmittance measurements in paper-based microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Swanson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed methodology and built a portable reader to assess light transmittance in paper-based microfluidic devices in a highly sensitive, user-friendly and field-appropriate manner. By sandwiching the paper assay between micro-light-emitting diodes and micro-photodetectors, the reader quantifies light transmittance through the paper independent of ambient light conditions. To demonstrate the utility of the reader, we created a single-use paper-based microfluidic assay for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, an indicator of liver health in blood. The paper assay and reader system accurately differentiated alanine aminotransferase levels across the human reference range and demonstrated significant differences at clinically relevant cutoff values. Results were provided within 10 min and were automatically generated without complex image analysis. Performance of this point-of-care diagnostic rivals the accuracy of lab-based spectrometer tests at a fraction of the cost, while matching the timeliness of low-cost portable assays, which have historically shown lower accuracy. This combination of features allows flexible deployment of low cost and quantitative diagnostics to resource-poor settings.

  19. Paper-based inkjet-printed microfluidic analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-04-27

    Rapid, precise, and reproducible deposition of a broad variety of functional materials, including analytical assay reagents and biomolecules, has made inkjet printing an effective tool for the fabrication of microanalytical devices. A ubiquitous office device as simple as a standard desktop printer with its multiple ink cartridges can be used for this purpose. This Review discusses the combination of inkjet printing technology with paper as a printing substrate for the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), which have developed into a fast-growing new field in analytical chemistry. After introducing the fundamentals of μPADs and inkjet printing, it touches on topics such as the microfluidic patterning of paper, tailored arrangement of materials, and functionalities achievable exclusively by the inkjet deposition of analytical assay components, before concluding with an outlook on future perspectives.

  20. Comparing students’ perceptions of paper-based and electronic portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Wesel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available \\Electronic portfolios offer many advantages to their paper-based counterparts, including, but not limited to working on ICT skills, adding multimedia and easier sharing of the portfolio. Previous research showed that the quality of a portfolio does not depend on the medium used. In this article the perceived support for self-reflection of an electronic portfolio and a paper-based portfolio in the same ecological setting are compared. We made use of the fact that during this study about half of the first year medical students was using an electronic portfolio (n = 157 and the other half a paper-based portfolio (n = 190. Nine questions were added to the standard end of the block evaluation, which is handed to 25 percent of year one educational groups. Findings suggest that perceptions about the support for self-reflection, and the usefulness of compiling a portfolio, do not differ between students using an electronic portfolio and students using a paper-based portfolio. Résumé : Les portfolios électroniques offrent de nombreux avantages comparativement à leurs homologues de papier, entre autres la possibilité de perfectionner les compétences liées aux TIC, d’ajouter des éléments multimédias et de partager plus facilement le portfolio. Des études précédentes ont montré que la qualité d’un portfolio ne dépend pas du support utilisé. Dans le présent article, nous comparons l’aide à l’autoréflexion perçue pour un portfolio électronique et un portfolio sur support papier dans le même environnement. Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous avons profité du fait qu’environ la moitié des étudiants de première année en médecine utilisait un portfolio électronique (n = 157 et l’autre moitié, un portfolio sur support papier (n = 190. Neuf questions ont été ajoutées à l’évaluation normale remise à 25 pour cent des groupes de première année à la fin du bloc de formation. Les résultats suggèrent que les

  1. From Paper-based to Electronic Securities Posttrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hermann; Parisi, Cristiana

    individual interviews and one group interview with key actors were conducted, complemented by document analysis and secondary data. The study has generated rich data and confirms that CREST achieved the dematerialisation of securities settlement through a joint industry effort effectively reducing settlement...... centuries old business practices in the investment industry. This study focuses on CREST, a leading settlement infrastructure that facilitated the leap from paper-based to electronic post-trading in London. In 1993 it started as a project of the Bank of England, and today, CREST is operated by Euroclear...... United Kingdom & Ireland (EUI). Research objectives of this study are to investigate the industry context, how the CREST project was managed and introduced at a time of crisis, how the technology was designed, and its impact on financial markets and today’s UK and European infrastructure. Twenty...

  2. Study of all-polymer-based waveguide resonant gratings and their applications for optimization of second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Luong, Mai; Thanh Ngan Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Nguyen, Chi; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Diep Lai, Ngoc

    2015-09-01

    We investigated theoretically and experimentally the optical properties of all-polymer-based one-dimensional waveguide resonant gratings (WRGs) and their important applications for the optimization of second-harmonic generation (SHG). We first studied the basic theory of the resonant modes of a simple grating-coupled waveguide realized on a material possessing a low refractive index contrast. The optical properties of any WRG were numerically simulated by using the finite-difference time domain method, performed by commercial Lumerical software. The polymer-based surface relief gratings were fabricated on azopolymer Disperse Red 1-Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (DR1-PMMA) thin films by using the two-beam interference method and mass transport effect. Their experimental reflection spectra measured as a function of incident light wavelength are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We then demonstrated a first application of such a polymer-based WRG for nonlinear optics. Thanks to the strong local electrical field in the WRG, due to a guided-mode resonance condition, the SHG signal of an infrared light beam was strongly enhanced by a factor of 25 as compared to the result obtained in a sample without a grating.

  3. All-polymer bistable resistive memory device based on nanoscale phase-separated PCBM-ferroelectric blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2012-11-21

    All polymer nonvolatile bistable memory devices are fabricated from blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and n-type semiconducting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The nanoscale phase separated films consist of PCBM domains that extend from bottom to top electrode, surrounded by a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Highly conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) polymer electrodes are used to engineer band offsets at the interfaces. The devices display resistive switching behavior due to modulation of this injection barrier. With careful optimization of the solvent and processing conditions, it is possible to spin cast very smooth blend films (Rrms ≈ 7.94 nm) and with good reproducibility. The devices exhibit high Ion/I off ratios (≈3 × 103), low read voltages (≈5 V), excellent dielectric response at high frequencies (Ïμr ≈ 8.3 at 1 MHz), and excellent retention characteristics up to 10 000 s. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Paper-based Pneumatic Locomotive Robot with Sticky Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demands for small-scale and low-cost robots have witnessed a great increase in recent years [1–5]. This paper introduces the design and fabrication of a novel, simple, low-cost and designer-friendly locomotive robot. The materials and tools to build the robot originate from everyday life. The robot is pneumatically powered and manually controlled by simply pumping and vacuuming the syringe repeatedly, which realizes reliable locomotion by folding and opening of the planes. In order to realize this complicated motion, a “3D Sticky Actuator” is developed. The motion and force analysis of actuator are then modelled by the numerical method to develop the relations between design parameters. This suggests a systematic and user interactive way of manufacturing various shapes of the actuator, depending on user-defined road condition (e.g. obstacles and slopes and other constraints. One key advantage of the paper-based robot is suggested by its high feasibility.

  5. Paper-based ELISA to rapidly detect Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Min; Chang, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Min-Yen; Lin, Jyun-Yu; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Huang, Chun-Te; Chung, Mu-Chi; Huang, Kui-Chou; Hsu, Cheng-En; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Shen, Ying-Cheng; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli is a generic indicator of fecal contamination, and certain serotypes cause food- and water-borne illness such as O157:H7. In the clinic, detection of bacteriuria, which is often due to E. coli, is critical before certain surgical procedures or in cases of nosocomial infection to prevent further adverse events such as postoperative infection or sepsis. In low- and middle-income countries, where insufficient equipment and facilities preclude modern methods of detection, a simple, low-cost diagnostic device to detect E. coli in water and in the clinic will have significant impact. We have developed a simple paper-based colorimetric platform to detect E. coli contamination in 5h. On this platform, the mean color intensity for samples with 10(5)cells/mL is 0.118±0.002 (n=4), and 0.0145±0.003 (Ppaper-based ELISA is an innovative point-of-care diagnostic tool to rapidly detect E. coli, and possibly other pathogens when customized as appropriate, especially in areas that lack advanced clinical equipment.

  6. Paper-Based Origami Flexible and Foldable Thermoelectric Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-11-12

    Paper has been an essential material in our daily life since ancient times. Its affordability, accessibility, adaptability, workability and its easiness of usage makes it an attractive structural material to develop many kind of technologies such as flexible electronics, energy storage and harvesting devices. Additionally, the scientific community has increased its interest on waste heat as an environmentally friendly energy source to support the increasing energy demand. Therefore, in this paper we described two affordable and flexible thermoelectric nanogenerators (TEGs) developed on paper substrates by the usage of simple micromachining and microfabrication techniques. Moreover, they exhibit mechanical stability and adaptability (through folding and cutting techniques) for a diverse set of scenarios where vertical or horizontal schemes can be conveniently used depending on the final application. The first TEG device, implemented on standard paper, generated a power of 0.5 nW (ΔT = 50 K). By changing the substrate to a tearless and extra-smooth polyester paper, the TEG performance was optimized achieving less internal resistance and a greater power of ~80 nW (ΔT = 75 K), at the cost of more rigidity in the substrate. This power represented over three times higher power production than the standard paper–based TEG with same dimensions, number of thermoelectric pairs and temperature difference. Another interesting aspect of paper based TEG is due to its foldability, one can control the temperature difference by unfolding (larger separation between hot and cold ends) and folding (smaller separation). Finally, one of the underlying objectives of this work is to spread the availability of essential technologies to the broad population by inclusion of everyday materials and simple processes.

  7. 3D Printed Paper-Based Microfluidic Analytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a pump-free and lightweight analytical tool, paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs attract more and more interest. If the flow speed of μPAD can be programmed, the analytical sequences could be designed and they will be more popular. This reports presents a novel μPAD, driven by the capillary force of cellulose powder, printed by a desktop three-dimensional (3D printer, which has some promising features, such as easy fabrication and programmable flow speed. First, a suitable size-scale substrate with open microchannels on its surface is printed. Next, the surface of the substrate is covered with a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS to seal the micro gap caused by 3D printing. Then, the microchannels are filled with a mixture of cellulose powder and deionized water in an appropriate proportion. After drying in an oven at 60 °C for 30 min, it is ready for use. As the different channel depths can be easily printed, which can be used to achieve the programmable capillary flow speed of cellulose powder in the microchannels. A series of microfluidic analytical experiments, including quantitative analysis of nitrite ion and fabrication of T-sensor were used to demonstrate its capability. As the desktop 3D printer (D3DP is very cheap and accessible, this device can be rapidly printed at the test field with a low cost and has a promising potential in the point-of-care (POC system or as a lightweight platform for analytical chemistry.

  8. All-Polymer Solar Cell Performance Optimized via Systematic Molecular Weight Tuning of Both Donor and Acceptor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Li, Ting I N G; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Guo, Peijun; Liao, Hsueh-Chung; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the number-average molecular weight (Mn) on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of all-polymer solar cells (APSCs) fabricated with the donor polymer poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-1,3-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-5,5-(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thiophene)] (PTPD3T) and acceptor polymer poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2); N2200) is systematically investigated. The Mn effect analysis of both PTPD3T and N2200 is enabled by implementing a polymerization strategy which produces conjugated polymers with tunable Mns. Experimental and coarse-grain modeling results reveal that systematic Mn variation greatly influences both intrachain and interchain interactions and ultimately the degree of phase separation and morphology evolution. Specifically, increasing Mn for both polymers shrinks blend film domain sizes and enhances donor-acceptor polymer-polymer interfacial areas, affording increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc). However, the greater disorder and intermixed feature proliferation accompanying increasing Mn promotes charge carrier recombination, reducing cell fill factors (FF). The optimized photoactive layers exhibit well-balanced exciton dissociation and charge transport characteristics, ultimately providing solar cells with a 2-fold PCE enhancement versus devices with nonoptimal Mns. Overall, it is shown that proper and precise tuning of both donor and acceptor polymer Mns is critical for optimizing APSC performance. In contrast to reports where maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are achieved for the highest Mns, the present two-dimensional Mn optimization matrix strategy locates a PCE "sweet spot" at intermediate Mns of both donor and acceptor polymers. This study provides synthetic methodologies to predictably access conjugated polymers with desired Mn and highlights the importance of optimizing Mn for both polymer

  9. Bacteria-powered battery on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2014-12-21

    Paper-based devices have recently emerged as simple and low-cost paradigms for fluid manipulation and analytical/clinical testing. However, there are significant challenges in developing paper-based devices at the system level, which contain integrated paper-based power sources. Here, we report a microfabricated paper-based bacteria-powered battery that is capable of generating power from microbial metabolism. The battery on paper showed a very short start-up time relative to conventional microbial fuel cells (MFCs); paper substrates eliminated the time traditional MFCs required to accumulate and acclimate bacteria on the anode. Only four batteries connected in series provided desired values of current and potential to power an LED for more than 30 minutes. The battery featured (i) a low-cost paper-based proton exchange membrane directly patterned on commercially available parchment paper and (ii) paper reservoirs for holding the anolyte and the catholyte for an extended period of time. Based on this concept, we also demonstrate the use of paper-based test platforms for the rapid characterization of electricity-generating bacteria. This paper-based microbial screening tool does not require external pumps/tubings and represents the most rapid test platform (<50 min) compared with the time needed by using traditional screening tools (up to 103 days) and even recently proposed MEMS arrays (< 2 days).

  10. High-performance all-polymer solar cells via side-chain engineering of the polymer acceptor: the importance of the polymer packing structure and the nanoscale blend morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Wonho; Kim, Taesu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Woo, Han Young; Wang, Cheng; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-04-17

    The effectiveness of side-chain engineering is demonstrated to produce highly efficient all-polymer solar cells (efficiency of 5.96%) using a series of naphthalene diimide-based polymer acceptors with controlled side chains. The dramatic changes in the polymer packing, blend morphology, and electron mobility of all-polymer solar cells elucidate clear trends in the photovoltaic performances.

  11. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  12. Broadband All-Polymer Phototransistors with Nanostructured Bulk Heterojunction Layers of NIR-Sensing n-Type and Visible Light-Sensing p-Type Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemi; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Kim, Hwajeong; Bradley, Donal D C; Ha, Chang-Sik; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2015-11-13

    We report 'broadband light-sensing' all-polymer phototransistors with the nanostructured bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers of visible (VIS) light-sensing electron-donating (p-type) polymer and near infrared (NIR) light-sensing electron-accepting (n-type) polymer. Poly[{2,5-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-bis-(thien-2-yl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-diyl}-co-{2,2'-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)]-5,5'-diyl}] (PEHTPPD-BT), which is synthesized via Suzuki coupling and employed as the n-type polymer, shows strong optical absorption in the NIR region (up to 1100 nm) in the presence of weak absorption in the VIS range (400~600 nm). To strengthen the VIS absorption, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is introduced as the p-type polymer. All-polymer phototransistors with the BHJ (P3HT:PEHTPPD-BT) layers, featuring a peculiar nano-domain morphology, exhibit typical p-type transistor characteristics and efficiently detect broadband (VIS~NIR) lights. The maximum corrected responsivity (without contribution of dark current) reaches up to 85~88% (VIS) and 26~40% (NIR) of theoretical responsivity. The charge separation process between P3HT and PEHTPPD-BT components in the highest occupied molecular orbital is proposed as a major working mechanism for the effective NIR sensing.

  13. Computer versus Paper-Based Reading: A Case Study in English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to determine the preference of prospective English teachers in performing computer and paper-based reading tasks and to what extent computer and paper-based reading influence their reading speed, accuracy and comprehension. The research was conducted at a State run University, English Language Teaching Department in Turkey. The…

  14. n-Type semiconducting naphthalene diimide-perylene diimide copolymers: controlling crystallinity, blend morphology, and compatibility toward high-performance all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ye-Jin; Earmme, Taeshik; Courtright, Brett A E; Eberle, Frank N; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2015-04-08

    Knowledge of the critical factors that determine compatibility, blend morphology, and performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of an electron-accepting polymer and an electron-donating polymer remains limited. To test the idea that bulk crystallinity is such a critical factor, we have designed a series of new semiconducting naphthalene diimide (NDI)-selenophene/perylene diimide (PDI)-selenophene random copolymers, xPDI (10PDI, 30PDI, 50PDI), whose crystallinity varies with composition, and investigated them as electron acceptors in BHJ solar cells. Pairing of the reference crystalline (crystalline domain size Lc = 10.22 nm) NDI-selenophene copolymer (PNDIS-HD) with crystalline (Lc = 9.15 nm) benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene copolymer (PBDTTT-CT) donor yields incompatible blends, whose BHJ solar cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.4%. However, pairing of the new 30PDI with optimal crystallinity (Lc = 5.11 nm) as acceptor with the same PBDTTT-CT donor yields compatible blends and all-polymer solar cells with enhanced performance (PCE = 6.3%, Jsc = 18.6 mA/cm(2), external quantum efficiency = 91%). These photovoltaic parameters observed in 30PDI:PBDTTT-CT devices are the best so far for all-polymer solar cells, while the short-circuit current (Jsc) and external quantum efficiency are even higher than reported values for [70]-fullerene:PBDTTT-CT solar cells. The morphology and bulk carrier mobilities of the polymer/polymer blends varied substantially with crystallinity of the acceptor polymer component and thus with the NDI/PDI copolymer composition. These results demonstrate that the crystallinity of a polymer component and thus compatibility, blend morphology, and efficiency of polymer/polymer blend solar cells can be controlled by molecular design.

  15. Low-cost bioanalysis on paper-based and its hybrid microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Maowei; Sanjay, Sharma Timilsina; Benhabib, Merwan; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2015-12-01

    Low-cost assays have broad applications ranging from human health diagnostics and food safety inspection to environmental analysis. Hence, low-cost assays are especially attractive for rural areas and developing countries, where financial resources are limited. Recently, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a low-cost platform which greatly accelerates the point of care (POC) analysis in low-resource settings. This paper reviews recent advances of low-cost bioanalysis on paper-based microfluidic platforms, including fully paper-based and paper hybrid microfluidic platforms. In this review paper, we first summarized the fabrication techniques of fully paper-based microfluidic platforms, followed with their applications in human health diagnostics and food safety analysis. Then we highlighted paper hybrid microfluidic platforms and their applications, because hybrid platforms could draw benefits from multiple device substrates. Finally, we discussed the current limitations and perspective trends of paper-based microfluidic platforms for low-cost assays.

  16. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  17. An Evaluation of a Language for Paper-based Form Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farruglia, Phillip; Borg, Johnathan; Camilleri, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    between paper-based form sketching and CAGM systems. Evaluation results revealed that whilst PSL is easy-to-learn, yet it requires improvements. Such a sketching language contributes a step towards simulating early form design solutions by the combined use of paper-based sketches and 3D models....... form idea. The research disclosed in this paper is aimed at combining the benefits of paper-based freehand sketches with those of three-dimensional (3D) models. More specifically, this paper reports the on-going development of a prescribed sketching language (PSL) required to create a seamless link...

  18. Two-ply channels for faster wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplisson, Conor K; Schilling, Kevin M; Pedrotti, William L; Stone, Howard A; Martinez, Andres W

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of porous two-ply channels for paper-based microfluidic devices that wick fluids significantly faster than conventional, porous, single-ply channels. The two-ply channels were made by stacking two single-ply channels on top of each other and were fabricated entirely out of paper, wax and toner using two commercially available printers, a convection oven and a thermal laminator. The wicking in paper-based channels was studied and modeled using a modified Lucas-Washburn equation to account for the effect of evaporation, and a paper-based titration device incorporating two-ply channels was demonstrated.

  19. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative detection of T7 bacteriophages using paper based sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Pande, Tripti; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2015-08-01

    Viruses cause many infectious diseases and consequently epidemic health threats. Paper based diagnostics and filters can offer attractive options for detecting and deactivating pathogens. However, due to their infectious characteristics, virus detection using paper diagnostics is more challenging compared to the detection of bacteria, enzymes, DNA or antigens. The major objective of this study was to prepare reliable, degradable and low cost paper diagnostics to detect viruses, without using sophisticated optical or microfluidic analytical instruments. T7 bacteriophage was used as a model virus. A paper based sandwich ELISA technique was developed to detect and quantify the T7 phages in solution. The paper based sandwich ELISA detected T7 phage concentrations as low as 100 pfu/mL to as high as 10(9) pfu/mL. The compatibility of paper based sandwich ELISA with the conventional titre count was tested using T7 phage solutions of unknown concentrations. The paper based sandwich ELISA technique is faster and economical compared to the traditional detection techniques. Therefore, with proper calibration and right reagents, and by following the biosafety regulations, the paper based technique can be said to be compatible and economical to the sophisticated laboratory diagnostic techniques applied to detect pathogenic viruses and other microorganisms.

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  3. Strong Composition Effects in All-Polymer Phototransistors with Bulk Heterojunction Layers of p-type and n-type Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemi; Lee, Chulyeon; Kim, Hwajeong; Seo, Jooyeok; Song, Myeonghun; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2017-01-11

    We report the composition effect of polymeric sensing channel layers on the performance of all-polymer phototransistors featuring bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure of electron-donating (p-type) and electron-accepting (n-type) polymers. As an n-type component, poly(3-hexylthiopehe-co-benzothiadiazole) end-capped with 4-hexylthiophene (THBT-4ht) was synthesized via two-step reactions. A well-studied conjugated polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), was employed as a p-type polymer. The composition of BHJ (P3HT:THBT-4ht) films was studied in detail by varying the THBT-4ht contents (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100 wt %). The best charge separation in the P3HT:THBT-4ht films was measured at 30 wt % by the photoluminescence (PL) study, while the charge transport characteristics of devices were improved at the low THBT-4ht contents (polymer phototransistors was higher than that of the phototransistors with the pristine P3HT layers and strongly dependent on the BHJ composition. The highest (corrected) responsivity (RC) was achieved at 20 wt %, which can be attributable to the balance between the best charge separation and transport states, as investigated for crystal nanostructures and surface morphology by employing synchrotron-radiation grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, high-resolution/scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

  4. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    -binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis......We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible...... phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis...

  5. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.middleton@roq.net.au; Bradford, C. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Frantzis, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Ambler, A. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Sisson, T. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Montgomerie, D. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Martin, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  6. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  7. Sample injection and electrophoretic separation on a simple laminated paper based analytical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiu; Zhong, Minghua; Cai, Longfei; Zheng, Qingyu; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    We described a strategy to perform multistep operations on a simple laminated paper-based separation device by using electrokinetic flow to manipulate the fluids. A laminated crossed-channel paper-based separation device was fabricated by cutting a filter paper sheet followed by lamination. Multiple function units including sample loading, sample injection, and electrophoretic separation were integrated on a single paper based analytical device for the first time, by applying potential at different reservoirs for sample, sample waste, buffer, and buffer waste. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, mixed sample solution containing carmine and sunset yellow were loaded in the sampling channel, and then injected into separation channel followed by electrophoretic separation, by adjusting the potentials applied at the four terminals of sampling and separation channel. The effects of buffer pH, buffer concentration, channel width, and separation time on resolution of electrophoretic separation were studied. This strategy may be used to perform multistep operations such as reagent dilution, sample injection, mixing, reaction, and separation on a single microfluidic paper based analytical device, which is very attractive for building micro total analysis systems on microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

  8. Microfluidic paper-based biomolecule preconcentrator based on ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Il; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kwak, Rhokyun; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2016-06-21

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for molecular detection have great potential in the field of point-of-care diagnostics. Currently, a critical problem being faced by μPADs is improving their detection sensitivity. Various preconcentration processes have been developed, but they still have complicated structures and fabrication processes to integrate into μPADs. To address this issue, we have developed a novel paper-based preconcentrator utilizing ion concentration polarization (ICP) with minimal addition on lateral-flow paper. The cation selective membrane (i.e., Nafion) is patterned on adhesive tape, and this tape is then attached to paper-based channels. When an electric field is applied across the Nafion, ICP is initiated to preconcentrate the biomolecules in the paper channel. Departing from previous paper-based preconcentrators, we maintain steady lateral fluid flow with the separated Nafion layer; as a result, fluorescent dyes and proteins (FITC-albumin and bovine serum albumin) are continuously delivered to the preconcentration zone, achieving high preconcentration performance up to 1000-fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the Nafion-patterned tape can be integrated with various geometries (multiplexed preconcentrator) and platforms (string and polymer microfluidic channel). This work would facilitate integration of various ICP devices, including preconcentrators, pH/concentration modulators, and micro mixers, with steady lateral flows in paper-based platforms.

