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Sample records for all-pm femtosecond yb-doped

  1. Femtosecond pulse generation and amplification in Yb-doped fibre oscillator–amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Mukhopadhyay

    2010-11-01

    In recent times ytterbium (Yb) doped fibre-based mode-locked master oscillator and power amplifier have attracted a great deal of interest because of their inherent advantages like flexibility, reliability, compactness, high power handling capability and diffraction limited output beam quality as compared to the solid-state counterpart. But, to successfully develope of high-power femtosecond oscillator–amplifier system based on Yb- doped fibre, an appropriate choice of the mode-locking regime and the amplifier geometry are required. Development of an all-fibre integrated high-power Yb-doped fibre oscillator–amplifier system in which the advantages of a fibre-based system can be fully exploited remained a challenge as it requires the careful optimization of dispersion, nonlinearity, gain and ASE contribution. In this article, femto-second pulse generation in Yb-doped fibre oscillator in different mode-locking regimes are reviewed and the details of development and characterization of an all-fibre, high-power, low-noise amplifier system seeded by an all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fibre laser oscillator is described. More than 10 W of average power is obtained from the fibre oscillator–amplifier system at a repetition rate of 43 MHz with diffraction-limited beam quality. Amplified pulses are de-chirped to sub-160 fs duration in a grating compressor. This is the first 10 W-level source of femtosecond pulses with completely fibre-integrated amplification comprised of commercially available components.

  2. Comparison of different fiber amplifiers in Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Cao, S.; Lin, B.; Fang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs (Yb-FOFCs) have obtained high repetition rates and high power outputs, and the wavelengths can cover the visible region by using a photonic crystal fiber to broaden the spectrum. In this paper, f0 (carrier-envelope offset frequency) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40 dB is generated in an Yb-FOFC by adopting a scheme which includes the three processes of amplifying, broadening the spectrum and detecting f0, and optimizing the system parameters. The effects of two types of amplifiers which employ direct optical pulse amplification and self-similar amplification, respectively, on the output parameters of the amplifiers, minimal output power of the octave spectrum meeting f0 detection requirements, and the SNR of f0 are compared and analyzed in detail.

  3. Monolithic Highly Stable Yb-Doped Femtosecond Fiber Lasers for Applications in Practical Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Operational and environmental stability of ultrafast laser systems is critical for their applications in practical biophotonics. Mode-locked fiber lasers show great promise in applications such as supercontinuum sources or multiphoton microscopy systems. Recently, substantial progress has been made...... in the development of all-fiber nonlinear-optical laser control schemes, which resulted in the demonstration of highly stable monolithic, i.e., not containing any free-space elements, lasers with direct fiber-end delivery of femtosecond pulses. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development...... of such all-fiber mode-locked lasers based on Yb-fiber as gain medium, operating at the wavelength around 1 $\\mu$m, and delivering femtosecond pulses reaching tens of nanojoules of energy....

  4. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped dispersion compensation free fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaç, B; Schmidt, O; Schreiber, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Hideur, A

    2007-08-20

    We report on a mode-locked high energy fiber laser operating in the dispersion compensation free regime. The sigma cavity is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror and short-length large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The laser generates positively-chirped pulses with an energy of 265 nJ at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz in a stable and self-starting operation. The pulses are compressible down to 400 fs leading to a peak power of 500 kW. Numerical simulations accurately reflect the experimental results and reveal the mechanisms for self consistent intracavity pulse evolution. With this performance mode-locked fiber lasers can compete with state-of-the-art bulk femtosecond oscillators for the first time and pulse energy scaling beyond the muJ-level appears to be feasible.

  5. Narrow linewidth Yb-doped double-cladding fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg gratings inscribed by femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhinan; Shi Jiawei; Zhang Jihuang; Wang Haiyan; Li Yuhua; Lu Peixiang, E-mail: oeyhli@gmail.com, E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A narrow-linewidth high power laser in all fiber format at 1064 nm is demonstrated. The resonant cavity is composed of two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber gratings, which were inscribed into the core of the double-cladding fiber by use of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and a phase mask. The spectrum of the laser exhibited a narrow linewidth of 21 pm at the output power of 0.8 W. The wavelength and power of the laser featured long term stability.

  6. Monolithic stabilized Yb-fiber All-PM laser directly delivering nJ-level femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We present a monolithic, self-starting, all-PM, stabilized Yb-fiber laser, pulse-compressed in a hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, providing the 370 fs pulses of 4 nJ energy with high mode quality.......We present a monolithic, self-starting, all-PM, stabilized Yb-fiber laser, pulse-compressed in a hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, providing the 370 fs pulses of 4 nJ energy with high mode quality....

  7. Texturing of titanium (Ti6Al4V) medical implant surfaces with MHz-repetition-rate femtosecond and picosecond Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Mutlu; Öktem, Bülent; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Yavaş, Seydi; Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K; Eken, Koray; Ozgören, Kıvanç; Aykaç, Yaşar; Tazebay, Uygar H; Ilday, F Ömer

    2011-05-23

    We propose and demonstrate the use of short pulsed fiber lasers in surface texturing using MHz-repetition-rate, microjoule- and sub-microjoule-energy pulses. Texturing of titanium-based (Ti6Al4V) dental implant surfaces is achieved using femtosecond, picosecond and (for comparison) nanosecond pulses with the aim of controlling attachment of human cells onto the surface. Femtosecond and picosecond pulses yield similar results in the creation of micron-scale textures with greatly reduced or no thermal heat effects, whereas nanosecond pulses result in strong thermal effects. Various surface textures are created with excellent uniformity and repeatability on a desired portion of the surface. The effects of the surface texturing on the attachment and proliferation of cells are characterized under cell culture conditions. Our data indicate that picosecond-pulsed laser modification can be utilized effectively in low-cost laser surface engineering of medical implants, where different areas on the surface can be made cell-attachment friendly or hostile through the use of different patterns.

  8. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped all-fiber monolithic chirped-pulse amplifier at repetition rate of 1 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Guo; Teng, Hao; Wang, Li-Na; Wang, Jun-Li; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2016-09-01

    A high-energy femtosecond all ytterbium fiber amplifier based on a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique at a repetition rate of 1 MHz seeded by a dispersion-management mode-locked picosecond broadband oscillator is studied. We find that the compressed pulse duration is dependent on the amplified energy, the pulse duration of 804 fs corresponds to the maximum amplified energy of 10.5 μJ, while the shortest pulse duration of 424 fs corresponds to the amplified energy of 6.75 μJ. The measured energy fluctuation is approximately 0.46% root mean square (RMS) over 2 h. The low-cost femtosecond fiber laser source with super-stability will be widely used in industrial micromachines, medical therapy, and scientific studies. Project supported by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAC23B03), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922401), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474002).

  9. Measurement of thermal lensing in end-pumped Yb-doped yttrium vanadate crystal and sesquioxide laser ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.; Polyakov, K. V.

    2011-02-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental study of thermal lensing in diode-pumped Yb:YVO4 laser crystal, Yb:Y2O3 and Yb:Sc2O3 laser ceramics are presented. Shown, that influence of thermo-lensing effect is necessary to consider for creation of effective high-intensity femtosecond Yb-doped laser systems.

  10. Polarizing 50micrometers Core Yb-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-08

    properly. Recent reports demonstrate that the birefringence in photonic bandgap fibers (PBFs) can provide single-polarization operation by shifting the...add ref]. Here, we demonstrate a 50µm core Yb-doped polarizing photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for single-polarization operation 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...19-08-2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Polarizing 50µm core Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber The views, opinions and/or

  11. Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser emitting broadband pulses at ultra-low repetition rates

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Patrick; Provo, Richard; Harvey, John D; Broderick, Neil G R

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmentally stable, Yb-doped, all-normal dispersion, mode-locked fibre laser that is capable of creating broadband pulses with ultra-low repetition rates. Specifically, through careful positioning of fibre sections in an all-PM-fibre cavity mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, we achieve stable pulse trains with repetition rates as low as 506 kHz. The pulses have several nanojules of energy and are compressible down to ultrashort (< 500 fs) durations.

  12. Coherent combining in an Yb doped double core fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Boullet, Johan; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Pagnoux, Dominique; Roy, Philippe; Dussardier, Bernard; Blanc, Wilfried; 10.1364/OL.30.001962

    2012-01-01

    Coherent combining is demonstrated in a clad pumped Yb doped double core fiber laser. A slope efficiency of more than 70 % is achieved with 96 % of the total output power on the fundamental mode of one of the two cores. This high combining efficiency is obtained when both cores are coupled via a biconical fused taper in a Michelson interferometer configuration.

  13. Monolithic all-PM femtosecond Yb-fiber laser stabilized with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and pulse-compressed in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We report on an environmentally stable self-starting monolithic (i.e. without any free-space coupling) all-polarization-maintaining (PM) femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, stabilized against Q-switching by a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and modelocked using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror....... The laser output is compressed in a spliced-on hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, thus providing direct end-of-the-fiber delivery of pulses of around 370 fs duration and 4 nJ energy with high mode quality. Tuning the pump power of the end amplifier of the laser allows for the control of output pulse...

  14. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  15. Detailed characterization of a highly Yb-doped double-clad fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, J. A.; Berdejo, V.; Martín, J. C.; Cases, R.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. Á.

    2016-12-01

    A characterization method based on the careful measurement of the characteristic parameters and fluorescence emission spectra of a highly Yb-doped double-clad fiber is presented. The method is successfully checked by numerically fitting experimental results of a ring laser based on highly doped double-clad Yb-doped silica fibers with different dopant concentrations, fiber lengths and ring-laser output-coupler rates.

  16. Guided mode gain competition in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, Federica; Passaro, Davide; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The gain competition among the guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index core is investigated with a spatial model to demonstrate the fiber effective single-mode behaviour.......The gain competition among the guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index core is investigated with a spatial model to demonstrate the fiber effective single-mode behaviour....

  17. Synthesis and characterization of (Ba,Yb doped ceria nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Matović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric size (Ba, Yb doped ceria powders with fluorite-type structure were obtained by applying selfpropagating room temperature methods. Tailored composition was: Ce0.95−xBa0.05YbxO2−δ with fixed amount of Ba − 0.05 and varying Yb content “x” from 0.05 to 0.2. Powder properties such as crystallite and particle size and lattice parameters have been studied. Röntgen diffraction analyses (XRD were used to characterize the samples at room temperature. Also, high temperature treatment (up to 1550°C was used to follow stability of solid solutions. The mean diameters of the nanocrystals are determined from the full width at half maxima (FWHM of the XRD peaks. It was found that average diameter of crystallites is less than 3 nm. WilliamsonHall plots were used to separate the effect of the size and strain in the nanocrystals.

  18. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion med......An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave......-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics...

  19. Power scaling of a picosecond vortex laser based on a stressed Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Mio; Hirose, Tetsuya; Okida, Masahito; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2011-01-17

    Power scaling of a picosecond vortex laser based on a stressed Yb-doped fiber amplifier is analyzed. An output power of 25 W was obtained for 53 W of pumping, with a peak power of 37 kW. Frequency doubling of the vortex output was demonstrated using a nonlinear PPSLT crystal. A second-harmonic output power of up to 1.5 W was measured at a fundamental power of 11.2 W.

  20. Different polarization dynamic states in a vector Yb-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Huiyun; Han, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huaxing; Zhao, Luming; Wen, Fang; Yang, Zhenjun

    2015-04-20

    Different polarization dynamic states in an unidirectional, vector, Yb-doped fiber ring laser have been observed. A rich variety of dynamic states, including group velocity locked polarization domains and their splitting into regularly distributed multiple domains, polarization locked square pulses and their harmonic mode locking counterparts, and dissipative soliton resonances have all been observed with different operating parameters. We have also shown experimentally details of the conditions under which polarization-domain-wall dark pulses and bright square pulses form.

  1. Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yujun; Chien, Ching-Yuan; Fidric, Bernard G; Kafka, James D

    2009-11-15

    We demonstrate the generation of 48 fs pulses with 18 W average power and 226 nJ of pulse energy from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The system uses a simple stretcher-free single-stage amplifier configuration operating in the parabolic pulse regime. The gain fiber length and pump wavelength are chosen in order to reduce the gain per unit length and generate both shorter pulses and higher pulse energy.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of transient response of the Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wei; Jianfeng Li; Jianhua Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Some analysis of the transient response of the Yb-doped fiber amplifier are performed by solving a set of time-dependent rate and power transfer equations based on finite-difference method.Meanwhile,the variation of time to reach the steady state for upper level population distribution,the forward and backward amplified spontaneous emissions (ASEs) and stored energy on the system parameters including pump power,fiber length,Yb-doped concentration,and core area are numerically simulated,respectively.The results show that,by optimizing pump pulse width,stored energy can reach or even exceed the steady state value of continuous wave (CW) pump.By increasing Yb-doped concentration and core area,stored energy is increased,the ASE is suppressed and the ASE built-up time is postponed.In addition,the experimental results show the validity of the theoretical ASE built-up time.The obtained results can provide important guiding for the optimization of pump pulse width and fiber parameters.

  3. High-power Yb-doped continuous-wave and pulsed fibre lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B N Upadhyaya

    2014-01-01

    High-power laser generation using Yb-doped double-clad fibres with conversion efficiencies in excess of 80% have attracted much attention during the last decade due to their inherent advantages in terms of very high efficiency, no misalignment due to in-built intracore fibre Bragg gratings, low thermal problems due to large surface to volume ratio, diffraction-limited beam quality, compactness, reliability and fibre-optic beam delivery. Yb-doped fibres can also provide a wide emission band from ∼1010 nm to ∼1170 nm, which makes it a versatile laser medium to realize continuous-wave (CW), Q-switched short pulse, and mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation for various applications. In this article, a review of Yb-doped CW and pulsed fibre lasers along with our study on self-pulsing dynamics in CW fibre lasers to find its role in high-power fibre laser development and the physical mechanisms involved in its generation has been described. A study on the generation of high-power CWfibre laser of 165Woutput power and generation of high peak power nanosecond pulses from acousto-optic Q-switched fibre laser has also been presented.

  4. Femtosecond all-polarization-maintaining fiber laser operating at 1028 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, R.K.; Andersen, T.V.; Leick, Lasse;

    2008-01-01

    We present an effective solution for an all-polarization-maintaining modelocked femtosecond fiber laser operating at the central wavelength of 1028 nm. The laser is based on an Yb-doped active fiber. Modelocking is enabled by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and the central wavelength...

  5. Compact tunable high power picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Cunxiao; Tao, Jintao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yishan

    2008-05-26

    A compact tunable high power picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode is demonstrated. A multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with a single mode double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifier to construct the amplification system, which is seeded by a gain switch laser diode. By optimizing preamplifier???s parameters to compensate the seed spectrum gain, a "flat top" broadband spectrum is obtained to realize wavelength tunable output with a self-made tunable filter. The tunable pulses were further amplified to 3.5 W average power 90 ps pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate, and the center wavelength was tunable in the ranges from 1053 nm to 1073 nm with excellent beam quality.

  6. Influence of Yb-Doped Nanoporous TiO2 Films on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Wei; DAI Song-Yuan; HU Lin-Hua; LIANG Lin-Yun; WANG Kong-Jia

    2006-01-01

    @@ Yb-doped TiO2 pastes with different Yb/TiO2 weight ratios are prepared in the sol-gel process to obtain dyesensitized solar cells (DSCs). The nanocrystalline size of Yb-TiO2 becomes smaller and the lattice parameters change. Lattice distortion is observed and dark current is detected. It is found that a part of Yb existing as insulating oxide Yb2Oa state acts as barrier layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface to suppress charge recombination. A Yb-doped TiO2 electrode applied in DSCs leads to a higher open-circuit voltage and a higher fill factor. How the Yb-doped TiO2 films affect the photovoltaic response of DSCs is discussed.

  7. GHz high power Yb-doped picosecond fiber laser and supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Ge, Tingwu; Li, Wuyi; Kuang, Hongshen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2014-12-20

    We demonstrated a 97 W all-fiber picosecond master oscillator power amplifier seeding by an actively harmonic mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser. The laser seed pulse duration was 7.7 ps at a 1.223 GHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 1062 nm. In addition, by launching the amplified pulses into a 5 m long photonic crystal fiber, we obtained a 41.8 W supercontinuum covering the wavelength from 600 to 1700 nm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1040 nm.

  8. Passive harmonic mode locked all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fibre lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Ling-Jie; Xiao Xiao-Sheng; Yang Chang-Xi

    2011-01-01

    Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons is demonstrated in all-normal dispersion Yb-doped fibre lasers. A difference equation model of the mode-locked fibre lasers is adopted to simulate the intra-cavity nonlinear dynamics. Hysteresis phenomena around the mode-locking threshold, and the effect of introducing linear phase bias are discussed. The passive harmonic mode-locking as one kind of multipulsing operations is revealed. Moreover, the simulation shows the bistability between multipulsing and single-pulse or period multiplication.

  9. Pulsed pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier at low repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changgeng Ye; Ping Yan; Mali Gong; Ming Lei

    2005-01-01

    A pulsed pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber (DCF) master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) at low repetition rate is reported. Seeded by a passive Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser, the fiber amplifier can generate 167-kW peak-power and 0.83-ns duration pulses at 200-Hz repetition rate. Because of the pulsed pump approach, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and the spurious lasing between pulses are well avoided, and the repetition rate can be set freely from single-shot to 1 kHz. Peak power scaling limitations that arise from the fiber facet damage are discussed.

  10. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser operating in the anomalous dispersion regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaç, Bülend; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-08-01

    We report on high-energy ultrashort pulse generation from a passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber oscillator operating in the anomalous dispersion regime. In the single-pulse regime, the laser directly generates 880 mW of average power of sub-500 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 53.33 MHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 16.5 nJ. Stable and self-starting operation is obtained by adapting the spot size at the saturable absorber mirror to the pulse evolution in the low-nonlinearity fiber. The approach presented demonstrates the scaling potential of fiber based short pulse oscillators towards the microJ-level.

  11. Sectioned Core Doping Effect on Higher-Order Mode Amplification in Yb-Doped Rod-Type Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, D.

    2009-01-01

    The amplification properties of guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping have been investigated, evaluating the doped-area radius which provides the effective suppression of both LP 11- and LP02-like modes.......The amplification properties of guided modes in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping have been investigated, evaluating the doped-area radius which provides the effective suppression of both LP 11- and LP02-like modes....

  12. [Study on Spectral Characteristics of Two Kinds of Home-Made Novel Yb-Doped Fluoride Laser Crystals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-bin; Chai, Lu; Shi, Jun-kai; Song, You-jian; Hu, Ming-lie; Wang, Qing-yue; Su, Liang-bi; Jiang, Da-peng; Xu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Yb-doped fluoride crystals are of important another Yb-doped laser materials besides Yb-doped oxide, which are becoming one of interests for developing tunable lasers and ultrafast lasers. In this paper, the systematic and contrastive experiments of the optical spectral characteristics are presented for two types of home-made novel Yb-doped fluoride laser crystals, namely, Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal. The fluorescent features of Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal are apparently different by the fluorescence experiment. The physical mechanism of these fluorescence spectra were analyzed and proposed. The influence of doping concentrations of active Yb(3+) ions or co-doping Y ions on the absorption of Yb-doped CaF2-SrF2 mixed crystal and co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 single crystal was experimentally investigated, and the optimal values of doping concentrations of active Yb(3+) ions or co-doping Y ions in the two types of fluoride laser crystals were obtained. Continuous-wave laser operation for the two novel fluoride laser crystals has been achieved in three-mirror-folded resonator using a laser diode as the pump source. Therein, the laser operation for the co-doped Yb, Y:CaF2 crystal is demonstrated for the first time. For the two types of fluoride laser crystals (four samples), the input-output power relational curves, the optical slope efficiencies and the laser spectra were demonstrated by the laser experiments. By comparisons between the two types of fluoride laser crystals in the absorbability, fluorescence and laser spectra, laser threshold and slope efficiency of the continuous-wave laser operation, the results show that the best one of the four samples in spectral and laser characteristics is co-doped 3at%Yb, 6at% Y:CaF2 single crystal, which has an expected potential in the application. The research results provide available references for improving further laser performance of Yb-doped

  13. All-fiber broad-range self-sweeping Yb-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey A.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of broad-range self-sweeping in Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. The self-sweeping effect is observed in an all-fiber laser configuration with a double-clad Yb-doped fiber and a cavity formed by a broad-band fiber loop mirror and Fresnel reflection from one cleaved end. The sweep range is limited by the width of the broad-band reflector and reaches up to 16nm. It is found that the self-sweeping effect is related to selfpulsations. So the sweep rate is increased with an increase in pump power and is decreased with increasing cavity length. RF and optical spectra (linewidth is measured to be not more than 100 MHz) show that during the evolution of a single pulse a small number of longitudinal modes take a part in lasing. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model is based on the spatial hole burning effect and the gain saturation in Yb laser transition, and takes into account self-pulsations of the laser. Theoretical estimation for pulse to pulse change of lasing frequency is in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Spectroscopic and crystal-field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Gaume, Romain; Antic-Fidancev, Elisabeth; Vivien, Daniel; Viana, Bruno [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee de l' Etat Solide UMR 75 74, ENSCP, Paris (France)]. E-mail: viana@ext.jussieu.fr

    2001-06-11

    Crystal-field effects are very important as far as laser performances of Yb-doped materials are concerned. In order to simplify the interpretation of low-temperature spectra, two tools derived from a careful examination of crystal-field interaction are presented. Both approaches are successfully applied in the case of new Yb-doped materials, namely Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (CYB), Ca{sub 3}Gd{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (CaGB), Sr{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (SrYBO), Ba{sub 3}Lu(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (BLuB), Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (YSO), Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} (CAS) and SrY{sub 4}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O (SYS). The {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} splitting is particularly large in these materials and favourable to a quasi-three-level laser operating scheme. Calculations performed using the point charge electrostatic model for these compounds and using a consistent set of effective atomic charges confirm the experimental results. This should permit to use this model in a predictive approach. (author)

  15. The influence of critical current density of Bi-2212 superconductors by defects after Yb-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianni [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Zhang, Cuiping [SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Guo, Shengwu [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); Wu, Yifang [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Li, Chengshan, E-mail: csli368@126.com [SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Zhou, Lian [State key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710014 (China); SMRC, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Ca substituting Yb element in Bi-2212 single crystal. • The critical current density of this sample is the highest without the optimal Tc value. • The Cu–O{sub 2} and Ca–O layers in pure and doping samples are observed using HRTEM. • The optimal defect density is calculated. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (Bi-2212) single crystals with x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 have been prepared by self-flux method. The influences of Yb doping on the formation of the dislocations in the lattice structures, as well as the related current carrying capability are investigated. Due to the SQUID measurement and the Bean model calculation, the maximum critical current density (Jc) is obtained when the Yb doping content is x = 0.010, though the Tc and the carrier concentration are not in the optimal region. Based on the HRTEM analyses of the Ca–O and Cu–O{sub 2} layers, the optimal dislocation density in the Cu–O{sub 2} layers is deduced according to the number of the dislocations per unit area. Besides, the sizes of the dislocations also prove the effectiveness of Yb substitution on the enhancement of the current carrying capability in Bi-2212 single crystals.

  16. The influence of critical current density of Bi-2212 superconductors by defects after Yb-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tianni; Zhang, Cuiping; Guo, Shengwu; Wu, Yifang; Li, Chengshan; Zhou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYbxCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) single crystals with x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 have been prepared by self-flux method. The influences of Yb doping on the formation of the dislocations in the lattice structures, as well as the related current carrying capability are investigated. Due to the SQUID measurement and the Bean model calculation, the maximum critical current density (Jc) is obtained when the Yb doping content is x = 0.010, though the Tc and the carrier concentration are not in the optimal region. Based on the HRTEM analyses of the Ca-O and Cu-O2 layers, the optimal dislocation density in the Cu-O2 layers is deduced according to the number of the dislocations per unit area. Besides, the sizes of the dislocations also prove the effectiveness of Yb substitution on the enhancement of the current carrying capability in Bi-2212 single crystals.

  17. Ultra-high, broadband gain in a lattice-engineered, Yb-doped double tungstate channel waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, D.; Aravazhi, S.; Bernhardi, E.H.; Agazzi, L.; García-Blanco, S.M.; Pollnau, M.

    2012-01-01

    150 dB/cm gain over 55 nm wavelength range between 977-1032 nm is obtained in a 47.5% Yb-doped potassium double tungstate waveguide amplifier. The dependence of luminescence lifetime and gain on Yb concentration is investigated.

  18. Single-mode amplification in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers for high brilliance lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, D.;

    2009-01-01

    to identify a proper ring characteristic that is width, position and refractive index. Then rod-type PCF designs have been optimized with a full-vector modal solver based on the finite-element method. Then, the amplification properties of the Yb-doped rod-type PCFs have been investigated by assuming a forward...

  19. Multi-coupler side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Ou(欧攀); Ping Yan(闫平); Mali Gong(巩马理); Wenlou Wei(韦文楼)

    2004-01-01

    The side-coupler of angle polished method, using angle-polished multimode fiber and optical adhesive, is used to efficiently pump an Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser. The maximum coupling efficiency of 78.6% is achieved by the side-coupler for a multimode fiber with a circular core of 200 μm and a double-clad fiber with a 350/400 μm D-shaped inner cladding. While laser diodes (LDs) with three side-couplers are simultaneously used as pump sources, maximum output power of 1.38 W and slope efficiency of 48.9% are demonstrated in the fiber laser system.

  20. Multi-coupler side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧攀; 闫平; 巩马理; 韦文楼

    2004-01-01

    The side-coupler of angle polished method, using angle-polished multimode fiber and optical adhesive, is used to efficiently pump an Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser. The maximum coupling efficiency of 78.6%is achieved by the side-coupler for a multimode fiber with a circular core of 200 μm and a double-clad fiber with a 350/400 μm D-shaped inner cladding. While laser diodes (LDs) with three side-couplers are simultaneously used as pump sources, maximum output power of 1.38 W and slope efficiency of 48.9% are demonstrated in the fiber laser system.