  9. Paper-based microfluidics with an erodible polymeric bridge giving controlled release and timed flow shutoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi-Anbuhi, Sana; Henry, Aleah; Leung, Vincent; Sicard, Clémence; Pennings, Kevin; Pelton, Robert; Brennan, John D; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2014-01-01

    Water soluble pullulan films were formatted into paper-based microfluidic devices, serving as a controlled time shutoff valve. The utility of the valve was demonstrated by a one-step, fully automatic implementation of a complex pesticide assay requiring timed, sequential exposure of an immobilized enzyme layer to separate liquid streams. Pullulan film dissolution and the capillary wicking of aqueous solutions through the device were measured and modeled providing valve design criteria. The films dissolve mainly by surface erosion, meaning the film thickness mainly controls the shutoff time. This method can also provide time-dependent sequential release of reagents without compromising the simplicity and low cost of paper-based devices.

  10. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical nano-immunesensing using origami paper based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Patterned paper has characteristics that lead to miniaturized assays that run by capillary action with small volumes of fluids. These methods suggest a path for the development of simple, inexpensive, and portable diagnostic assays that can be useful in remote settings, where simple immunoassays are becoming increasingly important for detecting disease and monitoring health. Incorporation of nanomaterials plays a major role in sensing probe immobilization and detection sensitivity of paper-based devices. Nanomaterial properties, such as increased surface area, have aided with signal amplification and lower detection limits. This review focuses on application of nanomaterials as signal amplification elements on origami paper-based electro-analytical devices for immune biomarkers detection with a brief introduction about various fabrication techniques and designs, biological and detection methods. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the selected latest research articles from 2013 to May 2015 on application of nanomaterials in various types of origami paper based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical immunosensors. The review breaks into two parts. The first part devotes to the development and applications of nanomaterials in electrochemical immunesensing. The second part provides an overview of recent origami paper based photoelectrochemical immunosensors.

  11. Cost Effective Paper-Based Colorimetric Microfluidic Devices and Mobile Phone Camera Readers for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T.; Pengpumkiat, Sumate; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Huynh, Daniel; Remcho, Thomas P.; Remcho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple and direct method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices that can be used for a wide range of colorimetric assay applications. With these devices, assays can be performed within minutes to allow for quantitative colorimetric analysis by use of a widely accessible iPhone camera and an RGB color reader application…

  12. Integration of paper-based microfluidic devices with commercial electrochemical readers

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George M.; Nie, Zhihong; Deiss, Frédérique; Liu, Xinyu; Akbulut, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    The combination of simple Electrochemical Micro-Paper-based Analytical Devices (E\\(\\mu\\)PADs) with commercially available glucometers allows rapid, quantitative electrochemical analysis of a number of compounds relevant to human health (e.g., glucose, cholesterol, lactate, and alcohol) in blood or urine.

  13. The Importance of Preserving Paper-Based Artifacts in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The preservation of paper-based artifacts is an essential issue for collection management in academic libraries. In recent years, the library science profession has often favored reformatting through microfilm or digitization, assuming too quickly that information matters, whereas an artifact's medium does not. However, much recent humanities…

  14. Plasma treatment of paper for protein immobilization on paper-based chemiluminescence immunodevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Li, Huifang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Chu, Weiru

    2016-05-15

    A novel protein immobilization method based on plasma treatment of paper on the low-cost paper-based immunodevice was established in this work. By using a benchtop plasma cleaner, the paper microzone was treated by oxygen plasma treatment for 4 min and then the antibody can be directly immobilized on the paper surface. Aldehyde group was produced after the plasma treatment, which can be verified from the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. By linked to aldehyde group, the antibody can be immobilized on the paper surface without any other pretreatment. A paper-based immunodevice was introduced here through this antibody immobilization method. With sandwich chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method, the paper-based immunodevice was successfully performed for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection in human serum with a linear range of 0.1-80.0 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.03 ng/mL, which was 30 times lower than the clinical CEA level. Comparing to the other protein immobilization methods on paper-based device, this strategy was faster and simpler and had potential applications in point-of-care testing, public health and environmental monitoring.

  15. Paper-based microreactor integrating cell culture and subsequent immunoassay for the investigation of cellular phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Huang, Chia-Hao

    2014-12-24

    Investigation of cellular phosphorylation and signaling pathway has recently gained much attention for the study of pathogenesis of cancer. Related conventional bioanalytical operations for this study including cell culture and Western blotting are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this work, a paper-based microreactor has been developed to integrate cell culture and subsequent immunoassay on a single paper. The paper-based microreactor was a filter paper with an array of circular zones for running multiple cell cultures and subsequent immunoassays. Cancer cells were directly seeded in the circular zones without hydrogel encapsulation and cultured for 1 day. Subsequently, protein expressions including structural, functional, and phosphorylated proteins of the cells could be detected by their specific antibodies, respectively. Study of the activation level of phosphorylated Stat3 of liver cancer cells stimulated by IL-6 cytokine was demonstrated by the paper-based microreactor. This technique can highly reduce tedious bioanalytical operation and sample and reagent consumption. Also, the time required by the entire process can be shortened. This work provides a simple and rapid screening tool for the investigation of cellular phosphorylation and signaling pathway for understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. In addition, the operation of the paper-based microreactor is compatible to the molecular biological training, and therefore, it has the potential to be developed for routine protocol for various research areas in conventional bioanalytical laboratories.

  16. 78 FR 56817 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... & Paper Association's 51st Annual Survey of Paper, Paperboard and Pulp, 2011. According to Customs data... quality strong pulp for making paper and paper-based packaging. (h) Linerboard means a grade of containerboard that is used as facing material in the manufacture of corrugated or solid fiber shipping boxes....

  17. 78 FR 211 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... corrugated or solid fiber shipping boxes. (i) Manufacture or produce means the process of transforming pulp... American Forest & Paper Association's 51st Annual Survey of Paper, Paperboard and Pulp, 2011. According to... process that transforms wood into a high quality strong pulp for making paper and paper-based...

  18. 78 FR 187 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1222 RIN 0581-AD21 Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion... CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and Vegetable..., promotion, and information activities to expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing or use of...

  19. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, G.; Tan, T.; Ziaie, B.

    2013-11-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc-copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ˜3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process.

  20. Quantifying oxygen in paper-based cell cultures with luminescent thin film sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Matthew W; Kenney, Rachael M; Truong, Andrew S; Lockett, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for generating 3D tissue-like cultures because paper is readily available and does not require specialized equipment to pattern, cut, or use. By controlling the exchange of fresh culture medium with the paper-based scaffolds, we can engineer diffusion-dominated environments similar to those found in spheroids or solid tumors. Oxygen tension directly regulates cellular phenotype and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and also has chemotactic properties. To date, gradients of oxygen generated in the paper-based cultures have relied on cellular response-based readouts. In this work, we prepared a luminescent thin film capable of quantifying oxygen tensions in apposed cell-containing paper-based scaffolds. The oxygen sensors, which are polystyrene films containing a Pd(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin dye, are photostable, stable in culture conditions, and not cytotoxic. They have a linear response for oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 160 mmHg O2, and a Stern-Volmer constant (K sv) of 0.239 ± 0.003 mmHg O2 (-1). We used these oxygen-sensing films to measure the spatial and temporal changes in oxygen tension for paper-based cultures containing a breast cancer line that was engineered to constitutively express a fluorescent protein. By acquiring images of the oxygen-sensing film and the fluorescently labeled cells, we were able to approximate the oxygen consumption rates of the cells in our cultures.

  1. Experimental Study on Inkjet-Printed Passive UHF RFID Tags on Versatile Paper-Based Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the possibilities and challenges of passive UHF RFID tag antennas manufactured by inkjet printing silver nanoparticle ink on versatile paper-based substrates. The most efficient manufacturing parameters, such as the pattern resolution, were determined and the optimal number of printed layers was evaluated for each substrate material. Next, inkjet-printed passive UHF RFID tags were fabricated on each substrate with the optimized parameters and number of layers. According to our measurements, the tags on different paper substrates showed peak read ranges of 4–6.5 meters and the tags on different cardboard substrates exhibited peak read ranges of 2–6 meters. Based on their wireless performance, these inkjet-printed paper-based passive UHF RFID tags are sufficient for many future wireless applications and comparable to tags fabricated on more traditional substrates, such as polyimide.

  2. The Synergy of Paper-Based and Digital Material for Ubiquitous Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Leone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods has allowed for access to ubiquitous global connections and to a large number of resources available to foreign language students at all age and levels of schooling. Further, the combination of traditional paper-based learning material with digital one in a ubiquitous learning environment may offer great innovation in the delivery of education, to foster a student-centred approach, and to accommodate the needs of ubiquitous learners’ personal lifestyles. In this direction, research has increasingly emphasised the importance of a technology-enhanced rather than technology-driven learning approach. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integration of paper-based and digital material through Quick Response (QR code for ubiquitous English language learners in three different scenarios. Results show that, despite some difficulties, flexibility and personalisation of learning have been perceived as an asset.

  3. Prediction and validation of concentration gradient generation in a paper-based microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ilhoon; Kim, Gang-June; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    A paper-based microfluidic channel has obtained attention as a diagnosis device that can implement various chemical or biological reactions. With benefits of thin, flexible, and strong features of paper devices, for example, it is often utilized for cell culture where controlling oxygen, nutrients, metabolism, and signaling molecules gradient affects the growth and movement of the cells. Among various features of paper-based microfluidic devices, we focus on establishment of concentration gradient in a paper channel. The flow is subject to dispersion and capillary effects because a paper is a porous media. In this presentation, we describe facile, fast and accurate method of generating a concentration gradient by using flow mixing of different concentrations. Both theoretical prediction and experimental validation are discussed along with inter-diffusion characteristics of porous flows. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  4. Laser-assisted reduction of graphene oxide for paper based large area flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, E.; Andersson, H.; Engholm, M.; Forsberg, S.; Olin, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a promising method for fabrication of conductive tracks on paper based substrates by laser assisted reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO). Printed electronics on paper based substrates is be coming more popular due to lower cost and recyclability. Fabrication of conductive tracks is of great importance where metal, carbon and polymer inks are commonly used. An emerging option is reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), which can be a good conductor. Here we have evaluated reduction of GO by using a 532 nm laser source, showing promising results with a decrease of sheet resistance from >100 M Ω/Sqr for unreduced GO down to 126 Ω/Sqr. without any observable damage to the paper substrates.

  5. Rational design of capillary-driven flows for paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emanuel; Urteaga, Raúl; Berli, Claudio L A

    2015-05-21

    The design of paper-based assays that integrate passive pumping requires a precise programming of the fluid transport, which has to be encoded in the geometrical shape of the substrate. This requirement becomes critical in multiple-step processes, where fluid handling must be accurate and reproducible for each operation. The present work theoretically investigates the capillary imbibition in paper-like substrates to better understand fluid transport in terms of the macroscopic geometry of the flow domain. A fluid dynamic model was derived for homogeneous porous substrates with arbitrary cross-sectional shapes, which allows one to determine the cross-sectional profile required for a prescribed fluid velocity or mass transport rate. An extension of the model to slit microchannels is also demonstrated. Calculations were validated by experiments with prototypes fabricated in our lab. The proposed method constitutes a valuable tool for the rational design of paper-based assays.

  6. Capillarity-driven blood plasma separation on paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantimoy; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate capillarity-driven plasma separation from whole blood on simple paper-based H-channels. This methodology, unlike other reported techniques, does not necessitate elaborate and complex instrumentation, and the usage of expensive consumables. We believe that this technique will be ideally suited to be implemented in rapid and portable blood diagnostic devices designed to be operative at locations with limited resources.

  7. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  8. Paper based colorimetric biosensing platform utilizing cross-linked siloxane as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miao; Yang, Minghui; Zhou, Feimeng

    2014-05-15

    Paper based colorimetric biosensing platform utilizing cross-linked siloxane 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTMS) as probe was developed for the detection of a broad range of targets including H2O2, glucose and protein biomarker. APTMS was extensively used for the modification of filter papers to develop paper based analytical devices. We discovered when APTMS was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA), the resulting complex (APTMS-GA) displays brick-red color, and a visual color change was observed when the complex reacted with H2O2. By integrating the APTMS-GA complex with filter paper, the modified paper enables quantitative detection of H2O2 through the monitoring of the color intensity change of the paper via software Image J. Then, with the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the modified paper, glucose can be detected through the detection of enzymatically generated H2O2. For protein biomarker prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay, we immobilized capture, not captured anti-PSA antibody (Ab1) onto the paper surface and using GOx modified gold nanorod (GNR) as detection anti-PSA antibody (Ab2) label. The detection of PSA was also achieved via the liberated H2O2 when the GOx label reacted with glucose. The results demonstrated the possibility of this paper based sensor for the detection of different analytes with wide linear range. The low cost and simplicity of this paper based sensor could be developed for "point-of-care" analysis and find wide application in different areas.

  9. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  10. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications.

  11. Fully integrated ready-to-use paper-based electrochemical biosensor to detect nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Minotti, Clarissa; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-07-15

    Paper-based microfluidic devices are gaining large popularity because of their uncontested advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, limited necessity of laboratory infrastructure and skilled personnel. Moreover, these devices require only small volumes of reagents and samples, provide rapid analysis, and are portable and disposable. Their combination with electrochemical detection offers additional benefits of high sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity of instrumentation, portability, and low cost of the total system. Herein, we present the first example of an integrated paper-based screen-printed electrochemical biosensor device able to quantify nerve agents. The principle of this approach is based on dual electrochemical measurements, in parallel, of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme activity towards butyrylthiocholine with and without exposure to contaminated samples. The sensitivity of this device is largely improved using a carbon black/Prussian Blue nanocomposite as a working electrode modifier. The proposed device allows an entirely reagent-free analysis. A strip of a nitrocellulose membrane, that contains the substrate, is integrated with a paper-based test area that holds a screen-printed electrode and BChE. Paraoxon, chosen as nerve agent simulant, is linearly detected down to 3µg/L. The use of extremely affordable manufacturing techniques provides a rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive tool for in situ assessment of nerve agent contamination. This represents a powerful approach for use by non-specialists, that can be easily broadened to other (bio)systems.

  12. Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2014-10-15

    Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms.

  13. An approach to enhance self-compensation capability in paper-based devices for chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Jie; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a simple design for increasing the tolerance of reagent dislocation on a paper-based platform using a combination of wax-treated paper and a vortex mixer. To date, massive budgetary funds are required in the biotechnological industry to develop new applications; a large part of that cost is attributable to the screening of specific chemical compounds. Here, we propose using a liquid-handling robot to automatically deposit selected reagents on a paper-based platform. We also present a preliminary concept approach for developing a reagent placing device with simple and inexpensive features. A defect of inaccuracy was observed between droplet location and test well location after viewing the performance of the liquid-handling robot on our paper-based platform. Because of dislocation error resulting from robotic reagent placement, we decided to apply an external, rotational force following droplet placement in order to compensate for the distance of reagent dislocation. Note, the largest distance of reagent dislocation was determined by examining the results of altering applied reagent volume, but not concentration, in volumes from 5 µL to 30 µL in a series of experiments. As a result of these experiments, we observed that dislocation was positively affected by an increase in applied volume. A colorimetric assay for nitrite detection was also performed to confirm the feasibility of this method. This work, we believe, can minimize the cost of chemical compound screening for the biotechnological industry.

  14. An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z W; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Tan, H L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional microfluidic devices are typically complex and expensive. The devices require the use of pneumatic control systems or highly precise pumps to control the flow in the devices. This work investigates an alternative method using paper based microfluidic devices to replace conventional microfluidic devices. Size based separation and extraction experiments conducted were able to separate free dye from a mixed protein and dye solution. Experimental results showed that pure fluorescein isothiocyanate could be separated from a solution of mixed fluorescein isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin. The analysis readings obtained from a spectrophotometer clearly show that the extracted tartrazine sample did not contain any amount of Blue-BSA, because its absorbance value was 0.000 measured at a wavelength of 590nm, which correlated to Blue-BSA. These demonstrate that paper based microfluidic devices, which are inexpensive and easy to implement, can potentially replace their conventional counterparts by the use of simple geometry designs and the capillary action. These findings will potentially help in future developments of paper based microfluidic devices.

  15. Paper-based cell culture platform and its emerging biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper has recently attracted increasing attention as a substrate for various biomedical applications. By modifying its physical and chemical properties, paper can be used as an alternative to conventional cell culture substrates. Because it can be stacked into a three-dimensional (3D structure, which can better mimic the in vivo cell microenvironment. Paper has shown great potential as a 3D cell culture platform for developing normal and diseased models. This platform gives precise control over extracellular matrix (ECM composition as well as cell distribution and precise analysis of the interactions between cells. Paper-based platforms have been applied for pathophysiological studies and therapeutic intervention studies. In this paper, we first discuss the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of paper to develop various 2D and 3D cell culture platforms. We then review the applications of paper-based cell culture platforms for the construction of in vitro disease models, drug screening, and cell cryopreservation applications. Because of its advantages such as biocompatibility, eco-friendliness, cost efficiency, and ease of large-scale production, we believe that paper-based cell culture platforms would play an important role in the fields of biomedicine.

  16. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska, E-mail: ewitkowskanery@ichf.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}/Na{sup +}) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only

  17. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn; Siangproh, Weena; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Henry, Charles S; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10-200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer.

  18. Paper-based chromatographic chemiluminescence chip for the detection of dichlorvos in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kou, Juan; Xing, Huizhong; Li, Baoxin

    2014-02-15

    Paper chromatography was a big breakthrough in the early of 20th century but it is rarely used due to the long separation time and the diffusion on the sample spots. In this work, for the first time, a paper-based chemiluminescence (CL) analytical device combined with paper chromatography was developed for the determination of dichlorvos (DDV) in vegetables without complicated sample pretreatment. The paper chromatography separation procedure can be accomplished in 12 min on a paper support (0.8 × 7.0 cm(2)) by using 5 µL sample spotted on it. After sample developing, the detection area (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) was cut and inserted between two layers of water-impermeable single-sided adhesive tapes. The paper-based chip was made by attaching the middle layer of paper onto the bottom layer. Then it was covered by another tape layer, which was patterned by the cutting method to form a square hole (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) in it. 10 μL mixed solution of luminol and H2O2 was dropped on the detection area to produce CL. A linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of DDV in the range between 10.0 ng mL(-1) and 1.0 μg mL(-1)and the detection limit was 3.6 ng mL(-1). Water-soluble metal ions and vitamins can be developed at different spatial locations relative to DDV, eliminating interference with DDV during detection. The paper-based chromatographic chip can be successfully used for the determination of DDV without complicated sample preparation in vegetables. This study should, therefore, be suitable for rapid and sensitive detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides in environmental and food samples.

  19. A new approach to systematization of the management of paper-based clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Shunji; Yamauchi, Kazunobu

    2006-05-01

    The present study was performed to explore a new approach to systematization of the management of paper-based clinical pathways by developing a new system requiring little capital investment. A new system was developed and incorporated into an existing network at a hospital with a paper-based clinical pathway management system. The effectiveness of this new system was examined by comparing the management efficiency of clinical pathways before and after its introduction, and by comparison of the new system with other such systems currently in place at other medical institutions with regard to efficiency. In addition, the acceptability of the system for other medical institutions was examined by providing free access to the software on the Internet. The development costs of the new system were low. Although the new system has been in place for more than 3 years, no problems have yet been encountered in either the existing network system or in the management system itself. The new system allows the processing of statistics and analysis of circulation or variance automatically, neither of which were possible in the original paper-based system. We provided open access to the system as free software on the Internet, and it has since been downloaded by many medical institutions and enterprises in Japan. This system is very useful for institutions where it is difficult to introduce expensive new systems for systematic management of clinical pathways, such as electronic medical records, because of problems regarding capital or system management, and it may also be useful in other countries.

  20. Development of a paper-based carbon nanotube sensing microfluidic device for biological detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-I; Lei, Kin Fong; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Hsu, Hsiao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been utilized for the biological detection due to its extremely sensitive to biological molecules. A paper-based CNT sensing microfluidic device has been developed for the detection of protein, i.e., biotin-avidin, binding. We have developed a fabrication method that allows controlled deposition of bundled CNTs with well-defined dimensions to form sensors on paper. Then, polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) was used to pattern the hydrophobic boundary on paper to form the reaction sites. The proposed fabrication method is based on vacuum filtration process with a metal mask covering on a filter paper for the definition of the dimension of sensor. The length, width, and thickness of the CNT-based sensors are readily controlled by the metal mask and the weight of the CNT powder used during the filtration process, respectively. Homogeneous deposition of CNTs with well-defined dimensions can be achieved. The CNT-based sensor on paper has been demonstrated on the detection of the protein binding. Biotin was first immobilized on the CNT's sidewall and avidin suspended solution was applied to the site. The result of the biotin-avidin binding was measured by the resistance change of the sensor, which is a label-free detection method. It showed the CNT is sensitive to the biological molecules and the proposed paper-based CNT sensing device is a possible candidate for point-of-care biosensors. Thus, electrical bio-assays on paper-based microfluidics can be realized to develop low cost, sensitive, and specific diagnostic devices.

  1. Tracking the Invasion of Small Numbers of Cells in Paper-Based Assays with Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Andrew S; Lochbaum, Christian A; Boyce, Matthew W; Lockett, Matthew R

    2015-11-17

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for culturing mammalian cells in a three-dimensional environment. There are a number of previously published studies, which utilize these scaffolds to generate models of aortic valves, cardiac ischemia and reperfusion, and solid tumors. These models have largely relied on fluorescence imaging and microscopy to quantify cells in the scaffolds. We present here a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method, capable of quantifying multiple cell types in a single culture with the aid of DNA barcodes: unique sequences of DNA introduced to the genome of individual cells or cell types through lentiviral transduction. PCR-based methods are highly specific and are amenable to high-throughput and multiplexed analyses. To validate this method, we engineered two different breast cancer lines to constitutively express either a green or red fluorescent protein. These cells lines allowed us to directly compare the ability of fluorescence imaging (of the fluorescent proteins) and qPCR (of the unique DNA sequences of the fluorescent proteins) to quantify known numbers of cells in the paper based-scaffolds. We also used both methods to quantify the distribution of these breast cell lines in homotypic and heterotypic invasion assays. In the paper-based invasion assays, a single sheet of paper containing cells suspended in a hydrogel was sandwiched between sheets of paper containing only hydrogel. The stack was incubated, and the cells invaded the adjacent layers. The individual sheets of the invasion assay were then destacked and the number of cells in each layer quantified. Our results show both methods can accurately detect cell populations of greater than 500 cells. The qPCR method can repeatedly and accurately detect as few as 50 cells, allowing small populations of highly invasive cells to be detected and differentiated from other cell types.

  2. Paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband fractal antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Two new designs, a miniaturised UWB monopole, which utilises a fractal matching network and is the smallest reported inkjet-printed UWB printed antenna to date, and a fourth-order Koch Snowflake monopole, which utilises a Sierpinski gasket fractal for ink reduction, are demonstrated. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication costs in inkjet-printed antennas, while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  3. A Three-Dimensional Origami Paper-Based Device for Potentiometric Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiawang; Li, Bowei; Chen, Lingxin; Qin, Wei

    2016-10-10

    Current paper-based potentiometric ion-sensing platforms are planar devices used for clinically relevant ions. These devices, however, have not been designed for the potentiometric biosensing of proteins or small molecule analytes. A three-dimensional origami paper-based device, in which a solid-contact ion-selective electrode is integrated with an all-solid-state reference electrode, is described for the first time. The device is made by impregnation of paper with appropriate bioreceptors and reporting reagents on different zones. By folding and unfolding the paper structures, versatile potentiometric bioassays can be performed. A USB-controlled miniaturized electrochemical detector can be used for simple and in situ measurements. Using butyrylcholinesterase as a model enzyme, the device has been successfully applied to the detection of enzyme activities and organophosphate pesticides involved in the enzymatic system as inhibitors. The proposed 3D origami paper device allows the potentiometric biosensing of proteins and small molecules in a simple, portable, and cost-effective way.

  4. Microfluidic Paper-Based Sample Concentration Using Ion Concentration Polarization with Smartphone Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for microfluidic paper-based sample concentration using ion concentration polarization (ICP with smartphone detection is developed. The concise and low-cost microfluidic paper-based ICP analytical device, which consists of a black backing layer, a nitrocellulose membrane, and two absorbent pads, is fabricated with the simple lamination method which is widely used for lateral flow strips. Sample concentration on the nitrocellulose membrane is monitored in real time by a smartphone whose camera is used to collect the fluorescence images from the ICP device. A custom image processing algorithm running on the smartphone is used to track the concentrated sample and obtain its fluorescence signal intensity for quantitative analysis. Two different methods for Nafion coating are evaluated and their performances are compared. The characteristics of the ICP analytical device especially with intentionally adjusted physical properties are fully evaluated to optimize its performance as well as to extend its potential applications. Experimental results show that significant concentration enhancement with fluorescence dye sample is obtained with the developed ICP device when a fast depletion of fluorescent dye is observed. The platform based on the simply laminated ICP device with smartphone detection is desired for point-of-care testing in settings with poor resources.

  5. Heuristic evaluation of paper-based Web pages: a simplified inspection usability methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mureen; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne; Patel, Vimla L; Cimino, James J

    2006-08-01

    Online medical information, when presented to clinicians, must be well-organized and intuitive to use, so that the clinicians can conduct their daily work efficiently and without error. It is essential to actively seek to produce good user interfaces that are acceptable to the user. This paper describes the methodology used to develop a simplified heuristic evaluation (HE) suitable for the evaluation of screen shots of Web pages, the development of an HE instrument used to conduct the evaluation, and the results of the evaluation of the aforementioned screen shots. In addition, this paper presents examples of the process of categorizing problems identified by the HE and the technological solutions identified to resolve these problems. Four usability experts reviewed 18 paper-based screen shots and made a total of 108 comments. Each expert completed the task in about an hour. We were able to implement solutions to approximately 70% of the violations. Our study found that a heuristic evaluation using paper-based screen shots of a user interface was expeditious, inexpensive, and straightforward to implement.

  6. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Deidre; Greer, Brady; Johnson, Jesse; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-11-19

    The first step in curing a disease is being able to detect the disease effectively. Paper-based microfluidic devices are biodegradable and can make diagnosing diseases cost-effective and easy in almost all environments. We created a three-dimesnional (3D) paper device using wax printing fabrication technique and basic principles of origami. This design allows for a versatile fabrication technique over previously reported patterning of SU-8 photoresist on chromatography paper by employing a readily available wax printer. The design also utilizes multiple colorimetric assays that can accommodate one or more analytes including urine, blood, and saliva. In this case to demonstrate the functionality of the 3D paper-based microfluidic system, a urinalysis of protein and glucose assays is conducted. The amounts of glucose and protein introduced to the device are found to be proportional to the color change of each assay. This color change was quantified by use of Adobe Photoshop. Urine samples from participants with no pre-existing health conditions and one person with diabetes were collected and compared against synthetic urine samples with predetermined glucose and protein levels. Utilizing this method, we were able to confirm that both protein and glucose levels were in fact within healthy ranges for healthy participants. For the participant with diabetes, glucose was found to be above the healthy range while the protein level was in the healthy range.

  7. Inkjet-printed paper-based SERS dipsticks and swabs for trace chemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei W; White, Ian M

    2013-02-21

    We demonstrate a paper-based surface swab and lateral-flow dipstick that includes an inkjet-printed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate for analyte detection. Due to capillary-action wicking of cellulose, the paper dipstick enables extremely simple and pump-free loading of liquid samples into the detection device, and in addition provides inherent analyte concentration within the detection volume. Furthermore, the flexible nature of the paper-based SERS device also enables it to act as a swab to collect analyte molecules directly from a large-area surface; the collected analyte molecules can then be focused into a small-volume SERS-active region by lateral-flow concentration. These capabilities are unseen in today's SERS substrates and microfluidic SERS devices. Using these novel lateral-flow paper SERS devices, we achieved detection limits as low as 95 fg of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), 413 pg of the organophosphate malathion, 9 ng of heroin, and 15 ng of cocaine. Moreover, the measurements show that the technique is quantitative and is repeatable across multiple swabs and dipsticks. The results reported here may lead to ultra-low-cost portable applications in trace chemical detection.

  8. Single-use paper-based hydrogen fuel cells for point-of-care diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J. P.; Buser, J. R.; Lim, C. W.; Domínguez, C.; Rojas, S.; Yager, P.; Sabaté, N.

    2017-02-01

    This work demonstrates a stand-alone power source that integrates a paper-based hydrogen fuel cell with a customized chemical heater that produces hydrogen in-situ upon the addition of a liquid. The presented approach operates by capillary action and takes advantage of the hydrogen released as a by-product of an exothermic reaction used in point-of-care diagnostics. The paper-based fuel cell produces a maximum power of 25.8 mW (103.2 mW cm-2), which is suitable for powering a diversity of electrical devices such as commercially available digital pregnancy tests and glucometers. While device shape and dimensions can be customized, here it is shown that the fuel cell can be designed in a compact form factor and footprint comparable to a lateral flow test while providing a remarkable power output. This approach holds great promise for powering portable diagnostics, as the generated electric power could enable device functionalities required for advanced assays, such as device timing, actuation, and signal quantification. Part of the same liquid sample that is to be analyzed (urine, saliva, water, etc) could be used to trigger the hydrogen generation and start the fuel cell operation.

  9. Paper-based microfluidic devices for electrochemical immunofiltration analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangli; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Ruosheng; Zhao, Xiongjie; Jiang, Yuren; Chen, Zhencheng

    2017-02-02

    An electrochemical immunofiltration analysis was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the first time, which was based on photolithography and screen-printing technology. The hydrophilic test zones of the aldehyde-functionalized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were biofunctionalized with capture antibodies (Ab1). A sensitive immune detection method was developed by using primary signal antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs/Ab2) and alkaline phosphatase conjugated secondary antibody (ALP-IgG). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to detect the electrochemical response. The microfluidic paper-based electrochemical immunosensor (μ-PEI) was optimized and characterized for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a model analyte, in a linear range from 1.0mIUmL(-1) to 100.0 IU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.36mIUmL(-1). Additionally, the proposed μ-PEI was used to test HCG in real human serum and obtained satisfactory results. The disposable, efficient, sensitive and low-cost μ-PEI has exhibited great potential for the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) devices that can be applicated in healthcare monitoring.

  10. Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for directly detecting nucleic acids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis.

  11. Self-feeding paper based biofuel cell/self-powered hybrid μ-supercapacitor integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Soavi, Francesca; Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Serov, Alexey; Rojas-Carbonell, Santiago; Gupta, Gautam; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-12-15

    For the first time, a paper based enzymatic fuel cell is used as self-recharged supercapacitor. In this supercapacitive enzymatic fuel cell (SC-EFC), the supercapacitive features of the electrodes are exploited to demonstrate high power output under pulse operation. Glucose dehydrogenase-based anode and bilirubin oxidase-based cathode were assembled to a quasi-2D capillary-driven microfluidic system. Capillary flow guarantees the continuous supply of glucose, cofactor and electrolytes to the anodic enzyme and the gas-diffusional cathode design provides the passive supply of oxygen to the catalytic layer of the electrode. The paper-based cell was self-recharged under rest and discharged by high current pulses up to 4mAcm(-2). The supercapacitive behavior and low equivalent series resistance of the cell permitted to achieve up to a maximum power of 0.87mWcm(-2) (10.6mW) for pulses of 0.01s at 4mAcm(-2). This operation mode allowed the system to achieve at least one order of magnitude higher current/power generation compared to the steady state operation.

  12. Paper-based sample-to-answer molecular diagnostic platform for point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Tang, Ruihua; Wang, ShuQi; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-15

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT), as a molecular diagnostic technique, including nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection, plays a fundamental role in medical diagnosis for timely medical treatment. However, current NAT technologies require relatively high-end instrumentation, skilled personnel, and are time-consuming. These drawbacks mean conventional NAT becomes impractical in many resource-limited disease-endemic settings, leading to an urgent need to develop a fast and portable NAT diagnostic tool. Paper-based devices are typically robust, cost-effective and user-friendly, holding a great potential for NAT at the point of care. In view of the escalating demand for the low cost diagnostic devices, we highlight the beneficial use of paper as a platform for NAT, the current state of its development, and the existing challenges preventing its widespread use. We suggest a strategy involving integrating all three steps of NAT into one single paper-based sample-to-answer diagnostic device for rapid medical diagnostics in the near future.

  13. Bioinspired Multifunctional Paper-Based rGO Composites for Solar-Driven Clean Water Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jinwei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhao, Dengwu; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-06-15

    Reusing polluted water through various decontamination techniques has appeared as one of the most practical approaches to address the global shortage of clean water. Rather than relying on single decontamination mechanism, herein we report the preparation and utilization of paper-based composites for multifunctional solar-driven clean water generation that is inspired by the multiple water purification approaches in biological systems. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets within such composites can efficiently remove organic contaminants through physical adsorption mechanism. Under solar irradiation, the floating rGO composites can instantly generate localized heating, which not only can directly generate clean water through distillation mechanism but also significantly enhance adsorption removal performance with the assistance of upward vapor flow. Such porous-structured paper-based composites allow for facile incorporation of photocatalysts to regenerate clean water out of contaminated water with combined adsorption, photodegradation, and interfacial heat-assisted distillation mechanisms. Within a homemade all-in-one water treatment device, the practical applicability of the composites for multifunctional clean water generation has been demonstrated.

  14. Use of paper-based DGT devices as samplers for freshwater analysis by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F., E-mail: edualm@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Menegario, Amauri A. [Centro de Estudos Ambientais, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has shown an enormous potential for labile metal monitoring in freshwater due to its pre-concentration, time-integrated, matrix interference removal and speciation analytical features. In this work, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb diffusion coefficients for 3MM Whatman paper chromatography diffusion layer were calculated through DGT sampler deployments in synthetic solutions (4 L containing 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} of these metals, pH 5.5 and ionic strength at 0.05 mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}). It was used a cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane, Whatman P81 paper, as binding phase. After the DGT retrieval, the P81 paper was dried and analysed by EDXRF directly. This paper-based DGT was used for determined the labile fraction of these metals at five sampling points (48h in situ deployment) on Piracicaba river basin. The Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb diffusion coefficients for 3MM chromatographic paper ranged from 0.687 to 1.87 x 10-6 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The labile paper-based DGT and 0.45 {mu}m dissolved fractions for these metals at five sampling points on Piracicaba river basin were also compared.

  15. Solar battery energizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. E.

    1985-09-03

    A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

  16. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  17. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  18. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-08-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  19. A Review on Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Glucose Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuopeng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, as an essential substance directly involved in metabolic processes, is closely related to the occurrence of various diseases such as glucose metabolism disorders and islet cell carcinoma. Therefore, it is crucial to develop sensitive, accurate, rapid, and cost effective methods for frequent and convenient detections of glucose. Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Devices (μPADs not only satisfying the above requirements but also occupying the advantages of portability and minimal sample consumption, have exhibited great potential in the field of glucose detection. This article reviews and summarizes the most recent improvements in glucose detection in two aspects of colorimetric and electrochemical μPADs. The progressive techniques for fabricating channels on μPADs are also emphasized in this article. With the growth of diabetes and other glucose indication diseases in the underdeveloped and developing countries, low-cost and reliably commercial μPADs for glucose detection will be in unprecedentedly demand.

  20. The Effectiveness of Song Technique in Teaching Paper Based TOEFL (PBT’S Listening Comprehension Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Kuswoyo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT, many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT’s listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn language because music is a very powerful motivational tool for learning language. To reach the goal of this study, the researcher applied the grammar approach. It is an appropriate approach since the main idea of grammar-based listening exercises is to analyze the language by its components and reconstruct an incomplete text. Besides, the researcher employed an English song as the media the researcher uses the top- down model for the Listening Process.  In this research, the writer tries to share his experience in teaching listening in English department of Teknokrat College by implementing song technique.

  1. Impact of Physical Deformation on Electrical Performance of Paper-Based Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-01-23

    We report on investigation of the mechanical properties of paper electronics (printed and made out of paper). One key objective of such paper electronics is to achieve ultraflexibility. Therefore, it is important to understand electrical functionality and reliability of paper electronics under various physical (mechanical) deformations. Here, we show the general mechanical properties of the cellulose paper used and its electrical behavior under applied strain, tackling the main effects that need to be identified when building paper-based systems, from product performance and stability perspective. An overview of the stress-strain behavior of silver ink on paper is discussed, and then, we tackle a more specific analysis of the performance variations of paper sensors made with recyclable household materials when exposed to various mechanical conditions of tensile and compressive bending. This paper is important for developing stable wearable sensors for incorporation into Internet of Everything applications.

  2. Evaluation of enzyme immobilization methods for paper-based devices--A glucose oxidase study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-01-01

    Paper-based sensors gained almost explosive attention during the last few years. A large number of systems, often destined to resource limited settings is based on enzymatic reactions. Choice of an adequate immobilization method could significantly prolong the shelf-life of such sensors, especially in applications, where exposure to high temperatures during storage and transport is more than a threat. We are seeking to compare a variety of immobilization methods based on different phenomena (adsorption, entrapment in gel, microencapsulation, covalent linkage), with total of 33 methods tested. Glucose oxidase was used as a model enzyme. Enzymatic activity of immobilized samples was accompanied for a period of 24 weeks considering two sets of samples, one stored in 4 °C and other in ambient temperature.

  3. Low-cost rapid prototyping of flexible plastic paper based microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This research presents a novel rapid prototyping method for paper-based flexible microfluidic devices. The microchannels were fabricated using laser ablation on a piece of plastic paper (permanent paper), the dimensions of the microchannels was carefully studied for various laser powers and scanning speeds. After laser ablation of the microchannels on the plastic paper, a transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) film was thermally bonded to the plastic paper to enclose the channels. After connection of tubing, the device was ready to use. An example microfluidic device (droplet generator) was also fabricated using this technique. Due to the flexibility of the fabricated device, this technique can be used to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. The fabrication process was simple and rapid without any requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. A Paper-Based "Pop-up" Electrochemical Device for Analysis of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chung; Hennek, Jonathan W; Ainla, Alar; Kumar, Ashok A; Lan, Wen-Jie; Im, Judy; Smith, Barbara S; Zhao, Mengxia; Whitesides, George M

    2016-06-21

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a "pop-up" electrochemical paper-based analytical device (pop-up-EPAD) to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)-a biomarker for diabetic ketoacidosis-using a commercial combination BHB/glucometer. Pop-up-EPADs are inspired by pop-up greeting cards and children's books. They are made from a single sheet of paper folded into a three-dimensional (3D) device that changes shape, and fluidic and electrical connectivity, by simply folding and unfolding the structure. The reconfigurable 3D structure makes it possible to change the fluidic path and to control timing; it also provides mechanical support for the folded and unfolded structures that enables good registration and repeatability on folding. A pop-up-EPAD designed to detect BHB shows performance comparable to commercially available plastic test strips over the clinically relevant range of BHB in blood when used with a commercial glucometer that integrates the ability to measure glucose and BHB (combination BHB/glucometer). With simple modifications of the electrode and the design of the fluidic path, the pop-up-EPAD also detects BHB in buffer using a simple glucometer-a device that is more available than the combination BHB/glucometer. Strategies that use a "3D pop-up"-that is, large-scale changes in 3D structure and fluidic paths-by folding/unfolding add functionality to EPADs (e.g., controlled timing, fluidic handling and path programming, control over complex sequences of steps, and alterations in electrical connectivity) and should enable the development of new classes of paper-based diagnostic devices.

  5. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries.

  6. Pencil-drawn paper supported electrodes as simple electrochemical detectors for paper-based fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Impellizzieri, Flavia; Piccin, Evandro; Bontempelli, Gino

    2013-07-01

    A simple procedure for preparing inexpensive paper-based three-electrode electrochemical cells is described here. They consist of small circular pads of hydrophilic paper defined by hydrophobic barriers printed on paper with wax-based ink. The back face of these pads is insulated by thermally laminating a polyethylene layer and working, reference and counter electrodes are drawn on paper by using commercial pencil leads. At last, a controlled volume of sample containing a supporting electrolyte was laid to soak in paper channels. Their performance was evaluated by assaying these devices as both simple cells suitable for recording voltammograms on static samples and low-cost detectors for flowing systems. Voltammetric tests, conducted by using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as model prototype, were also exploited for identifying the brand and softness of graphite sticks enabling paper to be marked with lines displaying the best conductivity. By taking advantage of the satisfactory information thus gained, pencil drawn electrodes were tested as amperometric detectors for the separation of ascorbic acid and sunset yellow, which were chosen as prototype electroactive analytes because they are frequently present concomitantly in several food matrices, such as soft drinks and fruit juices. This separation was performed by planar thin layer chromatography conducted on microfluidic paper-based devices prepared by patterning on filter paper two longitudinal hydrophobic barriers, once again printed with wax-based ink. Factors affecting both separation and electrochemical detection were examined and optimised, with best performance achieved by using a 20 mM acetate running buffer (pH 4.5) and by applying a detection potential of 0.9 V. Under these optimum conditions, the target analytes could be separated and detected within 6 min. The recorded peaks were well separated and characterized by good repeatability and fairly good sensitivity, thus proving that this approach is

  7. Flexible and printable paper-based strain sensors for wearable and large-area green electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinqin; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Qingliang; Liang, Qijie; Ou, Yang; Xu, Minxuan; Li, Minghua; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based (PB) green electronics is an emerging and potentially game-changing technology due to ease of recycling/disposal, the economics of manufacture and the applicability to flexible electronics. Herein, new-type printable PB strain sensors (PPBSSs) from graphite glue (graphite powder and methylcellulose) have been fabricated. The graphite glue is exposed to thermal annealing to produce surface micro/nano cracks, which are very sensitive to compressive or tensile strain. The devices exhibit a gauge factor of 804.9, response time of 19.6 ms and strain resolution of 0.038%, all performance indicators attaining and even surpassing most of the recently reported strain sensors. Due to the distinctive sensing properties, flexibility and robustness, the PPBSSs are suitable for monitoring of diverse conditions such as structural strain, vibrational motion, human muscular movements and visual control.Paper-based (PB) green electronics is an emerging and potentially game-changing technology due to ease of recycling/disposal, the economics of manufacture and the applicability to flexible electronics. Herein, new-type printable PB strain sensors (PPBSSs) from graphite glue (graphite powder and methylcellulose) have been fabricated. The graphite glue is exposed to thermal annealing to produce surface micro/nano cracks, which are very sensitive to compressive or tensile strain. The devices exhibit a gauge factor of 804.9, response time of 19.6 ms and strain resolution of 0.038%, all performance indicators attaining and even surpassing most of the recently reported strain sensors. Due to the distinctive sensing properties, flexibility and robustness, the PPBSSs are suitable for monitoring of diverse conditions such as structural strain, vibrational motion, human muscular movements and visual control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02172g

  8. Control performance of paper-based blood analysis devices through paper structure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lizi; Huang, Xiaolei; Liu, Wen; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-10

    In this work, we investigated the influence of paper structure on the performance of paper-based analytical devices that are used for blood analysis. The question that we aimed to answer is how the fiber type (i.e., softwood and hardwood fibers) influences the fiber network structure of the paper, which affects the transport of red blood cells (RBCs) in paper. In the experimental design, we isolated the influence of fiber types on the paper structure from all other possible influencing factors by removing the fines from the pulps and not using any additives. Mercury porosimetry was employed to characterize the pore structures of the paper sheets. The results show that papers with a low basis weight that are made with short hardwood fibers have a higher porosity (i.e., void fraction) and simpler pore structures compared with papers made with long softwood fibers. RBC transport in paper carried by saline solution was investigated in two modes: lateral chromatographic elution and vertical flow-through. The results showed that the complexity of the paper's internal pore structure has a dominant influence on the transport of RBCs in paper. Hardwood fiber sheets with a low basis weight have a simple internal pore structure and allow for the easy transport of RBCs. Blood-typing sensors built with low basis weight hardwood fibers deliver high-clarity assays. Softwood fiber papers are found to have a more complex pore structure, which makes RBC transport more difficult, leading to blood-typing results of low clarity. This study provides the principle of paper sheet design for paper-based blood analysis sensors.

  9. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition.

  10. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  11. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  12. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  13. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  14. Engineering fluidic delays in paper-based devices using laser direct-writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J W; Katis, I N; Eason, R W; Sones, C L

    2015-10-21

    We report the use of a new laser-based direct-write technique that allows programmable and timed fluid delivery in channels within a paper substrate which enables implementation of multi-step analytical assays. The technique is based on laser-induced photo-polymerisation, and through adjustment of the laser writing parameters such as the laser power and scan speed we can control the depth and/or the porosity of hydrophobic barriers which, when fabricated in the fluid path, produce controllable fluid delay. We have patterned these flow delaying barriers at pre-defined locations in the fluidic channels using either a continuous wave laser at 405 nm, or a pulsed laser operating at 266 nm. Using this delay patterning protocol we generated flow delays spanning from a few minutes to over half an hour. Since the channels and flow delay barriers can be written via a common laser-writing process, this is a distinct improvement over other methods that require specialist operating environments, or custom-designed equipment. This technique can therefore be used for rapid fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices that can perform single or multistep analytical assays.

  15. Digital camera and smartphone as detectors in paper-based chemiluminometric genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Elena M; Kalogianni, Despina P; Tragoulias, Sotirios S; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2016-10-01

    Chemi(bio)luminometric assays have contributed greatly to various areas of nucleic acid analysis due to their simplicity and detectability. In this work, we present the development of chemiluminometric genotyping methods in which (a) detection is performed by using either a conventional digital camera (at ambient temperature) or a smartphone and (b) a lateral flow assay configuration is employed for even higher simplicity and suitability for point of care or field testing. The genotyping of the C677T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of methylenetetrahydropholate reductase (MTHFR) gene is chosen as a model. The interrogated DNA sequence is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a primer extension reaction. The reaction products are captured through hybridization on the sensing areas (spots) of the strip. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate is used as a reporter along with a chemiluminogenic substrate. Detection of the emerging chemiluminescence from the sensing areas of the strip is achieved by digital camera or smartphone. For this purpose, we constructed a 3D-printed smartphone attachment that houses inexpensive lenses and converts the smartphone into a portable chemiluminescence imager. The device enables spatial discrimination of the two alleles of a SNP in a single shot by imaging of the strip, thus avoiding the need of dual labeling. The method was applied successfully to genotyping of real clinical samples. Graphical abstract Paper-based genotyping assays using digital camera and smartphone as detectors.

  16. Assessment of colorimetric amplification methods in a paper-based immunoassay for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Shefali; Sikes, Hadley D

    2016-04-21

    Colorimetric detection methods that produce results readable by eye are important for diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. In this work, we have compared three main types of colorimetric methods - enzymatic reactions, silver deposition catalyzed by gold nanoparticles, and polymerization-based amplification - in a paper-based immunoassay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2, a biomarker of malarial infection. We kept the binding events in the immunoassay constant in order to isolate the effect of the detection method on the outcome of the test. We have highlighted that the optimal readout time in a test can vary significantly - ranging from immediately after addition of a visualization agent to 25 minutes after addition of a visualization agent - depending on the colorimetric method being used, and accurate time keeping is essential to prevent false positives in methods where substantial color develops over time in negative tests. We have also shown that the choice of a colorimetric method impacts the calculated limit-of-detection, the ease of visual perception of the readout, and the total cost of the assay, and therefore directly impacts the feasibility and the ease-of-use of a test in field settings.