  1. Single-frequency Yb-doped fiber laser with distributed feedback based on a random FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullina, S. R.; Vlasov, A. A.; Lobach, I. A.; Belai, O. V.; Shapiro, D. A.; Babin, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Single-frequency operation of a 1.03 μm fiber laser with random distributed feedback (RDFB) is demonstrated. The laser cavity is based on a 4 cm long fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consisting of 10 homogeneous subgratings with random phase and amplitude of refractive index modulation inscribed in a polarization maintaining (PM) Yb-doped fiber. Such RDFB laser generates single longitudinal mode with output power up to 25 mW, which is 3.5 times higher than that for a DFB laser based on regular π-shifted FBG of the same length in the same fiber. The single-frequency linewidth is measured to be  <100 kHz in both cases. The observed difference of the DFB and RDFB lasers is confirmed by numerical simulation showing different longitudinal distribution of intra-cavity radiation in these cases, analogous to those in the experiment.

  2. Electronic control of nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode locking in Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuling; Li, Wenxue; Yan, Ming; Zeng, Heping

    2012-08-15

    We demonstrate a convenient approach to precisely tune the polarization state of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser by using an electronic polarization controller. It is shown to benefit self-starting of mode-locking states, with precise tuning of the spectral profile, pulse width, and carrier-envelope offset frequency. The pulse width changed linearly by 0.78 ps in the time domain, and the carrier-envelope offset frequency shifted ~77.5 MHz in the frequency domain with a slight change of the driving voltage of 30.7 mV applied on the controller, corresponding to a polarization rotation of 0.0135π. This facilitated precise and automatic regeneration of a particular mode-locking state by setting an accurate voltage at the polarization controller with a programmed microprocessor control unit.

  3. Superconductivity in Yb-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.C. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62199, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, W.H., E-mail: phywhl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62199, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lan, M.D. [Department of Physics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Single crystal of (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (x = 0–0.2) has been grown. • The grown crystals have pure tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. • (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (0.05 ≦ x ≦ 0.15) showed a T{sub c,onset} 18–20 K. - Abstract: We report the discovery of superconductivity in Yb-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Single-crystal specimens of (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (x = 0–0.2) were grown by using FeAs flux and a slow-cooling method. The superconducting transition temperature for the crystals was determined by dc magnetic susceptibility measurements with a commercial SQUID magnetometer. A clear phase transition from paramagnetic to perfect diamagnetic state was observed around 18–20 K for the samples with nominal composition (Ba{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (0.05 ≦ x ≦ 0.15)

  4. Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3: Structure, microstructure, thermal and magnetic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, Cristina; Locardi, Federico; Pani, Marcella; Nelli, Ilaria; Caglieris, Federico; Masini, Roberto; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Costa, Giorgio Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Structural and microstructural features, as well as thermal and magnetic properties of Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3, were investigated with the aim to clarify the location and the oxidation state of Yb within the structure, and its role in driving the extent of the (Gd1-xYbx)2O2CO3 solid solution. Yb is found in the 3+ oxidation state and it enters the structure only at the rare earth atomic site; the solubility limit results to be located in the close vicinity of x=0.25, and thermal analyses reveal a linear decrease of the decomposition temperature with increasing the Yb amount, in agreement with literature data. The structural analysis allows to exclude long-range clusterization of Yb and Gd, since both rare earths randomly distribute over the 4f atomic position, but relying on the results of the microstructural analysis, the presence of compositional inhomogenities at the local scale cannot be excluded. Not all the structural forms are documented for the pure rare earth dioxycarbonates [1]; in particular, while form I exists for each lanthanide ion, form II is stable only for the largest ones (from La to Dy); moreover, even if II-Ho2O2CO3 (rHo3+ CN8=1.015 Å [6]) is not reported to be stable, the existence of II-Y2O2CO3 (rY3+ CN8=1.019 Å [6]) has been claimed [7]. Based on the described evidence, the stability of hexagonal Yb-doped Gd2O2CO3 is not expected along the whole compositional range. As a general remark, not all the rare earth mixed dioxycarbonates exist: (Ce, Gd)2O2CO3, for instance, could not be obtained at any composition [8]; moreover, all the structural forms can be observed only in some mixed systems, such as for example (Gd, Nd)2O2CO3, by varying temperature and tuning the composition [9]. Rare earth dioxycarbonates are studied mainly for their CO2 sensing properties [10,11], and for their emission when properly doped with a luminescent lanthanide ion [12-17]. Recently, a study of this research group [18] revealed in Gd2O2CO3:4% Yb a phenomenon of

  5. Structural characterization and EXAFS wavelet analysis of Yb doped ZnO by wet chemistry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, Eugenio H., E-mail: eugenio.otal@citedef.gob.ar [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, FRSC-UTN, Av. Inmigrantes 555, Río Gallegos 9400 (Argentina); Sileo, Elsa [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aguirre, Myriam H. [Dept. of Physics Condensed Matter, University of Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy (LMA), Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón (INA), University of Zaragoza (Spain); Fabregas, Ismael O. [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kim, Manuela [Division of Porous Materials, UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, S.J.B de la Salle 4397, Villa Martelli (B1603ALO), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, FRSC-UTN, Av. Inmigrantes 555, Río Gallegos 9400 (Argentina)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Optical and electrical properties of ZnO are influenced by lanthanide doping. • Optical and electrical properties of ZnO are influenced by lanthanide positioning. • Yb is incorporated in the O{sub h} sites of the wurtzite structure. • There is not Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} clustering or segregation for treatments below 800 °C. - Abstract: Lanthanide doped ZnO are interesting materials for optical and electrical applications. The wide band gap of this semiconductor makes it transparent in the visible range (E{sub gap} = 3.2 eV), allowing a sharp emission from intra shell transition from the lanthanides. From the electrical side, ZnO is a widely used material in varistors and its electrical properties can be tailored by the inclusion of lanthanides. Both applications are influenced by the location of the lanthanides, grain boundaries or lattice inclusion. Yb doped ZnO samples obtained by wet chemistry route were annealed at different temperatures and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement of XRD data, and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS). These techniques allowed to follow the changes occurred in the matrix and the Yb environment. The use of the Cauchy continuous wavelet transform allowed identifying a second coordination shell composed of Zn atoms, supporting the observations from XRD Rietveld refinement and XAFS fittings. The information obtained confirmed the incorporation of Yb in O{sub h} sites of the wurtzite structure without Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} clustering in the lattice.

  6. Transparent layered YAG ceramics with structured Yb doping produced via tape casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo; Biasini, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    The flexibility of the ceramic production process, in particular in terms of shaping and spatial control of distribution of active ions, is one of the strong points in favor of transparent ceramics. In high power lasers in particular, where thermal management is a critical issue, the finely controlled design of spatial distribution of the doping ions within the laser gain media can reduce undesired thermally induced effects and large temperature gradients, and thus enhance the efficiency and laser beam quality especially under increased thermal load. In the present work transparent structured YAG ceramics with Yb doping were produced by tape casting followed by thermal compression of assembled tapes and sintered under high vacuum. The thermal compression of variously doped tape cast layers is a very promising method because it allows a high precision and good control over dopant distribution in the sintered material. After sintering, the distribution of Yb across the layers was characterized by SEM-EDX and the thickness of Yb diffusion zones between the layers with different Yb content was measured. Optical homogeneity was assessed by means of optical transmittance mapping of the samples and by 2D scanning of laser output. The effect of structured dopant distribution on laser performance was measured in quasi-CW and CW regime with different duty factors. Slope efficiency values higher than 50% were measured both in quasi-CW and in CW lasing conditions. The results are in good agreement with previously calculated predictions, confirming the beneficial effect of structured doping on laser performances and enlightening the impact of the residual scattering losses. Compared to other processing methods, such as the pressing of granulated powders, tape casting followed by thermal compression leads to straight and narrow interfaces between layers with different composition and allows to build structures composed of extremely thin layers with defined dopant content.

  7. Multiple Dissipative Solitons in a Long-Cavity Normal-Dispersion Mode-Locked Yb-Doped Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guang-Zhen; XIAO Xiao-Sheng; MEI Jia-Wei; YANG Chang-Xi

    2012-01-01

    Transitional operations of multiple dissipative solitons in a long-cavity normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser are experimentally investigated.Multiple dissipative solitons,including a stable soliton pair and a soliton triplet are observed by increasing the pump power or adjusting the polarization controllers.Two main boundaries of the stable asymmetric soliton and oscillating soliton are found between steady mode-locking.Moreover,multiple dissipative solitons with greater quantities of solitons are observed with pump power increasing.The experimental results agree well with a previous numerical study of multiple dissipative solitons.

  8. Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of broad-range (16 nm) self-sweeping of a narrow-line (less than 1 pm) Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally. It is found that the effect arises from the self-sustained relaxation oscillations. As a result, the sweeping rate increases as square root of the laser power and decreases with increasing cavity length. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model takes into account the effects of gain saturation at the laser transition and spatial hole burning in the self-pulsing regime.

  9. Optimizing high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier systems in the presence of transverse mode instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Cesar; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2016-04-18

    The average output power of Yb-doped fiber amplifier systems is currently limited by the onset of transverse mode instabilities. Besides, it has been recently shown that the transverse mode instability threshold can be significantly reduced by the presence of photodarkening in the fiber. Therefore, reducing the photodarkening level of the core material composition is the most straightforward way to increase the output average power of fiber amplifier systems but, unfortunately, this is not always easy or possible. In this paper we present guidelines to optimize the output average power of fiber amplifiers affected by transverse mode instabilities and photodarkening. The guidelines derived from the simulations do not involve changes in the composition of the active material (except for its doping concentration), but can still lead to a significant increase of the transverse mode instability threshold. The dependence of this parameter on the active ion concentration and the core conformation, among others, will be studied and discussed.

  10. Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F; Coscelli, E; Alkeskjold, T T; Passaro, D; Cucinotta, A; Leick, L; Broeng, J; Selleri, S

    2011-05-09

    Yb-doped double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers are a key component for power scaling in fiber laser systems. Recently, designs with 19-cell core defect, that is with 19 missing air-holes in the center of the photonic crystal cladding, have been proposed, with reported core diameter up to 100 μm. In this paper an analysis of the cut-off wavelength of the first high-order mode in such low-NA fibers is reported, accounting for different approaches for the definition of the cladding effective index. Results have shown that taking into account the finite fiber cross-section and considering the first cladding mode of the actual fiber is mandatory to obtain a correct estimate of the cut-off wavelength.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition and thermoelectric properties of In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-07-29

    In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Process optimization studies revealed that a very narrow process window exists for the growth of single-phase skutterudite films. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measured in the temperature range 300-700 K revealed an irreversible change on the first heating cycle in argon ambient, which is attributed to the enhanced surface roughness of the films or trace secondary phases. A power factor of 0.68 W m-1 K-1 was obtained at ∼700 K, which is nearly six times lower than that of bulk samples. This difference is attributed to grain boundary scattering that causes a drop in film conductivity. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011.

  12. MoS2 saturable absorber for single frequency oscillation of highly Yb-doped fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baole Lu; Limei Yuan; Xinyuan Qi; Lei Hou; Bo Sun; Pan Fu; Jintao Bai

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter,a single-frequency fiber laser using a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film as a saturable absorber is demonstrated.We use a short length of highly Yb-doped fiber as the gain medium and a fiber ferrule with MoS2 film adhered to it by index matching gel (IMG) that acts as the saturable absorber.The saturable absorber can be used to discriminate and select the single longitudinal modes.The maximum output power of the single-frequency fiber laser is 15.3 mW at a pump power of 130 mW and the slope efficiency is 15.3%.The optical signal-to-noise ratio and the laser linewidths are ~60 dB and 5.89 kHz,respectively.

  13. Gain and Noise Figure of a Double-Pass Waveguide Amplifier Based on Er/Yb-Doped Phosphate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Guo-Liang; SHAO Gong-Wang; Mu Huan; HU Li-Li; LI Qu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A waveguide amplifier is fabricated by Ag+-Na+ two-step ion exchange on Er/Yb-doped phosphate glass. Thespectroscopic performance of glass and the properties of channel waveguide are characterized. A double-passconfiguration is adopted to measure the gain and noise figure (NF) of the waveguide amplifier, and the comparisonof gain and NF for the single and double-pass configuration of the waveguide amplifier is presented. The resultsshow that the double-pass configuration can make the gain increase from 8.8dB (net gain 2.2dB/cm) of thesingle-pass one to 14.6dB (net gain 3.65dB/cm) for small input power at 1534nm, and the NF are all lower than5.5dB for both the configurations.

  14. Yb-doped SnTe semimetal thin films deposited by thermal evaporation: Structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmood, A.; Kadhim, A.; Hassam, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sn monochalcogenide and Yb-doped Sn1-xYbxTe (0.0 ⩾ x ⩽ 0.1) semimetals, which are known for their usefulness as efficient thermoelectric (TE) materials, were prepared by solid-state microwave technique. Polycrystalline thin films of Sn1-xYbxTe were deposited onto clean glass substrates by using vacuum evaporation technique at 10-6 bar. The structures of the polycrystalline thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction patterns. A rock salt structure was observed. Grain size increased with increasing Yb content but not according to a sequence. The morphology of the nanosheet structures for these thin films was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. TE properties were measured at a temperature range of 298-523 K. The carrier concentrations of the films were determined by Hall effect measurements at 300 K.

  15. Optimization and control of the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, I. A.; Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kablukov, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of the laser cavity parameters (an active fiber length and output coupling losses) and the temperature of elements (active fiber and pump laser diode) on the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping laser is investigated. The obtained results show that the sweeping spectral region is shifted to shorter wavelengths for shorter active fibers and with increasing absorbed power. This allows one to obtain self-sweeping operation in a broad range within a ytterbium gain bandwidth from 1028 to 1080 nm. At the same time, there are optimal cavity parameters at which the sweeping span is the broadest (>20 nm). Good agreement between the experimental sweeping range and the calculated maximum gain wavelength is demonstrated.

  16. All-fiber 194 W single-frequency single-mode Yb-doped master-oscillator power-amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, M. D.; Brar, K.; Andrejco, M. J.; Yablon, A. D.; Fishteyn, M.; Headley, C., III; DiGiovanni, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    A four-stage all-fiber single-frequency single-mode continuous-wave (cw) master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) at 1083 nm is presented. Small mode area (SMA) and large mode area (LMA) amplifier stages are mode matched with a fiber mode converter (MC) and the signal and pumps are combined with tapered fiber bundles (TFBs). The final power stage uses a LMA Yb doped SBS-suppressing fiber. A single-frequency output power of 194 W is demonstrated with optical net and slope efficiencies of 73% and 80%, respectively. Numerical simulations for the signal output power and the SBS-induced Stokes backscattered power in the 4th stage amplifier agree with the experimental results. Pulse amplifier measurements showed a 400 W peak power output that was limited by the forward output ASE. The SBS reflectivity at 400 W output was only 2.75 x 10 -4.

  17. Diode-pumped cw and femtosecond laser operations of a hetero-composite crystal YAG||SYS:Yb

    OpenAIRE

    Druon, Frédéric; Chenais, Sébastien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick; Gaume, R.; Viana, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We report cw and femtosecond laser operations under diode pumping of a diffusion-bonding heterocomposite Yb-doped crystal: Yb3+:SrY4sSiO4d3OiY2Al5O12sYAGiSYS:Ybd. To show the advantages of this heterocomposite crystal over classical Yb:SYS crystal, we first investigate the high-power cw regime. A cw power of 4.3 W is demonstrated. The femtosecond regime is also investigated, and 1-W-average-power, 130-fs pulses at 1070 nm are produced, which represents, to our knowledg...

  18. Gain-switched laser diode seeded Yb-doped fiber amplifier delivering 11-ps pulses at repetition rates up to 40-MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Ryser, Manuel; Pilz, Soenke; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate all-fiber direct amplification of 11 picosecond pulses from a gain-switched laser diode at 1063nm. The diode was driven at a repetition rate of 40MHz and delivered 13$\\mu$W of fiber-coupled average output power. For the low output pulse energy of 0.33pJ we have designed a multi-stage core pumped preamplifier based on single clad Yb-doped fibers in order to keep the contribution of undesired amplified spontaneous emission as low as possible and to minimize temporal and spectral broadening. After the preamplifier we reduced the 40MHz repetition rate to 1MHz using a fiber coupled pulse-picker. The final amplification was done with a cladding pumped Yb-doped large mode area fiber and a subsequent Yb-doped rod-type fiber. With our setup we achieved amplification of 72dBs to an output pulse energy of 5.7$\\mu$J, pulse duration of 11ps and peak power of >0.6MW.

  19. Intervalence Charge Transfer Luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d-4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barandiaran, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    We report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorites associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. We show that the very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb2+-doped CaF2 and SrF2, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. It is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the pair moieties very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are substracted from the normal emission. The ab initio IVCT energy diagrams explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and SrCl2: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF2 and SrF2; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF2; its absence in BaF2 and SrCl2; the quenching of all emissions in BaF2; and the prese...

  20. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-10-24

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  1. Thermoelectric Performance of Yb-Doped Ba8Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 Type-I Clathrate Synthesized by High-Pressure Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Long; Dong, Jianying; Xu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Type I clathrates are a promising thermoelectric (TE) material for waste heat recovery applications. However, the TE figure-of-merit of type I clathrates still needs further improvement. In this study, Yb-doped Ba8-x Yb x Ni0.1Zn0.54 Ga13.8Ge31.56 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) type I clathrates were synthesized using a high-pressure technique. Energy dispersive spectrometry confirmed successful Yb doping. An increased Yb doping level reduces electrical resistivity and suppresses lattice thermal conductivity while keeping the Seebeck coefficient almost unchanged. TE figure-of-merit of Ba7.7Yb0.3Ni0.1Zn0.54Ga13.8Ge31.56 type I clathrate was improved by 15% (0.91) at the highest measured temperature (900 K) compared with a Yb-free sample.

  2. Studies of central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources with Yb-doped double-clad fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Sun, Junyi; Li, Dan; Gong, Mali; Xiao, Qirong

    2016-12-01

    The behavior patterns and dependencies of the central wavelength of high-power all-fiber superfluorescent sources (SFS) were studied based on the steady-state rate equations of Yb-doped fiber lasers. The relationships between the central wavelength and the pumping power as well as the fiber parameters including fiber length, core size, core/clad ratio, and absorption coefficient were analyzed based on the gain coefficient of the gain fiber. Experimental results from ten different fibers are presented, and the results agreed well with the simulations. The central wavelength of the ten SFSs ranged from 1034.75 nm to 1072.4 nm.

  3. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  4. Second Harmonic Generation Using an All-Fiber Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser and MgO:c-PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qing Xu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have experimentally demonstrated an efficient all-fiber passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with Samarium doped fiber as a saturable absorber. Average output power of 3.4 W at a repetition rate of 250 kHz and a pulse width of 1.1 microseconds was obtained at a pump power of 9.0 W. By using this fiber laser system and an MgO-doped congruent periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:c-PPLN, second harmonic generation (SHG output at 532 nm was achieved at room temperature. The conversion efficiency is around 4.2% which agrees well with the theoretical simulation.

  5. Gold nanobipyramids as a saturable absorber for passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser operation at 1.06 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanian; Li, Bowen; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, gold nanobipyramids (Au-NBPs) are prepared using a seed-mediated growth method. The longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peak of the Au-NBPs is located at 1068 nm by controlling the aspect of the materials. To verify the absorption properties of the Au-NBP saturable absorber (SA), a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. The maximum average output power of 3.33 mW is obtained under a pumped power of 340 mW. The minimum pulse width is 2.6 µs at a pulse repetition rate of 66.3 kHz. The results prove that Au-NBP are a promising SA with the potential for important applications in the field of pulse lasers.

  6. 58 mJ burst comprising ultrashort pulses with homogenous energy level from an Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Sven; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    We report on a laser system producing a burst comprising femtosecond pulses with a total energy of 58 mJ. Every single pulse within this burst has an energy between 27 and 31 μJ. The pump is able to rebuild the inversion fast enough between the pulses, resulting in an almost constant gain for every pulse during the burst. This causes a very homogenous energy distribution during the burst. The output burst has a repetition frequency of 20 Hz, is 200 μs long and, therefore, contains 2000 pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 10 MHz.

  7. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d − 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barandiarán, Zoila, E-mail: zoila.barandiaran@uam.es; Seijo, Luis [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-21

    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb{sup 2+}-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f{sup 14}–1A{sub 1g}→ 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 7/2})5de{sub g}–1T{sub 1u} absorption in the Yb{sup 2+} part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb{sup 3+} moiety is in the higher 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}) multiplet. The Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} → Yb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 2+} IVCT emission consists of an Yb{sup 2+} 5de{sub g} → Yb{sup 3+} 4f{sub 7/2} charge transfer accompanied by a 4f{sub 7/2} → 4f{sub 5/2} deexcitation within the Yb{sup 2+} 4f{sup 13} subshell: [{sup 2}F{sub 5/2}5de{sub g},{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}] → [{sup 2}F{sub 7/2},4f{sup 14}]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF{sub 2}, SrF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and SrCl{sub 2}: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF{sub 2}; its absence in BaF{sub 2} and SrCl{sub 2}; the quenching of

  8. Sintering of transparent Yb-doped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics using nanopowder produced by laser ablation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijko, V.S. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St. 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, R.N., E-mail: romanmaksimov@e1.ru [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St. 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, Amundsen St.106, Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Shitov, V.A. [Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, Amundsen St.106, Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Demakov, S.L.; Yurovskikh, A.S. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St. 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation method were investigated. • Transparent Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated via vacuum and spark plasma sintering. • Highest transmittance was 79.3% at 1080 nm for vacuum sintered Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample. - Abstract: Transparent Yb-doped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic samples were fabricated via conventional vacuum and spark plasma sintering. Nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation method were used as starting material. The morphology and phase evolution of the nanopowder were studied by transmission electron microscopy, simultaneous thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited the monoclinic phase and were fully converted into the main cubic phase after calcination at 1100 °C for 1 h. Conventional vacuum sintering of Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder compact at 1780 °C for 20 h resulted in a fully-dense ceramics with an average grain size of 1.6 μm and optical transmittance of 79.3% at 1080 nm. Spark plasma sintering of the calcined Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at 1450 °C and 15 kN for 40 min led to a 0.2 μm-grained ceramics exhibiting an optical transmittance of 75.6% at 1080 nm.

  9. Supercontinuum generation based on all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation: Influence of seed's output port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosheng; Hua, Yi

    2016-10-01

    All-normal-dispersion (ANDi) mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser is a promising seed source for supercontinuum (SC) generation, due to its compact structure and broadband output. The influences of output ports of the ANDi laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), on the generated SC are investigated. Two output ports of ANDi laser are considered, one of which is the conventional nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) port and the other is extracted from a coupler after the NPR port. It is found that, the SC originated from the coupler port is much broader than that from the NPR port, which is validated by lots of experiments with different output parameters. Furthermore, the conclusion is verified and generalized to general ANDi lasers by numerical simulations, because the output pulse from coupler port could be cleaner than that from NPR port. Besides, there are no significant differences in the phase coherence and temporal stability between the SCs generated from both ports. Hence for the SC generation based on ANDi laser, it is preferred to use the pulse of coupler port (i.e. pulse after NPR port) serving as the seed source.

  10. Direct generation of 2  W average-power and 232  nJ picosecond pulses from an ultra-simple Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Xiong, Fengfu; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Huiying; Fu, Hongyan

    2015-03-15

    We report the generation of 2.06 W average-power and 232 nJ picosecond mode-locked pulses directly from an ultra-simple Yb-doped fiber laser. A section of Yb-doped double-clad fiber pumped by a 976 nm laser diode provides the large gain, and the linear cavity is simply formed by a 1064 nm highly reflective fiber Bragg grating and a fiber loop mirror (FLM) using a 5/95 optical coupler. The asymmetric FLM not only acts as the output mirror for providing ∼20% optical feedback, but also equivalently behaves as a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) to initiate the mode-locking operation in this cavity. Stable mode-locking is therefore achieved over a pump power of 3.76 W. The mode-locked pulses show the dissipative soliton resonance (DSR), which has the pulse duration of 695 ps to ∼1  ns, and the almost unchanged peak power of ∼200  W as increasing the pump power. In particular, this laser can emit 232 nJ high-energy DSR pulses with an average output power of >2  W. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of such an ultra-simple, mode-locked fiber laser that enables watt-level, high energy, picosecond DSR pulses.