  17. Paper-Based Analytical Devices Relying on Visible-Light-Enhanced Glucose/Air Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-11-01

    A strategy that combines visible-light-enhanced biofuel cells (BFCs) and electrochemical immunosensor into paper-based analytical devices was proposed for sensitive detection of the carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The gold nanoparticle modified paper electrode with large surface area and good conductibility was applied as an effective matrix for primary antibodies. The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) modified gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were used as bioanodic biocatalyst and signal magnification label. Poly(terthiophene) (pTTh), a photoresponsive conducting polymer, served as catalyst in cathode for the reduction of oxygen upon illumination by visible light. In the bioanode, electrons were generated through the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GDH. The amount of electrons is determined by the amount of GDH, which finally depended on the amount of CA15-3. In the cathode, electrons from the bioanode could combine with the generated holes in the HOMO energy level of cathode catalysts pTTh. Meanwhile, the high energy level photoexcited electrons were generated in the LUMO energy level and involved in the oxygen reduction reaction, finally resulting in an increasing current and a decreasing overpotential. According to the current signal, simple and efficient detection of CA15-3 was achieved.

  18. Chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-06-14

    We developed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in natural water. The μPAD consisted of ten reaction zones and ten detection zones connected through narrow channels to a sample zone located at the center. Buffer solutions with a pH of 10 or 13 were applied to all surfaces of the channels and zones. Different amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the reaction zones and a consistent amount of a metal indicator (Eriochrome Black T or Calcon) was added to the detection zones. The total concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (total hardness) in the water were measured using a μPAD containing a buffer solution with a pH of 10, whereas only Ca(2+) was titrated using a μPAD prepared with a potassium hydroxide solution with a pH of 13. The μPADs permitted the determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in mineral water, river water, and seawater samples within only a few minutes using only the naked eye-no need of instruments.

  19. Aqueous manganese dioxide ink for paper-based capacitive energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiasheng; Jin, Huanyu; Chen, Bolei; Lin, Mei; Lu, Wei; Tang, Wing Man; Xiong, Wei; Chan, Lai Wa Helen; Lau, Shu Ping; Yuan, Jikang

    2015-06-01

    We report a simple approach based on a chemical reduction method to synthesize aqueous inorganic ink comprised of hexagonal MnO2 nanosheets. The MnO2 ink exhibits long-term stability and continuous thin films can be formed on various substrates without using any binder. To obtain a flexible electrode for capacitive energy storage, the MnO2 ink was printed onto commercially available A4 paper pretreated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 1035 F g(-1) (91.7 mF cm(-2)). Paper-based symmetric and asymmetric capacitors were assembled, which gave a maximum specific energy density of 25.3 Wh kg(-1) and a power density of 81 kW kg(-1). The device could maintain a 98.9% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles at 4 A g(-1). The MnO2 ink could be a versatile candidate for large-scale production of flexible and printable electronic devices for energy storage and conversion.

  20. Determination of glucose and uric acid with bienzyme colorimetry on microfluidic paper-based analysis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fubin; Xiang, Xia; Luo, Ming; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we first employ a drying method combining with the bienzyme colorimetric detection of glucose and uric acid on microfluidic paper-based analysis devices (μPADs). The channels of 3D μPADs are also designed by us to get better results. The color results are recorded by both Gel Documentation systems and a common camera. By using Gel Documentation systems, the limits of detection (LOD) of glucose and uric acid are 3.81 × 10(-5)M and 4.31 × 10(-5)M, respectively one order of magnitude lower than that of the reported methods on μPADs. By using a common camera, the limits of detection (LOD) of glucose and uric acid are 2.13 × 10(-4)M and 2.87 × 10(-4)M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of detection conditions have been investigated and discussed comprehensively. Human serum samples are detected with satisfactory results, which are comparable with the clinical testing results. A low-cost, simple and rapid colorimetric method for the simultaneous detection of glucose and uric acid on the μPADs has been developed with enhanced sensitivity.

  1. A paper based graphene-nanocauliflower hybrid composite for point of care biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S L; Bhargava, M; Sidhu, R; Kiernan-Lewis, J; Gomes, C; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2016-11-15

    We demonstrate the first report of graphene paper functionalized with fractal platinum nanocauliflower for use in electrochemical biosensing of small molecules (glucose) or detection of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy show that graphene oxide-coated nanocellulose was partially reduced by both thermal treatment, and further reduced by chemical treatment (ascorbic acid). Fractal nanoplatinum with cauliflower-like morphology was formed on the reduced graphene oxide paper using pulsed sonoelectrodeposition, producing a conductive paper with an extremely high electroactive surface area (0.29±0.13cm(2)), confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The platinum surface was functionalized with either glucose oxidase (via chitosan encapsulation) or a RNA aptamer (via covalent linking) for demonstration as a point of care biosensor. The detection limit for both glucose (0.08±0.02μM) and E. coli O157:H7 (≈4 CFUmL(-1)) were competitive with, or superior to, previously reported devices in the biosensing literature. The response time (6s for glucose and 12min for E. coli) were also similar to silicon biochip and commercial electrode sensors. The results demonstrate that the nanocellulose-graphene-nanoplatinum material is an excellent paper-based platform for development of electrochemical biosensors targeting small molecules or whole cells for use in point of care biosensing.

  2. Paper-based bioactive scaffolds for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Ji; Yu, Seung Jung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Ann-Na; Kim, Jin; Lee, Bora; Yang, Hee Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive, functional scaffolds are required to improve the regenerative potential of stem cells for tissue reconstruction and functional recovery of damaged tissues. Here, we report a paper-based bioactive scaffold platform for stem cell culture and transplantation for bone reconstruction. The paper scaffolds are surface-engineered by an initiated chemical vapor deposition process for serial coating of a water-repellent and cell-adhesive polymer film, which ensures the long-term stability in cell culture medium and induces efficient cell attachment. The prepared paper scaffolds are compatible with general stem cell culture and manipulation techniques. An optimal paper type is found to provide structural, physical, and mechanical cues to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). A bioactive paper scaffold significantly enhances in vivo bone regeneration of hADSCs in a critical-sized calvarial bone defect. Stacking the paper scaffolds with osteogenically differentiated hADSCs and human endothelial cells resulted in vascularized bone formation in vivo. Our study suggests that paper possesses great potential as a bioactive, functional, and cost-effective scaffold platform for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the feasibility of a paper material for stem cell application to repair tissue defects.

  3. A new paper-based analytical device for detection of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewarsa, Phuritat; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic haemolytic disorder. Most persons with G6PD deficiency are asymptomatic, but exposure to oxidant drugs, such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine, may induce haemolysis, which is commonly found in Asian countries. A reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent an acute haemolytic crisis. This study proposes a novel quantitative method to detect G6PD deficiency using paper-based analytical devices (G6PDD-PAD). Wax printing was utilized for fabricating circular reaction zone patterns in paper. The colorimetric assay is based on the formation of formazan via a reduction of tetra-nitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) by the G6PD enzyme on G6PDD-PAD. Detection was achieved by capturing the colour using a desktop scanner and the colour intensity was analysed with Adobe Photoshop C56. The results showed that the G6PD activity analysed by G6PDD-PAD was highly correlated with the standard biochemical assay (SBA) (r(2)=0.87, pPAD and the SBA (mean bias 1.4 IU/gHb). The detection limit was 0 IU/gHb of G6PD activity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using G6PDD-PAD. This simple, low-cost test ($0.1/test) should be useful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency in resource-limited settings.

  4. Pressure-assisted low-temperature sintering for paper-based writing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Xu, L.; Y Yang, G.; Y Jing, H.; Wei, J.; Han, Y. D.

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of preparing paper-based writing electronics, a kind of conductive pen was made with nano-silver ink as the conductive component and a rollerball pen as the writing implement. This was used to direct-write conductive patterns on Epson photo paper. In order to decrease the sintering temperature, pressure was introduced to enhance the driving forces for sintering. Compared with hot sintering without pressure, hot-pressure can effectively improve the conductivity of silver coatings, reduce the sintering time and thus improve productivity. Importantly, pressure can achieve a more uniform and denser microstructure, which increases the connection strength of the silver coating. At the optimum hot-pressure condition (sintering temperature 120 ° C/sintering pressure 25 MPa/sintering time 15 min), a typical measured resistivity value was 1.43 × 10-7 Ω m, nine greater than that of bulk silver. This heat treatment process is compatible with paper and does not cause any damage to the paper substrates. Even after several thousand bending cycles, the resistivity values of writing tracks by hot-pressure sintering stay almost the same (from 1.43 × 10-7 to 1.57 × 10-7 Ω m). The stability and flexibility of the writing circuits are good, which demonstrates the promising future of writing electronics.

  5. Pressure-assisted low-temperature sintering for paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Yang, G Y; Jing, H Y; Wei, J; Han, Y D

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of preparing paper-based writing electronics, a kind of conductive pen was made with nano-silver ink as the conductive component and a rollerball pen as the writing implement. This was used to direct-write conductive patterns on Epson photo paper. In order to decrease the sintering temperature, pressure was introduced to enhance the driving forces for sintering. Compared with hot sintering without pressure, hot-pressure can effectively improve the conductivity of silver coatings, reduce the sintering time and thus improve productivity. Importantly, pressure can achieve a more uniform and denser microstructure, which increases the connection strength of the silver coating. At the optimum hot-pressure condition (sintering temperature 120 ° C/sintering pressure 25 MPa/sintering time 15 min), a typical measured resistivity value was 1.43 × 10⁻⁷ Ω m, nine greater than that of bulk silver. This heat treatment process is compatible with paper and does not cause any damage to the paper substrates. Even after several thousand bending cycles, the resistivity values of writing tracks by hot-pressure sintering stay almost the same (from 1.43 × 10⁻⁷ to 1.57 × 10⁻⁷ Ω m). The stability and flexibility of the writing circuits are good, which demonstrates the promising future of writing electronics.

  6. Aggregation-induced emissive nanoparticles for fluorescence signaling in a low cost paper-based immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jan F; Roose, Jesse; Zhai, Demi Shuang; Yip, Ka Man; Lee, Mei Suet; Tang, Ben Zhong; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    Low cost paper based immunoassays are receiving interest due to their fast performance and small amounts of biomolecules needed for developing an immunoassay complex. In this work aggregation-induced emissive (AIE) nanoparticles, obtained from a diastereoisomeric mixture of 1,2-di-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-diphenylethene (TPEDH) in a one-step top-down method, are characterized through Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Zeta potential. By measuring the Zeta potential before and after labeling the nanoparticles with antibodies we demonstrate that the colloidal system is stable in a wide pH-range. The AIE-active nanoparticles are deposited on chitosan and glutaraldehyde modified paper pads overcoming the common aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect. Analyte concentrations from 1000ng and below are applied in a model immunocomplex using Goat anti-Rabbit IgG and Rabbit IgG. In the range of 7.81ng-250ng, linear trends with a high R(2) are observed, which leads to a strong increase of the blue fluorescence from the TPEDH nanoparticles.

  7. Personal exposure assessment to particulate metals using a paper-based analytical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, David; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles

    2013-03-01

    The development of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for assessing personal exposure to particulate metals will be presented. Human exposure to metal aerosols, such as those that occur in the mining, construction, and manufacturing industries, has a significant impact on the health of our workforce, costing an estimated $10B in the U.S and causing approximately 425,000 premature deaths world-wide each year. Occupational exposure to particulate metals affects millions of individuals in manufacturing, construction (welding, cutting, blasting), and transportation (combustion, utility maintenance, and repair services) industries. Despite these effects, individual workers are rarely assessed for their exposure to particulate metals, due mainly to the high cost and effort associated with personal exposure measurement. Current exposure assessment methods for particulate metals call for an 8-hour filter sample, after which time, the filter sample is transported to a laboratory and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The time from sample collection to reporting is typically weeks and costs several hundred dollars per sample. To exacerbate the issue, method detection limits suffer because of sample dilution during digestion. The lack of sensitivity hampers task-based exposure assessment, for which sampling times may be tens of minutes. To address these problems, and as a first step towards using microfluidics for personal exposure assessment, we have developed PADs for measurement of Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in aerosolized particulate matter.

  8. Paper-based capacitive sensors for identification and quantification of chemicals at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Yew, Chee-Hong Takahiro; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Feng, Shangsheng; Yang, Qu; Wang, Shuqi; Wee, Wei-Hong; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    The identification and quantification of chemicals play a vital role in evaluation and surveillance of environmental health and safety. However, current techniques usually depend on costly equipment, professional staff, and/or essential infrastructure, limiting their accessibility. In this work, we develop paper-based capacitive sensors (PCSs) that allow simple, rapid identification and quantification of various chemicals from microliter size samples with the aid of a handheld multimeter. PCSs are low-cost parallel-plate capacitors (~$0.01 per sensor) assembled from layers of aluminum foil and filter paper via double-sided tape. The developed PCSs can identify different kinds of fluids (e.g., organic chemicals) and quantify diverse concentrations of substances (e.g., heavy metal ions) based on differences in dielectric properties, including capacitance, frequency spectrum, and dielectric loss tangent. The PCS-based method enables chemical identification and quantification to take place much cheaply, simply, and quickly at the point-of-care (POC), holding great promise for environmental monitoring in resource-limited settings.

  9. Paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Liu, Yi-Ju; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell separation is among the most useful techniques in biochemical research, diagnosis and various industrial applications. Microalgae species have great economic importance as industrial raw materials. Microalgae species collected from environment are typically a mixed and heterogeneous population of species that must be isolated and purified for examination and further application. Conventional methods, such as serial dilution and a streaking-plate method, are intensive of labor and inefficient. We developed a paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga. The fabrication was simply conducted with a common laser printer and required only a few minutes without lithographic instruments and clean-room. The driving force of the paper device was simple capillarity without a complicated pump connection that is part of most devices for microfluidics. The open-structure design of the paper device makes it operable with a common laboratory micropipette for sample transfer and manipulation with a naked eye or adaptable to a robotic system with functionality of high-throughput retrieval and analysis. The efficiency of isolating a single cell from mixed microalgae species is seven times as great as with a conventional method involving serial dilution. The paper device can serve also as an incubator for microalgae growth on simply rinsing the paper with a growth medium. Many applications such as highly expressed cell selection and various single-cell analysis would be applicable.

  10. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  11. Acid-base titrations using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2014-12-16

    Rapid and simple acid-base titration was accomplished using a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). The μPAD was fabricated by wax printing and consisted of ten reservoirs for reaction and detection. The reaction reservoirs contained various amounts of a primary standard substance, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHPth), whereas a constant amount of phenolphthalein was added to all the detection reservoirs. A sample solution containing NaOH was dropped onto the center of the μPAD and was allowed to spread to the reaction reservoirs where the KHPth neutralized it. When the amount of NaOH exceeded that of the KHPth in the reaction reservoirs, unneutralized hydroxide ion penetrated the detection reservoirs, resulting in a color reaction from the phenolphthalein. Therefore, the number of the detection reservoirs with no color change determined the concentration of the NaOH in the sample solution. The titration was completed within 1 min by visually determining the end point, which required neither instrumentation nor software. The volumes of the KHPth and phenolphthalein solutions added to the corresponding reservoirs were optimized to obtain reproducible and accurate results for the concentration of NaOH. The μPADs determined the concentration of NaOH at orders of magnitude ranging from 0.01 to 1 M. An acid sample, HCl, was also determined using Na2CO3 as a primary standard substance instead of KHPth. Furthermore, the μPAD was applicable to the titrations of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and ammonia solutions. The μPADs were stable for more than 1 month when stored in darkness at room temperature, although this was reduced to only 5 days under daylight conditions. The analysis of acidic hot spring water was also demonstrated in the field using the μPAD, and the results agreed well with those obtained by classic acid-base titration.

  12. A paper based graphene-nanocauliflower hybrid composite for point of care biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S. L.; Sidhu, R.; Bhargava, M.; Kiernan-Lewis, J.; Schwalb, N.; Rong, Y.; Gomes, C.; Claussen, J.; Vanegas, D. C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene paper has diverse applications in printed circuit board electronics, bioassays, 3D cell culture, and biosensing. Although development of nanometal-graphene hybrid composites is commonplace in the sensing literature, to date there are only a few examples of nanometal-decorated graphene paper for use in biosensing. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of Pt nano cauliflower-functionalized graphene paper for use in electrochemical biosensing of small molecules (glucose, acetone, methanol) or detection of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to show that graphene oxide deposited on nanocellulose crystals was partially reduced by both thermal and chemical treatment. Fractal platinum nanostructures were formed on the reduced graphene oxide paper, producing a conductive paper with an extremely high electroactive surface area, confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To show the broad applicability of the material, the platinum surface was functionalized with three different biomaterials: 1) glucose oxidase (via chitosan encapsulation); 2) a DNA aptamer (via covalent linking), or 3) a chemosensory protein (via his linking). We demonstrate the application of this device for point of care biosensing. The detection limit for both glucose (0.08 +/- 0.02 μM) and E. coli O157:H7 (1.3 +/- 0.1 CFU mL-1) were competitive with, or superior to, previously reported devices in the biosensing literature. The response time (6 sec for glucose and 10 min for E. coli) were also similar to silicon biochip and commercial electrode sensors. The results demonstrate that the nanocellulose-graphene-nanoplatinum material is an excellent paper-based platform for development of electrochemical biosensors targeting small molecules or whole cells for use in point of care biosensing.

  13. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  14. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  15. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  16. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  17. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  19. Accuracy of open-source software segmentation and paper-based printed three-dimensional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to verify the accuracy of models created with the help of open-source Slicer 3.6.3 software (Surgical Planning Lab, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA) and the Mcor Matrix 300 paper-based 3D printer. Our study focused on the accuracy of recreating the walls of the right orbit of a cadaveric skull. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the skull was performed (0.25-mm pixel size, 0.5-mm slice thickness). Acquired DICOM data were imported into Slicer 3.6.3 software, where segmentation was performed. A virtual model was created and saved as an .STL file and imported into Netfabb Studio professional 4.9.5 software. Three different virtual models were created by cutting the original file along three different planes (coronal, sagittal, and axial). All models were printed with a Selective Deposition Lamination Technology Matrix 300 3D printer using 80 gsm A4 paper. The models were printed so that their cutting plane was parallel to the paper sheets creating the model. Each model (coronal, sagittal, and axial) consisted of three separate parts (∼200 sheets of paper each) that were glued together to form a final model. The skull and created models were scanned with a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner (Breuckmann smart SCAN) and were saved as .STL files. Comparisons of the orbital walls of the skull, the virtual model, and each of the three paper models were carried out with GOM Inspect 7.5SR1 software. Deviations measured between the models analysed were presented in the form of a colour-labelled map and covered with an evenly distributed network of points automatically generated by the software. An average of 804.43 ± 19.39 points for each measurement was created. Differences measured in each point were exported as a .csv file. The results were statistically analysed using Statistica 10, with statistical significance set at p 3D printer is comparable to those of other commonly used 3-dimensional printers and

  20. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  1. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  2. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  3. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  4. Bio-patch design and implementation based on a low-power system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Geng; Xie, Li; Mantysalo, Matti; Chen, Jian; Tenhunen, Hannu; Zheng, L R

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-ìm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 ìW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

  5. Silicon Betavoltaic Batteries Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Murashev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For low-power miniature energy creation sources the particular interest is nickel Ni63. This paper discusses the main types of betavoltaic battery structures with the prospects for industrial application using - isotope of nickel Ni63. It is shown that the prospects for improving the effective efficiency are planar multijunction betavoltaic batteries.

  6. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  7. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  8. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  9. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  10. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-17

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10(-8) (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10(-8) to 5.08 × 10(-8) (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  11. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  12. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, G.E. [Energizer, Westlake, OH (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  14. Dry release of all-polymer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefliger, D.; Nordstrøm, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Andreas;

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple dry release technique which uses a thin fluorocarbon film for efficient removal of plastic microdevices from a mould or a handling substrate by reducing the adhesion between the two. This fluorocarbon film is deposited on the substrate in an advanced Si dry etch device utilisi...... 100% were demonstrated on wafer-scale. The fluorocarbon film showed excellent compatibility with metal etch processes and polymer baking and curing steps. It further facilitates demoulding of polydimethylsiloxane stamps suitable for soft-lithography....

  15. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We present a process for fabricating nanostructured surfaces with feature sizes down to at least 50 nm and aspect ratios of 1:1 by injection molding. We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the final nanostructure quality. A plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon bas...

  16. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  17. Fabrication of a Paper-Based Microfluidic Device to Readily Determine Nitrite Ion Concentration by Simple Colorimetric Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices (µPAD) are a burgeoning platform of microfluidic analysis technology. The method described herein is for use in undergraduate and high school chemistry laboratories. A simple and convenient µPAD was fabricated by easy patterning of filter paper using a permanent marker pen. The usefulness of the device was…

  18. Paper-Based and Computer-Based Concept Mappings: The Effects on Computer Achievement, Computer Anxiety and Computer Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…

  19. A rapid, straightforward, and print house compatible mass fabrication method for integrating 3D paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liangpin; Liu, Xianming; Zhong, Runtao; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Xiaomian; Lin, Bingcheng; Du, Yuguang

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) paper-based microfluidics, which is featured with high performance and speedy determination, promise to carry out multistep sample pretreatment and orderly chemical reaction, which have been used for medical diagnosis, cell culture, environment determination, and so on with broad market prospect. However, there are some drawbacks in the existing fabrication methods for 3D paper-based microfluidics, such as, cumbersome and time-consuming device assembly; expensive and difficult process for manufacture; contamination caused by organic reagents from their fabrication process. Here, we present a simple printing-bookbinding method for mass fabricating 3D paper-based microfluidics. This approach involves two main steps: (i) wax-printing, (ii) bookbinding. We tested the delivery capability, diffusion rate, homogeneity and demonstrated the applicability of the device to chemical analysis by nitrite colorimetric assays. The described method is rapid (print house, making itself an ideal scheme for large-scale production of 3D paper-based microfluidics.

  20. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  1. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  2. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  3. Battery energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  4. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  5. Bottom-up fabrication of paper-based microchips by blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingbing; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-23

    We report a method for the bottom-up fabrication of paper-based capillary microchips by the blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface. The fabrication process is similar to the paper-making process in which an aqueous suspension of cellulose microfibers is used as the starting material and is blade-coated onto a polypropylene substrate patterned using an inkjet printer. After water evaporation, the cellulose microfibers form a porous, hydrophilic, paperlike pattern that wicks aqueous solution by capillary action. This method enables simple, fast, inexpensive fabrication of paper-based capillary channels with both width and height down to about 10 μm. When this method is used, the capillary microfluidic chip for the colorimetric detection of glucose and total protein is fabricated, and the assay requires only 0.30 μL of sample, which is 240 times smaller than for paper devices fabricated using photolithography.

  6. Transforming paper-based assessment forms to a digital format: exemplified by the Housing Enabler prototype app

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lunn, Tine Bieber; Helle, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with an overall impression of the stepwise user-centred design approach including the specific methods used and lessons learned when transforming paper-based assessment forms into a prototype app, taking the Housing Enabler as an example....... Results: The design iterations resulted in the development of a Housing Enabler prototype app. The prototype app has several features and options that are new compared with the original paper-based Housing Enabler assessment form. These new features include a user friendly overview of the assessment form......; easy navigation by swiping back and forth between items; onsite data analysis; and ranking of the accessibility score, photo documentation and a data export facility. Conclusion: Based on the presented stepwise approach, a high-fidelity Housing Enabler prototype app was successfully developed...

  7. Paper-Based Digital Microfluidic Chip for Multiple Electrochemical Assay Operated by a Wireless Portable Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Lee, Jumi; Chae, Heedo

    2017-01-01

    The printing and modular fabrication of a paper-based active microfluidic lab on a chip implemented with electrochemical sensors (ECSs) is developed and integrated on a portable electrical control system. The electrodes of a chip plate for active electrowetting actuation of digital drops and an ECS...... for multiple analysis assays are fabricated by affordable printing techniques. For enhanced sensitivity of the sensor, the working electrode is modified through the electrochemical method, namely by reducing graphene with voltammetry and coating gold nanoparticles by amperometry. Detachable sensor and absorber...... designed portable power supply and wireless control system, the active paper-based chip platform can be utilized as an advanced point-of-care device for multiple assays in digital microfluidics....