  11. Sol-solvothermal Preparation and Photoactivity of Low Amount Yb-doped TiO2 Nano-photocatalyst%低量镱掺杂TiO2纳米光催化剂的溶胶-溶剂热制备及光活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫盼盼; 姜洪泉; 卢智宇; 李井申; 王庆元

    2011-01-01

    利用溶胶-溶剂热技术制备了锐钛矿型Yb掺杂和未掺杂TiO2纳米粒子,以亚甲基蓝(MB)溶液在紫外光和可见光照射下的光催化脱色率评价其光活性,考察了溶剂热温度、Yb掺杂量和焙烧温度对样品光活性的影响;结合XRD,BET,XPS,FT-IR,DRS和PL表征手段,探讨了Yb掺杂对TiO2光活性的影响机制.结果表明,低量Yb掺杂不仅显著提高TiO2的紫外光活性,也明显提高其可见光活性.Yb掺杂调整TiO2带隙内部电子分布状态,有效抑制光生e-/h+复合,提高量子效率;并且增加表面羟基,增大比表面积,改善表面织构特性,致使紫外光活性提高.然而Yb掺杂并未引起紫外吸收带边红移,其可见光活性的提高应归因于Yb掺杂强化了表面吸附染料的敏化作用.%The Yb-doped and un-doped anatase-TiO2 nano-photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by sol-solvothermal process. Their photoactivities were e-valuated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl-ene blue ( MB) in aqueous solution under UV light and visible light irradiation, respectively. The influences of solvotherraal temperature, Yb-doping content and calcination temperature on the photoactivities of the samples were investigated. In combination with XRD, BET, XPS, FT-IR, DRS and PL characterization , the effect mechanisms of Yb-doping on the pho-toactivity were discussed. The results revealed that low content Yb-doping could significantly improve both the UV and visible light photoactivities compared to the un-doped sample. The Yb-doping effectively inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and increased quantum efficiency. In the meantime, the Yb-doping increased the surface hydroxyl group and the specific area, as well as improved the surface texture properties. All above factors resulted in the enhanced photoactivity of TiO2 under UV light irradiation. The Yb-doping did not cause red shift of the UV absorption edge of TiO2. Therefore, the

  12. Generation of visible wavelength by the phase-matching four-wave mixing in an Yb-doped V-shape photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiao; Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Han, Ying; Xia, Changming; Zhou, Guiyao; Wei, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jianju; Wang, Shuang; Cheng, Xu; Hou, Lantian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, an Ytterbium-doped V-shape photonic crystal fiber (Yb-VPCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity is designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Through coupling femtosecond pulses into the fundamental mode of Yb-VPCF, the tunable anti-Stokes signals at the visible wavelength are efficiently generated based on the phase-matching four-wave mixing. When the pump wavelength is changed from 810, to 820, and to 830 nm and the input average power is increased from 0.4, to 0.5, and to 0.6 W, respectively, the anti-Stokes signals are generated within the wavelength range of 562-477 nm. The wavelength-tunable range is over 100 nm, and the maximum power ratio of anti-Stokes signal at 477 nm and the residual pump at 830 nm can be up to 23.9:1. The anti-Stokes signals generated can be used as the ultrashort pulse sources for ultrafast optoelectronics and spectroscopy.

  13. Experiment study on all-fiberized tandem pump broadband superfluorescent fiber source based on single stage Yb-doped fiber%全光纤同带泵浦宽带掺镱超荧光光纤光源的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄淑琴; 院楚君; 王鑫

    2016-01-01

    采用自制的1018 nm光纤激光器做泵浦源,建立了全光纤同带泵浦的宽带掺镱超荧光光纤光源实验系统,首次利用同带泵浦对单程前向结构的超荧光产生进行了深入的实验研究。研究结果表明:基于同带泵浦的掺镱超荧光光源的斜率效率高达88%,半极大全宽度(Full Width at Half Maximum,FWHM)最宽可以达到14.81 nm。掺镱光纤长度的改变,将影响超荧光光源的最大输出功率、斜率效率及中心波长,随着掺镱光纤长度的增加,最大输出功率和斜率效率下降,中心波长红移。固定光纤长度,改变泵浦功率,随着泵浦功率的增加,超荧光的最大功率和FWHM增加,光谱中心波长偏移很小。在掺镱光纤长度为5.7 m时,超荧光光源的最宽FWHM为14.81 nm,斜率效率在80.3%以上,输出功率的波动小于1%,没有驰豫振荡出现。%With a homemade 1 018 nm fiber laser, an all-fiberized tandem pump broadband superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) based on single stage Yb-doped fiber was set up experimentally. It is the first time to experimently investigate the generation of forward superfluorescence by utilizing tandem pump in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the highest slope efficiency of 88% and the widest full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 14.81 nm for this all-fiberized tandem pump broadband SFS. The length of Yb-doped fiber would affect the maximum of output power, slope effiency and the central wavelength. With an increase in the length of Yb-doped fiber, the maximum of output power and slope effiency of the SFS are reduced. The central wavelength shifts towards the longer wavelength. With an increase of the pump power at a certain fiber length, the maximum of output power and slope effiency of the SFS increase. The central wavelength of superfluorescent spectrum has a slight shift. When 5.7 m Yb-doped fiber is employed as the active medium, the widest FWHM is 14.81 nm and the

  14. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  15. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  16. Micromachining using femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Ostendorf, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Korte, Frank; Bauer, Thorsten

    2000-11-01

    Femtosecond laser systems have been proved to be effective tools for high precision micro-machining. Almost all solid materials can be processed with high precision. The dependence on material properties like thermal conductivity, transparency, heat- or shock sensitivity is strongly reduced and no significant influence on the remaining bulk material is observed after ablation using femtosecond laser pulses. In contrast to conventional laser processing, where the achievable precision is reduced due to a formed liquid phase causing burr formation, the achievable precision using femtosecond pulses is only limited by the diffraction of the used optics. Potential applications of this technique, aincluding the structuring of biodegradable polymers for cardiovascular implants, so-called stents, as well as high precision machining of transparent materials are presented.

  17. Compact fixed wavelength femtosecond oscillators as an add-on for tunable Ti:sapphire lasers extend the range of applications towards multimodal imaging and optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon (2P) microscopy based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers has become a widespread tool for 3D imaging with sub-cellular resolution in living tissues. In recent years multi-photon microscopy with simpler fixed-wavelength femtosecond oscillators using Yb-doped tungstenates as gain material has raised increasing interest in life-sciences, because these lasers offer one order of magnitude more average power than Ti:sapphire lasers in the wavelength range around 1040 nm: Two-photon (2P) excitation of mainly red or yellow fluorescent dyes and proteins (e.g. YFP, mFruit series) simultaneously has been proven with a single IR laser wavelength. A new approach is to extend the usability of existing tunable Titanium sapphire lasers by adding a fixed IR wavelength with an Yb femtosecond oscillator. By that means a multitude of applications for multimodal imaging and optogenetics can be supported. Furthermore fs Yb-lasers are available with a repetition rate of typically 10 MHz and an average power of typically 5 W resulting in pulse energy of typically 500 nJ, which is comparably high for fs-oscillators. This makes them an ideal tool for two-photon spinning disk laser scanning microscopy and holographic patterning for simultaneous photoactivation of large cell populations. With this work we demonstrate that economical, small-footprint Yb fixed-wavelength lasers can present an interesting add-on to tunable lasers that are commonly used in multiphoton microscopy. The Yb fs-lasers hereby offer higher power for imaging of red fluorescent dyes and proteins, are ideally enhancing existing Ti:sapphire lasers with more power in the IR, and are supporting pulse energy and power hungry applications such as spinning disk microscopy and holographic patterning.

  18. femtosecond laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Margetic, Vanja

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation was investigated as a solid sampling method for elemental chemical analysis. In comparison to the sampling with longer laser pulses, two aspects could be improved by using ultrashort pulses: elimination of the elemental fractionation from the ablation crater, which is necessary for an accurate quantitative analysis, and better control of the material removal (especially for metals), which increases the spatial resolution of microanalysis. Basic aspects of ultrashort...

  19. Intensity noise reduction of a high-power nonlinear femtosecond fiber amplifier based on spectral-breathing self-similar parabolic pulse evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Liu, Bowen; Song, Youjian; Hu, Minglie

    2016-04-01

    We report on a simple passive scheme to reduce the intensity noise of high-power nonlinear fiber amplifiers by use of the spectral-breathing parabolic evolution of the pulse amplification with an optimized negative initial chirp. In this way, the influences of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the amplifier intensity noise can be efficiently suppressed, owing to the lower overall pulse chirp, shorter spectral broadening distance, as well as the asymptotic attractive nature of self-similar pulse amplification. Systematic characterizations of the relative intensity noise (RIN) of a free-running nonlinear Yb-doped fiber amplifier are performed over a series of initial pulse parameters. Experiments show that the measured amplifier RIN increases respect to the decreased input pulse energy, due to the increased amount of ASE noise. For pulse amplification with a proper negative initial chirp, the increase of RIN is found to be smaller than with a positive initial chirp, confirming the ASE noise tolerance of the proposed spectral-breathing parabolic amplification scheme. At the maximum output average power of 27W (25-dB amplification gain), the incorporation of an optimum negative initial chirp (-0.84 chirp parameter) leads to a considerable amplifier root-mean-square (rms) RIN reduction of ~20.5% (integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz Fourier frequency). The minimum amplifier rms RIN of 0.025% (integrated from 1 kHz to 5 MHz Fourier frequency) is obtained along with the transform-limited compressed pulse duration of 55fs. To our knowledge, the demonstrated intensity noise performance is the lowest RIN level measured from highpower free-running femtosecond fiber amplifiers.

  20. Detection Techniques of Femtosecond Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-peng; ZHOU Ming; DAI Qi-xun; CAI Lan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy are effective method to investigate ultrafast dynamics, they are widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, the principle, experiment setup and the approaches to deal with the experiment data were presented. Then different measurement techniques such as transient absorption spectroscopy, photon echoes, optical Kerr effect and degenerate four-wave mixing were explained with special examples. At last, the application prospect of measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy was forecasted.

  1. Femtosecond laser induced microripple on PDMS surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xie; Changhe Zhou; Wei Wang; Tengfei Wu

    2009-01-01

    laser pulses and the subsequent cool-down solidification of the melting PDMS along with the movement of the femtosecond laser spot. This result will be helpful to understand the interaction between the femtosecond laser and the polymer.

  2. Femtosecond photography lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchenko, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Antic scientists, sailors, warriors, physician, etc. were perceiving the space by means of their eye vision system. Nowadays the same people use eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, image converters. All these devices fit the necessary magnification, intensification gain and image spectrum to the eyes. The human brain is processing the image data offered to him in a format pertaining to eyes. Hence, the cognition of images can be regarded as a direct measurement. As to the time scale converters, they turned out to be harder done as compared with the spatial scale converters. Hence, the development of the high-speed photography (HSP) continues for more than a hundred and fifty years. The recent pico- femtosecond HSP branch sprang up in 1949 at the Kurchatov Institute -- its cradle. All about the HSP had been advertised. Instead of reprinting what is already well known, it makes sense to emphasize some instructive lessons drawn from past experience. Also it is tempting to look a bit into the high-speed photography future.

  3. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure, Chemical Stability and Electrical Properties of Transition Metal or Yb-Doped BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad eMirfakhraei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb (BZCY-M oxides were synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction method at 1350-1550 oC in air in order to investigate the effect of dopants on sintering, crystal structure, chemical stability under CO2 and H2S, and electrical transport properties. The formation of the single-phase perovskite-type structure with an orthorhombic space group Imam was confirmed by Rietveld refinement using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD for the Fe, Co, Ni and Yb-doped samples. The BZCY-Co and BZCY-Ni oxides show a total electrical conductivity of 0.01 and 8 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 600 oC in wet H2 with an activation energy of 0.36 and 0.41 eV, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX revealed Ba and Co rich secondary phase at the grain-boundaries, which may explain the enhancement in the total conductivity of the BZCY-Co. However, ex-solution of Ni at higher sintering temperatures, especially at 1550 oC, decreases the total conductivity of the BZCY-Ni material. The Co and Ni dopants act as a sintering aid and form dense pellets at a lower sintering temperature of 1250 oC. The Fe, Co and Ni-doped BZCY-M samples synthesized at 1350 oC show stability in 30 ppm H2S/H2 at 800 oC, and increasing the firing temperature to 1550 oC, enhanced the chemical stability in CO2 / N2 (1: 2 at 25-900 oC. The BZCY-Co and Ni compounds with high conductivity in wet H2 could be considered as possible anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs.

  4. Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th

    2017-02-01

    Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.

  5. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  6. Few-femtosecond timing jitter from a picosecond all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Song, Youjian; Jung, Kwangyun; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue; Kim, Jungwon

    2016-01-25

    We characterize the timing jitter of a picosecond all-polarization-maintaining (all-PM) Yb-fiber laser using the optical cross-correlation method. For the 10 MHz all-normal dispersion mode-locked laser with ~0.5 nm spectral bandwidth, the measured high-frequency jitter is as low as 5.9 fs (RMS) when integrated from 10 kHz to the Nyquist frequency of 5 MHz. A complete numerical model with ASE noise is built to simulate the timing jitter characteristics in consideration of intracavity pulse evolution. The mutual comparison among simulation result, analytical model and experiment data indicate that the few femtosecond timing jitter from the picosecond fiber laser is attributed to the complete elimination of Gordon-Haus jitter by narrow bandpass filtering by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The low level of timing jitter from this compact and maintenance-free PM picosecond fiber laser source at a low MHz repetition rate is promising to advance a number of femtosecond-precision timing and synchronization applications.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Yb - doped YAG Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rare-earth doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics are among the most widely produced transparent ceramics for laser applications. Yb:YAG ceramics are an interesting IR laser material [1], which allows significantly higher doping compared to the generally more used Nd:YAG [2,3]. This work presents the preparation of polycrystalline Yb:YAG ceramics with dopant concentration from 0 up to 20 at.% via solid state reactive sintering. Samples were prepared via cold isostatic pressing of spray ...

  8. Dynamics of Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, A. G.; Irman, A.; van Goor, F. A.; Boller, K. -J.

    2007-01-01

    In the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) a short intense laser pulse, with a duration of the order of a plasma wave period, excites an unusually strong plasma wake wave (laser wakefield). Recent experiments on laser wakefield acceleration [Nature (London) 431, p.535, p.538, p.541 (2004)] demonstrated generation of ultra-short (with a duration of a few femtoseconds) relativistic electron bunches with relatively low energy spread of the order of a few percent. We have studied the dynamics of s...

  9. Towards sub-femtosecond emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Roger; Hansen, Peter; Batelaan, Herman; Hilbert, Shawn

    2010-03-01

    To manipulate femtosecond pulses of electrons new electron optical elements are needed. For example, if a source has a lower limit in the duration of the electron pulses that it generates, then aan electron optical element that can reduce the pulse duration could be useful. An example of this is the proposed ``temporal lens '' [1]. To detect the short electron pulses one also needs new elements. Attempts to use the ponderomotive interaction between the electron pulse and a second laser pulse will be presented [2]. Alternatively, we have started to explore a plasmonics structure provided by the Capasso group to make a fast electron switch. This has the potential to be useful both for switching, shaping and detecting the electron pulse. Finally, the experimental parameters and detection ideas for quantum degeneracy will be discussed. [1] S. Hilbert, B. Barwick, K. Uiterwaal, H. Batelaan, A. Zewail, ``Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses'', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, p. 10558, vol. 106, (2009). [2] L. Kreminskaya, C. Corder, V. Engquist, O. Golovin, P. Hansen, H. Batelaan, A. I. Khizhnyak, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., ``Laser Beam Shaping: Donut Mode Formation by Interference.'' Laser Beam Shaping X (Proceedings Volume) Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 7430.

  10. Femtosecond optical studies of cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, Marshall; Demsar, Jure; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Glinka, Yu D.; Tolk, Norman H.; Ren, Yuhang; Luepke, Gunter; Klimov, A.; Xu, Ying; Sobolewski, Roman; Si, Weidong; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, Xiaoxing; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Pavuna, Davor; Manzke, Recardo; Printz, J. O.; Parkhurst, D. K.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.; Bozovic, Ivan

    2002-11-01

    Femtosecond optical reflectivity measurements of La2-xSrxCuO4, La2CuO4+y, Bi2Sr2CuO6+z and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ thin films and single crystal samples indicate qualitative changes with fluence. At the lowest fluencies, there is a power law divergence in the relaxation time. The divergence has an onset temperature of 55+/-15K, independent of whether the sample is in the superconducting or normal states. At slightly higher fluencies, still perturbative, the additional response does not exhibit this power law divergence. At quite high fluencies- no longer perturbative- the metallic samples exhibit oscillations in the reflectivity amplitude. The period of these oscillations varies with the probe wavelength but not with the pump wavelength. The oscillations exhibit a decay time as long as 10 nsec.

  11. 2 micron femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lihmei

    2014-07-29

    Methods and systems for generating femtosecond fiber laser pulses are disclose, including generating a signal laser pulse from a seed laser oscillator; using a first amplifier stage comprising an input and an output, wherein the signal laser pulse is coupled into the input of the first stage amplifier and the output of the first amplifier stage emits an amplified and stretched signal laser pulse; using an amplifier chain comprising an input and an output, wherein the amplified and stretched signal laser pulse from the output of the first amplifier stage is coupled into the input of the amplifier chain and the output of the amplifier chain emits a further amplified, stretched signal laser pulse. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  13. Femtosecond fabricated surfaces for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2010-08-01

    Microfabrication using femtosecond pulse lasers is enabling access to a range of structures, surfaces and materials that was not previously available for scientific and engineering applications. The ability to produce micrometre sized features directly in polymer and metal substrates is demonstrated with applications in cell biology. The size, shape and aspect ratio of the etched features can be precisely controlled through the manipulation of the fluence of the laser etching process with respect to the properties of the target material. Femtosecond laser etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) and aluminium substrates has enabled the production of micrometre resolution moulds that can be accurately replicated using soft lithography. The moulded surfaces are used in the imaging of T cells and demonstrate the improved ability to observe biological events over time periods greater than 10 h. These results indicate the great potential femtosecond pulse lasers may have in the future manufacturing of microstructured surfaces and devices.

  14. Femtosecond tunneling response of surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, Taekjip; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    1998-01-01

    We obtain femtosecond (200 fs) time resolution using a scanning tunneling microscope on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated by two 100 fs laser beams in total internal reflection geometry. The tunneling gap dependence of the signal clearly indicates the tunneling origin of the signal...... and suggests that nanometer spatial resolution can be obtained together with femtosecond temporal resolution. This fast response, in contrast to the picosecond decay time of SPPs revealed by differential reflectivity measurements, can be attributed to a coherent superposition of SPPs rectified at the tunneling...

  15. Progress in Cherenkov femtosecond fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    systems are highlighted—dependent on the realization scheme, the Cherenkov lasers can generate the femtosecond output tunable across the entire visible and even the UV range, and for certain designs more than 40% conversion efficiency from the pump to Cherenkov signal can be achieved. The femtosecond...... Cherenkov laser with all-fiber architecture is presented and discussed. Operating in the visible range, it delivers 100–200 fs wavelength-tunable pulses with multimilliwatt output power and exceptionally low noise figure an order of magnitude lower than the traditional wavelength tunable supercontinuumbased...

  16. Microstructuring of electrospun mats employing femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Adomavičiūtė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun mats from nano/micro-fibers with control porosity and pore shape may be ideal candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study three type of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA mats of 48-65 µm thickness with different nano/micro-fibers diameters mostly of 100-200 nm were deposited by electrospinning process. Controlled density porosity in the electrospun mats was introduced by Yb:KGW femtosecond laser micromachining system. The influence of electrospun mat micro structure, the distance between the adjacent laser ablation points, the number of femtosecond laser pulses on quality and structure of laser irradiated holes were investigated. It was demonstrated that the quality of irradiated holes depend on structure of electrospun mats (diameter of nano/micro-fibers, thickness of mats and femtosecond laser processing parameters. Varying the distance between points and number of applied femtosecond laser pulses it is possible to fabricate electrospun mats with pores of 22-36 μm diameter.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.10249

  17. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  18. Atmospheric pressure femtosecond laser imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Yves; Gunaratne, Tissa C.; Dantus, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We present a novel imaging mass spectrometry technique that uses femtosecond laser pulses to directly ionize the sample. The method offers significant advantages over current techniques by eliminating the need of a laser-absorbing sample matrix, being suitable for atmospheric pressure sampling, and by providing 10μm resolution, as demonstrated here with a chemical image of vegetable cell walls.

  19. Femtosecond SESAM lasers with shortlength cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, Efim V.; Petrov, V. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Bordzilovskii, A. S.; Preobrazhenskii, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2003-10-01

    Femtosecond pulse generation in Al2O3:Ti3+ laser with some types of laser cavity configuration with semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), based on semiconductor quantum well low temperature (LT) GaAs/AlAs, GaxIn1-xAs/AlyGa1-yAs saturated absorbers and metal mirrors have been investigated.

  20. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of zirconia dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado-Ruiz, R. A.; Calvo-Guirado, J. L.; Moreno, P.; Guardia, J.; Gomez-Moreno, G.; Mate-Sanchez, J. E.; Ramirez-Fernandez, P.; Chiva, F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of femtosecond laser for microtexturizing cylindrical zirconia dental implants surface. Sixty-six cylindrical zirconia implants were used and divided into three groups: Control group (with no laser modification), Group A (microgropored texture), and Group 13 (mic

  1. Long range absolute distance measurement based on femtosecond laser balanced optical cross-correlation%基于飞秒激光平衡光学互相关的任意长绝对距离测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦鹏; 陈伟; 宋有建; 胡明列; 柴路; 王清月

    2012-01-01

    大尺度、高精度的绝对距离测量在卫星编队飞行、自由空间通信、大尺寸工件检测等前沿应用中具有举足轻重的作用.本文利用飞秒激光脉冲的飞行时间方法对一段52m的大气传输路径进行了绝对距离测量.通过平衡光学互相关技术探测目标反射脉冲与参考脉冲之间的时间误差,并利用得到的平衡互相关电压信号反馈控制谐振腔长,将脉冲间隔的整数倍精确锁定至往返距离,最后由飞秒激光的重复频率确定目标反射脉冲的飞行时间.这一测量方案有效地避免了直接光电探测造成的飞行时间分辨率的损失.实验中,采用工作在1.04μm波段的高重复频率掺Yb锁模光纤激光器作为飞秒激光源,在1S的平均时间下获得了12nm的测量精度.%High-precision distance measurement in a long range is critical for many advanced applications, such as satellite formation flying, free space optical communication and large scale machining. A 52 m absolute distance measurement in free space based on time of flight of femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The timing offset between target-reflected and the reference pulses is precisely characterized by balanced optical cross-correlation method. The balanced cross correlation signal is used for the feedback control of the cavity length and tightly locks the distance under test to multiple of pulse separation. As a result, the time of flight of the target-reflected pulse is determined by the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser, which effectively avoids the loss of timing resolution caused by direct access of pulse time-of-flight from photo-detection. In the experiment, a Yb -doped high repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser working at 1.04 μm is used as a femtosecond laser source, and a measurement precision of t2 nm is achieved in an average time of one second.

  2. Femtosecond Optical Trapping of Cells: Efficiency and Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jixian; LI Fang; XING Qirong

    2009-01-01

    The femtosecond optical trapping capability and the effect of femtosecond laser pulses on cell viability were studied. The maximum lateral velocity at which the particles just failed to be trapped, together with the measured average trapping power, were used to calculate the lateral trapping force(Q-value). The viability of the cells after femtosecond laser trapping was ascertained by vital staining. Measurement of the Q-values shows that femtosecond optical tweezers are just as effective as continuous wave optical tweezers. The experiments demonstrate that there is a critical limit for expo-sure time at each corresponding laser power of femtosecond optical tweezers, and femtosecond laser tweezers are safe for optical trapping at low power with short exposure time.

  3. Fabrication of Micro -Optical Devices by a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyuki; Hirao

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser is a perfect laser source for materials processing when high accuracy and small structure size are required. Due to the ultra short interaction time and the high peak power, the process is generally characterized by the absence of heat diffusion and, consequently molten layers. Various induced structures have been observed in materials after the femtosecond laser irradiation. Here, we report on fabrication of micro-optical devices by the femtosecond laser. 1) formation of optical waveg...

  4. Effects of femtosecond laser radiation on the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, P. Yu; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    A mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes is presented occurring under the influence of femtosecond laser radiation on the skin. There was held an analysis and the numerical solution of an equation system describing the dynamics of the electron and phonon subsystems were received. The results can be used to determine the maximum permissible levels of energy generated by femtosecond laser systems and the establishment of Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  5. Characteristics and Applications of Spatiotemporally Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenrui Jing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review of our recent experimental results on the characterization and application of the spatiotemporally focused pulses for femtosecond laser micromachining. Finally, we summarize all of the results and give a future perspective of this technique.

  6. Interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metal photocathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yun-Quan; Zhang Jie; Liang Wen-Xi

    2005-01-01

    The features of interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with photocathode are studied theoretically in this paper.The surface temperature of the metal cathode film while femtosecond laser pulses irradiation is studied with twotemperature model. With a simple photoelectric model we obtain the optimum metal film thickness for the backilluminated photocathode. The generated ultrashort photocurrent pulses are strongly dependent on the temperature of the electron gas and the lattice during the femtosecond laser pulse irradiation on the photocathode.

  7. Nonadiabatic Induced Dipole Moment by High Intensity Femtosecond Optical Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koprinkov, I. G.

    2006-01-01

    Nonadiabtic dressed states and nonadiabatic induced dipole moment in the leading order of nonadiabaticity is proposed. The nonadiabatic induced dipole moment is studied in the femtosecond time domain.

  8. Preliminary Design of a Femtosecond Oscilloscope

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, Edmond D; Kalantaryan, Davit K; Laziev, Edouard; Margaryan, Amour

    2005-01-01

    The calculations on motion of electrons in a finite length electromagnetic field of linearly and circularly polarized laser beams have shown that one can use the transversal deflection of electrons on a screen at a certain distance after the interaction region for the measurement of the length and longitudinal particle distribution of femtosecond bunches. In this work the construction and preliminary parameters of various parts of a device that may be called femtosecond oscilloscope are considered. The influence of various factors, such as the energy spread and size of the electron bunches, are taken into account. For CO2 laser intensity 1016 W/cm2 and field free drift length 1m the deflection is 5.3 and 0.06 cm, while the few centimeters long interaction length between 2 mirrors requires assembling accuracy 6 mm and 1.3 micron for 20 MeV to 50 keV, respectively.

  9. Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Benterou, J; Lee, R; Roeske, F; Stuart, B

    2002-03-25

    Femtosecond laser ablation shows promise in machining energetic materials into desired shapes with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the remaining material. We will discuss the physical effects associated with machining energetic materials and assemblies containing energetic materials, based on experimental results. Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with matter will produce high temperature plasma at high-pressure which results in the ablation of material. In the case of energetic material, which includes high explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics, this ablation process must be accomplished without coupling energy into the energetic material. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize and better understand the phenomena of femtosecond laser pulse ablation on a variety of explosives and propellants. Experimental data will be presented for laser fluence thresholds, machining rates, cutting depths and surface quality of the cuts.

  10. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  11. Optical diagnostics of femtosecond laser plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉同; 张杰; 陈黎明; 夏江帆; 腾浩; 赵理曾; 林景全; 李英骏; 魏志义; 王龙; 江文勉

    2001-01-01

    Optical diagnostics of evolution of plasmas produced by ultrashort laser pulses is carried out using a femtosecond probing beam. The time sequence of plasma shadowgrams and interferograms are obtained. The filamentation instability in high_density region induces the local density modification. Large_scale toroidal magnetic fields confine plasma expansion in the transverse direction, resulting in the formation of a plasma jet. The plasma expansion along the target normal direction is found to scale as 1 2.

  12. Characterizing THz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at Femtosecond Linear Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xu-Ling; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LU YU; LUO Feng; LU Shan-Liang; YU Tie-Min; DAI Zhi-Min

    2009-01-01

    The generation and observation of coherent THz synchrotron radiation from femtosecond electron bunches in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics femtosecond accelerator device is reported.We describe the experiment setup and present the first result of THz radiation properties such as power and spectrum.

  13. Parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaki Yoshio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Parallel femtosecond laser processing with a computer-generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator, has the advantages of high throughput and high energy-use efficiency. for further increase of the processing efficiency, we demonstrated parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control that is based on polarization control using a pair of spatial light modulators.

  14. Fabrication of Micro -Optical Devices by a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Qiu; Kazuyuki Hirao

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser is a perfect laser source for materials processing when high accuracy and small structure size are required. Due to the ultra short interaction time and the high peak power, the process is generally characterized by the absence of heat diffusion and, consequently molten layers. Various induced structures have been observed in materials after the femtosecond laser irradiation. Here, we report on fabrication of micro-optical devices by the femtosecond laser. 1) formation of optical waveguide with internal loss less than 0.5dB/cm in the wavelength region from 1.2 to 1.6 mm, by translating a silica glass perpendicular to the axis of the focused femtosecond laser beam; 2) nano-scale valence state manipulation of active ions inside transparent materials; 3) space-selective precipitation and control of metal nanoparticles inside transparent materials; The mechanisms and applications of the femtosecond laser induced phenomena were also discussed.

  15. Femtosecond parabolic pulse shaping in normally dispersive optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoivanov, Igor A; Iakushev, Sergii O; Shulika, Oleksiy V; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel

    2013-07-29

    Formation of parabolic pulses at femtosecond time scale by means of passive nonlinear reshaping in normally dispersive optical fibers is analyzed. Two approaches are examined and compared: the parabolic waveform formation in transient propagation regime and parabolic waveform formation in the steady-state propagation regime. It is found that both approaches could produce parabolic pulses as short as few hundred femtoseconds applying commercially available fibers, specially designed all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber and modern femtosecond lasers for pumping. The ranges of parameters providing parabolic pulse formation at the femtosecond time scale are found depending on the initial pulse duration, chirp and energy. Applicability of different fibers for femtosecond pulse shaping is analyzed. Recommendation for shortest parabolic pulse formation is made based on the analysis presented.

  16. Coupling dynamics for a photonic crystal fib er femtosecond laser nonlinear amplification system%光子晶体光纤飞秒激光非线性放大系统的耦合动力学过程研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石俊凯; 柴路; 赵晓薇; 李江; 刘博文; 胡明列; 栗岩锋; 王清月

    2015-01-01

    构建了掺镱大模场面积单偏振光子晶体光纤飞秒激光非线性放大系统.讨论了腔内净色散量和抽运功率对振荡级输出参数的影响和振荡级参数对放大级输出参数的影响.在本实验条件下,当腔内净色散量取较大负色散时,振荡级直接输出的脉冲更宽,且携带更少的啁啾.当振荡级抽运4.53 W时,选择最接近变换极限的脉冲作为种子脉冲,放大级在60 W抽运时输出压缩后无基底的短脉冲,宽度为45.7 fs,平均功率28 W.振荡级抽运功率增加到5.08 W,放大级抽运70 W时,获得最高输出功率34.5 W,对应脉宽53.5 fs.%A femtosecond laser single-stage nonlinear amplification system composed of Yb-doped large-mode-area single-polarization photonic crystal fibers is demonstrated. Effects of net cavity dispersion and pump power on oscillator output parameters and the evolution dynamics of the amplified pulse after compression are discussed for different seed pulse parameters. Under the experimental conditions in this paper, the longer and less chirped pulses are obtained with a larger negative net intracavity dispersion in the oscillator. When a nearly-transform-limited pulse is chosen as seed pulse nder the condition of oscillator pump power of 4.53 W, the shortest nearly-pedestal-free amplified pulse is achieved under the amplifier pump power of 60 W after the dispersion is compensated by a grating pair, in which the pulse duration is 45.7 fs with an average power of 28 W at a repetition frequency of 42 MHz. When the oscillator pump power is increased to 5.08 W and most nearly-transform-limited pulses under the pump condition are selected as the seed pulses, the maximum average power of 34.5 W with a duration of 53.5 fs is obtained at an amplifier pump power of 70 W.

  17. Direct-write waveplates using femtosecond lasers

    CERN Document Server

    McMillen, Ben; Bellouard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers to introduce controlled stress states has recently been demonstrated in silica glass. We use this principle in combination with chemical etching to demonstrate direct-write wave plates with precisely tailored retardance levels. In this work, we achieve sufficient retardance to act as a quarter-wave plate, producing a broadband device with a clear aperture free of any laser modifications. We analyze and model the stress distribution within the clear aperture, providing a generic template that can be applied to form multiple retardance levels within the same substrate.

  18. Femtosecond laser in refractive and cataract surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Han; Liu; Ying; Hu; Hong-Ping; Cui

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, 9 unique laser platforms have been brought to the market. As femtosecond(FS) laserassisted ophthalmic surgery potentially improves patient safety and visual outcomes, this new technology indeed provides ophthalmologists a reliable new option. But this new technology also poses a range of new clinical and financial challenges for surgeons. We provide an overview of the evolution of FS laser technology for use in refractive and cataract surgeries. This review describes the available laser platforms and mainly focuses on discussing the development of ophthalmic surgery technologies.

  19. Femtosecond laser crystallization of amorphous Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Kürüm, Ulaş; Yaglioglu, H. Gul; Elmali, Ayhan; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-06-01

    Ultrafast crystallization of amorphous germanium (a-Ge) in ambient has been studied. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown a-Ge was irradiated with single femtosecond laser pulses of various durations with a range of fluences from below melting to above ablation threshold. Extensive use of Raman scattering has been employed to determine post solidification features aided by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. Linewidth of the Ge optic phonon at 300 cm-1 as a function of laser fluence provides a signature for the crystallization of a-Ge. Various crystallization regimes including nanostructures in the form of nanospheres have been identified.

  20. Femtosecond laser studies of ultrafast intramolecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions by observing, directly in time, the dynamics of fundamental chemical processes. In this work femtosecond laser pulses are used to initiate chemical processes and follow the progress of these processes in time. The authors are currently studying ultrafast internal conversion and subsequent intramolecular relaxation in unsaturated hydrocarbons. In addition, the authors are developing nonlinear optical techniques to prepare and monitor the time evolution of specific vibrational motions in ground electronic state molecules.

  1. Femtosecond laser 3D micromachining for microfluidic and optofluidic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers opened up new avenue in materials processing due to its unique features of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. One of the most important features of femtosecond laser processing is that strong absorption can be induced even by materials which are transparent to the femtosecond laser beam due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. The multiphoton absorption allows us to perform not only surface but also three-dimensionally internal microfabrication of transparent materials such as glass. This capability makes it possible to directly fabricate three-dimensi

  2. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takanori [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Mamoru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Inoue, Shigeyuki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizohata, Eiichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsu, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shimamura, Tatsuro [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwata, So [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugahara, Michihiro, E-mail: msuga@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  3. Femtosecond soliton diode on heterojunction Bragg-grating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhigui; Li, Hongji; Fu, Shenhe; Liu, Yikun; Xiang, Ying; Li, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    We numerically propose a scheme for realizing an all-optical femtosecond soliton diode based on a tailored heterojunction Bragg grating, which is designed by two spatially asymmetric chirped cholesteric liquid crystals. Our simulations demonstrate that with the consideration of optical nonlinearity, not only the femtosecond diode effect with nonreciprocal transmission ratio up to 120 can be achieved, but also the optical pulse evolving into soliton which maintains its shape during propagation through the sample is observed. Further, the influence of pulse width and the carrier wavelength to the femtosecond diode effect is also discussed in detail. Our demonstrations might suggest a new direction for experimentally realizing the femtosecond soliton diode based on the cholesteric liquid crystals.

  4. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    CERN Document Server

    Sotillo, Belen; Hadden, J P; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E; Eaton, Shane Michael

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first buried optical waveguides in diamond using focused femtosecond laser pulses. The properties of nitrogen vacancy centers are preserved in the waveguides, making them promising for diamond-based magnetometers or quantum information systems.

  5. Manipulation on human red blood cells with femtosecond optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Haifeng Yang; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Different types of femtosecond optical tweezers have become a powerful tool in the modern biological field. However, how to control the irregular targets, including biological cells, using femtosecond optical tweezers remains to be explored. In this study, human red blood cells (hRBCs) are manipulated with femtosecond optical tweezers, and their states under different laser powers are investigated. The results indicate that optical potential traps only can capture the edge of hRBCs under the laser power from 1.4 to 2.8 mW, while it can make hRBCs turn over with the laser power more than 2.8 roW. It is suggested that femtosecond optical tweezers could not only manipulate biological cells, but also subtly control its states by adjusting the laser power.

  6. Cascaded Soliton Compression of Energetic Femtosecond Pulses at 1030 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved.......We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved....

  7. Optical data storage in nonphotosensitive media by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrashort lasers have become powerful tools by inducing extremely nonlinear effects in a wide variety of materials.Femtosecond laser data storage in non-photosensitive media is promising for its high density and fast retrieval. We reviewed the progress of three types of femtosecond laser storage in transparent materials: three-dimensional bit-oriented storage by micro-voids, holographic data storage by two beam interference and storage by computer-generated holograms.

  8. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10–100 nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  9. Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of silver film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ye; Ma, Guohong [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai (China); He, Min; Bian, Huadong; Yan, Xiaona [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Lu, Bo [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai (China)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, we report an evolution of surface morphology of silver film irradiated by a 1 kHz femtosecond laser. By SEM observations, it is noted that different nanostructures with respective surface features depend highly on the number of pulses and the laser fluence. Especially when the laser fluence is below the threshold fluence of film breakdown, a textured nanostructure including many nanobumps and nanocavities will appear on the surface of silver film. In order to determine an optimal regime for nanostructuring silver film and to further study the underlying mechanism, we perform a quantitative analysis of laser fluence and pulse number. The results show that this nanostructure formation should be due to a sequential process of laser melting, vapor bubbles bursting, heat stress confinement, and subsequent material redistribution. As a potential application, we find this nanostructured silver film can be used as the active substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering effect. (orig.)

  10. Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongbai, C. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand)], E-mail: chlada@chiangmai.ac.th; Kusoljariyakul, K. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Rimjaem, S. [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen 15738 (Germany); Rhodes, M.W. [IST, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Saisut, J. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P. [IST, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Vilaithong, T. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand)

    2008-03-11

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as {sigma}{sub z}{approx}180 fs with (1-6)x10{sup 8} electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described.

  11. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  12. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathish Shivanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure.

  13. Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics and Modelocking in Monolithic CPM Lasers. [SB1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.D.; Bischoff, Svend; MØrk, J.;

    1996-01-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe measurements of the dynamics in both forward- and reverse-biased semiconductor optical waveguides arepresented. Slow (nanosecond) as well as ultrafast (femtosecond) dynamics are observed in both kinds of structures....

  14. μJ-level, kHz-repetition rate femtosecond fiber-CPA system at 1555 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Gluszek, Aleksander; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a high-power, fiber-based chirped pulse amplification (CPA) setup utilizing Er- and Er/Yb-doped fibers, operating at 1555 nm central wavelength. The integrated all-fiber pulse-picker allows to reduce the repetition frequency down to the kHz-range, which enables generation of sub-picosecond pulses with energies above 2 μJ and pulse peak power exceeding 1 MW. The system utilizes an Er/Yb co-doped large mode area fiber in the final amplification stage. Thanks to the used mode-field adapters and fiber-based components, the setup is almost fully fiberized, except the bulk grating pulse compressor. In order to provide compactness and simplicity, the compressor was designed using dense 1100 lines per millimeter gratings, that allow to keep the small grating separation.

  15. Femtosecond laser fabrication of monolithically integrated microfluidic sensors in glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liao, Yang; Lin, Jintian; Song, Jiangxin; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji

    2014-10-17

    Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in femtosecond laser processing of glass for a variety of microfluidic sensor applications. These include 3D integration of micro-/nanofluidic, optofluidic, electrofluidic, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering devices, in addition to fabrication of devices for microfluidic bioassays and lab-on-fiber sensors. This paper describes the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser processing and the basic concepts involved in femtosecond laser direct writing. Advanced spatiotemporal beam shaping methods are also discussed. Typical examples of microfluidic sensors fabricated using femtosecond lasers are then highlighted, and their applications in chemical and biological sensing are described. Finally, a summary of the technology is given and the outlook for further developments in this field is considered.

  16. Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in femtosecond laser processing of glass for a variety of microfluidic sensor applications. These include 3D integration of micro-/nanofluidic, optofluidic, electrofluidic, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering devices, in addition to fabrication of devices for microfluidic bioassays and lab-on-fiber sensors. This paper describes the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser processing and the basic concepts involved in femtosecond laser direct writing. Advanced spatiotemporal beam shaping methods are also discussed. Typical examples of microfluidic sensors fabricated using femtosecond lasers are then highlighted, and their applications in chemical and biological sensing are described. Finally, a summary of the technology is given and the outlook for further developments in this field is considered.

  17. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kozawa, T.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Miya, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  18. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography: the first five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilme Schlichting

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation sources has had a tremendous impact on biology, having yielded the structures of thousands of proteins and given detailed insight into their mechanisms. However, the technique is limited by the requirement for macroscopic crystals, which can be difficult to obtain, as well as by the often severe radiation damage caused in diffraction experiments, in particular when using tiny crystals. To slow radiation damage, data collection is typically performed at cryogenic temperatures. With the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs capable of delivering extremely intense femtosecond X-ray pulses, this situation appears to be remedied, allowing the structure determination of undamaged macromolecules using either macroscopic or microscopic crystals. The latter are exposed to the FEL beam in random orientations and their diffraction data are collected at cryogenic or room temperature in a serial fashion, since each crystal is destroyed upon a single exposure. The new approaches required for crystal growth and delivery, and for diffraction data analysis, including de novo phasing, are reviewed. The opportunities and challenges of SFX are described, including applications such as time-resolved measurements and the analysis of radiation damage-prone systems.

  20. Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology Principle, Operation and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a remarkable convergence among the fields of ultrafast optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. This convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The resulting spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as "femtosecond comb technology." They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. This book provides an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the connection between time and frequency descriptions of their output and the physical origins of the electric field dynamics, together with an overview of applications of femtosecond comb technology. Individual chapters go into more detail on mode-locked laser development, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric ...

  1. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  2. Tight focusing of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li-Min; Chen Bao-Suan; Chen Zi-Yang; Pu Ji-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the tight focusing properties of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses. Based on Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction integral, the expressions for the electric field, the velocity of the femtosecond light pulse and the total angular momentum of focused pluses are derived. The numerical calculations are also given to illustrate the intensity distribution, phase contour, the group velocity variation and the total angular momentum near the focus. It finds that near the focus the femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulse can travel at various group speeds, that is, slower or faster than light speed in vacuum, depending on the numerical aperture of the focusing objective system. Moreover, it also studies the influence of the numerical aperture of the focusing objective and the time duration of the elliptically polarised vortex light pulse on the total angular momentum distribution in the focused field.

  3. Curing of Epoxy Resin Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yubin; ZHANG Zuoguang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of curing of epoxy resin induced by femtosecond laser beam was explored through choosing different initiators . Absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to analyze the structure of epoxy resin systems after irradiation with a femtosecond laser beam. The experimental results show that the epoxy resin systems containing diaryliodonium salts can be cured by irradiation of Jemtosecond laser pulse, while the systems containing benzoin can not be cured. It is found that diaryliodonium salts decompose under the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse through multi ( two ) -photon absorption, initiating the ring-opening polymerization of epoxy resin. And the appearance of cured area has a sheet structure consisting of many tiny lamellar structures.

  4. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety, efficacy, advantages, and limitations of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery through a review of the literature. A PubMed search was conducted using topic-appropriate keywords to screen and select articles. Initial research has shown appropriate safety and efficacy of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, with improvements in anterior capsulotomy, phacofragmentation, and corneal incision. Limitations of these studies include small sample size and short-term follow-up. Cost-benefit analysis has not yet been addressed. Preliminary data for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery shows appropriate safety and efficacy, and possible advantage over conventional cataract surgery. Questions to eventually be answered include comparisons of long-term postoperative complication rates-including infection and visual outcomes-and analysis of contraindications and financial feasibility.

  5. A Novel Femtosecond Laser System for Attosecond Pulse Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel ultrabroadband high-energy femtosecond laser to be built in our laboratory. A 7-femtosecond pulse is firstly stretched by an eight-pass offner stretcher with a chirp rate 15 ps/nm, and then energy-amplified by a two-stage optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA. The first stage as preamplification with three pieces of BBO crystals provides the majority of the energy gain. At the second stage, a YCOB crystal with the aperture of ~50 mm is used instead of the KDP crystal as the gain medium to ensure the shortest pulse. After the completion, the laser will deliver about 8 J with pulse duration of about 10 femtoseconds, which should be beneficial to the attosecond pulse generation and other ultrafast experiments.

  6. Non-Linear Fibres for Widely Tunable Femtosecond Fibre Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard

    This Ph.D. thesis investigates how intramodal and intermodal nonlinear processes in few-moded fibres can be used to generate light sources at wavelengths outside the spectral gain-bands of rare-earth-doped opticalfibres. The design of two specialty few-moded fibres for use in a widely tunable...... femtosecond fibre laser is presented. The two fibres are used to facilitate the shifting of a soliton in a cascade configuration from the ytterbium gain-band and to a wavelength of 1280 nm. The temporal pulse duration is on a femtosecond scale with a pulse energy of 5 nJ. The experimentally observed soliton...... self-frequency shift and thereby the outcome of the experimental demonstration of the widely tunable femtosecond fibre laser is shown to depend highly on the chirped of the input pulse into the first few-moded fibre in the cascade setup. Furthermore, an alternative splicing process, with a combination...

  7. Radiation effects on Yb- and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortech, B.; Ouerdane, Y.; Meunier, J. P.; Boukenter, A. [Univ St Etienne, CNRS, UMR 5516, Lab Hubert Curien, F-42000 St Etienne (France); Girard, S. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, DIF, 91 (France); Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Crochet, P. [iXFiber SAS, F-22300 Lannion (France)

    2009-07-15

    The integration of rare-earth doped optical fibers as part of fiber-based systems in space implies the development of waveguides tolerant to the radiation levels associated with the space missions. Erbium (Er)- or Ytterbium/Erbium (Yb/Er)-doped fibers have been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiations. Radiations lead to a strong increase of the fiber attenuation around the pump and amplified signal wavelengths. In this paper, we investigate by confocal luminescence microscopy the radiation-induced spectroscopic changes on prototype Yb- or Yb/Er-doped optical fibers. The set of tested fibers allows us to provide new insights into the relative influence of the P, Al doping on the radiation responses of their silica-based host matrix and on the transitions between the energy states of rare-earth ions. (authors)

  8. Phosphate-core silica-clad Er/Yb-doped optical fiber and cladding pumped laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Velmiskin, V V; Yatsenko, Yu P; Sverchkov, S E; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Dianov, E M

    2014-04-07

    We present a composite optical fiber with a Er/Yb co-doped phosphate-glass core in a silica glass cladding as well as cladding pumped laser. The fabrication process, optical properties, and lasing parameters are described. The slope efficiency under 980 nm cladding pumping reached 39% with respect to the absorbed pump power and 28% with respect to the coupled pump power. Due to high doping level of the phosphate core optimal length was several times shorter than that of silica core fibers.

  9. The all-fiber cladding-pumped Yb-doped gain-switched laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Hansen, K. P.; Mattsson, Kent Erik;

    2014-01-01

    Gain-switching is an alternative pulsing technique of fiber lasers, which is power scalable and has a low complexity. From a linear stability analysis of rate equations the relaxation oscillation period is derived and from it, the pulse duration is defined. Good agreement between the measured pul...

  10. Tm-Yb Doped Optical Fiber Performance with Variation of Host-Glass Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of Thulium-Ytterbium doped optical fiber comprising different host glass through the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD coupled with solution doping technique is presented. The material and optical performance of different fibers are compared with special emphasis on their lasing efficiency for 2 µm application.

  11. Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate ...

  12. Electrical and microstructural properties of Yb-doped CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Matović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanopowdered Ce1−xYbxO2−δ solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were synthesized by a self-propagating room temperature synthesis. XRD and SEM were used to study the properties of these materials as well as the Yb solubility in CeO2 lattice. Results showed that all the obtained powders were solid solutions with a fluorite-type crystal structure and with nanometric particle size. The average size of Ce1−xYbxO2−δ particles was approximately 3 nm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the sintered pellets depicted that it was possible to separate Rbulk and Rgb in the temperature interval of 550–800 °C. The activation energy for the bulk conduction was 1.03 eV and for grain boundary conduction was 1.14 eV. Grain boundary resistivity dominates over the other resistivities. These measurements confirmed that Yb3+-doped CeO2 material had a potential as electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  13. Down conversion luminescence behavior of Er and Yb doped Y2O3 phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Agrawal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied downconversion luminescence behaviour of Y2O3 phosphor doped with Er 1 mol% and 1 mol% of Yb. The sample was prepared by modified solid state reaction method. Using inorganic material like (Y2O3, Flux Calcium Fluoride (CaF2 and Er2O3 as well as Yb2O3 with molar ratio 1 mol% of dopant. The prepared phosphor sample was characterized using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD, Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEGSEM, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Photoluminescence (PL, Thermoluminescence (TL and CIE techniques. The obtained sample shows an intense greenish-white emission (ranging from 350 to 600 nm, centered at 565 nm under a wide range of UV light excitation (220–400 nm.

  14. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fibre laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha Chakravarty; Antony Kuruvilla; Rajpal Singh; B N Upadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we report linearly polarized high average power passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibre laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. An average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and pulse repetition rate of 57.4 kHz with a slope efficiency of 52% was achieved. Measured polarization extinction ratio (PER) of the Q-switched laser output was 10.5 dB.

  15. Yb-doped yttria-alumino-silicate nano-particles based optical fibers: Fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.; Martinez-Gamez, A. A.; Lucio-Martínez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Yb 3+ doped oxide nano-particles based on yttria-alumino-silicate glass is presented. These large-mode area Yb 3+ doped fibers having a core diameter around 25.0 μm were drawn by a proper control over the involved process parameters; by this, the size of nano-particles was maintained within 5-10 nm. The main spectroscopic and laser properties of the fabricated fibers along with the nano-structuration results are reported. These results reveal that the developed method offers new scopes for the contemporary Yb 3+ fiber based devices.

  16. 30W, 1178nm Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, Akira; Maruyama, Hiroki; Ueda, Ken-ichi;

    2009-01-01

    High-power, high-efficiency ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of the Yb gain band is reported. Amplified-spontaneous-emission-free, 30W nonpolarized and 25W linearly-polarized 1178nm outputs have been achieved with

  17. Thermal effects in Yb-doped double-cladding Distributed Modal Filtering rod-type fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Jørgensen, Mette Marie;

    2012-01-01

    element method. A DMF fiber design, which is single-mode in the 1030 nm–1064 nm region, is considered, and the effects of thermal load on the transmission characteristics are evaluated. Results show a blue-shift of the single-mode window and the single-mode bandwidth narrowing as the absorbed pump power...

  18. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  19. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugioka, Koji, E-mail: ksugioka@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Cheng, Ya, E-mail: ya.cheng@siom.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  20. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-10-15

    In this Letter we present the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of material modification using tightly focused single femtosecond laser vortex pulses. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with a polarization-singularity beam converter based on light propagation in a uniaxial anisotropic medium and then focused using moderate- and high-NA optics (viz., NA=0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glass. By controlling the pulse energy, we consistently machine micrometer-size ring-shaped structures with <100nm uniform groove thickness.

  1. Femtosecond Optical Parametric Amplifier for Petawatt Nd:Glass Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Min; QIAN Lie-Jia; YUAN Peng; LUO Hang; ZHU He-Yuan; ZHU Qi-Hua; WEI Xiao-Feng; FAN Dian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA) at 1053nm. The OPA generates stable signal pulses with duration smaller than 100 fs, wavelength drift smaller than 0.5nm, and pulse-to-pulse fluctuation of about ±4%, by employing an external seeder. In a terawatt laser pumped large-aperture LiNbO3 OPA, pulse energy at signal has been scaled up to 4mJ. This m J-class femtosecond OPA at 1053nm presents a feasible alternative to optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification, and is ready to be applied to petawatt lasers.

  2. Femtosecond Synchronization of Laser Systems for the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; /LBL, Berkeley; Doolittle, Lawrence; /LBL, Berkeley; Huang, Gang; /LBL, Berkeley; Staples, John; /LBL, Berkeley; Wilcox, Russell; /LBL, Berkeley; Arthur, John; /SLAC; Frisch, Josef; /SLAC; White, William; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The scientific potential of femtosecond x-ray pulses at linac-driven free-electron lasers such as the Linac Coherent Light Source is tremendous. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments require a measure of the relative arrival time of each x-ray pulse with respect to the experimental pump laser. An optical timing system based on stabilized fiber links has been developed for the LCLS to provide this synchronization. Preliminary results show synchronization of the installed stabilized links at the sub-20-femtosecond level. We present details of the implementation at LCLS and potential for future development.