  8. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  9. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Treweek, S.; Francis, JJ; Bonetti, D; Barnett, K; Eccles, MP; Hudson, J.; Jones, C.; Pitts, NB; Ricketts, IW; Sullivan, F; Weal, M; MacLennan, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic p...

  10. Simple and rapid determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-26

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.

  11. A Comparative Study of Paper-based and Computer-based Contextualization in Vocabulary Learning of EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary acquisition is one of the largest and most important tasks in language classes. New technologies, such as computers, have helped a lot in this way. The importance of the issue led the researchers to do the present study which concerns the comparison of contextualized vocabulary learning on paper and through Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL. To this end, 52 Pre-university EFL learners were randomly assigned in two groups: a paper-based group (PB and a computer-based (CB group each with 26 learners. The PB group received PB contextualization of vocabulary items, while the CB group received CB contextualization of the vocabulary items thorough PowerPoint (PP software. One pretest, posttest, along with an immediate and a delayed posttest were given to the learners. Paired samples t-test of pretest and posttest and independent samples t-test of the delayed and immediate posttest were executed by SPSS software. The results revealed that computer-based contextualization had more effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners than paper-based contextualization of the words. Keywords: Computer-based contextualization, Paper-based contextualization, Vocabulary learning, CALL

  12. Novel Piezoelectric Paper-Based Flexible Nanogenerators Composed of BaTiO3 Nanoparticles and Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjie; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Qijie; Zhao, Yingli; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2016-02-01

    A piezoelectric paper based on BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles and bacterial cellulose (BC) with excellent output properties for application of nanogenerators (NGs) is reported. A facile and scalable vacuum filtration method is used to fabricate the piezoelectric paper. The BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG shows outstanding output performance with open-circuit voltage of 14 V and short-circuit current density of 190 nA cm(-2). The maximum power density generated by this unique BTO/BC structure is more than ten times higher than BTO/polydimethylsiloxane structure. In bending conditions, the NG device can generate output voltage of 1.5 V, which is capable of driving a liquid crystal display screen. The improved performance can be ascribed to homogeneous distribution of piezoelectric BTO nanoparticles in the BC matrix as well as the enhanced stress on piezoelectric nanoparticles implemented by the unique percolated networks of BC nanofibers. The flexible BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG is lightweight, eco-friendly, and cost-effective, which holds great promises for achieving wearable or implantable energy harvesters and self-powered electronics.

  13. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  15. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  16. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  17. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  18. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  19. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  20. Accuracy of three-dimensional, paper-based models generated using a low-cost, three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of a low-cost, paper-based 3D printer by comparing a dry human mandible to its corresponding three-dimensional (3D) model using a 3D measuring arm. One dry human mandible and its corresponding printed model were evaluated. The model was produced using DICOM data from cone beam computed tomography. The data were imported into Maxilim software, wherein automatic segmentation was performed, and the STL file was saved. These data were subsequently analysed, repaired, cut and prepared for printing with netfabb software. These prepared data were used to create a paper-based model of a mandible with an MCor Matrix 300 printer. Seventy-six anatomical landmarks were chosen and measured 20 times on the mandible and the model using a MicroScribe G2X 3D measuring arm. The distances between all the selected landmarks were measured and compared. Only landmarks with a point inaccuracy less than 30% were used in further analyses. The mean absolute difference for the selected 2016 measurements was 0.36 ± 0.29 mm. The mean relative difference was 1.87 ± 3.14%; however, the measurement length significantly influenced the relative difference. The accuracy of the 3D model printed using the paper-based, low-cost 3D Matrix 300 printer was acceptable. The average error was no greater than that measured with other types of 3D printers. The mean relative difference should not be considered the best way to compare studies. The point inaccuracy methodology proposed in this study may be helpful in future studies concerned with evaluating the accuracy of 3D rapid prototyping models.

  1. Evaluation of cognitive loads imposed by traditional paper-based and innovative computer-based instructional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Wilhite, Dewey R

    2010-01-01

    Strategies of presenting instructional information affect the type of cognitive load imposed on the learner's working memory. Effective instruction reduces extraneous (ineffective) cognitive load and promotes germane (effective) cognitive load. Eighty first-year students from two veterinary schools completed a two-section questionnaire that evaluated their perspectives on the educational value of a computer-based instructional program. They compared the difference between cognitive loads imposed by paper-based and computer-based instructional strategies used to teach the anatomy of the canine skeleton. Section I included 17 closed-ended items, rated on a five-point Likert scale, that assessed the use of graphics, content, and the learning process. Section II included a nine-point mental effort rating scale to measure the level of difficulty of instruction; students were asked to indicate the amount of mental effort invested in the learning task using both paper-based and computer-based presentation formats. The closed-ended data were expressed as means and standard deviations. A paired t test with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine the overall mean difference between the two presentation formats. Students positively evaluated their experience with the computer-based instructional program with a mean score of 4.69 (SD=0.53) for use of graphics, 4.70 (SD=0.56) for instructional content, and 4.45 (SD=0.67) for the learning process. The mean difference of mental effort (1.50) between the two presentation formats was significant, t=8.26, p≤.0001, df=76, for two-tailed distribution. Consistent with cognitive load theory, innovative computer-based instructional strategies decrease extraneous cognitive load compared with traditional paper-based instructional strategies.

  2. Paper-based solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor using poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lou, Baohua; Lv, Zhaozi; Zhou, Zhixue; Zhang, Libing [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang, Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2013-02-06

    Highlights: ► Solid-state ECL sensor was introduced into paper-based chips for the first time. ► Composite film of functionalized graphene/Nafion was used for sensor fabrication. ► Excellent reproducibility and long-term stability were obtained for the sensor. ► Single-base mismatch detection in human urine was realized on paper-based chips. -- Abstract: Herein, highly efficient solid-state ECL sensor was introduced for the first time onto the screen printed electrodes of the paper-based chips (PCs) based on the composite film of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene (PSSG) and Nafion. Attributed to the cooperative characteristics of both PSS and graphene, PSSG ensured both effective Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} immobilization and fast electron transfer of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the composite film. The ECL behaviors at the developed sensor were investigated using tripropylamine as a representative analyte and low detection limit (S N{sup −1} = 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained. It also exhibited more excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviations of 0.63% for continuous 45 cycles) and long-term stability (∼80% of its initial ECL intensity could be retained over 3 months). More importantly, assisted by the developed ECL sensor, discrimination of 1.0 nM single-nucleotide mismatch in human urine matrix could be realized on the PCs for the first attempt. Thus, the developed sensor was confirmed with the advantages of highly sensitivity, long-term stability, simplicity, low cost, disposability, high efficiency and potential applicability.

  3. Paper-based energy-storage devices comprising carbon fiber-reinforced polypyrrole-cladophora nanocellulose composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaq, Aamir; Sjoedin, Martin; Stroemme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Nyholm, Leif [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and Cladophora nanocellulose, reinforced with 8 {mu}m-thick chopped carbon filaments, can be used as electrode materials to obtain paper-based energy-storage devices with unprecedented performance at high charge and discharge rates. Charge capacities of more than 200 C g{sup -1} (PPy) are obtained for paper-based electrodes at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s{sup -1}, whereas cell capacitances of {proportional_to}60-70 F g{sup -1} (PPy) are reached for symmetric supercapacitor cells with capacitances up to 3.0 F (i.e.,0.48 F cm{sup -2}) when charged to 0.6 V using current densities as high as 31 A g{sup -1} based on the PPy weight (i.e., 99 mA cm{sup -2}). Energy and power densities of 1.75 Wh kg{sup -1} and 2.7 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively, are obtained when normalized with respect to twice the PPy weight of the smaller electrode. No loss in cell capacitance is seen during charging/discharging at 7.7 A g{sup -1} (PPy) over 1500 cycles. It is proposed that the nonelectroactive carbon filaments decrease the contact resistances and the resistance of the reduced PPy composite. The present straightforward approach represents significant progress in the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly paper-based energy-storage devices for high-power applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  5. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  6. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  8. Calculation of buffer batteries with voltage-adding storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, R.V.; Koloskov, A.A.; Ratner, G.B.; Sharov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is proposed for buffer storage batteries of the NKG type with voltage-adding storage batteries. These batteries (B) guarantee comparatively narrow range of change in the voltage for load with discharge of the storage batteries of the main B to the assigned minimum voltage. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the number of voltage-adding B and the number of storage batteries in each of them. The initial data for calculation are minimum and maximum values of voltage for load and storage batteries of the main B. Expressions have been obtained for determining the depth of the discharge and the final expression for determining the depth of the discharge and the final discharge voltage of the storage batteries of each voltage-adding B. The necessary formulas are presented and the order for making the calculation is given.

  9. Printed biotin-functionalised polythiophene films as biorecognition layers in the development of paper-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Pesonen, Markus [Physics, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Sund, Pernilla [Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Viitala, Tapani [Centre for Drug Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Määttänen, Anni; Sarfraz, Jawad [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Wilén, Carl-Erik [Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Österbacka, Ronald [Physics, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2016-02-28

    Highlights: • Inkjet-printed polythiophene films show good adhesion on ultrathin gold films. • Biotin-functionalisation of polythiophene enables specificity towards streptavidin. • Supramolecular biorecognition architectures can be prepared by printing. • The addition of each printed layer can be followed by a change in capacitance. - Abstract: The integration of flexible electronic sensors in clinical diagnostics is visioned to significantly reduce the cost of many diagnostic tests and ultimately make healthcare more accessible. This study concentrates on the characterisation of inkjet-printed bio-functionalised polythiophene films on paper-based ultrathin gold film (UTGF) electrodes and their possible application as biorecognition layers. Physicochemical surface properties (topography, chemistry, and wetting) and electrochemical characteristics of water-soluble regioirregular tetraethylene-glycol polythiophene (TEGPT) and biotin-functionalised TEGPT (b-TEGPT) films were examined and compared. In addition, their specificity towards streptavidin protein was tested. The results show that stable supramolecular biorecognition layers of insulating b-TEGPT and streptavidin were successfully fabricated on a paper-based UTGF by inkjet-printing. Good adhesion of thiophene to UTGF can be attributed to covalent linkage between sulphur and gold, whereas the stability of the streptavidin layer is due to the high affinity between biotin and streptavidin. The device introduced can be utilised in the development of biosensors for clinically relevant analytes e.g. for detecting complementary DNA oligomers or antibody–antigen complexes.

  10. Printed biotin-functionalised polythiophene films as biorecognition layers in the development of paper-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Petri; Pesonen, Markus; Sund, Pernilla; Viitala, Tapani; Määttänen, Anni; Sarfraz, Jawad; Wilén, Carl-Erik; Österbacka, Ronald; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-02-01

    The integration of flexible electronic sensors in clinical diagnostics is visioned to significantly reduce the cost of many diagnostic tests and ultimately make healthcare more accessible. This study concentrates on the characterisation of inkjet-printed bio-functionalised polythiophene films on paper-based ultrathin gold film (UTGF) electrodes and their possible application as biorecognition layers. Physicochemical surface properties (topography, chemistry, and wetting) and electrochemical characteristics of water-soluble regioirregular tetraethylene-glycol polythiophene (TEGPT) and biotin-functionalised TEGPT (b-TEGPT) films were examined and compared. In addition, their specificity towards streptavidin protein was tested. The results show that stable supramolecular biorecognition layers of insulating b-TEGPT and streptavidin were successfully fabricated on a paper-based UTGF by inkjet-printing. Good adhesion of thiophene to UTGF can be attributed to covalent linkage between sulphur and gold, whereas the stability of the streptavidin layer is due to the high affinity between biotin and streptavidin. The device introduced can be utilised in the development of biosensors for clinically relevant analytes e.g. for detecting complementary DNA oligomers or antibody-antigen complexes.

  11. A novel label-free microfluidic paper-based immunosensor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Huiren; Luo, Jinping; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Li; Fan, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a highly sensitive label-free paper-based electrochemical immunosensor employing screen-printed working electrode (SPWE) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was fabricated. In order to raise the detection sensitivity and immobilize anti-CEA, amino functional graphene (NH2-G)/thionine (Thi)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposites were synthesized and coated on SPWE. The principle of the immunosensor determination was based on the fact that the decreased response currents of Thi were proportional to the concentrations of corresponding antigens due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Experimental results revealed that the immunoassay enabled the determination of standard CEA solutions with linear working ranges of 50pgmL(-1) to 500ngmL(-1), the limit of detections for CEA is 10pgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and its corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.996. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor could be used for the determination of clinical serum samples. A large number of clinical serum samples were detected and the relative errors between measured values and reference concentrations were calculated. Results showed that this novel paper-based electrochemical immunosensor could provide a new platform for low cost, sensitive, specific, and point-of-care diagnosis in cancer detection.

  12. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Hydrogels for Storage and Delivery of Reagents to Paper-Based Analytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydn T. Mitchell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermally responsive hydrogel N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide-cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM was developed and evaluated as a reagent storage and delivery system for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs. PNIPAM was shown to successfully deliver multiple solutions to microPADs in specific sequences or simultaneously in laminar-flow configuration and was found to be suitable for delivering four classes of reagents to the devices: Small molecules, enzymes, antibodies and DNA. PNIPAM was also able to successfully deliver a series of standard glucose solutions to microPADs equipped to perform a colorimetric glucose assay. The results of these tests were used to produce an external calibration curve, which in turn was used to determine the concentration of glucose in sample solutions. Finally, PNIPAM was used to store the enzyme horseradish peroxidase for 35 days under ambient conditions with no significant loss of activity. The combination of PNIPAM and microPADs may allow for more complex assays to be performed on paper-based devices, facilitate the preparation of external calibration curves in the field, and extend the shelf life of microPADs by stabilizing reagents in an easy-to-use format.

  13. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for colorimetric detection of urinary tract infection biomarkers on adult diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaohao Chen; Tao Dong

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common infection diseases in elderly patients. The conventional method of detecting UTI involves the collection of significant urine samples from the elderly patients. However, this is a very difficult and time-consuming procedure. This paper addresses the development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) to detect UTI from urine collected from adult diapers. The design and fabrication for the μPAD is shown. The fabrication process involves melting solid wax on top of filter paper using a hot plate, followed by pattern transfer using a mold with rubbed wax. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the μPAD with deposited nitrite reagent had detected different concentrations of nitrite solutions from 0.5 ppm to 100 ppm spiked in urine samples. A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the gray scale intensity values against the various nitrite concentrations. The results showed that the proposed paper-based device holds great potential as low-cost, disposable solution to sensitively detect UTI markers in urine sampled from diapers.

  14. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  15. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  16. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system in

  17. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  18. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  19. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  20. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  1. Image analysis for a microfluidic paper-based analytical device using the CIE L*a*b* color system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takeshi; Mohammadi, Saeed; Busa, Lori Shayne Alamo; Maeki, Masatoshi; Ishida, Akihiko; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2016-11-28

    The combination of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) and digital image analysis is widely used for quantitative analysis with μPADs because of its easy and simple operation. Herein, we have demonstrated a quantitative analysis based on multiple color changes on a μPAD. The CIE L*a*b* color system was employed to analyse the digital images obtained with the μPAD. We made pH measurements using a universal pH-indicator showing multiple color changes for various pH values of aqueous test solutions. The detectable pH range of this method was wider than the typical grayscale-based image analysis, and we succeeded in the measurements for a wide pH range of 2-9.

  2. Reprint of: Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  3. Rational selection of substrates to improve color intensity and uniformity on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Ellen Flávia Moreira; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Garcia, Carlos D

    2014-05-07

    A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effect of paper type on the analytical performance of a series of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) fabricated using a CO2 laser engraver. Samples included three different grades of Whatman chromatography paper, and three grades of Whatman filter paper. According to the data collected and the characterization performed, different papers offer a wide range of flow rate, thickness, and pore size. After optimizing the channel widths on the μPAD, the focus of this study was directed towards the color intensity and color uniformity formed during a colorimetric enzymatic reaction. According to the results herein described, the type of paper and the volume of reagents dispensed in each detection zone can determine the color intensity and uniformity. Therefore, the objective of this communication is to provide rational guidelines for the selection of paper substrates for the fabrication of μPADs.

  4. Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Blanes, Lucas; Taudte, Regina V; Stuart, Barbara H; Cole, Nerida; Willis, Peter; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2016-03-04

    A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was designed to filter, extract, and pre-concentrate explosives from soil for direct analysis by a lab on a chip (LOC) device. The explosives were extracted via immersion of wax-printed μPADs directly into methanol soil suspensions for 10min, whereby dissolved explosives travelled upwards into the μPAD circular sampling reservoir. A chad was punched from the sampling reservoir and inserted into a LOC well containing the separation buffer for direct analysis, avoiding any further extraction step. Eight target explosives were separated and identified by fluorescence quenching. The minimum detectable amounts for all eight explosives were between 1.4 and 5.6ng with recoveries ranging from 53-82% from the paper chad, and 12-40% from soil. This method provides a robust and simple extraction method for rapid identification of explosives in complex soil samples.

  5. 基于贝叶斯网络的试卷分析*%Paper based on Bayesian Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了基于贝叶斯网络的试卷分析试验,试验主要用到的工具是基于MATLAB语言编写的BNT软件包。通过试验研究,分析了平时的出勤率、作业提交率等五方面内容对学生成绩的影响。%This paper introduces the papers based on Bayesian network analysis test; the test is based on the main tools used MATLAB language BNT package. Through experimental research, analyzes the impact of the five aspects of the usual attendance, job submission rate on student achievement.

  6. A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Geng; Mäntysalo, Matti; Jonsson, Fredrik; Zheng, Li-Rong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm(2). This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

  7. A paper-based detection method of cancer cells using the photo-thermal effect of nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhua; Zheng, Yanping; Liu, Jingjing; Bing, Xin; Hua, Jingjun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    A novel paper-based dot immune-graphene-gold filtration assay (DIGGFA) for the detection of breast cancer cells was developed based on the photo-thermal effect of graphene oxide (GO)-Au nanocomposite. Anti-EpCAM antibody which specific to the MCF-7 cell surface antigen, was immobilized on the nitrocellulose paper. The GO-Au-anti-EpCAM composite would interact with the MCF-7 cells captured on the nitrocellulose paper. After the test zone was irradiated by a laser, GO-Au nanocomposite could generate heat, temperature contrast was recorded and positive correlated with the cell number. Standard curve was prepared according to the temperature contrast and the cell number. Under optimal conditions, this method could detect a minimum of 600 MCF-7 cells with a near infrared laser and an infrared temperature gun within 15 min. This simple and rapid method could be applied to the clinical diagnosis in hospitals.

  8. A paper-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with stacked multiple electret films made of electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Amroun, D.; Leprince-Wang, Y.; Basset, P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the first flexible electrostatic kinetic energy harvester (e-KEH) with electret nanofibrous films obtained by electrospinning and paper-based electrodes. The nanofibrous electret outperforms plenary thin film Parylene in the storage stability of charge: the surface potential is stabilized within 1 day, without any obvious minishing during the following 9 days. The output power of the device is improved by implementing multiple electret layers, where the optimal number of electret layer is 3. With a finger tapping activation, this first prototype with the optimal configuration gives a maximum peak power of 45.6 μW with the optimal load of 16 MΩ. Working with a full-wave diode rectifier and a storage capacitor of 10nF, the voltage reaches 8.5 V with 450 strokes.

  9. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  10. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  11. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  12. Electric batteries and the environment. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1987-01-01

    The book deals with the production, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. There are numerous electro-chemical systems, but only few proved to be really good in practice. Most batteries contain lead, cadmium or mercury and must therefore be eliminated in a way doing no harm to the environment. Large quantities of the above named heavy metals are today already being recovered by means of appropriate procedures. The reduction of these heavy metals in batteries is also described to be a contribution to the protection of the environment. (orig.) With 67 figs.

  13. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  14. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  15. The nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  16. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  17. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  18. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  19. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-20

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a ..beta..-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case.

  20. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  2. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  4. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  5. A VRLA battery simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, P.E.; Anbuky, A.H. [Invensys Energy Systems NZ Limited, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2004-05-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet. (author)

  6. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  7. Paper-based solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor using poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/nafion composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lou, Baohua; Lv, Zhaozi; Zhou, Zhixue; Zhang, Libing; Wang, Erkang

    2013-02-06

    Herein, highly efficient solid-state ECL sensor was introduced for the first time onto the screen printed electrodes of the paper-based chips (PCs) based on the composite film of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene (PSSG) and Nafion. Attributed to the cooperative characteristics of both PSS and graphene, PSSG ensured both effective Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) immobilization and fast electron transfer of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) in the composite film. The ECL behaviors at the developed sensor were investigated using tripropylamine as a representative analyte and low detection limit (SN(-1)=3) of 5.0 nM was obtained. It also exhibited more excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviations of 0.63% for continuous 45 cycles) and long-term stability (~80% of its initial ECL intensity could be retained over 3 months). More importantly, assisted by the developed ECL sensor, discrimination of 1.0 nM single-nucleotide mismatch in human urine matrix could be realized on the PCs for the first attempt. Thus, the developed sensor was confirmed with the advantages of highly sensitivity, long-term stability, simplicity, low cost, disposability, high efficiency and potential applicability.

  8. Coupling paper-based microfluidics and lab on a chip technologies for confirmatory analysis of trinitro aromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Alessandra; Taudte, Regina Verena; McCord, Bruce; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude; Blanes, Lucas

    2014-05-20

    A new microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) in conjunction with confirmation by a lab on chip analysis was developed for detection of three trinitro aromatic explosives. Potassium hydroxide was deposited on the μPADs (0.5 μL, 1.5 M), creating a color change reaction when explosives are present, with detection limits of approximately 7.5 ± 1.0 ng for TNB, 12.5 ± 2.0 ng for TNT and 15.0 ± 2.0 ng for tetryl. For confirmatory analysis, positive μPADs were sampled using a 5 mm hole-punch, followed by extraction of explosives from the punched chad in 30 s using 20 μL borate/SDS buffer. The extractions had efficiencies of 96.5 ± 1.7%. The extracted explosives were then analyzed with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer lab on a chip device with minimum detectable amounts of 3.8 ± 0.1 ng for TNB, 7.0 ± 0.9 ng for TNT, and 4.7 ± 0.2 ng for tetryl. A simulated in-field scenario demonstrated the feasibility of coupling the μPAD technique with the lab on a chip device to detect and identify 1 μg of explosives distributed on a surface of 100 cm(2).

  9. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce.

  10. Evaluation and application of a paper-based device for the determination of reactive phosphate in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardane, B Manori; Wongwilai, W; Grudpan, K; Kolev, S D; Heaven, M W; Nash, D M; McKelvie, I D

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and validation of a new low-cost microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the determination of reactive phosphate in soil solution is described. This device allows up to 15 replicate measurements of reactive phosphate on one credit card-sized device and requires only a desktop or hand scanner for signal detection and quantification. The proposed method showed a linear response between 0.1 and 1.0 mg L and between 1.0 and 10.0 mg L P with a limit of detection of 0.05 mg L P. When applied to the analysis of soil solution, there was excellent agreement between results obtained using the μPAD and those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method, as indicated by the following regression equation: [P] = (0.997 ± 0.005)[P] - (0.020 ± 0.008) ( = 0.997; = 110). It was found that the ambient temperature storage stability of the μPAD could be extended to 15 d by incorporating a removable polymeric interleaving sheet between the adjacent paper layers of the device. The observed sensitivity of the μPADs to sunlight, which was manifested by photoreduction of the chromogenic molybdate reagent used in the assay, was overcome by preparing the μPADs with an ultraviolet-filtering laminating material. The proposed method is rapid, with a reaction time of only 10 min, is easy to perform, and is suitable for application in the field.