  3. Fabrication of magneto-optical microstructure by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudong Li; Xiangyang Gao; Meiling Jiang; Qian Sun; Jianguo Tian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) in the fabrication of magneto-optical (MO) microstructures.The experimental results show that FDLW can introduce positive refractive index change in the MO materials.With the increase of the writing intensity of femtosecond laser pulses,refractive index change increases,whereas Verdet constant of the damaged area decreases nonlinearly.With suitable writing intensity,we obtain a single-mode waveguide in which Verdet constant is 80% of the bulkMO glass.

  4. Phosphate Nd:glass materials for femtosecond pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Carrà, Luca; Reali, Giancarlo

    2008-08-01

    Two different phosphate Nd-doped glasses have been investigated in a diode-pumped femtosecond laser. To our knowledge, only Schott's phosphate glasses were previously used in femtosecond oscillators. A slightly different behaviour was observed in our experiments, with respect to earlier reports: clean sech 2-pulses with duration <400 fs were routinely generated with wavelength corresponding to the fluorescence peak ≈1054 nm, whereas shorter pulses occurred at red-shifted wavelengths near 1067 nm. With a single 1-W pump diode (broad area emitter), cw slope efficiency as high as 32% and 139-fs pulse generation were demonstrated.

  5. Optical diagnostics of femtosecond laser plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yutong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Benattar, R., Popovics, C., Sigel, R., Polarized light interferometer for laser fusion studies, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 979, 50(2): 583.[2]Young, P. E., Hammer, J. H., Wilks, S. C. et al., Laser beam propagation and channel formation in underdense plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 995, 2(7): 2825.[3]Zhang, P., He, J.T., Chen, D.B. et al., Effects of a prepulse on γ-ray radiation produced by a femtosecond laser with only mJ energy, Phys. Rev. E., 998, 57: R3746.[4]Stamper, J. A., Review on spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas: phenomena and measurements, Laser and Particle Beams, 99, 9(4): 84.[5]Stamper, J. A., McLean, E. A., Ripin, B. H., Studies of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas by Faraday rotation, Phys. Rev. Lett., 978, 40(8): 77.[6]Raven, A., Willi, O., Rumsby, P. T., Megagauss magnetic field profiles in laser-produced plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett., 978, 4(8): 554.[7]Burgess, M. D. J., Luther-Davis, B., Nugent, K. A., An experimental study of magnetic fields in plasmas created by high intensity one micron laser radiation, Phys. Fluids, 985, 28(7): 2286.[8]Borghesi, M., Mackinnon, A. J., Bell, A. R. et al., Megagauss magnetic field generation and plasma jet formation on solid targets irradiated by an ultraintense picosecond laser pulse, Phys. Rev. Lett., 998, 8(): 2.

  6. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  7. Application of femtosecond laser pulses for microfabrication of transparent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodkazis, S.; Matsuo, S.; Misawa, H.; Mizeikis, V.; Marcinkevicius, A.; Sun, H.-B.; Tokuda, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Yoko, T.; Nishii, J.

    2002-09-01

    Femtosecond laser microfabrication of 3D optical memories and photonic crystal (PhC) structures in solid glasses and liquid resins are demonstrated. The optical memories can be read out from both transmission and emission images. The PhC structures reveal clear signatures of photonic bandgap (PBG) and microcavity formation.

  8. Polarization effects in femtosecond laser induced amorphization of monocrystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Li, Hong-Jin; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Wen-Zhong; Pan, Huai-Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Qian, Jing; Li, Yang-Bo; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to ablate monocrystalline silicon wafer. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of ablation surface indicates horizontally polarized laser beam shows an enhancement in amorphization efficiency by a factor of 1.6-1.7 over the circularly polarized laser ablation. This demonstrates that one can tune the amorphization efficiency through the polarization of irradiation laser.

  9. Femtosecond electron-bunch dynamics in laser wakefields and vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Irman, A.; Goor, van F.A.; Boller, K.-J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in laser wakefield acceleration demonstrated the generation of extremely short (with a duration of a few femtoseconds) relativistic electron bunches with relatively low (of the order of couple of percent) energy spread. In this article we study the dynamics of such bunches in drift s

  10. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haisu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  11. Fabrication of Dammann Gratings Inside Glasses by a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAKAYA Takayuki; QIU Jian-Rong; ZHOU Chang-He; HIRAO Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dammann grating is useful in information technology as an optical splitter. It is usually fabricated through complicated processes. Here we report on the direct fabrication of a 6 × 6 Dammann grating in a silica glass by an 800nm femtosecond laser. We also discuss the relationship between diffraction efficiency of 1 × 2 Dammann grating and laser irradiation conditions.

  12. Resonant dispersive waves generated with multi-input femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Peng, Jiahui; Sokolov, Alex

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the resonant dispersive waves generated by high-order dispersion theoretically. We considered different femtosecond pulses propagating in the kagome-lattice hollow-core photonics crystal fibers. The two third order and fourth order resonant dispersive waves would be produced in the visible range to produce the ultrashort pulse.

  13. Intracellular water diffusion probed by femtosecond nonlinear CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potma, E.O; de Boeij, W.P.; Wiersma, D. A.; Elsaesser, T; Mukamel, S; Murnane, MM; Scherer, NF

    2001-01-01

    We report on a nonlinear coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscope system based on a high repetition rate femtosecond cavity-dumped visible optical parametric oscillator. This microscope enables real-time mapping of water concentration gradients in single living cells at high spatial resolution.

  14. Nanoscale femtosecond spectroscopy for material science and nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Como, Enrico Da; Zamboni, Roberto; Muccini, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a novel facility to perform ultrafast spectroscopy and three-dimensional (3D) fabrication at the nanoscale is reported. Single and multiphoton femtosecond excitation coupled to a laser scanning confocal microscope and a photon counting streak camera system allows to

  15. Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, L.; Witcher, J.J.; Troy, N.; Reis, S.T.; Brow, R.K.; Krol, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the relationship between the initial glass composition and the resulting microstructural changes after direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing with a 1 kHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A zinc polyphosphate glass composition with an oxygen to phosphorus ratio of 3.25 has dem

  16. Formation of nanostructures under femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, S I; Romashevskii, S A; Komarov, P S; Burmistrov, A A; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V V [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Inogamov, N A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of studying the morphology of the modified surface of aluminium, nickel and tantalum after ablation of the surface layer by a femtosecond laser pulse. The sizes of characteristic elements of a cellular nanostructure are found to correlate with thermo-physical properties of the material and the intensity of laser radiation. (superstrong light fields)

  17. Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression in cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yikun; Zhou, Jianying; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Khoo, Iam-Choon

    2016-09-01

    Liquid crystals materials have the advantage of having a large nonlinear coefficient, but the response time is slow, normally up to several minisecond. This makes it is hard to apply in ultra fast optical devices. Recently, fentosecond (fs) nonlinear effect in choleteric liquid crystals is reported, nonlinear coefficient in the scale of 10-12 cm2/W is achieved. Base on this effect, in this work, fentosecond pulse compression technique in a miniature choleteric liquid crystal is demonstrated1,2. Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) is a kind of 1-dimensional phontonic structure with helical periodic. In a 10 μm thick CLC, femtosecond pulse with 100 fs is compressed to about 50 fs. CLC sample in planar texture with 500μm thick cell gap is further fabricated. In this sample, femtosecond pulse with 847 fs can be compressed to 286 fs. Due to the strong dispersion at the edge of photonic band gap, femtosecond pulse stretching and compensation can be achieve. In this experiment, laser pulse with duration 90 fs is stretched to above 2 picosecond in the first CLC sample and re-compressed to 120 fs in the second sample. Such technique might be applied in chirp pulse amplification. In conclusion, we report ultra fast nonlinear effect in cholesteric liquid crystals. Due to the strong dispersion and nonlinearity of CLC, femtosecond pulse manipulating devices can be achieved in the scale of micrometer.

  18. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    CERN Document Server

    Minardi, Stefano; Gopal, Amrutha; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud; Pertsch, Thomas; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-01-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV.

  19. Correlation functions formed by a femtosecond pulse interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, M.; Bhattacharya, N.; Urbach, H.P.; Van den berg, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a stabilized femtosecond frequency comb can be applied as a tool for distance measurement. The scheme is based on optical interference between individual pulses in a Michelson type interferometer. The cross-correlation functions between individual pulses with a dis

  20. Femtosecond Studies of Electrons at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles

    2000-03-01

    Binding energies and ultrafast relaxation dynamics of image electrons reflect the nature of the electronic interaction with both the substrate and the adsorbed layer[1,2]. We demonstrate that a positive(attractive) affinity materials, such as Xe overlayers, lead to quantum well states at the interface. Negative(repulsive) affinity materials, such a n-alkane overlayers, present a tunneling barrier that dominates the energies and lifetimes of the image electrons. With the time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission technique(TPPE), it is possible to directly observe the dynamics of interfacial electrons with specific energy and parallel momentum. Oscillation in the lifetime of image state electrons as a function of Xe layer thickness is attributed to a quantum size effect and the formation of quantum wells at the Xe/Ag(111) interface[3]. Binding energy measurements as a function of Xe layer thickness in combination with parallel dispersion measurements allow the mapping of the three dimensional electronic structure of bulk Xe. At the n-alkane/Ag(111) interface, image electrons become spatially localized and self-trap into a small polaron state within a few hundred femtosecond[4]. The energy dependence of the self-trapping rate has been modeled with a theory analogous to electron transfer theory. Finally, the immediate extension of this research to study other electron dynamic processes, such as two dimensional electron solvation at interfaces, will be discussed. [1] Fauster, T.; Steinmann, W. Two-Photon Photoemission Spectroscopy of Image States. In Photonic Probes of Surfaces; Halevi, P., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1995; pp. 346-411. [2] Harris, C.B.; Ge, N.-H.; Lingle, Jr., R.L.; McNeill, J.D.; Wong, C.M. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 1997, 48, 711. [3] McNeill, J.D.; Lingle, R.L.,Jr.; Ge, N.-H.; Wong, C.M.; Jordan, R.E.; Harris, C.B. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 79, 4645. [4] Ge, N.-H.; Wong, C.M.; Lingle, R.L., Jr.; McNeill, J.D.; Gaffney, K.J.; Harris, C.B. Science 1998

  1. On-chip three-dimensional high-Q microcavities fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jintian; Yu, Shangjie; Ma, Yaoguang; Fang, Wei; Fei HE; Qiao, Lingling; Tong, Limin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) high-Q whispering gallery microcavities on a fused silica chip by femtosecond laser microfabriction, enabled by the 3D nature of femtosecond laser direct writing. The processing mainly consists of formation of freestanding microdisks by femtosecond laser direct writing and subsequent wet chemical etching. CO2 laser annealing is followed to smooth the microcavity surface. Microcavities with arbitrary tilting angle, lateral and vertical pos...

  2. Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced air plasma by femtosecond double-pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anmin [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Jiang, Yuanfei; Ding, Dajun [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Tingfeng [State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Huang, Xuri [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Jin, Mingxing [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2013-10-15

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, a femtosecond double-pulse laser was used to induce air plasma. The plasma spectroscopy was observed to lead to significant increase of the intensity and reproducibility of the optical emission signal compared to femtosecond single-pulse laser. In particular, the optical emission intensity can be optimized by adjusting the delay time of femtosecond double-pulse. An appropriate pulse-to-pulse delay was selected, that was typically about 50 ps. This effect can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, plasma channel, and so on.

  3. Controllable Femtosecond Laser-Induced Dewetting for Plasmonic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Shishkin, Ivan I; Zuev, Dmitriy A; Mozharov, Alexey M; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    Dewetting of thin metal films is one of the most widespread method for functional plasmonic nanostructures fabrication. However, simple thermal-induced dewetting does not allow to control degree of nanostructures order without additional lithographic process steps. Here we propose a novel method for lithography-free and large-scale fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures via controllable femtosecond laser-induced dewetting. The method is based on femtosecond laser surface pattering of a thin film followed by a nanoscale hydrodynamical instability, which is found to be very controllable under specific irradiation conditions. We achieve control over degree of nanostructures order by changing laser irradiation parametrs and film thickness. This allowed us to exploit the method for the broad range of applications: resonant light absorbtion and scattering, sensing, and potential improving of thin-film solar cells.

  4. Universal threshold for femtosecond laser ablation with oblique illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Cheng, Weibo; Petrarca, Massimo; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    We quantify the dependence of the single-shot ablation threshold on the angle of incidence and polarization of a femtosecond laser beam, for three dissimilar solid-state materials: a metal, a dielectric, and a semiconductor. Using the constant, linear value of the index of refraction, we calculate the laser fluence transmitted through the air-material interface at the point of ablation threshold. We show that, in spite of the highly nonlinear ionization dynamics involved in the ablation process, the so defined transmitted threshold fluence is universally independent of the angle of incidence and polarization of the laser beam for all three material types. We suggest that angular dependence of ablation threshold can be utilized for profiling fluence distributions in ultra-intense femtosecond laser beams.

  5. Material measurement method based on femtosecond laser plasma shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Li, Zhongming

    2017-03-01

    The acoustic emission signal of laser plasma shock wave, which comes into being when femtosecond laser ablates pure Cu, Fe, and Al target material, has been detected by using the fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) acoustic emission sensing probe. The spectrum characters of the acoustic emission signals for three kinds of materials have been analyzed and studied by using Fourier transform. The results show that the frequencies of the acoustic emission signals detected from the three kinds of materials are different. Meanwhile, the frequencies are almost identical for the same materials under different ablation energies and detection ranges. Certainly, the amplitudes of the spectral character of the three materials show a fixed pattern. The experimental results and methods suggest a potential application of the plasma shock wave on-line measurement based on the femtosecond laser ablating target by using the fiber F-P acoustic emission sensor probe.

  6. Femtosecond laser-induced blazed periodic grooves on metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taek Yong; Guo, Chunlei

    2011-07-01

    In this Letter, we generate laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on platinum following femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. For the first time to our knowledge, we study the morphological profile of LIPSSs over a broad incident angular range, and find that the morphological profile of LIPSSs depends significantly on the incident angle of the laser beam. We show that LIPSS grooves become more asymmetric at a larger incident angle, and the morphological profile of LIPSSs formed at an incident angle over 55° eventually resembles that of a blazed grating. Our study suggests that the formation of the blazed groove structures is attributed to the selective ablation of grooves through the asymmetric periodic surface heating following femtosecond pulse irradiation. The blazed grooves are useful for controlling the diffraction efficiency of LIPSSs.

  7. Femtosecond fabricated photomasks for fabrication of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2006-10-30

    This paper describes the direct write laser fabrication of a photolithography mask for prototyping of microfluidic devices in polydimethylsiloxane. An amplified femtosecond pulse laser is used to selectively remove the aluminium metal layer from the poly(methyl methacrylate) photomask substrate. The use of a femtosecond pulse laser to selectively etch a metal layer has several advantages over other conventional methods for binary photomask fabrication, namely rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using soft lightography. Control of the energy density and defocus position of the focusing objective lens results in the etching of features with widths ranging from 2 microm to 35 microm when using an objective lens with numerical aperture of 0.25.

  8. Fabrication of microchannels in fused silica using femtosecond Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashunin, D. A., E-mail: yashuninda@yandex.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Malkov, Yu. A. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Mochalov, L. A.; Stepanov, A. N. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-07

    Extended birefringent waveguiding microchannels up to 15 mm long were created inside fused silica by single-pulse irradiation with femtosecond Bessel beams. The birefringent refractive index change of 2–4 × 10{sup −4} is attributed to residual mechanical stress. The microchannels were chemically etched in KOH solution to produce 15 mm long microcapillaries with smooth walls and a high aspect ratio of 1:250. Bessel beams provide higher speed of material processing compared to conventional multipulse femtosecond laser micromachining techniques and permit simple control of the optical axis direction of the birefringent waveguides, which is important for practical applications [Corrielli et al., “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4249 (2014)].

  9. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  10. Simulation of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, R. V.; Antonov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a mathematical model for femtosecond laser ablation of metals is proposed, based on standard two-temperature model connected with 1D hydrodynamic equations. Wide-range equation of state has been developed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data for aluminium and copper. A good agreement for both metals with numerical results and experiment shows that this model can be employed for choosing laser parameters to better accuracy in nanoparticles production by ablation of metals.

  11. Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of I studied by ion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Bjerre, N.; Mørkbak, N.J.;

    1998-01-01

    on imaging is employed to analyze the fragments from timed Coulomb explosion studies of femtosecond (fs) molecular dynamics. The technique provides high detection efficiency and direct recording of the two-dimensional velocity of all ionized fragments. We illustrate the approach by studying...... agreement with quantum mechanical wave packet simulations. We discuss the perspectives for extending the studies to photochemical reactions of small polyatomic molecules...

  12. Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-Peng; JIANG Hong-Bing; TANG Shan-Chun; GONG Qi-Huang

    2009-01-01

    Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction.

  13. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  14. Analysis of chirality by femtosecond laser ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Philipp; Urbasch, Gunter; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2012-09-01

    Recent progress in the field of chirality analysis employing laser ionization mass spectrometry is reviewed. Emphasis is given to femtosecond (fs) laser ionization work from the author's group. We begin by reviewing fundamental aspects of determining circular dichroism (CD) in fs-laser ionization mass spectrometry (fs-LIMS) discussing an example from the literature (resonant fs-LIMS of 3-methylcyclopentanone). Second, we present new data indicating CD in non-resonant fs-LIMS of propylene oxide.

  15. A femtosecond laser inscribed biochip for stem cell therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, D.; Ramsay, W. T.; Brown, G.; Psaila, N. D.; Beecher, S.; Thomson, R. R.; Kiss, R.; Pells, S.; Willoughby, N. A.; Paterson, L.; Kar, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    A continuous flow microfluidic cell separation platform has been designed and fabricated using femtosecond laser inscription. The device is a scalable and non-invasive cell separation mechanism aimed at separating human embryonic stem cells from differentiated cells based on the dissimilarities in their cytoskeletal elasticity. Successful demonstration of the device has been achieved using human leukemia cells the elasticity of which is similar to that of human embryonic stem cells.

  16. Femtosecond electron-bunch dynamics in laser wakefields and vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, A. G.; Irman, A.; Goor, van de, AAAM; Boller, K. -J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in laser wakefield acceleration demonstrated the generation of extremely short (with a duration of a few femtoseconds) relativistic electron bunches with relatively low (of the order of couple of percent) energy spread. In this article we study the dynamics of such bunches in drift space (vacuum) and in channel-guided laser wakefields. Analytical solutions were found for the transverse coordinate of an electron and for the bunch envelope in the wakefield in the case of arbitra...

  17. Generation of surface electrons in femtosecond laser-solid interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Miaohua; LI; Yutong; YUAN; Xiaohui; ZHENG; Zhiyuan; LIANG; Wenxi; YU; Quanzhi; ZHANG; Yi; WANG; Zhaohua; WEI; Zhiyi; ZHANG; Jie

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of hot electrons produced by p-polarized femtosecond laser-solid interactions are studied. The experimental results show that the outgoing electrons are mainly emitted in three directions: along the target surface, the normal direction and the laser backward direction. The electrons flowing along the target surface are due to the confinement of the electrostatic field and the surface magnetic field, while the electrons in the normal direction due to the resonant absorption.

  18. Femtosecond laser fabrication of optofluidic devices for single cell manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragheri Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we fabricate and validate two optofludic devices for the manipulation and analysis of single cells. The chips are fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining exploiting the 3D capabilities of the technique and the inherent perfect alignment between microfluidic channels and optical networks. Both devices have been validated by probing the mechanical properties of different cancer cell lines, which are expected to show different elasticity because of their different metastatic potential.

  19. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

  20. Above-Threshold Dissociation of HD+ in Femtosecond Laser Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Song-Yue; YUAN Kai-Jun; HAN Yong-Chang; CONG Shu-Lin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The above-threshold dissociation (ATD) of the HD+ molecular ion in femtosecond laser field is investigated theoretically. The energy-dependent distribution of the dissociated fragments is calculated using an asymptotic-flow expression in the momentum space. The calculations show that the ATD of HD+ is sensitive to the initial vibrational level of ground electronic state. Multiphoton ATDs can be observed in the dissociation processes. The dynamics phenomena are interpreted by using the concept of light-dressed potential.

  1. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wei, Tao; Han, Qun; Wang, Hanzheng; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai

    2012-11-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer was fabricated by micromachining a step structure at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The step structure splits the fiber core into two reflection paths and produces an interference signal. A fringe visibility of 18 dB was achieved. Temperature sensing up to 1000°C was demonstrated using the fabricated assembly-free device.

  2. Femtosecond nonlinear polarization evolution based on cascade quadratic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Ilday, F O; Beckwitt, K; Wise, F W

    2000-09-15

    We experimentally demonstrate that one can exploit nonlinear phase shifts produced in type I phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation to produce intensity-dependent polarization evolution with 100-fs pulses. An amplitude modulator based on nonlinear polarization rotation provides passive amplitude-modulation depth of up to ~50%. Applications of the amplitude and phase modulations to mode locking of femtosecond bulk and fiber lasers are promising and are discussed.

  3. Light absorption engineering of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon by femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D Q; Ma, Y J; Xu, L; Su, W A; Ye, Q H; Oh, J I; Shen, W Z

    2012-09-01

    The light absorption coefficient of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon has been engineered to have a Gaussian distribution by means of absorption modification using a femtosecond laser. The absorption-modified sample exhibits a significant absorption enhancement of up to ∼700%, and the strong absorption does not depend on the incident light. We propose a model responsible for this interesting behavior. In addition, we present an optical limiter constructed through this absorption engineering method.

  4. Nitridation of Nb surface by nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Ozkendir, Osman Murat [Tarsus Technology Faculty, Mersin University, Tarsus 33480 (Turkey); Koroglu, Ulas; Ufuktepe, Yüksel [Department of Physics, Cukurova University, Adana 01330 (Turkey); Elsayed-Ali, Hani E., E-mail: helsayed@odu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Laser nitridation of niobium is performed with nanosecond and femtosecond pulses. • Formation of NbN{sub x} with mixed α, β and δ phases was observed. • For femtosecond laser processed samples, laser induced ripple patterns oriented parallel to the beam polarization were formed. • X-ray absorption near edge structure show formation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the surface of the samples. - Abstract: Niobium nitride samples were prepared by laser nitridation in a reactive nitrogen gas environment at room temperature using a Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond laser and a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. The effects of laser fluence on the formed phase, surface morphology, and electronic properties of the NbN{sub x} were investigated. The samples were prepared at different nanosecond laser fluences up to 5.0 ± 0.8 J/cm{sup 2} at fixed nitrogen pressure of ∼2.7 × 10{sup 4} Pa formed NbN{sub x} with mainly the cubic δ-NbN phase. Femtosecond laser nitrided samples were prepared using laser fluences up to 1.3 ± 0.3 mJ/cm{sup 2} at ∼4.0 × 10{sup 4} Pa nitrogen pressure. Laser induced ripple patterns oriented parallel to the beam polarization were formed with spacing that increases with the laser fluence. To achieve a laser-nitrided surface with desired crystal orientation the laser fulence is an important parameter that needs to be properly adjusted.

  5. Ultra-broad band supercontinuum produced by terawatt femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟力; 王清月; 邢岐荣; 柴路; K.M.Yoo

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of supercontinuum produced by high-intensity femtosecond pulses were investigated under different interaction lengths, various pump intensities, different pump wavelengths at the fundamental 800 nm and its second-harmonic 400 nm. High transfer-efficiency supercontinuum with flat-top in liquid media was produced. As the main nonlinear mechanisms, the effects of self-phase modulation (SPM) and four-photon parametric emission were also investigated.

  6. Heating of a metal nanofilm during femtosecond laser pulse absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhanov, S. G.; Kanavin, A. P.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the temperature evolution of electrons and the lattice of a metal nanofilm interacting with a femtosecond s- or p-polarised pulse. It is shown that even if the film thickness is greater than the skin-layer depth, the temperature distribution during the pulse action may be close to the uniform one because of the high electron thermal conductivity, which leads to a rapid redistribution of energy over the film thickness.

  7. New accelerators for femtosecond beam pump-and-probe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)]. E-mail: uesaka@utnl.jp; Sakumi, Akira [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Kinoshita, Kenichi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaoka, Nobuaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Zhidkov, Alexei [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ohkubo, Takeru [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Ueda, Toru [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Muroya, Yusa [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iijima, Hokuto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tomizawa, Hiromitsu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research InstituteI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kumagai, Noritaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research InstituteI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Femtosecond electron beams are novel tool for pump-probe analysis of condensed matter. Progress in developing femtosecond electron beams with the use of both conventional accelerators and laser-plasma accelerators is discussed. In conventional accelerators, the critical issue is timing jitter and drift of the linac-laser synchronization system. Sophisticated electronic devices are developed to reduce the jitter to 330 fs (rms); the precise control of temperature at several parts of the accelerator lessens the drift to 1 ps (rms). We also report on a full-optical X-ray and e-beam system based on the laser-plasma cathode by using a 12 TW 50 fs laser, which enables 40 MeV (at maximum), 40 fs (cal.), 100 pC and quasi-monochromatic single electron bunches. Since the synchronization is done by a passive optical beam-splitter, this system intrinsically has no jitter and drift. It could achieve tens of femtoseconds time-resolved analysis in the near future.