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted paper-based multi-disk micro-disk plate for chemiluminescence detection of pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoumei; Ge, Lei; Li, Long; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2013-12-15

    The detection of pesticides has attracted considerable attention in numerous fields, such as environmental monitoring and food safety. Although traditional sensors for pesticides have been widely explored due to their high sensitivity and specificity, it is still challenging to develop a low-cost, portable, fast, and easy-to-use detection method for the public use at home or in the field. To address these challenges, herein, we report a novel paper-based molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-grafted multi-disk micro-disk plate (P-MIP-MMP) for sensitive and specific chemiluminescence (CL) detection of pesticides through an indirect competitive assay using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a proof-of-concept analyte. The MIP-grafted paper disks were prepared by a simple in situ polymerization of MIP layer on the surface of cellulose fibers in paper. The quantification mechanism of this P-MIP-MMP is based on a competition between free 2,4-D and tobacco peroxidase (TOP) labeled 2,4-D and the enzyme catalyzed CL emission from the luminol-TOP-H2O2 CL system. At optimal conditions, this P-MIP-MMP can detect 2,4-D at the concentration of femtomolar level. This approach provided a powerful protocol for simple, low-cost, rapid, and high-throughput detection of pesticides in real samples with satisfactory results for use in areas such as food inspection and environmental monitoring.

  12. Paper-based analytical device for sampling, on-site preconcentration and detection of ppb lead in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarpai, Thiphol; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2016-07-01

    A simple and cost effectiveness procedure based on a paper based analytical device (PAD) for sampling, on-site preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) in water samples was developed. The inkjet printing method was used for patterning of PAD. Colorimetric assay was developed on a PAD for Pb(II) detection in µgL(-1) level. This µgL(-1) level detection limit was achieved by in situ- and on-site preconcentration of Pb(II) onto adsorption filter paper disc with a home-made holder before color development. Water sample was loaded onto a circular filter paper coated with zirconium silicate in 3% sodium carboxymethylcellulose for Pb(II) preconcentration. Subsequently, sodium rhodizonate in tartrate buffer solution (pH 2.8) was used as colorimetric reagent for direct Pb(II) detection on a PAD. Detection was achieved by measuring the pink color and recorded by scanner or digital camera. ImageJ software was used for measuring grey scale values. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10µgL(-1) and 100µgL(-1), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II) in drinking water, tap water and surface water near electronic waste storage and the results were compared with those by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) with good agreement.

  13. Ultrathin, rollable, paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator for acoustic energy harvesting and self-powered sound recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Li, Zhaoling; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    A 125 μm thickness, rollable, paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been developed for harvesting sound wave energy, which is capable of delivering a maximum power density of 121 mW/m(2) and 968 W/m(3) under a sound pressure of 117 dBSPL. The TENG is designed in the contact-separation mode using membranes that have rationally designed holes at one side. The TENG can be implemented onto a commercial cell phone for acoustic energy harvesting from human talking; the electricity generated can be used to charge a capacitor at a rate of 0.144 V/s. Additionally, owing to the superior advantages of a broad working bandwidth, thin structure, and flexibility, a self-powered microphone for sound recording with rolled structure is demonstrated for all-sound recording without an angular dependence. The concept and design presented in this work can be extensively applied to a variety of other circumstances for either energy-harvesting or sensing purposes, for example, wearable and flexible electronics, military surveillance, jet engine noise reduction, low-cost implantable human ear, and wireless technology applications.

  14. Size-tunable copper nanocluster aggregates and their application in hydrogen sulfide sensing on paper-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chi; Ma, Jia-Yin; Huang, Jia-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a strong polyelectrolyte, was used to prepare red photoluminescent PSS-penicillamine (PA) copper (Cu) nanoclusters (NC) aggregates, which displayed high selectivity and sensitivity to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The size of the PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be readily controlled from 5.5 μm to 173 nm using different concentrations of PSS, which enabled better dispersity and higher sensitivity towards H2S. PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates provided rapid H2S detection by using the strong Cu-S interaction to quench NC photoluminescence as a sensing mechanism. As a result, a detection limit of 650 nM, which is lower than the maximum level permitted in drinking water by the World Health Organization, was achieved for the analysis of H2S in spring-water samples. Moreover, highly dispersed PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be incorporated into a plate-format paper-based analytical device which enables ultra-low sample volumes (5 μL) and feature shorter analysis times (30 min) compared to conventional solution-based methods. The advantages of low reagent consumption, rapid result readout, limited equipment, and long-term storage make this platform sensitive and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings. PMID:27113330

  15. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection.

  16. Fabrication techniques for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and their applications for biological testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanyan; Si, Jin; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-03-15

    Paper is increasingly recognized as a user-friendly and ubiquitous substrate for construction of microfluidic devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) provide an alternative technology for development of affordable, portable, disposable and low-cost diagnostic tools for improving point of care testing (POCT) and disease screening in the developing world, especially in those countries with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. We in this review present fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices and their respective applications for biological detection as reported to date. These include: (i) fabrication techniques: examples of devices fabricated by using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) methods; (ii) detection application: biochemical, immunological and molecular detection by incorporating efficient detection methods such as, colorimetric detection, electrochemical detection, fluorescence detection, chemiluminescence (CL) detection, electrochemiluninescence (ECL) detection, photoelectrochemi (PEC) detection and so on. In addition, main advantages, disadvantages and future trends for the devices are also discussed in this review.

  17. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  18. Advanced Battery Diagnosis for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Chudamani

    2008-01-01

    Summary Literatures on battery technologies and diagnosis of its parameters were studied. The innovative battery technologies from basic knowledge to world standard testing procedures were analysed and discussed in the report. The established battery test station and flowchart was followed during the battery test preparation and testing. In order to understand and verify the battery performance, the well established test procedures developed by USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consorti...

  19. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  20. Artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets with excellent mechanical and thermally conductive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Ye, Lei; Yu, Shuhui; Li, Hao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the nano/microscale hierarchical structure and the precise inorganic/organic interface of natural nacre, we fabricated artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (NF-BNNSs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a vacuum-assisted self-assembly technique. The artificial nacre-like papers exhibit excellent tensile strength (125.2 MPa), on a par with that of the natural nacre, and moreover display a 30% higher toughness (2.37 MJ m-3) than that of the natural nacre. These excellent mechanical properties result from an ordered `brick-and-mortar' arrangement of NF-BNNSs and PVA, in which the long-chain PVA molecules act as the bridge to link NF-BNNSs via hydrogen bonds. The resulting papers also render high thermal conductivity (6.9 W m-1 K-1), and reveal their superiority as flexible substrates to support light-emitting-diode chips. The combined mechanical and thermal properties make the materials highly desirable as flexible substrates for next-generation commercial portable electronics.Inspired by the nano/microscale hierarchical structure and the precise inorganic/organic interface of natural nacre, we fabricated artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (NF-BNNSs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a vacuum-assisted self-assembly technique. The artificial nacre-like papers exhibit excellent tensile strength (125.2 MPa), on a par with that of the natural nacre, and moreover display a 30% higher toughness (2.37 MJ m-3) than that of the natural nacre. These excellent mechanical properties result from an ordered `brick-and-mortar' arrangement of NF-BNNSs and PVA, in which the long-chain PVA molecules act as the bridge to link NF-BNNSs via hydrogen bonds. The resulting papers also render high thermal conductivity (6.9 W m-1 K-1), and reveal their superiority as flexible substrates to support light-emitting-diode chips. The combined mechanical and thermal properties make

  1. Paper-based biosensor relying on flower-like reduced graphene guided enzymatically deposition of polyaniline for Pb(2+) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-06-15

    A multi-amplified paper-based electrochemical strategy using Pb(2+) dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit for Pb(2+) detection was developed. In this work, flower-like reduced graphene (FrGO) was prepared utilizing flower-like ZnO as template, which was first one step grown on the gold nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE). After being treated with acid and then modified with Au, a novel sensor platform named Au/FrGO/Au-PWE with large specific surface area and good electrical conductivity was fabricated. The Mn2O3 nanoparticle-assembled hierarchical hollow spheres (H-Mn2O3) was served as nanocarrier to immobilize GOx, HRP and signal strand (S3), resulting to the formation of S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations. In the presence of Pb(2+), the DNAzyme (S1) was activated and the substrate strand (S2) was cleaved. After the incubation with S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx in 0.1M HAc-NaAc solution (pH 4.3) containing 30 mM aniline and 15 mM glucose, a readily measurable "turn-on" electrochemical signal could be measured. On the basis of the signal amplification strategy of Au/FrGO/Au-PWE sensing platform and S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations, the developed biosensor exhibited a good linear response toward over a wide range of concentration from 0.005 to 2000 nM.

  2. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays on Paper-Based Platforms Using Emissive Nanoparticles as Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughan, Samer; Noor, M Omair; Han, Yi; Krull, Ulrich J

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) commonly used in bioassays and biosensors as resonance energy transfer (RET) donors. The narrow and tunable emissions of both QDs and UCNPs make them versatile RET donors that can be paired with a wide range of acceptors. Ratiometric signal processing that compares donor and acceptor emission in RET-based transduction offers improved precision, as it accounts for fluctuations in the absolute photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the donor and acceptor that can result from experimental and instrumental variations. Immobilizing NPs on a solid support avoids problems such as those that can arise with their aggregation in solution, and allows for facile layer-by-layer assembly of the interfacial chemistry. Paper is an attractive solid support for the development of point-of-care diagnostic assays given its ubiquity, low-cost, and intrinsic fluid transport by capillary action. Integration of nanomaterials with paper-based analytical devices (PADs) provides avenues to augment the analytical performance of PADs, given the unique optoelectronic properties of nanomaterials. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of PADs using QDs and UCNPs as RET donors for optical transduction of nucleic acid hybridization. Immobilization of green-emitting QDs (gQDs) on imidazole functionalized cellulose paper is described for use as RET donors with Cy3 molecular dye as acceptors for the detection of SMN1 gene fragment. We also describe the covalent immobilization of blue-emitting UCNPs on aldehyde modified cellulose paper for use as RET donors with orange-emitting QDs (oQDs) as acceptors for the detection of HPRT1 gene fragment. The data described herein is acquired using an epifluorescence microscope, and can also be collected using technology such as a typical electronic camera.

  3. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  4. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  5. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  6. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  7. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  8. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  9. Research on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  10. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... with Li-Ion Batteries (15 min). Results of EFB thermal runaway on flightdeck (smoke and toxic gases... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise...

  11. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-ti

  12. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  13. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  14. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  15. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    CERN Document Server

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  16. Lewis Research Center battery overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; the Space Station Freedom (SSF) photovoltaic power module division; Ni/H2 battery and cell design; individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell testing SSF support; the LeRC Electrochemical Technology Branch; improved design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells; advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells; a lightweight nickel-hydrogen cell; bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development and technology; aerospace nickel-metal hydride cells; the NASA Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology Flight Experiment; and the lithium-carbon dioxide battery thermodynamic model.

  17. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  18. Electro-chemical batteries for guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Jaggi

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro-chemical batteries owing to their simplicity and ease of stowage form one of the sources of electrical power inside a missile. However, all batteries are not suited for this application. This article describes the special features required of a missile borne battery pack and discusses the characteristics of various types of batteries available today in the world. Conclusions have been drawn as to the most suitable types of batteries for missile applications.

  19. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  20. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space application...

  1. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  2. Composite materials for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Ren, Jianguo

    2017-03-14

    A process for producing nanocomposite materials for use in batteries includes electroactive materials are incorporated within a nanosheet host material. The process may include treatment at high temperatures and doping to obtain desirable properties.

  3. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  4. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  5. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  6. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  7. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  8. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  9. Electric batteries and the environment. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1990-01-01

    The book deals with the prodution, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. Subjects: 1. Toxicological aspects of battery substances; 2. legal foundations of environmental protection; 3. off-air purification in battery production; 4. dust monitoring; 5. waste water of the battery industry; 6. safety aspects of battery operation; 7. recycling of battery materials; 8. disposal of used primary batteries. (orig./MM) With 67 figs.

  10. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  11. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  12. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  13. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  14. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  15. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. N.; Veigas, B.; Jacob, J. M.; Santos, D. S.; Gomes, J.; Baptista, P. V.; Martins, R.; Inácio, J.; Fortunato, E.

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  16. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  17. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Y.H. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: wen_yuehua@126.com; Cheng, J. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xun, Y. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, P.H. [Full Cell R and D Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Yang, Y.S. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-08-20

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O{sub 2}), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes.

  18. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  19. A Simple Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for the Determination of the Total Amino Acid Content in a Tea Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Chen, Zefeng

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was developed to demonstrate a microfluidic device in the analytical chemistry (instrumental analysis) laboratory. Students made the paper-based microfluidic device with a wax pen and a piece of filter paper and used it to determine the total quantity of amino acids in a green tea leaf

  20. Differential Effects of Web-Based and Paper-Based Administration of Questionnaire Research Instruments in Authentic Contexts-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Crowson, H. Michael; Xie, Kui

    2010-01-01

    Questionnaire instruments are routinely translated to digital administration systems; however, few studies have compared the differential effects of these administrative methods, and fewer yet in authentic contexts-of-use. In this study, 326 university students were randomly assigned to one of two administration conditions, paper-based (PBA) or…

  1. The Effects of Paper-Based Portfolios and Weblog-Based Electronic Portfolios on Limited English Proficiency Students in Writing for Service Industry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchid, Raveewan; Charoensuk, Valaikorn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the use of paper-based and weblog-based electronic portfolios on the writing achievement of limited English proficiency students, to survey the students' attitudes towards the use of the portfolio assessment, and to compare the viewpoints of the students in the control and experimental…

  2. Web-Based vs. Paper-Based Homework to Evaluate Students' Performance in Introductory Physics Courses and Students' Perceptions: Two Years Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess and compare undergraduate students' homework performance using a web-based testing system with paper-based, hand-graded one in introductory physics courses. Students' perceptions about each method were then investigated. Every semester during the two-year period, one of the two identical sections of…

  3. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  4. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  5. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  6. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver;

    of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses......This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...

  7. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities.

  8. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  9. Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162882.html Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids If swallowed, serious damage ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Tiny button batteries that light up flameless "tea candles" pose a ...

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  11. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  12. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  13. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  14. Next Generation of Launcher & Space Vehicles Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroye, J. F.; Brochard, P.; Grassien, J.-Y.; Masgrangeas, D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents several examples of Saft lithium batteries in use onboard launchers & space vehicles: ATV primary lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2) batteries and Rosetta primary lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries as well as the VEGA rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) avionics & thrust vector control (TVC) batteries.It gives an overview of possible chemistries and tradeoff to address these needs.

  15. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Aishwarya Parasuraman; Tuti Mariana Lim; Suminto Winardi; Helen Prifti

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  16. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin;

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  17. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  18. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  19. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  20. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  1. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  2. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  3. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery terminals. (c) Each metallic fuel line and fuel system component within 12 inches and above the... battery must not be directly above or below a fuel tank, fuel filter, or fitting in a fuel line. (e) A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries. 183.420 Section...

  4. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  5. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  6. Modeling battery cells under discharge using kinetic and stochastic battery models

    OpenAIRE

    Kaj, Ingemar; Konane, Victorien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review several approaches to mathematical modeling of simple battery cells and develop these ideas further with emphasis on charge recovery and the response behavior of batteries to given external load. We focus on models which use few parameters and basic battery data, rather than detailed reaction and material characteristics of a specific battery cell chemistry, starting with the coupled ODE linear dynamics of the kinetic battery model. We show that a related system of PDE...

  7. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  8. History of solid state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Boone B.; Munshi, M. Z.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, batteries have combined liquid electrolytes with solid electrodes because solid electrolytes were too resistive and could not accommodate the volumetric changes associated with the cell reactions. Solid materials utilized as battery electrolytes include: (1) simple ionic salts - silver iodide; (2) double salt compounds - rubidic silver iodide; (3) dispersed phase solid electrolytes - LiI (AL2)3); (4) ceramic compounds - Sodium - Beta - Al2)3; (5) in-situ formed electrolytes - Lithium iodide; (6) glasses - LiI-Li2S-P2S5; (7) polymer electrolytes - (PEO)8LiClO4). Commercialization has been limited because of performance and cost factors.

  9. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  10. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  11. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  12. Microfluidics-Based Biosensors: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Origami Nanobiosensor for Label-Free, Ultrasensitive Immunoassays (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 11/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    The first microfluidic paper-based origami nano-biosensor featuring zinc oxide nanowires and an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biosensing mechanism, for label-free, ultrasensitive immunoassays is reported by X. Li and X. Liu on page 1326. The sensor consists of cellulose paper, a carbon ink electrode, and zinc oxide nanowires directly grown on the top. Possible parallelization of assays and high storage stability render the sensor promising for clinical diagnostics applications.

  13. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Yen Hsu; Yu-Chien Hung; De-Kuang Hwang; Shang-Chi Lin; Keng-Hung Lin; Chun-Yuan Wang; Hin-Yeung Choi; Yu-Ping Wang; Chao-Min Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with...

  14. Developing Web-oriented Homework System to Assess Students’ Introductory Physics Course Performance and Compare to Paper-based Peer Homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neset DEMIRCI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web influences education and our lives in many ways. Nowadays, Web-based homework has been becoming widespread practice in physics courses and some other courses as well. Although are some disputes whether this is an encouraging or risky development for student learning, there is limited research assessing the pedagogical effect of changing the medium from written, hand-graded homework to online oriented, computer-graded homework. In this study, web-oriented homework system is developed to assess students’ introductory physics course performance. Later on, these results are compared with paper-based (peer homework performance for mid enrollment physics courses. One of two identical sections of introductory physics course students received paper-based, hand graded group homework while the other received the individual web-based homework. Then two groups’ on conceptual and problem-solving performance measures are compared. No significant differences were found in students’ Force Concept Inventory (FCI test scores; however, average homework performance scores were significant that could be attributed to the homework method used in favor of paper-based peer homework group.

  15. The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G. Richardson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS. Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years were examined; 354 (23.9% participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1% completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. Use of the web-based format was associated with significantly shorter completion times and a small but statistically significant increase in the number of missing responses. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that using a web-based mode of administration did not influence the psychometric functioning of the DTDS. There were no significant differences between the web- and paper-based groups’ ratings of the survey’s length, their question comprehension, and their response accuracy. Overall, the results of the study support the equivalence of scores obtained from web- and paper-based versions of the DTDS in secondary school settings.

  16. The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris G; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format) on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS). Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years) were examined; 354 (23.9%) participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1%) completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. Use of the web-based format was associated with significantly shorter completion times and a small but statistically significant increase in the number of missing responses. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that using a web-based mode of administration did not influence the psychometric functioning of the DTDS. There were no significant differences between the web- and paper-based groups' ratings of the survey's length, their question comprehension, and their response accuracy. Overall, the results of the study support the equivalence of scores obtained from web- and paper-based versions of the DTDS in secondary school settings.

  17. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  18. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  19. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  20. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  1. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  2. Zinc-bromine battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  3. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  4. The General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Lucille

    The development and use of the GATB in the United States is presented by a Canadian author. The history of establishing the norms for the GATB is also discussed. The use of the GATB as a counseling and selection tool is outlined while another section of the article points out the advantages and disadvantages of the test battery. There are also…

  5. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  6. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  7. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  8. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  9. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  10. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  11. Development of a gas-diffusion microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the determination of ammonia in wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardane, Badra Manori; McKelvie, Ian D; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-01-01

    An inexpensive, disposable and highly selective microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) is described for the determination of ammonia (molecular ammonia and ammonium cation) in wastewaters which implements for the first time a gas-diffusion separation step on a paper-based platform. Its hydrophilic reagent zones were defined by printing filter paper with a hydrophobic paper sizing agent using a conventional inkjet printer. The sample was introduced into the sodium hydroxide impregnated sample zone of the μPAD. This allowed the quantitative conversion of the ammonium ion to molecular ammonia which diffused across the hydrophobic microporous Teflon membrane of the device into an adjacent hydrophilic reagent zone containing the acid-base indicator 3-nitrophenol or bromothymol blue. The change in indicator color was measured using a desktop scanner for ammonia quantification. Under optimal conditions, the μPAD is characterized by a limit of detection of 0.8 and 1.8 mg N L(-1) and repeatability of 3.1 and 3.7% (n ≥ 10, 20 mg N L(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, in the case of 3-nitrophenol or bromothymol blue, respectively. This μPAD was used successfully for the determination of ammonia in sewage and soil water samples. The small dimensions, minimal reagent consumption, low cost, simplicity of operation, and possibility of using a portable scanner make the proposed μPAD suitable for on-site ammonia monitoring in contaminated environmental waters and domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewaters. The successful implementation of the gas-diffusion approach on a paper-based platform is expected to result in the development of other μPADs for volatile analytes.

  12. Paper-based solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Shahmuradyan, Anna; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-02-05

    A paper-based solid-phase assay is presented for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) were FRET-paired with Cy3 acceptor. Hybridization of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity required for FRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which served as an analytical signal. The assay exhibited rapid transduction of nucleic acid hybridization within minutes. Without any amplification steps, the limit of detection of the assay was found to be 300 fmol with the upper limit of the dynamic range at 5 pmol. The implementation of glutathione-coated QDs for the development of nucleic acid hybridization assay integrated on a paper-based platform exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides and showed no reduction in the performance of the assay in the presence of large quantities of noncomplementary DNA. The selectivity of nucleic acid hybridization was demonstrated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 19 to 1. The reuse of paper over multiple cycles of hybridization and dehybridization was possible, with less than 20% reduction in the performance of the assay in five cycles. This work provides an important framework for the development of paper-based solid-phase QD-FRET nucleic acid hybridization assays that make use of a ratiometric approach for detection and analysis.

  13. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  14. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  15. The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Chris G; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A; Bruno D Zumbo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format) on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS). Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years) were examined; 354 (23.9%) participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1%) completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. ...

  16. Paper-based assay of antioxidant activity using analyte-mediated on-paper nucleation of gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, Tatiana G; Kappi, Foteini A; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2015-02-20

    With the increasing interest in the health benefits arising from the consumption of dietary products rich in antioxidants, there exists a clear demand for easy-to-use and cost-effective tests that can be used for the identification of the antioxidant power of food products. Paper-based analytical devices constitute a remarkable platform for such expedient and low-cost assays with minimal external resources but efforts in this direction are still scarce. In this work we introduce a new paper-based device in the form of a sensor patch that enables the determination of antioxidant activity through analyte-driven on-paper formation of gold nanoparticles. The principle of detection capitalizes, for the first time, on the on-paper nucleation of gold ions to its respective nanoparticles, upon reduction by antioxidant compounds present in an aqueous sample. The ensuing chromatic transitions, induced on the paper surface, are used as an optical "signature" of the antioxidant strength of the solution. The response of the paper-based sensor was evaluated against a large variety of antioxidant species and the respective dose response curves were constructed. On the basis of these data, the contribution of each species according to its chemical structure was elucidated. For the analysis of real samples, a concentration-dependent colorimetric response was established against Gallic acid equivalents over a linear range of 10 μM-1.0 mM, with detection limits at the low and ultra-low μM levels (i.e. antioxidant activity in real samples (teas and wines) and the results correlated well with commonly used antioxidant detection methods. Importantly, the sensor performed favorably for long periods of time when stored at moisture-free and low temperature conditions without losing its activity thus posing as an attractive alternative to the assessment of antioxidant activity without specialized equipment. The use of the sensor by non-experts for a rapid assessment of natural products in

  17. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  18. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  19. Development of MnO2 cathode inks for flexographically printed rechargeable zinc-based battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoqian; Winslow, Rich; Madan, Deepa; Wright, Paul K.; Evans, James W.; Keif, Malcolm; Rong, Xiaoying

    2014-12-01

    A novel roll-to-roll flexographic printing process for rechargeable zinc-based battery manufacturing was presented in this paper. Based on the fundamental operating mechanism of flexography, key criteria for developing functional flexographic printing inks were established, including composite ink rheology (steady-state viscosity and yield stress), ink wettability as well as ink dispersing qualities. A variety of MnO2 cathode inks were developed and analyzed comprehensively based on these criteria. A novel type of aqueous cathode ink based on PSBR polymeric binder showed excellent flexographic printability as well as promising electrochemical performance.

  20. Towards an All-Polymer Biosensor for Early Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Heegaard, Niels

    for measuring this. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors are one of the fastest growing technologies for in vitro diagnostics. The combination of microfluidics and biosensing offers exciting possibilities for producing extremely sensitive and low cost applications for medicine and diagnostics. This thesis include studies...... of polymerized p-toluenesulfonate doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:TsO) nanowires. The PEDOT:TsO nanowires are demonstrated to be promising temperature sensors. We also show that the nanowires can be gated with a backgating potential, which is a requirement for using it as a biosensor. The nanowires...... were also shown to be able to measure changes in larger biological samples as cells. This shows a promise for utilizing the PEDOT:TsO nanowires as Aβ42 biosensors. A prototype for a lab-on-a-chip system consisting of a double assay sorting channel and a electrochemical impedance spectroscopy coulter...

  1. Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

    1999-02-03

    The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

  2. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality.

  3. Self-Powered Forward Error-Correcting Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled Quick Response Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Liu, Keng-Ku; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-10-01

    This paper extends our previous work on silver-enhancement based self-assembling structures for designing reliable, self-powered biosensors with forward error correcting (FEC) capability. At the core of the proposed approach is the integration of paper-based microfluidics with quick response (QR) codes that can be optically scanned using a smart-phone. The scanned information is first decoded to obtain the location of a web-server which further processes the self-assembled QR image to determine the concentration of target analytes. The integration substrate for the proposed FEC biosensor is polyethylene and the patterning of the QR code on the substrate has been achieved using a combination of low-cost ink-jet printing and a regular ballpoint dispensing pen. A paper-based microfluidics channel has been integrated underneath the substrate for acquiring, mixing and flowing the sample to areas on the substrate where different parts of the code can self-assemble in presence of immobilized gold nanorods. In this paper we demonstrate the proof-of-concept detection using prototypes of QR encoded FEC biosensors.

  4. Rapid detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in herbal specimens by a simple, bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Plubcharoensook, Pattra; Prasongsuk, Sehanat

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest herbal product contamination with mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi represents a potentially carcinogenic hazard. Aspergillus flavus is a major cause of this issue. Available mold detection methods are PCR-based and rely heavily on laboratories; thus, they are unsuitable for on-site monitoring. In this study, a bendable, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform was developed to rapidly detect toxigenic Aspergillus spp. DNA. The 3.0-4.0 cm(2) chip is fabricated using Whatman™ filter paper, fishing line and a simple plastic lamination process and has nucleic acid amplification and signal detection components. The Aspergillus assay specifically amplifies the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, aflR, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP); hybridization between target DNA and probes on blue silvernanoplates (AgNPls) yields colorimetric results. Positive results are indicated by the detection pad appearing blue due to dispersed blue AgNPls; negative results are indicated by the detection pad appearing colorless or pale yellow due to probe/target DNA hybridization and AgNPls aggregation. Assay completion requires less than 40 min, has a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aflR copies, and has high specificity (94.47%)and sensitivity (100%). Contamination was identified in 14 of 32 herbal samples tested (43.75%). This work demonstrates the fabrication of a simple, low-cost, paper-based lab-on-a-chip platform suitable for rapid-detection applications.

  5. 3D origami-based multifunction-integrated immunodevice: low-cost and multiplexed sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay on microfluidic paper-based analytical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Shoumei; Song, Xianrang; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2012-09-07

    A novel 3D microfluidic paper-based immunodevice, integrated with blood plasma separation from whole blood samples, automation of rinse steps, and multiplexed CL detections, was developed for the first time based on the principle of origami (denoted as origami-based device). This 3D origami-based device, comprised of one test pad surrounded by four folding tabs, could be patterned and fabricated by wax-printing on paper in bulk. In this work, a sandwich-type chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was introduced into this 3D origami-based immunodevice, which could separate the operational procedures into several steps including (i) folding pads above/below and (ii) addition of reagent/buffer under a specific sequence. The CL behavior, blood plasma separation, washing protocol, and incubation time were investigated in this work. The developed 3D origami-based CL immunodevice, combined with a typical luminuol-H(2)O(2) CL system and catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles, showed excellent analytical performance for the simultaneous detection of four tumor markers. The whole blood samples were assayed and the results obtained were in agreement with the reference values from the parallel single-analyte test. This paper-based microfluidic origami CL detection system provides a new strategy for a low-cost, sensitive, simultaneous multiplex immunoassay and point-of-care diagnostics.

  6. Paper-based analytical device for instrumental-free detection of thiocyanate in saliva as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    This work describes a fast and simple assay for in situ detection of thiocyanate, i.e., a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure, in human saliva. The assay is based on the formation of an iron(III)-thiocyanate colored complex in a paper-based sensing platform and subsequent image analysis using a scanner as detection device. Experimental parameters influencing the color intensity of the complex were fully evaluated, including the selection of detection conditions, type of paper substrate, test zone dimensions and composition as well as the stability of the paper-based device. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was 0.06mM of thiocyanate, and the repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 3%. The proposed method, characterized by its simplicity, portability and low sample consumption, was applied to the detection of thiocyanate in a series of human saliva samples. Average thiocyanate levels in the ranges 0.28-0.87mM and 0.78-4.28mM were found for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Recovery studies were carried out at two concentration levels, showing recovery values in the range of 96.1-103.6%.

  7. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  8. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  9. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  10. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  11. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  12. Battery powered BION FES network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J H; Mobley, J P; Wolfe, J; Regev, E; Perron, C Y; Ananth, R; Matei, E; Glukhovsky, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    The Alfred Mann Foundation is completing development of a coordinated network of BION microstimulator/sensor (hereinafter implant) that has broad stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. The network consists of a master control unit (MCU) in communication with a group of BION implants. Each implant is powered by a custom lithium-ion rechargeable 10 mW-hr battery. The charging, discharging, safety, stimulating, sensing, and communication circuits are designed to be highly efficient to minimize energy use and maximize battery life and time between charges. The stimulator can be programmed to deliver pulses in any value in the following range: 5 microA to 20 mA in 3.3% constant current steps, 7 micros to 2000 micros in 7 micros pulse width steps, and 1 to 4000 Hz in frequency. The preamp voltage sensor covers the range 10 microV to 1.0 V with bandpass filtering and several forms of data analysis. The implant also contains sensors that can read out pressure, temperature, DC magnetic field, and distance (via a low frequency magnetic field) up to 20 cm between any two BION implants. The MCU contains a microprocessor, user interface, two-way communication system, and a rechargeable battery. The MCU can command and interrogate in excess of 800 BlON implants every 10 ms, i.e., 100 times a second.

  13. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  14. Battery Simulation and Investigation Utilizing Matlab Simulink

    OpenAIRE

    Klussmann, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. As a self-sufficient power system, a satellite has to be equipped with an electrical energy storage system enabled with a rechargeable battery. To improve the quality of the energy supply at space satellite systems the new high performance battery cell technology, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), is presented and investigated in this work. Evaluation factors of battery cells for an assessment of the technology are explained ...

  15. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

  16. Improved Thermal-Switch Disks Protect Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Bragg, Bobby

    1990-01-01

    Improved thermal-switch disks help protect electrical batteries against high currents like those due to short circuits or high demands for power in circuits supplied by batteries. Protects batteries against excessive temperatures. Centered by insulating fiberglass washer. Contains conductive polymer that undergoes abrupt increase in electrical resistance when excessive current raises its temperature above specific point. After cooling, polymer reverts to low resistance. Disks reusable.

  17. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  18. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  19. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.;

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...

  20. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  1. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  2. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  3. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  4. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  5. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2012-12-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  6. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  7. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  8. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  9. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  10. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  11. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  12. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  13. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  14. Camera-based ratiometric fluorescence transduction of nucleic acid hybridization with reagentless signal amplification on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots as donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-10-21

    Paper-based diagnostic assays are gaining increasing popularity for their potential application in resource-limited settings and for point-of-care screening. Achievement of high sensitivity with precision and accuracy can be challenging when using paper substrates. Herein, we implement the red-green-blue color palette of a digital camera for quantitative ratiometric transduction of nucleic acid hybridization on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A nonenzymatic and reagentless means of signal enhancement for QD-FRET assays on paper substrates is based on the use of dry paper substrates for data acquisition. This approach offered at least a 10-fold higher assay sensitivity and at least a 10-fold lower limit of detection (LOD) as compared to hydrated paper substrates. The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to assemble a transduction interface that consisted of immobilized QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as an acceptor. A hybridization event that brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs was responsible for a FRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye, which served as an analytical signal. A hand-held UV lamp was used as an excitation source and ratiometric analysis using an iPad camera was possible by a relative intensity analysis of the red (Cy3 photoluminescence (PL)) and green (gQD PL) color channels of the digital camera. For digital imaging using an iPad camera, the LOD of the assay in a sandwich format was 450 fmol with a dynamic range spanning 2 orders of magnitude, while an epifluorescence microscope detection platform offered a LOD of 30 fmol and a dynamic range spanning 3 orders of magnitude. The selectivity of the hybridization assay was demonstrated by detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism at a contrast ratio of 60:1. This work provides an

  15. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  16. Translating 10 lessons from lean six sigma project in paper-based training site to electronic health record-based primary care practice: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma is a well-proven methodology to enhance the performance of any business, including health care. The strategy focuses on cutting out waste and variation from the processes to improve the value and efficiency of work. This article walks through the journey of "green belt" training using a Lean Six Sigma approach and the implementation of a process improvement project that focused on wait time for patients to be examined in an urban academic primary care clinic without requiring added resources. Experiences of the training and the project at an urban paper-based satellite clinic have informed the planning efforts of a data and performance team, including implementing a 15-minute nurse "pre-visit" at primary care sites of an accountable care organization.

  17. A concentration gradient generator on a paper-based microfluidic chip coupled with cell culture microarray for high-throughput drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wu, Yafeng; Bao, Jingnan; Chuah, Yon Jin; Kang, Yuejun

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the paper platforms for 3-D cell culture, a paper-based microfluidic device containing drug concentration gradient was designed and constructed for investigating cell response to drugs based on high throughput analysis. This drug gradient generator was applied to generate concentration gradients of doxorubicin (DOX) as the model drug. HeLa cells encapsulated in collagen hydrogel were incubated in the device reservoirs to evaluate the cell viability based on the controlled release of DOX spatially. It was demonstrated that drug diffusion through the paper fibers created a gradient of drug concentration, which influenced cell viability. This drug screening platform has a great opportunity to be applied for drug discovery and diagnostic studies with simultaneous and parallel tests of drugs under various gradient concentrations.

  18. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  19. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  20. Behavior data of battery and battery pack SOC estimation under different working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-12-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of battery behavior. The constant current condition and the dynamic stress test (DST) condition were carried out to analyze the battery discharging and charging features. The datasets were achieved at room temperature, in April, 2016. The shared data contributes to clarify the battery pack state-of-charge (SOC) and the battery inconsistency, which is also shown in the article of "An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model" (X. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. Yang, et al., 2016) [1].

  1. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    developed by the battery industry include thionyl chloride , sulfuryl chloride , sulfur dioxide, carbon monofluoride, and manganese dioxide. These cells have......Frederick W. Williams Senior Scientific Staff Office Chemistry Division Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation Gerard G. Back Hughes Associates

  2. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  3. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  4. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Martin; Brodd, Ralph J

    2004-10-01

    Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

  5. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.;

    2005-01-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole lifecycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can,...

  6. 49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  7. Bunsen's Batteries and the Electric Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the observation of the production of electric sparks and the early history of battery design. Detail is provided about laboratory experiments performed by Robert Bunsen, who spent a great deal of time developing an efficient and comparatively cheap battery. (36 references) (DDR)

  8. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  9. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  10. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  11. Sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-15

    Overcharge protection, and especially the chargeability of a sealed Ni/Cd battery with high currents is improved by rolling a carbon-containing powdered material into the surface of the negative electrode, which material catalyzes the reduction of oxygen. Wetting of the electrode with a Tylose dispersion prior to application of the powder (by powdering, vibration or in an agitator) improves the adhesion of the powder. The cadmium electrode thus prepared combines in itself the functions of a negative principal electrode and of an auxiliary oxygen electrode.

  12. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-10-25

    A secondary battery including a cathode having a primary cathode active material and an alkaline source material selected from the group consisting of Li.sub.2O, Li.sub.2O.sub.2, Li.sub.2S, LiF, LiCl, Li.sub.2Br, Na.sub.2O, Na.sub.2O.sub.2, Na.sub.2S, NaF, NaCl, and a mixture of any two or more thereof; an anode having an anode active material; an electrolyte; and a separator.

  13. Confession of a Magnesium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Claudiu B; Gregory, Thomas; Oliver, Allen G; Muldoon, John

    2015-09-17

    Magnesium is an ideal metal anode that has nearly double the volumetric capacity of lithium metal with a very negative reduction potential of -2.37 vs SHE. A significant advantage of magnesium is the apparent lack of dendrite formation during charging, which overcomes major safety and performance challenges encountered with using lithium metal anodes. Here, we highlight major recent advances in nonaqueous Mg electrochemistry, notably the development of electrolytes and cathodes, and discuss some of the challenges that must be overcome to realize a practical magnesium battery.

  14. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  15. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  16. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mushra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  17. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  18. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  19. Coordinated discharge of a collection of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, Shivakumar; Gimdogmus, Omer; Hartley, Tom T.; Veillette, Robert J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3904 (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Collections of batteries are used to supply energy to a variety of applications. By utilizing the energy in such a collection efficiently, we can improve the lifetime over which energy can be supplied to the application. We say that the discharge of a collection of batteries is coordinated when, at the end of discharge, the difference in the remaining capacity of individual batteries is small. This paper presents a decision-maker based on a goal-seeking formulation that coordinates the discharge of a collection of batteries. This formulation allows us to use a simple battery model and simple decision-making algorithms. We present results from MATLAB simulations that demonstrate the performance of the decision-maker when energy is drawn out of the collection in three different discharge scenarios. The new decision-maker consistently improves the discharge efficiency obtained using scheduling methods. Our results show that when the discharge is coordinated, the lifetime of the collection is extended. (author)

  20. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  1. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  2. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  3. Application of a paper based device containing a new culture medium to detect Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquaire, Romain; Colwell, Rita R; Boncy, Jacques; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Dardy, Aline; Pandini, Isabelle; Villeval, François; Machuron, Jean-Louis; Huq, Anwar; Rashed, Shah; Vandevelde, Thierry; Rozand, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Cholera is now considered to be endemic in Haiti, often with increased incidence during rainy seasons. The challenge of cholera surveillance is exacerbated by the cost of sample collection and laboratory analysis. A diagnostic tool is needed that is low cost, easy-to-use, and able to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae accurately in water samples within 18-24h, and perform reliably in remote settings lacking laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. The two main objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a new culture medium embedded in a new diagnostic tool (PAD for paper based analytical device) for detecting Vibrio cholerae from water samples collected in Haiti. The intent is to provide guidance for corrective action, such as chlorination, for water positive for V. cholerae epidemic strains. For detecting Vibrio cholerae, a new chromogenic medium was designed and evaluated as an alternative to thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar for testing raw water samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the medium were assessed using both raw and spiked water samples. The Vibrio cholerae chromogenic medium was proved to be highly selective against most of the cultivable bacteria in the water samples, without loss of sensitivity in detection of V. cholerae. Thus, reliability of this new culture medium for detection of V. cholerae in the presence of other Vibrio species in water samples offers a significant advantage. A new paper based device containing the new chromogenic medium previously evaluated was compared with reference methods for detecting V. cholerae from spiked water sample. The microbiological PAD specifications were evaluated in Haiti. More precisely, a total of 185 water samples were collected at five sites in Haiti, June 2014 and again in June 2015. With this new tool, three V. cholerae O1 and 17 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains were isolated. The presence of virulence-associated and regulatory genes, including ctxA, zot, ace, and tox

  4. Ratiometric fluorescence transduction by hybridization after isothermal amplification for determination of zeptomole quantities of oligonucleotide biomarkers with a paper-based platform and camera-based detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Hrovat, David [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Moazami-Goudarzi, Maryam [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Espie, George S. [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Solid-phase QD-FRET transduction of isothermal tHDA amplicons on paper substrates. • Ratiometric QD-FRET transduction improves assay precision and lowers the detection limit. • Zeptomole detection limit by an iPad camera after isothermal amplification. • Tunable assay sensitivity by immobilizing different amounts of QD–probe bioconjugates. - Abstract: Paper is a promising platform for the development of decentralized diagnostic assays owing to the low cost and ease of use of paper-based analytical devices (PADs). It can be challenging to detect on PADs very low concentrations of nucleic acid biomarkers of lengths as used in clinical assays. Herein we report the use of thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) in combination with a paper-based platform for fluorescence detection of probe-target hybridization. Paper substrates were patterned using wax printing. The cellulosic fibers were chemically derivatized with imidazole groups for the assembly of the transduction interface that consisted of immobilized quantum dot (QD)–probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as the acceptor dye in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based transduction method. After probe-target hybridization, a further hybridization event with a reporter sequence brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs, triggering a FRET sensitized emission that served as an analytical signal. Ratiometric detection was evaluated using both an epifluorescence microscope and a low-cost iPad camera as detectors. Addition of the tHDA method for target amplification to produce sequences of ∼100 base length allowed for the detection of zmol quantities of nucleic acid targets using the two detection platforms. The ratiometric QD-FRET transduction method not only offered improved assay precision, but also lowered the limit of detection of the assay when compared with the non

  5. Efficiencies of Internet-based digital and paper-based scientific surveys and the estimated costs and time for different-sized cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E Uhlig

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the relative efficiencies of five Internet-based digital and three paper-based scientific surveys and to estimate the costs for different-sized cohorts. METHODS: Invitations to participate in a survey were distributed via e-mail to employees of two university hospitals (E1 and E2 and to members of a medical association (E3, as a link placed in a special text on the municipal homepage regularly read by the administrative employees of two cities (H1 and H2, and paper-based to workers at an automobile enterprise (P1 and college (P2 and senior (P3 students. The main parameters analyzed included the numbers of invited and actual participants, and the time and cost to complete the survey. Statistical analysis was descriptive, except for the Kruskal-Wallis-H-test, which was used to compare the three recruitment methods. Cost efficiencies were compared and extrapolated to different-sized cohorts. RESULTS: The ratios of completely answered questionnaires to distributed questionnaires were between 81.5% (E1 and 97.4% (P2. Between 6.4% (P1 and 57.0% (P2 of the invited participants completely answered the questionnaires. The costs per completely answered questionnaire were $0.57-$1.41 (E1-3, $1.70 and $0.80 for H1 and H2, respectively, and $3.36-$4.21 (P1-3. Based on our results, electronic surveys with 10, 20, 30, or 42 questions would be estimated to be most cost (and time efficient if more than 101.6-225.9 (128.2-391.7, 139.8-229.2 (93.8-193.6, 165.8-230.6 (68.7-115.7, or 188.2-231.5 (44.4-72.7 participants were required, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study efficiency depended on the technical modalities of the survey methods and engagement of the participants. Depending on our study design, our results suggest that in similar projects that will certainly have more than two to three hundred required participants, the most efficient way of conducting a questionnaire-based survey is likely via the Internet with a digital questionnaire

  6. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  7. Aqueous batteries based on mixed monovalence metal ions: a new battery family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-08-01

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, new concepts are urgently needed to build batteries with high energy density, low cost, and good safety. Here, we demonstrate two new aqueous batteries based on two monovalence metal ions (Li(+) /K(+) and Na(+) /K(+) ) as charge-transfer ions, Ni1 Zn1 HCF/TiP2 O7 and Ni1 Zn1 HCF/NaTi2 (PO4 )3 . These new batteries are unlike the conventional "rocking-chair" aqueous metal-ion batteries based on the migration of one type of shuttle ion between cathode and anode. They can deliver specific energy of 46 Wh kg(-1) and 53 Wh kg(-1) based on the total mass of active materials; this is superior to current aqueous battery systems based on sodium-ion and/or potassium-ion technologies. These two new batteries together with the previously developed Li(+) /Na(+) mixed-ion battery not only constitute a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broaden our horizons for battery research.

  8. Fabrication of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device by silanization of filter cellulose using a paper mask for glucose assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Zhong, Minghua; Lai, Heyun; Huang, Junsheng

    2014-09-21

    We developed a novel, low-cost and simple method for the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) by silanization of filter cellulose using a paper mask having a specific pattern. The paper mask was penetrated with trimethoxyoctadecylsilane (TMOS) by immersing into TMOS-heptane solution. By heating the filter paper sandwiched between the paper mask and glass slides, TMOS was immobilized onto the filter cellulose via the reaction between cellulose OH and TMOS, while the hydrophilic area was not silanized because it was not in contact with the paper mask penetrated with TMOS. The effects of some factors including TMOS concentration, heating temperature and time on the fabrication of μPADs were studied. This method is free of any expensive equipment and metal masks, and could be performed by untrained personnel. These features are very attractive for the fabrication and applications of μPADs in developing countries or resource-limited settings. A flower-shaped μPAD was fabricated and used to determine glucose in human serum samples. The contents determined by this method agreed well with those determined by a standard method.

  9. Paper-based enzymatic microfluidic fuel cell: From a two-stream flow device to a single-stream lateral flow strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Maria José; del Campo, F. Javier; Esquivel, Juan Pablo; Giroud, Fabien; Minteer, Shelley D.; Sabaté, Neus

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a first approach towards the development of a cost-effective enzymatic paper-based glucose/O2 microfluidic fuel cell in which fluid transport is based on capillary action. A first fuel cell configuration consists of a Y-shaped paper device with the fuel and the oxidant flowing in parallel over carbon paper electrodes modified with bioelectrocatalytic enzymes. The anode consists of a ferrocenium-based polyethyleneimine polymer linked to glucose oxidase (GOx/Fc-C6-LPEI), while the cathode contains a mixture of laccase, anthracene-modified multiwall carbon nanotubes, and tetrabutylammonium bromide-modified Nafion (MWCNTs/laccase/TBAB-Nafion). Subsequently, the Y-shaped configuration is improved to use a single solution containing both, the anolyte and the catholyte. Thus, the electrolytes pHs of the fuel and the oxidant solutions are adapted to an intermediate pH of 5.5. Finally, the fuel cell is run with this single solution obtaining a maximum open circuit of 0.55 ± 0.04 V and a maximum current and power density of 225 ± 17 μA cm-2 and 24 ± 5 μW cm-2, respectively. Hence, a power source closer to a commercial application (similar to conventional lateral flow test strips) is developed and successfully operated. This system can be used to supply the energy required to power microelectronics demanding low power consumption.

  10. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Yen; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Shang-Chi; Lin, Keng-Hung; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Choi, Hin-Yeung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-10-11

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study. The limit of detection using P-ELISA was 0.03 pg/mL. Forty-six consecutive samples of aqueous humor were acquired. From all samples, 66.67% (10/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression (below the detection limit) within 5 weeks of receiving IVI of anti-VEGF antibody. Only 13.33% of samples (2/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression 5 weeks after receiving treatment. In some patients, elevated VEGF was still detected 5 weeks after receipt of anti-VEGF antibody, and all samples (10/10) were found to have elevated VEGF levels 49 days after treatment. Thus, we suggest that monthly IVI of anti-VEGF antibody may be required to ensure durable VEGF inhibition. Ultrasensitive P-ELISA can detect elevated VEGF at an earlier time point and may facilitate decision-making regarding appropriate treatment strategies.