  8. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  9. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael; Mazur, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  10. Resident surgeon efficiency in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittner, Andrew C; Sullivan, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Comparison of resident surgeon performance efficiencies in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery performed by senior ophthalmology residents under the supervision of 1 attending physician during a 9-month period in a large Veterans Affairs medical center. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, preoperative nucleus grade, femtosecond laser pretreatment, operative procedure times, total operating room times, and surgical complications. Review of digital video records provided quantitative interval measurements of core steps of the procedures, including completion of incisions, anterior capsulotomy, nucleus removal, cortical removal, and intraocular lens implantation. Results Total room time, operation time, and corneal incision completion time were found to be significantly longer in the femtosecond laser group versus the traditional phacoemulsification group (each Pcataract surgery is generally less efficient when trainees have more experience with traditional phacoemulsification. FLACS was found to have a significant advantage in completion of capsulotomy, but subsequent surgical steps were not shorter or longer. Resident learning curve for the FLACS technology may partially explain the disparities of performance. Educators should be cognizant of a potential for lower procedural efficiency when introducing FLACS into resident training. PMID:28203055

  11. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-01-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  12. Features of femtosecond laser pulses interaction with laser nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Merzliakov, M. A.; Laptev, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    In this work we have performed the experimental researches of features for the generation of supercontinuum in laser materials with identical chemical composition: Yb:YAG crystal and Yb:YAG laser nanoceramics. Dependence of width of supercontinuum spectrum in 515-1100 nm spectral range on femtosecond radiation intensity was investigated. At laser intensity ~1.2•10 14 W/cm2 the short-wave wing of a spectrum for nanoceramics has greater intensity and more flat shape in comparison with crystal. Experiments were made at lens focusing of the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system radiation with energy up to 0.5 mJ in explored sample that was inside of integrating optical sphere. Also we investigated the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses and the generation of supercontinuum in Nd:Y IIO 3 nanoceramics. The maximum value of laser intensity in experiments was restricted by optical breakdown on target output surface, i.e. was below threshold of ablation of sample substance.

  13. A new approach to fabricate pdms structures using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Hamsapriya

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used to prototype micro and nano featured components due to its beneficial properties. PDMS based devices have been used for diverse applications such as cell culturing, cell sorting and sensors. Motivated by such diverse applications possible through pure PDMS and reinforced PDMS, numerous efforts have been directed towards developing novel fabrication techniques. Prototyping 2D and 3D pure and reinforced PDMS microdevices normally require a long curing time and must go through multiple steps. This research explores the possibility of fabricating microscale and nanoscale structures directly from PDMS resin using femtosecond laser processing. This study offers an alternative fabrication route that potentially lead to a new way for prototyping of pure and reinforced PDMS devices, and the generation of hybrid nanomaterials. In depth investigation of femtosecond laser irradiation of PDMS resin reveals that the process is highly intensity-dependent. At low to intermediate intensity regime, femtosecond laser beam is able to rapidly cure the resin and create micron-sized structures directly from PDMS resin. At higher intensity regime, a total break-down of the resin material occurs and leads to the formation of PDMS nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a new way of rapid curing of PDMS resin on a microsecond timescale using femtosecond laser irradiation. The proposed technique permits maskless singlestep curing and is capable of fabricating 2D and 3D structures in micro-scale. Reinforced PDMS microstructures also have been fabricated through this method. The proposed technique permits both reinforcement and rapid curing and is ideal for fabricating reinforced structures in microscale. The strength of the nanofiber reinforced PDMS microstructures has been investigated by means of Nanoindentation test. The results showed significant improvement in strength of the material. Hybrid PDMS-Si and hybrid PDMS-Al nanoparticle aggregate

  14. Fairy Lights in Femtoseconds: Aerial and Volumetric Graphics Rendered by Focused Femtosecond Laser Combined with Computational Holographic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Yoichi; Hoshi, Takayuki; Rekimoto, Jun; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of rendering aerial and volumetric graphics using femtosecond lasers. A high-intensity laser excites a physical matter to emit light at an arbitrary 3D position. Popular applications can then be explored especially since plasma induced by a femtosecond laser is safer than that generated by a nanosecond laser. There are two methods of rendering graphics with a femtosecond laser in air: Producing holograms using spatial light modulation technology, and scanning of a laser beam by a galvano mirror. The holograms and workspace of the system proposed here occupy a volume of up to 1 cm^3; however, this size is scalable depending on the optical devices and their setup. This paper provides details of the principles, system setup, and experimental evaluation, and discussions on scalability, design space, and applications of this system. We tested two laser sources: an adjustable (30-100 fs) laser which projects up to 1,000 pulses per second at energy up to 7 mJ per pulse, and a 269-fs laser which p...

  15. Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, Roberto; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.; Cerullo, Giulio; Pollnau, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the rather new field concerning the applications of femtosecond laser microstructuring of glass to optofluidics. Femtosecond lasers have recently emerged as a powerful microfabrication tool due to their unique characteristics. On the one hand, they enable to induce

  16. Femtosecond Twisting and Coherent Vibrational Motion in the Excited State of Tetraphenylethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenderink, E; Duppen, K.; Wiersma, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    The initial dynamics after excitation to the S-1 state of tetraphenylethylene is studied using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. From the rapid spectral changes during the first few hundred femtoseconds, we conclude that a fast ethylenic twisting motion occurs in the excited state within this tim

  17. Towards using molecular ions as qubits: Femtosecond control of molecular fragmentation with multiple knobs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Goswami; Dipak K Das; Debabrata Goswami

    2010-12-01

    Non-resonant molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene with femtosecond laser pulses is dependent on the phase and polarization characteristics of the laser. We find that the effect of the chirp and polarization of the femtosecond pulse when applied simultaneously is mutually independent of each other, which makes chirp and polarization as useful ‘logic’ implementing knobs.

  18. Compact transient-grating self-referenced spectral interferometry for sub-nanojoule femtosecond pulses characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiong; Liu, Jun; Li, Ruxin

    2016-01-01

    The self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) technique, which is usually used for microjoule-level femtosecond pulses characterization, is improved to characterize weak femtosecond pulses with nanojoule based on the transient-grating effect. Both femtosecond pulses from an amplifier with 3 nJ per pulse at 1 kHz repetition rates and femtosecond pulses from an oscillator with less than 0.5 nJ per pulse at 84 MHz repetition rates are successfully characterized. Furthermore, through a special design, the optical setup of the device is even smaller than a palm which will makes it simple and convenient during the application. These improvements extend the application of SRSI technique to the characterization of femtosecond pulses in a broad range. Not only pulses from an amplifier but also pulses from an oscillator or weak pulses used in ultrafast spectroscopy can be monitored with this SRSI method right now.

  19. Moving picture recording and observation of femtosecond light pulse propagation using a rewritable holographic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Tosa, Kazuya; Kakue, Takashi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Awatsuji, Yasuhiro, E-mail: awatsuji@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nishio, Kenzo [Advanced Technology Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ura, Shogo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kubota, Toshihiro [Kubota Holography Laboratory, Corporation, Nishihata 34-1-609, Ogura, Uji 611-0042 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    We succeeded in recording and observing femtosecond light pulse propagation as a form of moving picture by means of light-in-flight recording by holography using a rewritable holographic material, for the first time. We used a femtosecond pulsed laser whose center wavelength and duration were 800 nm and {approx}120 fs, respectively. A photo-conductor plastic hologram was used as a rewritable holographic material. The femtosecond light pulse was collimated and obliquely incident to the diffuser plate. The behavior of the cross-section between the collimated femtosecond light pulse and the diffuser plate was recorded on the photo-conductor plastic hologram. We experimentally obtained a spatially and temporally continuous moving picture of the femtosecond light pulse propagation for 58.3 ps. Meanwhile, we also investigated the rewritable performance of the photo-conductor plastic hologram. As a result, we confirmed that ten-time rewriting was possible for a photo-conductor plastic hologram.

  20. Femtosecond laser-induced stimulation of a single neuron in a neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chie; Sakamoto, Yasutaka; Kudoh, Suguru N.; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Taguchi, Takahisa

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated the stimulation of neurons at a single-cell level in cultured neuronal network by a focused femtosecond laser. When the femtosecond laser was focused on a neuron loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator, the fluorescence intensity immediately increased at the laser spot, suggesting that intracellular Ca2+ increases in the neuronal cell due to the femtosecond laser irradiation. The probability of Ca2+ elevation at the laser spot depended on the average laser power, irradiation time, and position of the focal point along the optical axis, indicating that the femtosecond laser activates neurons because of multiphoton absorption. Moreover, after laser irradiation of a single neuron cultured on multielectrode arrays, the evoked electrical activity of the neurons was demonstrated by electrophysiological systems, which concluded that the focused femtosecond laser could achieve stimulating a single neuron in a neuronal network with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Femtosecond laser micromachining for the realization of fully integrated photonic and microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. M.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.

    2015-02-01

    Femtosecond laser microprocessing is a direct, maskless fabrication technique that has attracted much attention in the past 10 years due to its unprecedented versatility in the 3D patterning of transparent materials. Two common modalities of femtosecond laser microfabrication include buried optical waveguide writing and surface laser ablation, which have been applied to a wide range of transparent substrates including glasses, polymers and crystals. In two photon polymerization, a third modality of femtosecond laser fabrication, focused femtosecond laser pulses drive photopolymerization in photoresists, enabling the writing of complex 3D structures with submicrometer resolution. In this paper, we discuss several microdevices realized by these diverse modalities of femtosecond laser microfabrication, for applications in microfluidics, sensing and quantum information.

  2. Development of a new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a femtosecond laser synchronized with a picosecond linac. A step to femtosecond pulse radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Miki, Miyako; Seki, Shu; Okuda, Shuichi; Honda, Yoshihide; Kimura, Norio; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Ushida, Kiminori

    1997-03-01

    A new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a Ti sapphire femtosecond laser synchronized with a 20 ps electron pulse from the 38 MeV L-band linac has been developed for the research of the ultra fast reactions in primary processes of radiation chemistry. The timing jitter in the synchronization of the laser pulse with the electron pulse is less than several picosecond. The technique can be used in the next femtosecond pulse radiolysis. (author)

  3. Investigation of diffractive optical element femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, Grégoire R., E-mail: g.chabrol@ecam-strasbourg.eu [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Ciceron, Adline [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Twardowski, Patrice; Pfeiffer, Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Télécom Physique Strasbourg – Pôle API – 300 Bd Sébastien Brant – CS 10413, Illkirch Graffenstaden F 67400 (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • A method for rapid manufacturing of optical diffractive element in BK7 is proposed. • A binary grating in BK7 was successfully machined by femtosecond laser pulses. • Process relying on nonlinear absorption in the dielectric due to photoionization. • The binary grating was analysed by SEM and interferometric microscopy. • Simulations by Fourier modal method supported the measured diffractive efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents an explorative study on the machining of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in transparent materials using a femtosecond laser source. A simple form of DOE, a binary phase grating with a period of 20.85 μm (σ = 0.5 μm), a groove depth and width of 0.7 μm (σ = 0.2 μm) and 8.8 μm (σ = 0.5 μm) respectively, was successfully machined in BK7. The topographic characteristics were measured by white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The processing was carried out on high precision stages with an ultrafast fibre laser (350 fs) emitting a 343 nm pulse focused onto the sample with a stationary microscope objective. A diffracted efficiency of 27%, obtained with a spectro goniometer, was corroborated by the theoretical results obtained by the Fourier modal method (FMM), taking into account the measured topographic values. These encouraging results demonstrate that high-speed femtosecond laser manufacturing of DOE in bulk glasses can be achieved, opening the way to rapid prototyping of multi-layered-DOEs.

  4. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-11-24

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  5. Femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy and its application to porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Heid, M; Schlücker, S; Kiefer, W

    2002-01-01

    The results on femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments for the analysis and control of ground state vibrational dynamics of porphyrin systems are briefly reviewed. By detecting the spectrum of the transient CARS signal, a detailed mapping of the dynamics initiated by the stimulated Raman pump process is achieved. The method yields the dephasing behavior and spectral information of the investigated system at the same time. The different contributions to the ground state vibrational dynamics are selected by changing the direction of the CARS signal analyzer in the polarization arrangement used.

  6. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  7. Femtosecond laser fabrication of nanostructures in silica glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R S; Hnatovsky, C; Simova, E; Rayner, D M; Bhardwaj, V R; Corkum, P B

    2003-06-15

    A femtosecond laser beam focused inside fused silica and other glasses can modify the refractive index of the glass. Chemical etching and atomic-force microscope studies show that the modified region can have a sharp-tipped cone-shaped structure with a tip diameter as small as 100 nm. Placing the structure near the bottom surface of a silica glass sample and applying a selective chemical etch to the bottom surface produces clean, circular, submicrometer-diameter holes. Holes spaced as close to one another as 1.4 microm are demonstrated.

  8. Femtosecond laser color marking of metal and semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golosov, Evgeniy V.; Golosova, Ol' ga A.; Kolobov, Yuriy R. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); Ligachev, Alexander E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Color marking of rough or smooth metal (Al, Cu, Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces was realized via femtosecond laser fabrication of periodic surface nanorelief, representing one-dimensional diffraction gratings. Bright colors of the surface nanorelief, especially for longer electromagnetic wavelengths, were provided during marking through pre-determined variation of the laser incidence angle and the resulting change of the diffraction grating period. This coloration technique was demonstrated for the case of silicon and various metals to mark surfaces in any individual color with a controllable brightness level and almost without their accompanying chemical surface modification. (orig.)

  9. Femtosecond laser fabrication of microspike-arrays on tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Tomokazu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: sano@mapse.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yanai, Masato [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohmura, Etsuji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomura, Yasumitsu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Miyamoto, Isamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hirose, Akio [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kojiro F. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    Microspike-arrays were fabricated by irradiating a femtosecond laser on a tungsten surface through a mask opening in air. The natural logarithms of the calculated intensity distributions diffracted at the edge of the mask opening were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of the shape and arrays of microspikes fabricated. The shape and the array of microspikes depend on the intensity distribution diffracted at the edge of the mask opening. This microspike-array has the potential to be used as a source of micro emitter tips.

  10. Femtosecond laser induced porosity in poly-methyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baset, Farhana, E-mail: fbaset@gmail.com; Villafranca, Ana, E-mail: avillafr@uottawa.ca; Guay, Jean-Michel, E-mail: guay_jeanmichel@hotmail.com; Bhardwaj, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.bhardwaj@uottawa.ca

    2013-10-01

    We show that femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) induces porosity within the ablation crater that increases with pulse energy/fluence and number of laser shots. For deeper craters the porosity evolves into 3D honeycomb like structure on the sidewalls. Using imaging technique, we show that the porous area fraction decreases with pulse energy while the pore size distribution peaks at a pore area of 0.037 μm{sup 2} at higher energies. In line ablation, the pore size increases with the speed at which the laser focus is moved.

  11. Thermal character in organic polymers with nanojoule femtosecond laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochang Ni(倪晓昌); Ching-Yue Wang(王清月); Yanfeng Li(栗岩峰); Minglie Hu(胡明列); Zhuan Wang(王专); Lu Chai(柴路)

    2003-01-01

    Ablation experiments with femtosecond (fs) laser pulse (pulse duration 37 fs, wavelength 800 nm) on organic polymers have been performed in air. The ablation threshold is found to be only several nanojoules. The diameters of the dots ablated in the organic polymers are influenced by the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses. It is observed that heat is diffused in a threadlike manner in all directions around the central focus region. Explanations of the observed phenomena are presented. A one-dimensional waveguide is also ablated in the organic polymers.

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation of Au film around single pulse threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochang Ni; Ching-Yue Wang; Yinzhong Wu; Li Yang; Wei Jia; Lu Chai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ablation process of 1-kHz femtosecond lasers (pulse duration of 148 fs, wavelength of 775 nm) of Au film on silica substrates is studied. The thresholds for single and multi pulses can be obtained directly from the relation between the squared diameter D2 of the ablated craters and the laser fluence φo. From the plot of the accumulated laser fluence Nφth(N) and the number of laser pulses N, incubation coefficient of Au film is obtained to be 0.765. Some experimental data obtained around the single pulse threshold are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  13. Limits of Femtosecond Fiber Amplification by Parabolic Pre-Shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Walter; McComb, Timothy S; Lowder, Tyson L; Wise, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    We explore parabolic pre-shaping as a means of generating and amplifying ultrashort pulses. We develop a theoretical framework for modeling the technique and use its conclusions to design a femtosecond fiber amplifier. Starting from 9 ps pulses, we obtain 4.3 $\\mu$J, nearly transform-limited pulses 275 fs in duration, simultaneously achieving over 40 dB gain and 33-fold compression. Finally, we show that this amplification scheme is limited by Raman scattering, and outline a method by which the pulse duration and energy may be further improved and tailored for a given application.

  14. Femtosecond laser pulse train interaction with dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caulier, O Dematteo; Chimier, B; Skupin, S; Bourgeade, A; Léger, C Javaux; Kling, R; Hönninger, C; Lopez, J; Tikhonchuk, V; Duchateau, G

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of trains of femtosecond microjoule laser pulses with dielectric materials by means of a multi-scale model. Our theoretical predictions are directly confronted with experimental observations in soda-lime glass. We show that due to the low heat conductivity, a significant fraction of the laser energy can be accumulated in the absorption region. Depending on the pulse repetition rate, the material can be heated to high temperatures even though the single pulse energy is too low to induce a significant material modification. Regions heated above the glass transition temperature in our simulations correspond very well to zones of permanent material modifications observed in the experiments.

  15. Ocular safety limits for 1030nm femtosecond laser cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2013-03-01

    Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.

  16. Widely tunable femtosecond solitonic radiation in photonic crystal fiber cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, J. H.; Sokolov, A. V.; Benabid, F.;

    2010-01-01

    We report on a means to generate tunable ultrashort optical pulses. We demonstrate that dispersive waves generated by solitons within the small-core features of a photonic crystal fiber cladding can be used to obtain femtosecond pulses tunable over an octave-wide spectral range. The generation...... process is highly efficient and occurs at the relatively low laser powers available from a simple Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. The described phenomenon is general and will play an important role in other systems where solitons are known to exist....

  17. Observation of anisotropic fragmentation in methane subjected to femtosecond radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Strohaber, J; Kolomenskii, A A; Schuessler, H A

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental results on the ionization/dissociation of methane in femtosecond pulses of radiation. Angular and intensity dependent yields of singly and doubly charged species were measured using an imaging mass spectrometer. The measured data shows that all fragments yields exhibit some degree of anisotropy as a result of them being preferably ejected parallel to the polarization direction. Additionally, an anomalous perpendicular fragmentation pattern is found for CH\\-(2)\\+(2+). We find evidence of multiple dissociation mechanisms including statistical decay, field assisted dissociation and Coulomb explosion.

  18. Femtosecond fluorescence studies of DNA/RNA constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, T; Banyasz, A; Markovitsi, D [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM - CNRS URA 2453 CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Improta, R, E-mail: thomas.gustavsson@cea.fr [Permanent address : Istituto Biostrutture e Bioimmagini - CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    In this overview, femtosecond fluorescence studies of various DNA constituents are presented, ranging from the monomeric chromophores to different model helices. In order to interpret the experimental results in terms of fundamental processes on the molecular scale they are discussed in the light of recent theoretical calculations. The ultrafast fluorescence decay observed for the monomers is explained by the involvement of highly efficient conical intersections (CI) between the first singlet excited state and the ground state. For the model helices, the picture is more complex, but fluorescence anisotropy data reveal collective effects.

  19. Vibrationally-induced electronic population inversion with strong femtosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Sampedro, Pablo; Sola, Ignacio R

    2016-01-01

    We discover a new mechanism of electronic population inversion using strong femtosecond pulses, where the transfer is mediated by vibrational motion on a light-induced potential. The process can be achieved with a single pulse tuning its frequency to the red of the Franck-Condon window. We show the determinant role that the sign of the slope of the transition dipole moment can play on the dynamics, and extend the method to multiphoton processes with odd number of pulses. As an example, we show how the scheme can be applied to population inversion in Na2.

  20. Precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and femtosecond laser frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, T W; Alnis, J; Fendel, P; Fischer, M; Gohle, C; Herrmann, M; Holzwarth, R; Kolachevsky, N; Udem, Th; Zimmermann, M

    2005-09-15

    Precision spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired dramatic advances in optical frequency metrology: femtosecond laser optical frequency comb synthesizers have revolutionized the precise measurement of optical frequencies, and they provide a reliable clock mechanism for optical atomic clocks. Precision spectroscopy of the hydrogen 1S-2S two-photon resonance has reached an accuracy of 1.4 parts in 10(14), and considerable future improvements are envisioned. Such laboratory experiments are setting new limits for possible slow variations of the fine structure constant alpha and the magnetic moment of the caesium nucleus mu(Cs) in units of the Bohr magneton mu(B).

  1. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@stefanominardi.eu; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Majus, Donatas; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Dubietis, Audrius [Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, bldg. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gopal, Amrutha [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV. We also introduce an equation for the Raman gain valid for ultra-short pulses that validates our experimental procedure.

  2. Femtosecond laser for glaucoma treatment: the comparison between simulation and experimentation results on ocular tissue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong Xia; Ngoi, Bryan K. A.; Hoh, Sek Tien; Koh, Lee Huat K.; Deng, Yuan Zi

    2005-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the use of femtosecond lasers is receiving more attention than ever due to its extremely high intensity and ultra short pulse duration. It opens the highly beneficial possibilities for minimized side effects during surgery process, and one of the specific areas is laser surgery in glaucoma treatment. However, the sophisticated femtosecond laser-ocular tissue interaction mechanism hampers the clinical application of femtosecond laser to treat glaucoma. The potential contribution in this work lies in the fact, that this is the first time a modified moving breakdown theory is applied, which is appropriate for femtosecond time scale, to analyze femtosecond laser-ocular tissue interaction mechanism. Based on this theory, energy deposition and corresponding thermal increase are studied by both simulation and experimentation. A simulation model was developed using Matlab software, and the simulation result was validated through in-vitro laser-tissue interaction experiment using pig iris. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results, it is shown that femtosecond laser can obtain determined ocular tissue removal, and the thermal damage is evidently reduced. This result provides a promising potential for femtosecond laser in glaucoma treatment.

  3. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5Å resolution using 300µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  4. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  5. Tracking ultrafast relaxation dynamics of furan by femtosecond photoelectron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuzhu, E-mail: yuzhu.liu@gmail.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Knopp, Gregor [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Qin, Chaochao [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Gerber, Thomas [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)

    2015-01-13

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Relaxation dynamics of furan are tracked by femtosecond photoelectron imaging. • The mechanism for ultrafast formation of α-carbene and β-carbene is proposed. • Ultrafast internal conversion from S{sub 2} to S{sub 1} is observed. • The transient characteristics of the fragment ions are obtained. • Single-color multi-photon ionization dynamics at 800 nm are also studied. - Abstract: Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of furan has been studied by femtosecond photoelectron imaging (PEI) coupled with photofragmentation (PF) spectroscopy. Photoelectron imaging of single-color multi-photon ionization and two-color pump–probe ionization are obtained and analyzed. Photoelectron bands are assigned to the related states. The time evolution of the photoelectron signal by pump–probe ionization can be well described by a biexponential decay: two rapid relaxation pathways with time constants of ∼15 fs and 85 (±11) fs. The rapid relaxation is ascribed to the ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from the S{sub 2} state to the vibrationally hot S{sub 1} state. The second relaxation process is attributed to the redistributions and depopulation of secondarily populated high vibronic S{sub 1} state and the formation of α-carbene and β-carbene by H immigration. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the fragment ions are also measured and discussed as a complementary understanding.

  6. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben A. Dilanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used.

  7. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie E. Conrad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  8. Femtosecond laser collagen cross-linking without traditional photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizang; Wang, Chao; Celi, Nicola; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2015-03-01

    Collagen cross-linking in cornea has the capability of enhancing its mechanical properties and thereby providing an alternative treatment for eye diseases such as keratoconus. Currently, riboflavin assisted UVA light irradiation is a method of choice for cross-link induction in eyes. However, ultrafast pulsed laser interactions may be a powerful alternative enabling in-depth treatment while simultaneously diminishing harmful side effects such as, keratocyte apoptosis. In this study, femtosecond laser is utilized for treatment of bovine cornea slices. It is hypothesized that nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses plays a major role in the maturation of immature cross-links and the promotion of their growth. Targeted irradiation with tightly focused laser pulses allows for the absence of a photosensitizing agent. Inflation test was conducted on half treated porcine cornea to identify the changes of mechanical properties due to laser treatment. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study subtle changes in the chemical composition of treated cornea. The effects of treatment are analyzed by observing shifts in Amide I and Amide III bands, which suggest deformation of the collagen structure in cornea due to presence of newly formed cross-links.

  9. Fabrication of pillared PLGA microvessel scaffold using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang GJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wei Wang1, Chung-Wei Cheng2, Ching-Wen Li3, Han-Wei Chang4, Ping-Han Wu2, Gou-Jen Wang 1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Laser Application Technology Center, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County, Taiwan, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: One of the persistent challenges confronting tissue engineering is the lack of intrinsic microvessels for the transportation of nutrients and metabolites. An artificial microvascular system could be a feasible solution to this problem. In this study, the femtosecond laser ablation technique was implemented for the fabrication of pillared microvessel scaffolds of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. This novel scaffold facilitates implementation of the conventional cell seeding process. The progress of cell growth can be observed in vitro by optical microscopy. The problems of becoming milky or completely opaque with the conventional PLGA scaffold after cell seeding can be resolved. In this study, PLGA microvessel scaffolds consisting of 47 µm × 80 µm pillared branches were produced. Results of cell culturing of bovine endothelial cells demonstrate that the cells adhere well and grow to surround each branch of the proposed pillared microvessel networks.Keywords: femtosecond laser ablation, pillared microvessel scaffold, polylactic-co-glycolic acid, bovine endothelial cells

  10. Heat effects of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yoichi; Obara, Minoru

    2002-09-01

    Heat effects of metallic bulk crystals of Au, Ag, Cu, and Fe ablated with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses is experimentally studied. As a result of X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the XRD peak signal of the area ablated with Ti:sapphire laser is much smaller than that of the crystalline metal sample. While the crystal form of the metal sample is crystalline before laser ablation, the crystal form in the ablated area is partially changed into the amorphous form. The residual pulse energy that did not contribute to the ablation process remains, which leads to the formation of thin layer of melted phase. The melted layer is abruptly cooled down not to be re-crystallized, but to transform into amorphous form. It is evident that the area ablated with femtosecond laser is changed into amorphous metals. This mechanism would be the same as the melt-quenching generally used as the fabrication method of amorphous metals. This experimental result is consistent with the theoretical result.

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  12. Simultaneous picosecond and femtosecond solitons delivered from a nanotube-mode-locked all-fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D D; Liu, X M; Cui, Y D; Wang, G X; Zeng, C; Yun, L

    2014-03-15

    We propose a compact nanotube-mode-locked all-fiber laser that can simultaneously generate picosecond and femtosecond solitons at different wavelengths. The pulse durations of picosecond and femtosecond solitons are measured to be ∼10.6  ps and ∼466  fs, respectively. Numerical results agree well with the experimental observations and clearly reveal that the dynamic evolutions of the picosecond and femtosecond solitons are qualitatively distinct in the intracavity. Our study presents a simple, stable, low-cost, and dual-scale ultrafast-pulsed laser source suitable for practical applications in optical communications.

  13. A higher-order-mode fiber delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kim Giessmann; Le, Tuan; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars Erik

    2010-01-01

    We report the first higher-order-mode fiber with anomalous dispersion at 800nm and demonstrate its potential in femtosecond pulse delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers. We obtain 125fs pulses after propagating a distance of 3.6 meters in solid-silica fiber. The pulses could be further...... compressed in a quartz rod to nearly chirp-free 110fs pulses. Femtosecond pulse delivery is achieved by launching the laser output directly into the delivery fiber without any pre-chirping of the input pulse. The demonstrated pulse delivery scheme suggests scaling to >20meters for pulse delivery in harsh...

  14. Update and clinical utility of the LenSx femtosecond laser in cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Sutton, Gerard; Hodge, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has been the major disruptive technology introduced into ophthalmic surgery in the last decade. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery (FLACS) integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging with a femtosecond laser allowing key steps of cataract surgery to be performed with computer-guided laser accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. Since the introduction of FLACS, there have been significant advances in laser software and hardware as well as surgeon experience, with over 250 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature. This review examines the published evidence relating to the LenSx platform and discusses surgical techniques, indications, safety, and clinical results.

  15. Study of the microstructural transformations of borate glass and barium metaborate crystals induced by femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bin; Yu Bing-Kun; Yan Xiao-Na; Qiu Jian-Rong; Jiang Xiong-Wei; Zhu Cong-Shan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural transformations of borate glass and barium metaborate crystals induced by femtosecond laser. Such structural transformations were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The borate glass is transformed into low temperature (LT) phase of barium metaborate (BaB2O4) crystals after being irradiated for 10 min by a femtosecond laser. In addition, after 20 min of irradiation, high temperature (HT) phase of BaB2O4 crystals is also produced. Further studies demonstrate that LT phase BaB2O4 crystals are formed in the HT phase BaB2O4 crystals after femtosecond laser irradiation for 10 s.

  16. Elongation of plasma channel generated by temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anmin; Li, Suyu; Qi, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuanfei; Hu, Zhan; Huang, Xuri; Jin, Mingxing

    2017-01-01

    Temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulse is used to generate the air plasma channel. The length of plasma channel is optimized by a genetic algorithm. Compared with the transform-limited pulse, the temporally shaped femtosecond laser produced by the spatial light modulator with the genetic algorithm can lead to a significant increase in length and brightness of plasma channel in atmosphere. In particular, the length of the plasma channel produced by the optimized shaped pulse can be extended by 50%. This method can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced plasma channel.

  17. Micrograting Polymerization Fabrication with a Single Femtosecond Laser Pulse at 400 nm Wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红沧; 郭亨长; 蒋红兵; 杨宏; 龚旗煌; 王涛; 施盟泉; 吴飞鹏

    2003-01-01

    High diffraction efficiency refractive index-modulated holographic micrograting on a polymer thin film was obtained with a single femtosecond laser pulse interference and photo-polymerization. The diffractive efficiency of the micrograting with an He-Ne laser is up to 78% when the thickness of the film is 90 μm, which corresponds to the refractive index-modulation as large as 2.4 × 10-3. The compared experiment with a femtosecond oscillator laser indicated that a single femtosecond Iaser pulse has the advantages in laser machining over the cw holography method such as high fabrication speed, good surface structure and high diffractive efficiency.

  18. Influence of Femtosecond Laser Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Precipitation of Silver Nanoparticles in Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾惠丹; 邱建荣; 姜雄伟; 曲士良; 朱从善; 干福熹

    2003-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were precipitated inside an Ag2 O-doped glass by femtosecond laser irradiation and successive heat treatment. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles was investigated. Absorption spectra show that the femtosecond laser irradiation results in an apparent decrease of the treatment temperature for the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles. We demonstrate the control of precipitation,dissolution and growth of silver nanoparticles inside glass by changing the heat treatment temperature or using further femtosecond laser irradiation.

  19. Long-term optical phase locking between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yohei; Yoshitomi, Dai; Kakehata, Masayuki; Takada, Hideyuki; Torizuka, Kenji

    2005-09-01

    Long-term optical phase-coherent two-color femtosecond pulses were generated by use of passively timing-synchronized Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers. The relative carrier-envelope phase relation was fixed by an active feedback loop. The accumulated phase noise from 10 mHz to 1 MHz of the locked beat note was 0.43 rad, showing tight phase locking. The optical frequency fluctuation between two femtosecond combs was submillihertz, with a 1 s averaged counter measurement over 3400 s, leading to a long-term femtosecond frequency-comb connection.

  20. Imaging of Bloch oscillations in erbium-doped curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, N; Della Valle, G; Osellame, R; Longhi, S; Cerullo, G; Ramponi, R; Laporta, P; Morgner, U

    2006-06-01

    We report a direct observation of Bloch-like dynamics of light in curved waveguide arrays manufactured in Er:Yb-doped phosphate glass by femtosecond laser writing. The green upconversion fluorescence emitted by excited erbium ions is exploited to image the flow of the guided pump light at approximately 980 nm along the array. Direct and clear evidence of periodic light breathing for single-waveguide excitation, closely related to Bloch oscillations, is reported.

  1. The theory study of Metal absorptivity in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Duan-ming; LI Zhi-hua; TAN Xin-yu; FANG Ran-ran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of the absorptivity of metal on femtosecond pulsed laser ablation is investigated.The formulas for the absorptivity depending on target temperature are derived from Maxwell Equations and the Lambert-Beer's law.Based on this,a new two-temperature model is proposed to describe the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation with metal.Then,using Au as an example,a finite difference method is employed to simulate the space-dependent and time-dependent absorptivity and the target temperature.The temperature evolution of our model is compared with the result obtained form the heat conduction model taking the absorptivity as constant.It is shown that the absorptivity plays an important role in the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.The results of this paper are helpful in choosing the best technical parameters in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.

  2. Electrofluidics fabricated by space-selective metallization in glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Dong; Hanada, Yasutaka; Chen, Chi; Wu, Sizhu; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-12-07

    Space-selective metallization of the inside of glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct-write ablation followed by electroless plating is demonstrated. Femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive chemical etching allows us to fabricate three-dimensional microfluidic structures inside photosensitive glass. Then, femtosecond laser ablation followed by electroless metal plating enables flexible deposition of patterned metal films on desired locations of not only the top and bottom walls but also the sidewalls of fabricated microfluidic structures. A volume writing scheme for femtosecond laser irradiation inducing homogeneous ablation on the sidewalls of microfluidic structures is proposed for sidewall metallization. The developed technique is used to fabricate electrofluidics in which microelectric components are integrated into glass microchannels. The fabricated electrofluidics are applied to control the temperature of liquid samples in the microchannels for the enhancement of chemical reactions and to manipulate the movement of biological samples in the microscale space.

  3. Acoustic Diagnostics of Plasma Channels Induced by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zuo-Qiang; WEI Zhi-Yi; YU Jin; ZHANG Jie; LI Yu-Tong; YUAN Xiao-Hui; ZHENG Zhi-Yuan; WANG Peng; WANG Zhao-Hua; LING Wei-Jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Long plasma channels induced by femtosecond laser pulses in air are diagnosed using the sonographic method. By detecting the sound signals along the channels, the length and the electron density of the channels are measured.

  4. Femtosecond laser fabrication of linear graphitized microstructures in a bulk of polycarbonate samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, D. V.; Lapshin, K. E.; Obidin, A. Z.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We have fabricated high aspect ratio straight and curved graphitized lines inside of polycarbonate samples by using a femtosecond laser. Use of a spherical lens with high NA to focusing femtosecond pulse in the bulk of material leads to self-diffraction of laser beam and formation a filamentary structure. We fabricated two kinds of graphitized lines. The first type is a straight line extended in the direction of the laser beam. This type of lines was created by femtosecond laser scanning without pulse overlapping. The second type of graphitized lines is curved lines, which was created by scanning with a significant overlapping of focal spot. We determined conditions of the formation of straight graphitized lines by one femtosecond pulse with diameter about 2 pm and length greater than 1 mm in polycarbonate samples. Mechanism of formation and potential applications of these structures are also discussed.

  5. Femtosecond laser fabrication for the integration of optical sensors in microfluidic lab-on-chip devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Ramponi, R.; Pollnau, M.; Cerullo, G.; Corkum, P.; Silvestri, de S.; Nelson, K.A.; Riedle, E.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers enable the fabrication of both optical waveguides and buried microfluidic channels on a glass substrate. The waveguides are used to integrate optical detection in a commercial microfluidic lab-on-chip for capillary electrophoresis.

  6. Femtosecond laser fabrication for the integration of optical sensors in microfluidic lab-on-chip devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, R.; Martinez Vazquez, R.; Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Pollnau, M.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers enable the fabrication of both optical waveguides and buried microfluidic channels on a glass substrate. The waveguides are used to integrate optical detection in a commercial microfluidic lab-on-chip for capillary electrophoresis

  7. Femtosecond dynamics of a spaser and unidirectional emission from a perfectly spherical nanoparticle

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the femtosecond dynamics of the spaser emission by combining ab-initio simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Interestingly, the emission is characterized by rotational evolution, opening to the generation of unidirectional emission from perfectly spherical nanoparticles. © OSA 2015.

  8. Giantically blue-shifted visible light in femtosecond mid-IR filament in fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Dormidonov, A E; Chekalin, S V; Kandidov, V P

    2015-01-01

    A giant blue shift of an isolated visible band of supercontinuum was discovered and studied in the single filament regime of Mid-IR femtosecond laser pulse at powers slightly exceeding critical power for self-focusing in fluorides.

  9. Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser Jesper Hjortdal*, Esben Nielsen, Anders Vestergaard and Anders Søndergaard Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark Abstract: Purpose: Posterior lamellar grafting...... of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft......: A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure...

  10. Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Thin Polymer Films from a Dielectric Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadier L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We desorb polymer films from fused silica with a femtosecond laser and characterize the results by atomic force microscopy. Our study as a function of beam geometry and energy reveals two ways of achieving spatially controlled nanodesorption.

  11. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.Y.; Hendrikse, F.; Pels, E.; Wijdh, R.J.; Cleynenbreugel, H. van; Eggink, C.A.; Rij, G. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preliminary visual results of femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed results of 20 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy who underwent

  12. Investigation of interaction femtosecond laser pulses with skin and eyes mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, P. U.; Smirnov, S. V.; Semenova, V. A.; Melnik, M. V.; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes that takes place under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the cutaneous covering. The study is carried out and the analytical solution of the set of equations describing the dynamics of the electron and atomic subsystems and investigated the processes of linear and nonlinear interaction of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye, revealed the dependence of the pulse duration on the retina of the duration of the input pulse and found the value of the radiation power density, in which there is a self-focusing is obtained. The results of the work can be used to determine the maximum acceptable energy, generated by femtosecond laser systems, and to develop Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  13. Controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles induced by femtosecond laser direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Lei; Xia,Hong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Ding, Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    We report controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for patterning of silver microstructures. The assembly is induced by femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). A tightly focused femtosecond laser beam is capable of trapping and driving Ag NPs to form desired micropatterns with a high resolution of ∼190 nm. Taking advantage of the ‘direct writing’ feature, three microelectrodes have been integrated with a microfluidic chip; two silver-based microdevices including a microheater ...

  14. Consequences of Femtosecond Laser Filament Generation Conditions in Standoff Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-08-08

    We investigate the role of femtosecond laser focusing conditions on ablation properties and its implications on analytical merits and standoff detection applications. Femtosecond laser pulses can be used for ablation either by tightly focusing or by using filaments generated during its propagation. We evaluated the persistence of atomic, and molecular emission features as well as time evolution of the fundamental properties (temperature and density) of ablation plumes generated using different methods.

  15. Femtosecond Corneal Collagen Crosslinking in Treatment of Patients with Progressive Keratoconus Stages I–II

    OpenAIRE

    K.B. Letnikova; A.T. Khandjan; O.G. Oganesyan; A.V. Penkina; V.V. Neroyev

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess safety and efficacy of corneal collagen crosslinking technique using femtosecond laser for intrastromal pocket creation in patients with progressive keratoconus. Materials and Methods. Thirty-three patients (34 eyes) with progressive keratoconus stages I–II underwent femto-crosslinking of the corneal collagen. FEMTO LDV Z6 femtosecond laser was used to create an intrastromal pocket of 8.0 mm diameter and 140 μm depth. Normotonic riboflavin solution (...

  16. Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Jhajj, N; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M

    2013-01-01

    We investigate beam pointing dynamics in filamentation in gases driven by high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. Upon suddenly exposing a gas to a kilohertz train of filamenting pulses, the filament is steered from its original direction to a new stable direction whose equilibrium is determined by a balance among buoyant, viscous, and diffusive processes in the gas. Results are shown for Xe and air, but are broadly applicable to all configurations employing high repetition rate femtosecond laser propagation in gases.

  17. Ship-in-a-Bottle Biomicrochips Fabricated by Hybrid Femtosecond Laser Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugioka Koji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate fabrication of highly functional biomicrochips by hybrid femtosecond laser processing. In this process, 3D microfluidic structures are first formed inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive chemical wet etching. Then, functional microcomponents are integrated inside the fabricated microfluidic structures by two-photon photopolyerization. We term the fabricated microchips ship-in-a-bottle biomicrochips,

  18. Fabrication of surface nanoscale axial photonics (SNAP) structures with a femtosecond laser

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Fangcheng; Zhang, Lin; Sumetsky, M

    2016-01-01

    Surface nanoscale axial photonics (SNAP) structures are fabricated with a femtosecond laser for the first time. The inscriptions introduced by the laser pressurize the fiber and cause its nanoscale effective radius variation. We demonstrate the subangstrom precise fabrication of individual and coupled SNAP microresonators having the effective radius variation of several nanometers. Our results pave the way to a novel ultraprecise SNAP fabrication technology based on the femtosecond laser inscription.

  19. Nondestructive thickness measurement system for multiple layers of paint based on femtosecond fiber laser technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Masaaki; Takayanagi, Jun; Ohtake, Hideyuki

    2016-11-01

    Because optical fiber-based optical systems are generally robust against external interference, they can be used as reliable systems in industrial applications in various fields. This paper describes fiber lasers generating femtosecond pulses that use optical fibers as gain media and optical paths. Additionally, the nondestructive paint multilayer thickness measurement of automotive parts using terahertz waves generated and detected by femtosecond fiber laser systems was conducted.

  20. The rotating-crystal method in femtosecond X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, B; Stingl, J; Zamponi, F; Woerner, M; Elsaesser, T

    2011-08-01

    We report the first implementation of the rotating-crystal method in femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Applying a pump-probe scheme with 100 fs hard X-ray probe pulses from a laser-driven plasma source, the novel technique is demonstrated by mapping structural dynamics of a photoexcited bismuth crystal via changes of the diffracted intensity on a multitude of Bragg reflections. The method is compared to femtosecond powder diffraction and to Bragg diffraction from a crystal with stationary orientation.

  1. Effect of electron heating on femtosecond laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Guo, Chunlei

    2007-05-01

    We employ a surface plasmon technique to resolve the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals. Clear acoustic oscillations are observed in our experiments. We further study the dependence of the initial phase of the oscillations on pump fluence, and we find that the initial phase decreases linearly with pump fluence. Our model calculations show that hot electrons instantaneously excited by femtosecond pulses contribute to the generation of coherent acoustic phonons in metals.

  2. Material decomposition mechanisms in femtosecond laser interactions with metals

    CERN Document Server

    Povarnitsyn, M E; Sentis, M; Khishchenko, K V; Levashov, P R

    2007-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamic study of femtosecond laser ablation is presented. A detailed analysis of material decomposition is performed using a thermodynamically complete equation of state with separate stable and metastable phase states and phase boundaries. The lifetime of the metastable liquid state is estimated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. In addition, mechanical fragmentation of the target material is controlled based on available criteria. As a result, several ablation mechanisms are observed. A major fraction of the ablated material, however, is found to originate from the metastable liquid region, which is decomposed either thermally in the vicinity of the critical point into a liquid-gas mixture, or mechanically at high strain rate and negative pressure into liquid droplets and chunks. The calculation results explain available experimental findings.

  3. Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of channelrhodopsin-1 chromophore isomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stensitzki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational dynamics of the retinal all-trans to 13-cis photoisomerization in channelrhodopsin-1 from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1 was investigated by femtosecond visible pump mid-IR probe spectroscopy. After photoexcitation, the transient infrared absorption of C-C stretching modes was detected. The formation of the 13-cis photoproduct marker band at 1193 cm−1 was observed within the time resolution of 0.3 ps. We estimated the photoisomerization yield to (60 ± 6 %. We found additional time constants of (0.55 ± 0.05 ps and (6 ± 1 ps, assigned to cooling, and cooling processes with a back-reaction pathway. An additional bleaching band demonstrates the ground-state heterogeneity of retinal.

  4. Femtosecond Laser Micromachining Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cerullo, Giulio; Ramponi, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond laser micromachining of transparent material is a powerful and versatile technology. In fact, it can be applied to several materials. It is a maskless technology that allows rapid device prototyping, has intrinsic three-dimensional capabilities and can produce both photonic and microfluidic devices. For these reasons it is ideally suited for the fabrication of complex microsystems with unprecedented functionalities. The book is mainly focused on micromachining of transparent materials which, due to the nonlinear absorption mechanism of ultrashort pulses, allows unique three-dimensional capabilities and can be exploited for the fabrication of complex microsystems with unprecedented functionalities.This book presents an overview of the state of the art of this rapidly emerging topic with contributions from leading experts in the field, ranging from principles of nonlinear material modification to fabrication techniques and applications to photonics and optofluidics.

  5. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Belén; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Hadden, J. P.; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane Michael

    2016-10-01

    Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV’s states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, still lacking is an efficient photonic fabrication method for diamond akin to the photolithographic methods that have revolutionized silicon photonics. Here, we report the first demonstration of three dimensional buried optical waveguides in diamond, inscribed by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. Within the waveguides, high quality NV properties are observed, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems on a diamond chip.

  6. Generating long sequences of high-intensity femtosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bitter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to create pulse sequences extending beyond 150~picoseconds in duration, comprised of $100~\\mu$J femtosecond pulses. A quarter of the pulse train is produced by a high-resolution pulse shaper, which allows full controllability over the timing of each pulse. Two nested Michelson interferometers follow to quadruple the pulse number and the sequence duration. To boost the pulse energy, the long train is sent through a multi-pass Ti:Sapphire amplifier, followed by an external compressor. A periodic sequence of 84~pulses of 120~fs width and an average pulse energy of 107~$\\mu$J, separated by 2~ps, is demonstrated as a proof of principle.

  7. Ripple formation on nickel irradiated with radially polarized femtosecond beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibidis, George D; Skoulas, Evangelos; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2015-11-15

    We report on the morphological effects induced by the inhomogeneous absorption of radially polarized femtosecond laser irradiation of nickel (Ni) in sub-ablation conditions. A theoretical prediction of the morphology profile is performed, and the role of surface plasmon excitation in the production of self-formed periodic ripple structures is evaluated. Results indicate a smaller periodicity of the ripples profile compared to that attained under linearly polarized irradiation conditions. A combined hydrodynamical and thermoelastic model is presented in laser beam conditions that lead to material melting. The simulation results are presented to be in good agreement with the experimental findings. The ability to control the size of the morphological changes via modulating the beam polarization may provide an additional route for controlling and optimizing the outcome of laser micro-processing.

  8. Microstructuring of Steel and Hard Metal using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Manuel; Engel, Andy; Weißmantel, Steffen; Scholze, Stefan; Reisse, Guenter

    New results on three-dimensional micro-structuring of tungsten carbide hard metal and steel using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. For the investigations, a largely automated high-precision fs-laser micromachining station was used. The fs-laser beam is focused onto the sample surface using different objectives. The investigations of the ablation behaviour of the various materials in dependence of the laser processing parameters will be presented. In the second part, complex 3D microstructures with a variety of geometries and resolutions down to a few micrometers will be presented. On of the Goal of these investigations was to create defined microstructures in tooling equipments such as cutting inserts.

  9. Filming Femtosecond Molecular Movies with X-ray Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov

    This thesis describes the investigation of time-resolved phenomena using X-ray techniques, and in particular the new possibilities and challenges arising from the application of these techniques on the femtosecond time-scale. The thesis will review the processes following laser excitation...... of molecular species in solution, describing the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics, as well as the role of the solvent. This will be followed by an introduction of the three X-ray techniques used in this work, and it will be shown how the application of these techniques in a laser pump / X...... yielded by (and the practical challenges connected to) their simultaneous implementation in a single experiment. Finally, the experimental results of a signicant set of laser pump / X-ray probe experiments will be presented and discussed in order to gauge the applicability of these techniques as tools...

  10. Fibonacci-like photonic structure for femtosecond pulse compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarava, L N; Nazarov, M M; Ozheredov, I A; Shkurinov, A P; Smirnov, A G; Zhukovsky, S V

    2007-03-01

    The compression of femtosecond laser pulses by linear quasiperiodic and periodic photonic multilayer structures is studied both experimentally and theoretically. We compare the compression performance of a Fibonacci and a periodic structure with similar total thickness and the same number of layers, and find the performance to be higher in the Fibonacci case, as predicted by numerical simulation. This compression enhancement takes place due to the larger group velocity dispersion at a defect resonance of the transmission spectrum of the Fibonacci structure. We demonstrate that the Fibonacci structure with the thickness of only 2.8 microm can compress a phase-modulated laser pulse by up to 30%. The possibility for compression of laser pulses with different characteristics in a single multilayer is explored. The operation of the compressor in the reflection regime has been modeled, and we show numerically that the reflected laser pulse is subjected to real compression: not only does its duration decrease but also its amplitude rises.

  11. Posterior Corneal Surface Stability after Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cagini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate posterior corneal surface variation after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Patients were evaluated by corneal tomography preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months. We analyzed changes in the posterior corneal curvature, posterior corneal elevation, and anterior chamber depth. Moreover, we explored correlation between corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, percentage of ablated corneal tissue, and preoperative corneal thickness. During follow-up, the posterior corneal surface did not have a significant forward corneal shift: no significant linear relationships emerged between the anterior displacement of the posterior corneal surface and corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, or percentage of ablated corneal tissue.

  12. Femtosecond laser-induced surface structures on carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajzew, Roman; Schröder, Jan; Kunz, Clemens; Engel, Sebastian; Müller, Frank A; Gräf, Stephan

    2015-12-15

    The influence of different polarization states during the generation of periodic nanostructures on the surface of carbon fibers was investigated using a femtosecond laser with a pulse duration τ=300  fs, a wavelength λ=1025  nm, and a peak fluence F=4  J/cm². It was shown that linear polarization results in a well-aligned periodic pattern with different orders of magnitude concerning their period and an alignment parallel and perpendicular to fiber direction, respectively. For circular polarization, both types of uniform laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) patterns appear simultaneously with different dominance in dependence on the position at the fiber surface. Their orientation was explained by the polarization-dependent absorptivity and the geometrical anisotropy of the carbon fibers.

  13. Femtosecond laser fabrication of microfluidic channels for organic photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Vishnubhatla, Krishna; Clark, Jenny; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Virgili, Tersilla

    2009-11-01

    We report on innovative application of microchannels with access holes fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching. This technique allows us to demonstrate a novel approach to the achievement of organic photonic devices in which the properties of a conjugated polymer in solution are exploited in a microfluidic configuration to produce an easy-to-integrate photonic device. Filling the microchannel with a diluted polyfluorene solution, we exploit the unique properties of isolated polymeric chains such as ultrafast gain switching (switching response time of 150 fs) with a 100% on-off ratio. In addition, by dispersing nanoparticles in the polymeric solution we are able to achieve random lasing in the microchannel.

  14. Liquid sample delivery techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Uwe

    2014-07-17

    X-ray free-electron lasers overcome the problem of radiation damage in protein crystallography and allow structure determination from micro- and nanocrystals at room temperature. To ensure that consecutive X-ray pulses do not probe previously exposed crystals, the sample needs to be replaced with the X-ray repetition rate, which ranges from 120 Hz at warm linac-based free-electron lasers to 1 MHz at superconducting linacs. Liquid injectors are therefore an essential part of a serial femtosecond crystallography experiment at an X-ray free-electron laser. Here, we compare different techniques of injecting microcrystals in solution into the pulsed X-ray beam in vacuum. Sample waste due to mismatch of the liquid flow rate to the X-ray repetition rate can be addressed through various techniques.