  11. A simple analytical platform based on thin-layer chromatography coupled with paper-based analytical device for determination of total capsaicinoids in chilli samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawan, Phanphruk; Satarpai, Thiphol; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2017-01-01

    A new analytical platform based on the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with paper-based analytical device (PAD) was developed for the determination of total capsaicinoids in chilli samples. This newly developed TLC-PAD is simple and low-cost without any requirement of special instrument or skillful person. The analysis consisted of two steps, i.e., extraction of capsaicinoids from chilli samples by using ethanol as solvent and separation of capsaicinoids by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and elution of capsaicinoids from the TLC plate with in situ colorimetric detection of capsaicinoids on the PAD. For colorimetric detection, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to detect phenolic functional group of capsaicinoids yielding the blue color. The blue color on the PAD was imaged by a scanner followed by evaluation of its grayscale intensity value by ImageJ program. This newly developed TLC-PAD method provided a linear range from 50 to 1000mgL(-1) capsaicinoids with the limit of detection as low as 50mgL(-1) capsaicinoids. The proposed method was applied to determine capsaicinoids in dried chilli and seasoning powder samples and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method.

  12. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection.

  13. Paper-based electrochemiluminescence origami device for protein detection using assembled cascade DNA-carbon dots nanotags based on rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ludan; Ma, Chao; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Haiyun; Yu, Jinghua

    2015-06-15

    In this work, we developed a cascade signal amplification strategy for detection of IgG antigen by combining the rolling circle amplification (RCA) technique with oligonucleotide functionalized carbon dots (CDs), based on a paper-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) origami device (PECLOD) for the first time. In this PECLOD, three-dimensional (3D) macroporous Au-paper electrode was fabricated and employed as the working electrode for specific and efficient antibodies capture. The RCA product containing tandem-repeat sequences could serve as an excellent template for periodic assembly of CDs, which presented per protein recognition event to numerous CDs tags for ECL readout. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed strategy showed remarkable amplification efficiency, very little nonspecific adsorption with good stability, reproducibility, and accuracy. Using human IgG (H-IgG) as a model protein, the designed strategy was successfully demonstrated for the ultrasensitive detection of protein target. The results revealed that the strategy exhibited a dynamic response to H-IgG range from 1.0 fM to 25 pM with a limit of detection as low as 0.15 fM. Importantly, the methodology can be further extended to the detection of other proteins or biomarkers.

  14. Integrated ZnO nanoparticles on paper-based microfluidic: toward efficient analytical device for glucose detection based on impedance and FTIR measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Izdiharruddin, Mokhammad Fahmi; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices decorated with ZnO nanospherical (nanoSPs) aggregates (ZnO-μPAD) for glucose detection have been fabricated. ZnO nanoSPs were prepared by wet chemical synthesis and integrated on the optimized geometry of ZnO-μPAD has 0.2 and 0.4 mm of channel width and length, respectively. Glucose detection measurements were based on electrochemical and infrared transmission measurements. The glucose concentrations were adjusted as 5, 6.5, and 9 mmol, i.e. typical glucose level for normal, pre-diabetes and diabetes, in a mixture of ringer lactate as simulated biological fluid and red blood cells. ZnO nanoSPs in this study possess an average aggregate size of 160 nm formed by clustered 18 nm crystallite size and ordered porous matrix as well as a surface area of 15 m2·g-1.The separation process of the glucose sample on ZnO-μPAD requires approximately 45 s. The glucose detection results show that both electrochemical-based and FTIR-based measurements perform a linear measurement system (R2 of 0.81 to 0.99) with a relatively high sensitivity. A linearly decreasing impedance spanning from 2.2 - 0.6 Ohm and linearly increasing ΔIR transmission spanning from 3 - 19% are obtained for glucose level ranging from 5 - 9 mmol.

  15. Self-Powered Wireless Affinity-Based Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled RFID Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless, self-powered, affinity-based biosensor based on the integration of paper-based microfluidics with our previously reported method for self-assembling radio-frequency (RF) antennas. At the core of the proposed approach is a silver-enhancement technique that grows portions of a RF antenna in regions where target antigens hybridize with target specific affinity probes. The hybridization regions are defined by a network of nitrocellulose based microfluidic channels which implement a self-powered approach to sample the reagent and control its flow and mixing. The integration substrate for the biosensor has been constructed using polyethylene and the patterning of the antenna on the substrate has been achieved using a low-cost ink-jet printing technique. The substrate has been integrated with passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to demonstrate that the resulting sensor-tag can be used for continuous monitoring in a food supply-chain where direct measurement of analytes is typically considered to be impractical. We validate the proof-of-concept operation of the proposed sensor-tag using IgG as a model analyte and using a 915 MHz Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tagging technology.

  16. 滤纸微流控设备集成电化学检测%Integration of Paper - based Microfluidic Devices with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐帆; 邢宏龙; 毕连花; 郑虎祥; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    近年来,人们发现滤纸微流控设备相比于传统的微流控设备来说具有一次性使用、制作简单且成本更低的优点。简单综述了微流控设备的发展现状以及滤纸和电化学检测的相关特点,着重阐明了滤纸在微流控电化学检测中的应用,同时与商品化的检测仪相结合,为微流控设备未来商品化打下了坚实的基础。%Paper - based microfluidic devices are found that they are disposable, easy - to - fabricate, and lower - cost compared to traditional microfluidic devices. This paper presented an overview on the present state of microtluidic devices and the related characteristics of filter paper and electrochemical detection. Filter paper applicated in microfluidie devices coupled with electro- chemical detection is mainly introduced. Meanwhile, the integration of commercial detector will establish a firm foundation for the commercialization of microfluidic devices in the future.

  17. A Paper-Based Sandwich Format Hybridization Assay for Unlabeled Nucleic Acid Detection Using Upconversion Nanoparticles as Energy Donors in Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays based on cellulose paper substrates are gaining increasing popularity for the development of field portable and low-cost diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a paper-based nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs as donors in luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET. UCNPs with intense green emission served as donors with Cy3 dye as the acceptor. The avidin functionalized UCNPs were immobilized on cellulose paper and subsequently bioconjugated to biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. Introduction of unlabeled oligonucleotide targets resulted in a formation of probe-target duplexes. A subsequent hybridization of Cy3 labeled reporter with the remaining single stranded portion of target brought the Cy3 dye in close proximity to the UCNPs to trigger a LRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye. The hybridization assays provided a limit of detection (LOD of 146.0 fmol and exhibited selectivity for one base pair mismatch discrimination. The assay was functional even in undiluted serum samples. This work embodies important progress in developing DNA hybridization assays on paper. Detection of unlabeled targets is achieved using UCNPs as LRET donors, with minimization of background signal from paper substrates owing to the implementation of low energy near-infrared (NIR excitation.

  18. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials...batteries. Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials... synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given below for each class of materials.Various macrocycles, their synthesis

  19. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-batteries. 273.2 Section...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.2 Applicability—batteries. (a) Batteries covered under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries,...

  20. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  1. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  2. Battery electrolytes. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    Many types of solid, liquid and gaseous battery electrolytes are described and analyzed in the cited abstracts. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also delineated. Included are 196 citations.

  3. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  4. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  5. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  6. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  7. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  8. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  9. Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-06-11

    Energy storage for stationary use is gaining traction both at the grid scale and distributed level. As renewable energy generation increases, energy storage is needed to compensate for the volatility of renewable over various time scales. This requires energy storage that is tailored for various energy to power (E/P) ratios. Other applications for energy storage include peak shaving, time shifting, load leveling, VAR control, frequency regulation, spinning reserves and other ancillary applications. While the need for energy storage for stationary applications is obvious, the regulations that determine the economic value of adding storage are at various stages of development. This has created a reluctance on the part of energy storage manufacturers to develop a suite of storage systems that can address the myriad of applications associated with stationary applications. Deployment of battery energy storage systems in the transportation sector is ahead of the curve with respect to the stationary space. Batteries, along with battery management systems (BMS) have been deployed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). HEVs have now been deployed for 12 years, while PHEVs for 8 and EVs for 4 years. Some of the batteries are approaching end of life within the vehicle, and are ready to be taken off for recycling and disposal. Performance within a vehicle is non-negotiable in terms of miles traveled per charge, resulting in the batteries retaining a significant portion of their life. For stationary applications, the remaining energy and power of the battery can still be used by grouping together a few of these batteries. This enables getting the most of these batteries, while ensuring that performance is not compromised in either the automotive or stationary applications. This work summarizes the opportunities for such re-purposing of automotive batteries, along with the advantages and limitations

  10. DS-2 Mars Microprobe Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H.; Kindler, A.; Deligiannis, F.; Davies, E.; Blankevoort, J.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In January of 1999 the NM DS-2 Mars microprobe will be launched to impact on Mars in December. The technical objectives of the missions are to demonstrate: key technologies, a passive atmospheric entry, highly integrated microelectronics which can withstand both low temperatures and high decelerations, and the capability to conduct in-situ, surface and subsurface science data acquisition. The scientific objectives are to determine if ice is present below the Martian surface, measure the local atmospheric pressure, characterize the thermal properties of the martian subsurface soil, and to estimate the vertical temperature gradient of the Martian soil. The battery requirements are 2-4 cell batteries, with voltage of 6-14 volts, capacity of 550 mAh at 80C, and 2Ah at 25C, shelf life of 2.5 years, an operating temperature of 60C and below, and the ability to withstand shock impact of 80,000 g's. The technical challenges and the approach is reviewed. The Li-SOCL2 system is reviewed, and graphs showing the current and voltage is displayed, along with the voltage over discharge time. The problems encountered during the testing were: (1) impact sensitivity, (2) cracking of the seals, and (3) delay in voltage. A new design resulted in no problems in the impact testing phase. The corrective actions for the seal problems involved: (1) pre weld fill tube, (2) an improved heat sink during case to cover weld and (3) change the seal dimensions to reduce stress. To correct the voltage delay problem the solutions involved: (1) drying the electrodes to reduce contamination by water, (2) assemblage of the cells within a week of electrode manufacture, (3) ensure electrolyte purity, and (4) provide second depassivation pulse after landing. The conclusions on further testing were that the battery can: (1) withstand anticipated shock of up to 80,000 g, (2) meet the discharge profile post shock at Mars temperatures, (3) meet the required self discharge rate and (4) meet environmental

  11. Proton enhanced dynamic battery chemistry for aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Liu, Qi; Rong, Yangchun; Chen, Haomin; Yang, Jing; Jia, Chuankun; Yu, Li-Juan; Karton, Amir; Ren, Yang; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Adams, Stefan; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Water contamination is generally considered to be detrimental to the performance of aprotic lithium-air batteries, whereas this view is challenged by recent contrasting observations. This has provoked a range of discussions on the role of water and its impact on batteries. In this work, a distinct battery chemistry that prevails in water-contaminated aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries is revealed. Both lithium ions and protons are found to be involved in the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, and lithium hydroperoxide and lithium hydroxide are identified as predominant discharge products. The crystallographic and spectroscopic characteristics of lithium hydroperoxide monohydrate are scrutinized both experimentally and theoretically. Intriguingly, the reaction of lithium hydroperoxide with triiodide exhibits a faster kinetics, which enables a considerably lower overpotential during the charging process. The battery chemistry unveiled in this mechanistic study could provide important insights into the understanding of nominally aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries and help to tackle the critical issues confronted.

  12. Proton enhanced dynamic battery chemistry for aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Liu, Qi; Rong, Yangchun; Chen, Haomin; Yang, Jing; Jia, Chuankun; Yu, Li-Juan; Karton, Amir; Ren, Yang; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Adams, Stefan; Wang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Water contamination is generally considered to be detrimental to the performance of aprotic lithium–air batteries, whereas this view is challenged by recent contrasting observations. This has provoked a range of discussions on the role of water and its impact on batteries. In this work, a distinct battery chemistry that prevails in water-contaminated aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries is revealed. Both lithium ions and protons are found to be involved in the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, and lithium hydroperoxide and lithium hydroxide are identified as predominant discharge products. The crystallographic and spectroscopic characteristics of lithium hydroperoxide monohydrate are scrutinized both experimentally and theoretically. Intriguingly, the reaction of lithium hydroperoxide with triiodide exhibits a faster kinetics, which enables a considerably lower overpotential during the charging process. The battery chemistry unveiled in this mechanistic study could provide important insights into the understanding of nominally aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries and help to tackle the critical issues confronted. PMID:28165008

  13. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, S; Jeyakumar, A Ebenezer

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space applications. This study is indented to develop ANN model for about 25000 cycles, cycled under various temperature, Depth Of Discharge (DOD) settings with constant charge voltage limit to predict the retained capacity and End of Discharge Voltage (EODV). To extract firm conclusion and distinguish the capability of ANN method, the predicted values are compared with experimental result by statistical method and Bland Altman plot.

  14. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  15. Battery life-cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.

    1988-07-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) estimates have been prepared for 17 combinations of battery or fuel-cell technologies and load-levelling, stand-alone power system, or electric vehicle applications. In addition, LCCs for gas-fired turbine, compressed-air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, and internal combustion engine technologies were estimated for comparative purposes. The objectives in preparing the estimates were to determine the relative economics among alternative battery systems and to compare battery systems economics with competing energy technologies.

  16. Nanomaterials Meet Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nam Hee; Brog, Jean-Pierre; Maharajan, Sivarajakumar; Crochet, Aurélien; Fromm, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are used in many applications in everyday life: cell phones, laser pointers, laptops, cordless drillers or saws, bikes and even cars. Yet, there is room for improvement in order to make the batteries smaller and last longer. The Fromm group contributes to this research focusing mainly on nanoscale lithium ion cathode materials. This contribution gives an overview over our current activities in the field of batteries. After an introduction on the nano-materials of LiCoO(2) and LiMnPO(4), the studies of our cathode composition and preparation will be presented.

  17. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  18. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  19. Evaluation of battery packs for liquid microclimate cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Walter B., Jr.; Avellini, Barbara A.

    1995-05-01

    The Navy clothing and Textile Research Facility conducted a literature and industry survey to determine the best commercially available battery technology for use with liquid microclimate cooling systems (MCS), and a laboratory evaluation of a battery pack utilizing that technology. Nickel/cadmium batteries were determined to be the best battery technology commercially available at the present time. However, several other battery technologies are nearing commercialization and may be available in the near future.

  20. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  1. Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. This study presents a prospective life cycle assessment for the production of a sodium-ion battery with a layered transition metal oxide as a positive electrode material and hard carbon as a negative electrode material on the battery component level. The complete and transparent inventory data are disclosed, which can easily be used as a basis for future environmental assessments. Na-ion batteries are found ...

  2. Assessing electric vehicles battery second life remanufacture and management

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electric cars are entering into the automotive market. However, their prices are still expensive mostly due to the battery cost. Additionally, electric vehicle batteries are considered not useful for traction purposes after they have lost a 20% of its capacity. Having still an 80% of its capacity, these batteries may work on stationary applications with lower requirements than electric mobility. In order to recover part of the battery costs came out the idea of giving batteries a second l...

  3. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  4. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantaphol, Siriwan [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena, E-mail: weenasi@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattanna, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2015-09-03

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL{sup −1} to 270.69 mg dL{sup −1}), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL{sup −1}), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6–100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. - Highlights: • Novel PAD coupled with AgNP/BDDE for cholesterol determination was developed. • Wide linear range, low detection limit and high selectivity were achieved. • This sensor was successfully applied for cholesterol determination in bovine serum. • This platform offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption and low cost.

  5. Paper-Based Analytical Biosensor Chip Designed from Graphene-Nanoplatelet-Amphiphilic-diblock-co-Polymer Composite for Cortisol Detection in Human Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad S; Misra, Santosh K; Wang, Zhen; Daza, Enrique; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Kus, Joseph M; Pan, Debanjan; Pan, Dipanjan

    2017-02-07

    Cortisol has been identified as a biomarker in saliva to monitor psychological stress. In this work, we report a label-free paper-based electrical biosensor chip to quantify salivary cortisol at a point-of-care (POC) level. A high specificity of the sensor chip to detect cortisol with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL was achieved by conjugating anticortisol antibody (anti-CAB) on top of gold (Au) microelectrodes using 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (DTSP) as a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) agent. The electrode design utilized poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS67-b-PAA27) polymer and graphene nanoplatelets (GP) suspension coated on filter paper to increase the sensitivity of the immune response. A biosensor chip was then integrated with a lab-built low-cost miniaturized printed circuit board (PCB) to provide an electrical connection and to wirelessly transmit/receive electrical signals using MATLAB. This fully integrated proposed hand-held device successfully exhibited a wide cortisol-detection range from 3 pg/mL to 10 μg/mL, with a sensitivity of 50 Ω (pg mL(-1))(-1). The performance of the proposed cortisol sensor chip was validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique with a regression value of 0.9951. The advantages of the newly developed cortisol immune biosensor over previously reported chips include an improved limit of detection, no need for additional redox medium for electron exchange, faster response to achieve stable data, excellent shelf life, and its economical production.

  6. Chromatic analysis by monitoring unmodified silver nanoparticles reduction on double layer microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for selective and sensitive determination of mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelapsom, Rattapol; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Chairam, Sanoe; Kulsing, Chadin; Shen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates chromatic analysis based on a simple red green blue (RGB) color model for sensitive and selective determination of mercury(II). The analysis was performed by monitoring the color change of a microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPAD). The device was fabricated by using alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)-inkjet printing and doped with unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were disintegrated when being exposed to mercury(II). The color intensity was detected by using an apparatus consisting of a digital camera and a homemade light box generating constant light intensity. A progressive increase in color intensity of the tested area on the µPAD (3.0mm) was observed with increasing mercury(II) concentration. The developed system enabled quantification of mercury(II) at low concentration with the detection limit of 0.001mgL(-1) (3 SD blank/slope of the calibration curve) and small sample volume uptake (2µL). The linearity range of the calibration curve in this technique was demonstrated from 0.05 to 7mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with good precision (RSD less than 4.1%). Greater selectivity towards mercury(II) compared with potential interference ions was also observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked water samples were in an acceptable range which was in agreement with the values obtained from the conventional method utilizing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CVAAS). The proposed technique allows a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analysis of trace mercury(II) in water samples.

  7. Study on the Influence Evaluation of Sci-tech Papers Based on Altmetrics%基于Altmetrics科技论文的影响力评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程菲; 段庆锋

    2016-01-01

    随着Web2.0环境下社交网络的普及与开放存取运动的兴起,反映研究成果关注度和知名度的社会影响力指标层出不穷,这为传统科技论文的影响力评价提供了新的思路,有利于全面、客观地测度科技论文影响力。在分析国内外研究现状的基础上,通过主成分分析对多指标进行提取,将社会影响力因素纳入科技论文影响力评价体系中,对科技论文进行了社会影响力和学术影响力的二维评价。%Along with the popularity of social networks and the rise of open access movement, the social influence indexes reflecting the attention and recognition of research achievements emerge endlessly, which provides the new idea for traditional influence evaluation of sci-tech papers, and is beneficial to comprehensively and objectively measure influence of sci-tech papers. Based on analyzing the research status of China and Foreign countries, this paper multiple indexes multiple indexes through PCA (principal component analysis), brings social influence factors into the influence evaluation system of sci-tech papers, and conducts a two-dimensional evaluation on sci-tech papers from social influence and academic influence.

  8. Paper-Based Device for Colorimetric and Photoelectrochemical Quantification of the Flux of H2O2 Releasing from MCF-7 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lina; Ge, Shenguang; Liu, Haiyun; Ren, Na; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-05-17

    In this work, a novel dual photoelectrochemical/colorimetric cyto-analysis format was first introduced into a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) for synchronous sensitive and visual detection of H2O2 released from tumor cells based on an in situ hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) cleaving DNA approach. The resulted μ-PAD offered an excellent platform for high-performance biosensing applications, which was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of concanavalin A, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) labeled flower-like Au@Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) probe, and tumor cells on the surface of the vertically aligned bamboo like ZnO, which grows on a pyknotic Pt NPs modified paper working electrode (ZnO/Pt-PWE). It was the effective matching of energy levels between GQDs and ZnO levels that lead to the enhancement of the photocurrent response compared with the bare ZnO/Pt-PWE. After releasing H2O2, the DNA strand was cleaved by (•)OH generated under the synergistic catalysis of GQDs and Au@Pd alloy NPs and thus, reduced the photocurrent, resulting in a high sensitivity to H2O2 in aqueous solutions with a detection limit of 0.05 nmol observed, much lower than that in the previously reported method. The disengaged probe can result in catalytic chromogenic reaction of substrates, resulting in real-time imaging of H2O2 biological processes. Therefore, this work provided a truly low-cost, simple, and disposable μ-PAD for precise and visual detection of cellular H2O2, which had potential utility to cellular biology and pathophysiology.

  9. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  10. 纸质复合超滤膜的研究与开发%Preparation and Characteristics of a Paper-based Ultrafiltration Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓; 周小凡; 马金霞

    2012-01-01

    A novel paper-based ultrafiltration (UF) composite membrane was developed via paper coating technology. This composite membrane was obtained by coating PVA with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent on the surface of the paper sheet which was employed as the support layer. The paper sheet with a base weight of 50 g/m2 was used in this study, and the paper sheet was prepared using the furnish with 80°SR beating degree. The resulting membrane performed with satisfied results when the concentrations of PVA and glutaraldehyde were 0. 5% and 1.0% , the crosslinking reaction was conducted at 60℃ for 5 min, and the sample was dried at 20℃ , respectively. The results showed that the diameters of the pore of the membrane are 30~100 nm, and the membrane has the properties of high retention performance, good mechanical strength, temperature & alkali resistant properties and antifouling ability.%以定量50 g/m2的纸张(浆料打浆度为80°SR)为基膜(多孔支撑层),聚乙烯醇(PVA,质量分数0.5%)为成膜液,戊二醛(质量分数1%)为交联剂,在交联时间5 min、交联温度60℃、干燥温度20℃的条件下,利用造纸涂布工艺开发了一种纸质复合超滤膜.通过扫描电镜分析可知,纸质复合超滤膜孔径约为30 ~ 100 nm,达到超滤水平.纸质复合超滤膜的机械强度和抗污性能良好,且耐高温和耐碱.

  11. Paper-Based Medical Records: the Challenges and Lessons Learned from Studying Obstetrics and Gynaecological Post-Operation Records in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Yisau Abdulkadir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: With the background knowledge that auditing of Medical Records (MR for adequacy and completeness is necessary if it is to be useful and reliable in continuing patient care; protection of the legal interest of the patient, physicians, and the Hospital; and meeting requirements for researches, we scrutinized theatre records of our hospital to identify routine omissions or deficiencies, and correctable errors in our MR system. METHOD: Obstetrics and Gynaecological post operation theatre records between January 2006 and December 2008 were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for details that included: hospital number; Patients age; diagnosis; surgery performed; types and modes of anesthesia; date of surgery; patients’ ward; Anesthetists names; surgeons and attending nurses names, and abbreviations used with SPSS 15.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Hardly were any of the 1270 surgeries during the study period documented without an omission or an abbreviation. Hospital numbers and patients’ age were not documented in 21.8% (n=277 and 59.1% (n=750 respectively. Diagnoses and surgeries were recorded with varying abbreviations in about 96% of instances. Surgical team names were mostly abbreviated or initials only given. CONCLUSION: To improve the quality of Paper-based Medical Record, regular auditing, training and good orientation of medical personnel for good record practices, and discouraging large volume record book to reduce paper damages and sheet loss from handling are necessary else what we record toady may neither be useful nor available tomorrow. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 427-432

  12. Automation of a coke battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Mil' ko, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    This paper discusses methods of remote control of machines used for discharging coke ovens. The system, developed by the Construction Office of AiM Giprokoks, consists of a number of detecting and transmitting coupling coils and oscillators installed at various places on a coke battery. A scheme of the automated remote control system is given. Method of placing coupling coils and covering them to prevent damages is explained. Principles of coupling coil operation are described. By means of coupling coils exact position of a quenching car, coke discharging machine, and machine removing the coke oven door, can be controlled. When the position of a machine is not exact, operation of other machines is blocked. Operation of the system is regarded as satisfactory. Principles of operation of another system in which, instead of coupling coils coupling bars are installed, are evaluated. Bars control position of machines. The system has numerous weak points and its introduction is not recommended. (In Russian)

  13. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated......This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly followed...

  14. ?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

  15. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  16. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  17. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  18. 'Button' Batteries Pose Serious Risk to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Pose Serious Risk to Children Toddlers may swallow the tiny batteries used to power many common household objects To use the sharing features ...

  19. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  20. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm(-2) . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function.