  15. Serial femtosecond crystallography datasets from G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas A; Barty, Anton; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Zhang, Haitao; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Basu, Shibom; Oberthür, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Yoon, Chun Hong; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Messerschmidt, Marc; Koglin, Jason E; Boutet, Sébastien; Weierstall, Uwe; Cherezov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    We describe the deposition of four datasets consisting of X-ray diffraction images acquired using serial femtosecond crystallography experiments on microcrystals of human G protein-coupled receptors, grown and delivered in lipidic cubic phase, at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The receptors are: the human serotonin receptor 2B in complex with an agonist ergotamine, the human δ-opioid receptor in complex with a bi-functional peptide ligand DIPP-NH2, the human smoothened receptor in complex with an antagonist cyclopamine, and finally the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in complex with the selective antagonist ZD7155. All four datasets have been deposited, with minimal processing, in an HDF5-based file format, which can be used directly for crystallographic processing with CrystFEL or other software. We have provided processing scripts and supporting files for recent versions of CrystFEL, which can be used to validate the data.

  16. Femtosecond Studies Of Coulomb Explosion Utilizing Covariance Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Card, D A

    2000-01-01

    The studies presented herein elucidate details of the Coulomb explosion event initiated through the interaction of molecular clusters with an intense femtosecond laser beam (≥1 PW/cm2). Clusters studied include ammonia, titanium-hydrocarbon, pyridine, and 7-azaindole. Covariance analysis is presented as a general technique to study the dynamical processes in clusters and to discern whether the fragmentation channels are competitive. Positive covariance determinations identify concerted processes such as the concomitant explosion of protonated cluster ions of asymmetrical size. Anti- covariance mapping is exploited to distinguish competitive reaction channels such as the production of highly charged nitrogen atoms formed at the expense of the protonated members of a cluster ion ensemble. This technique is exemplified in each cluster system studied. Kinetic energy analyses, from experiment and simulation, are presented to fully understand the Coulomb explosion event. A cutoff study strongly suggests that...

  17. Filament propagation length of femtosecond pulses with different transverse modes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, N; Kaya, G; Strohaber, J; Kolomenskii, A A; Schuessler, H A

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian, and Bessel-Gaussian incident beams. These different transverse modes for incident laser pulses were created from an initial Gaussian beam by using a computer generated hologram technique. We found that the length of the filament induced by the Bessel-Gaussian incident beam was longer than that for the other transverse modes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central part of the beam. To better understand the Bessel-Gaussian beam propagation, we performed a more detailed study of the filament length as a function of the number of radial modal lobes. The length increased with the number of lobes, implying that the radial modal lobes serve as an energy reservoir for the filament formed by the central intensity peak.

  18. Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K M; Miura, K; Sugimoto, N; Hirao, K

    1996-11-01

    With the goal of being able to create optical devices for the telecommunications industry, we investigated the effects of 810-nm, femtosecond laser radiation on various glasses. By focusing the laser beam through a microscope objective, we successfully wrote transparent, but visible, round-elliptical damage lines inside highsilica, borate, soda lime silicate, and f luorozirconate (ZBLAN) bulk glasses. Microellipsometer measurements of the damaged region in the pure and Ge-doped silica glasses showed a 0.01-0.035 refractive-index increase, depending on the radiation dose. The formation of several defects, including Si E' or Ge E' centers, nonbridging oxygen hole centers, and peroxy radicals, was also detected. These results suggest that multiphoton interactions occur in the glasses and that it may be possible to write three-dimensional optical circuits in bulk glasses with such a focused laser beam technique.

  19. Ablation and nanostructuring of metals by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, S I; Komarov, P S; Ovchinnikov, A V; Struleva, E V; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V V [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Inogamov, N A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-30

    Using an interferometric continuous monitoring technique, we have investigated the motion of the surface of an aluminium target in the case of femtosecond laser ablation at picosecond time delays relative to the instant of laser exposure. Measurements of the temporal target dispersion dynamics, molecular dynamics simulation results and the morphology of the ablation crater have demonstrated a thermomechanical (spall) nature of the disruption of the condensed phase due to the cavitation-driven formation and growth of vapour phase nuclei upon melt expansion, followed by the formation of surface nanostructures upon melt solidification. The tensile strength of heated aluminium in a condensed state has been determined experimentally at an expansion rate of ∼10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  20. Design of Smith-Purcell emitter in femtosecond accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the femtosecond accelerator device,we are planning to build a broad band and tunable THz source using the Smith-Purcell tadiation mechanism.Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation could be achieved owing to the super-short bunch produced in the device.To shorten the distance between the beam and grating,we use Transport to match the beta function producing a sheet beam on the grating surface.The optimization of grating length,groove depth and groove width are given in the paper.Then the radiation power for the shallow and deep grating using these parameters are presented.The detection devices and methods are also briefly discussed.

  1. Luminescence response of synthetic opal under femtosecond laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasnetsov, M.V., E-mail: vasnet@hotmail.com [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Dmitruk, I.N. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Kudryavtseva, A.D.; Tcherniega, N.V. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Synthetic opal is an artificial photonic metamaterial composed from spherical globules of amorphous silica (SiO{sub 2}) about 300 nm in diameter. We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the origin of a narrow luminescence spectral peak (4 nm HWHM) and optical second and third harmonic generation in synthetic opal samples under femtosecond laser excitation (800 nm) at liquid-nitrogen temperature. Stimulated-emission effects are discussed related to the possibility of nanocavity lasing at the condition of the first Mie resonance in a dielectric sphere. - Highlights: • Second harmonic generation in a synthetic opal (amorphous material composed from spherical SiO{sub 2} globules) was observed. • Narrow luminescence peak which we assign to a Mie resonance in a globule was detected at liquid-nitrogen temperature.

  2. Undulators to FELs: Nanometers, Femtoseconds, Coherence and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, David [University of California Berkeley

    2011-11-30

    For scientists in many fields, from material science to the life sciences and archeology, synchrotron radiation, and in particular undulator radiation, has provide an intense source of x-rays which are tunable to the absorption edges of particular elements of interest, often permitting studies at high spatial and spectral resolution. Now a close cousin to the undulator, the x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has emerged with improved spatial coherence and, perhaps more importantly, femtosecond pulse durations which permit dynamical studies. In the future attosecond x-ray capabilities are anticipated. In this colloqium we will describe some state of the art undulator studies, how undulators work, the evolution to FELs, their pulse and coherence properties, and the types of experiments envisioned.

  3. Femtosecond laser generated gold nanoparticles and their plasmonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Navas M., P.; Soni, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is now commonly used to generate stable colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) in absence of any chemical additives or stabilizer with diverse applications. In this paper, we report generation of gold NPs (Au NPs) by ultra-short laser pulses. Femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (λ = 800 nm) has been used to ablate a gold target in pure de-ionized water to produce gold colloids with smallsize distribution. The average size of the particles can be further controlled by subjecting to laser-induced post-irradiation providing a versatile physical method of size-selected gold nanoparticles. The optical extinction and morphological dimensions were investigated with UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy measurements, respectively. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to calculate localized surface plasmon (LSPR) wavelength and the near-field generated by Au NPs and their hybrids.

  4. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Belén; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Hadden, J. P.; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV’s states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, still lacking is an efficient photonic fabrication method for diamond akin to the photolithographic methods that have revolutionized silicon photonics. Here, we report the first demonstration of three dimensional buried optical waveguides in diamond, inscribed by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. Within the waveguides, high quality NV properties are observed, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems on a diamond chip. PMID:27748428

  5. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  6. Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Temnov, Vasily V; Nelson, Keith A; Thomay, Tim; Knittel, Vanessa; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Makarov, Denys; Albrecht, Manfred; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental interactions induced by lattice vibrations on ultrafast time scales become increasingly important for modern nanoscience and technology. Experimental access to the physical properties of acoustic phonons in the THz frequency range and over the entire Brillouin zone is crucial for understanding electric and thermal transport in solids and their compounds. Here, we report on the generation and nonlinear propagation of giant (1 percent) acoustic strain pulses in hybrid gold/cobalt bilayer structures probed with ultrafast surface plasmon interferometry. This new technique allows for unambiguous characterization of arbitrary ultrafast acoustic transients. The giant acoustic pulses experience substantial nonlinear reshaping already after a propagation distance of 100 nm in a crystalline gold layer. Excellent agreement with the Korteveg-de Vries model points to future quantitative nonlinear femtosecond THz-ultrasonics at the nano-scale in metals at room temperature.

  7. Femtosecond upconverted photocurrent spectroscopy of InAs quantum nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tex, David M.; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko, E-mail: kanemitu@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kamiya, Itaru [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    The carrier upconversion dynamics in InAs quantum nanostructures are studied for intermediate-band solar-cell applications via ultrafast photoluminescence and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy based on femtosecond excitation correlation (FEC) techniques. Strong upconverted PC-FEC signals are observed under resonant excitation of quantum well islands (QWIs), which are a few monolayer-thick InAs quantum nanostructures. The PC-FEC signal typically decays within a few hundred picoseconds at room temperature, which corresponds to the carrier lifetime in QWIs. The photoexcited electron and hole lifetimes in InAs QWIs are evaluated as functions of temperature and laser fluence. Our results provide solid evidence for electron–hole–hole Auger process, dominating the carrier upconversion in InAs QWIs at room temperature.

  8. Synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator with broadband chirped mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičiūte, Karolina; Melnikas, Simas; Kičas, Simonas; Trišauskas, Lukas; Vengelis, Julius; Grigonis, Rimantas; Vengris, Mikas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2015-05-01

    We present results obtained during investigation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) with broadband complementary chirped mirror pairs (CMP). The SPOPO based on β-BBO nonlinear crystal is pumped by second harmonic of femtosecond Yb:KGW laser and provides signal pulses tunable over spectral range from 625 to 980 nm. More than 500 mW are generated in the signal beam, giving up to 27 % pump power to signal power conversion efficiency. The plane SPOPO cavity mirror pairs were specially designed to provide 99 % reflection in broad spectral range corresponding to signal wavelength tuning (630-1030 nm) and to suppress group delay dispersion (GDD) oscillations down to +/-10 fs2. Dispersion properties of designed mirrors were tested with white light interferometer (WLI) and attributed to the SPOPO tuning behaviour.

  9. Bistable mode of THG for femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Sidorov, Pavel S.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2016-09-01

    We develop an analytical solution for the THG problem with taking into account self- and cross- modulation of interacting waves. Consideration is made in the framework of long pulse duration approximation and plane wave approximation. Using the original approach, we obtain the explicit solution of Schrödinger equations describing the THG in the framework under consideration both for zero-value amplitude of a wave with triple frequency and for its non-zero value. It should be stressed that the main feature of our approach consists in conservation laws using, which correspond to wave interaction process. We found various regimes of frequency trebling and showed that the THG process possesses a bistable feature under certain condition. We found out also the THG mode, at which the intensities of interacting waves do not change along their propagation coordinate. This leads to existence of soliton solution for THG of femtosecond laser pulses.

  10. Influence of coherent adiabatic excitation on femtosecond transient signals

    CERN Document Server

    Conde, A Peralta; Longarte, A

    2016-01-01

    The transient signals derived from femtosecond pump-probe experiments are analyzed in terms of the coherent evolution of the energy levels perturbed by the excitation pulse. The model system is treated as the sum of independent two-level subsystems that evolve adiabatically or are permanently excited, depending on the detuning from the central wavelength of the excitation laser. This approach will allow us to explain numerically and analytically the convergence between the coherent and incoherent (rate equations) treatments for complex multi-level systems. It will be also shown that the parameter that determines the validity of the incoherent treatment is the distribution of states outside and inside the laser bandwidth, rather than the density of states as it is commonly accepted.

  11. Vacuum heating of solid target irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Quanli(董全力); ZHANG; Jie(张杰)

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with solid targets was studied through experiments and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is proved that the vacuum heating and the inverse bremsstralung process are the main mechanisms of the laser pulse absorption under such conditions. The distribution of hot electrons and that of X-ray are found to have double-temperature structure, which is confirmed by PIC simulations. While the lower temperature is attributed to the resonant absorption, the higher one, however, is caused by the laser-induced electric field in the target normal direction. The time-integrated spectra ofthe reflected laser pulse shows that the mechanism of electron acceleration is determined by the plasma density profile.

  12. Femtosecond Laser Patterning of the Biopolymer Chitosan for Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevam-Alves, Regina; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique Dias; Coatrini, Andrey C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Mendonca, Cleber Renato

    2016-01-01

    Controlling microbial growth is crucial for many biomedical, pharmaceutical and food industry applications. In this paper, we used a femtosecond laser to microstructure the surface of chitosan, a biocompatible polymer that has been explored for applications ranging from antimicrobial action to drug delivery. The influence of energy density on the features produced on chitosan was investigated by optical and atomic force microscopies. An increase in the hydrophilic character of the chitosan surface was attained upon laser micromachining. Patterned chitosan films were used to observe Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilm formation, revealing an increase in the biofilm formation in the structured regions. Our results indicate that fs-laser micromachining is an attractive option to pattern biocompatible surfaces, and to investigate basic aspects of the relationship between surface topography and bacterial adhesion. PMID:27548153

  13. Femtosecond Excited State Dynamics of Size Selected Neutral Molecular Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Raúl; León, Iker; Fernández, José A; Longarte, Asier

    2016-07-21

    The work describes a novel experimental approach to track the relaxation dynamics of an electronically excited distribution of neutral molecular clusters formed in a supersonic expansion, by pump-probe femtosecond ionization. The introduced method overcomes fragmentation issues and makes possible to retrieve the dynamical signature of a particular cluster from each mass channel, by associating it to an IR transition of the targeted structure. We have applied the technique to study the nonadiabatic relaxation of pyrrole homoclusters. The results obtained exciting at 243 nm, near the origin of the bare pyrrole electronic absorption, allow us to identify the dynamical signature of the dimer (Py)2, which exhibits a distinctive lifetime of τ1 ∼ 270 fs, considerably longer than the decays recorded for the monomer and bigger size clusters (Py)n>2. A possible relationship between the measured lifetime and the clusters geometries is tentatively discussed.

  14. Spatiotemporal reshaping and compression of high intensity femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Harenko, D. S.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2007-06-01

    Experimental results of self-compression of femtosecond pulses under filamentation in argon and xenon are presented. The mode of a self-compression in xenon is realized for the first time. The dependence of the spectrum broadening from pressure of these gases, input energy and focusing parameters are studied in detail. The spectral and temporary profiles of the first and the second filaments at multiple filamentation are analyzed. Features of multiple filamentation are revealed in xenon. For the first time experimentally the effect of restriction a number of filaments and effective swapping of energy from one filament to another (more than 70 % of energy in two-filament mode without increasing of their amount is founded). The possible mechanism of the phenomenon related with the saturation of the third order nonlinearity in xenon and influence of the higher fifth-order susceptibility χ (5) are discussed.

  15. Optimally shaped narrowband picosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David P; Valley, David; Ellis, Scott R; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2013-09-09

    A comparison between a Fabry-Pérot etalon filter and a conventional grating filter for producing the picosecond (ps) Raman pump pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. It is shown that for pulses of equal energy the etalon filter produces Raman signals twice as large as that of the grating filter while suppressing the electronically resonant background signal. The time asymmetric profile of the etalon-generated pulse is shown to be responsible for both of these observations. A theoretical discussion is presented which quantitatively supports this hypothesis. It is concluded that etalons are the ideal method for the generation of narrowband ps pulses for FSRS because of the optical simplicity, efficiency, improved FSRS intensity and reduced backgrounds.

  16. Femtosecond-scale switching based on excited free-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Sivan, Y; Yuce, E; Mosk, A P

    2015-01-01

    We describe novel optical switching schemes operating at femtosecond time scales by employing free carrier (FC) excitation. Such unprecedented switching times are made possible by spatially patterning the density of the excited FCs. In the first realization, we rely on diffusion, i.e., on the nonlocality of the FC nonlinear response of the semiconductor, to erase the initial FC pattern and, thereby, eliminate the reflectivity of the system. In the second realization, we erase the FC pattern by launching a second pump pulse at a controlled delay. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed approaches and demonstrate their potential applicability for switching ultrashort pulses propagating in silicon waveguides. We show switching efficiencies of up to $50\\%$ for $100$ fs pump pulses, which is an unusually high level of efficiency for such a short interaction time, a result of the use of the strong FC nonlinearity. Due to limitations of saturation and pattern effects, these schemes can be employed ...

  17. Oxygen assisted interconnection of silver nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Zhou, Y., E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Duley, W. W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-12-14

    Ablation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the direction of laser polarization is achieved by utilizing femtosecond laser irradiation in air at laser fluence ranging from ∼2 mJ/cm{sup 2} to ∼14 mJ/cm{sup 2}. This directional ablation is attributed to localized surface plasmon induced localized electric field enhancement. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the irradiated particles in different gases and at different pressures indicate that the ablation is further enhanced by oxygen in the air. This may be due to the external heating via the reactions of its dissociation product, atomic oxygen, with the surface of Ag particles, while the ablated Ag is not oxidized. Further experimental observations show that the ablated material re-deposits near the irradiated particles and results in the extension of the particles in laser polarization direction, facilitating the interconnection of two well-separated nanoparticles.

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon in air and vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zehua Wu; Nan Zhang; Mingwei Wang; Xiaonong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond (fs) pulse laser ablation of silicon targets in air and in vacuum is investigated using a time-resolved shadowgraphic method. The observed dynamic process of the fs laser ablation of silicon in air is significantly different from that in vacuum. Similar to the ablation of metallic targets, while the shock wave front and a series of nearly concentric and semicircular stripes, as well as the contact front, are clearly identifiable in the process of ablation under 1 x 105 Pa, these phenomena are no longer observed when the ablation takes place in vacuum. Although the ambient air around the target strongly affects the evolution of the ablation plume, the three rounds of material ejection clearly observed in the shadowgraphs of fs laser ablation in standard air can also be distinguished in the process of ablation in vacuum. It is proven that the three rounds of material ejection are caused by different ablation mechanisms.%@@ Femtosecond(fs)pulse laser ablation of silicon targets in air and in vacuum is investigated using a timeresolved shadowgraphic method.The observed dynamic process of the fs laser ablation of silicon in air is significantly different from that in vacuum.Similar to the ablation of metallic targets,while the shock wave front and a series of nearly concentric and semicircular stripes,as well as the contact front,are clearly identifiable in the process of ablation under 1 x 105 Pa,these phenomena are no longer observed when the ablation takes place in vacuum.Although the ambient air around the target strongly affects the evolution of the ablation plume,the three rounds of material ejection clearly observed in the shadowgraphs of fs laser ablation in standard air can also be distinguished in the process of ablation in vacuum.It is proven that the three rounds of material ejection are caused by different ablation mechanisms.

  19. New technology update: femtosecond laser in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy ZZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoltan Z NagyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, HungaryAbstract: Femtosecond lasers represent a new frontier in cataract surgery. Since their ­introduction and first human treatment in 2008, a lot of new developments have been achieved. In this review article, the physical principle of femtolasers is discussed, together with the indications and side effects of the method in cataract surgery. The most important clinical results are also presented regarding capsulotomy, fragmentation of the crystalline lens, corneal wound creation, and refractive results. Safety issues such as endothelial and macular changes are also discussed. The most important advantage of femtolaser cataract technology at present is that all the important surgical steps of cataract surgery can be planned and customized, delivering unparalleled accuracy, repeatability, and consistency in surgical results. The advantages of premium lenses can be maximally used in visual and presbyopia restoration as well. The advantages of ­premium lenses can be maximally used, not only in visual, but in presbyopia restoration as well. Quality of vision can be improved with less posterior chamber lens (PCL tilt, more centralized position of the PCL, possibly less endothelial damage, less macular edema, and less posterior capsule opacification (PCO formation. This technological achievement should be followed by other technical developments in the lens industry. Hopefully this review article will help us to understand the technology and the results to ­demonstrate the differences between the use of femtolasers and phacoemulsification-based cataract surgery. The most important data of the literature are summarized to show ophthalmologists the benefits of the technology in order to provide the best refractive results to the patient.Keywords: femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, capsulotomy, lens fragmentation, corneal wound, arcuate keratotomy, safety

  20. Fast femtosecond laser ablation for efficient cutting of sintered alumina substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N.; Ward, Thomas; Ashforth, Simon; Bodley, Owen; Rodda, Andrew E.; Simpson, M. Cather

    2016-09-01

    Fast, accurate cutting of technical ceramics is a significant technological challenge because of these materials' typical high mechanical strength and thermal resistance. Femtosecond pulsed lasers offer significant promise for meeting this challenge. Femtosecond pulses can machine nearly any material with small kerf and little to no collateral damage to the surrounding material. The main drawback to femtosecond laser machining of ceramics is slow processing speed. In this work we report on the improvement of femtosecond laser cutting of sintered alumina substrates through optimisation of laser processing parameters. The femtosecond laser ablation thresholds for sintered alumina were measured using the diagonal scan method. Incubation effects were found to fit a defect accumulation model, with Fth,1=6.0 J/cm2 (±0.3) and Fth,∞=2.5 J/cm2 (±0.2). The focal length and depth, laser power, number of passes, and material translation speed were optimised for ablation speed and high quality. Optimal conditions of 500 mW power, 100 mm focal length, 2000 μm/s material translation speed, with 14 passes, produced complete cutting of the alumina substrate at an overall processing speed of 143 μm/s - more than 4 times faster than the maximum reported overall processing speed previously achieved by Wang et al. [1]. This process significantly increases processing speeds of alumina substrates, thereby reducing costs, making femtosecond laser machining a more viable option for industrial users.

  1. Femtosecond laser-induced microstructures in glasses and applications in micro-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianrong

    2004-01-01

    Femtosecond laser has been widely used in microscopic modifications to materials due to its ultra-short laser pulse and ultrahigh light intensity. When a transparent material e.g. glass is irradiated by a tightly focused femtosecond laser, the photo-induced reaction is expected to occur only near the focused part of the laser beam inside the glass due to the multiphoton processes. We observed various induced structures e.g. color center defects, refractive index change, micro-void and micro-crack, in glasses after the femtosecond laser irradiation. In this paper, we review the femtosecond laser induced phenomena and discuss the mechanisms of the observed phenomena. We also introduce the fabrication of various micro-optical components, e.g. optical waveguide, micro-grating, micro-lens, fiber attenuator, 3-dimensional optical memory by using the femtosecond laser-induced structures. The femtosecond laser will open new possibilities in the fabrication of micro-optical components with various optical functions.

  2. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~ 4 {\\mu}m.

  3. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-06-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm.

  4. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liao; Jia Qi; Peng Wang; Wei Chu; Zhaohui Wang; Lingling Qiao; Ya Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm.

  5. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension compatible with direct coupling to single-mode optical fibers.

  6. High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guido; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Lancaster, David G; Withford, Michael J

    2013-07-15

    We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10(-2).

  7. Thermo-Optical Tuning of Whispering Gallery Modes in Er:Yb Doped Glass Microspheres to Arbitrary Probe Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Amy; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results on an all-optical, thermally-assisted technique for broad range tuning of microsphere cavity resonance modes to arbitrary probe wavelengths. An Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass (Schott IOG-2) microsphere is pumped at 978 nm via the supporting stem and the heat generated by absorption of the pump light expands the cavity and changes the refractive index. This is a robust tuning method that decouples the pump from the probe and allows fine tuning of the microsphere's whispering gallery modes. Pump/probe experiments were performed to demonstrate thermo-optical tuning to specific probe wavelengths, including the 5S1/2 F = 3 to 5P3/2 F' = 4 laser cooling transition of 85Rb. This is of particular interest for cavity QED-type experiments, while the broad tuning range achievable is useful for integrated photonic devices, including sensors and modulators.

  8. Thermal effect-resilient design of large mode area double-cladding Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Johansen, Mette Marie;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of thermally-induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of different large mode area fibers have been numerically analyzed. A simple but accurate model has been applied to obtain the refractive index change in the fiber cross-section, and a full-vector modal solver base...

  9. Strong broad green UV-excited photoluminescence in rare earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) doped barium zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Ciudad de Mexico, D. F. 07730 (Mexico); Meza, O. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: > Trivalent rare earth (RE) substitution on Zr{sup 4+} sites in BaZrO{sub 3} lead to band gap narrowing. > RE substitution lead to enhanced blue-green intrinsic emission of nanocrystalline BaZrO{sub 3} > Blue-green hue of BaZrO3:RE depends on RE dopant and excitation UV wavelength > BaZrO3: Dy{sup 3+} PL chromatic coordinates correspond to pure white color coordinates of CIE 1931 model - Abstract: The wet synthesis hydrothermal method at 100 deg. C was used to elaborate barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) unpurified with 0.5 mol% of different rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Ce). Morphological, structural and UV-photoluminescence properties depend on the substituted rare earth ionic radii. While the crystalline structure of RE doped BaZrO{sub 3} remains as a cubic perovskite for all substituted RE ions, its band gap changes between 4.65 and 4.93 eV. Under 267 nm excitation the intrinsic green photoluminescence of the as synthesized BaZrO{sub 3}: RE samples is considerably improved by the substitution on RE ions. For 1000 deg. C annealed samples, under 267 nm, the photoluminescence is dominated by the intrinsic BZO emission. It is interesting to notice that Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doped samples present whitish emissions that might be useful for white light generation under 267 nm excitation. CIE color coordinates are reported for all samples.

  10. Q-Switched and Mode Locked Short Pulses from a Diode Pumped, YB-Doped Fiber Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    research, an emerging solution involves changing the fiber composition . Microstructured fibers, better known as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), are...dependent intensity of the pulse is greatest in the center (at t=0), and the rotated polarizing plates suppress the outer winglets of the pulse [9

  11. Spatially selective Er/Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} crystal formation by CO{sub 2} laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lim, Ki-Soo, E-mail: kslim@chungbuk.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Oxyfluoride glass–ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions were formed on the glass surface by CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. • Most of Er and Yb ions were distributed inside CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals and fluorine loss was observed in the EDS element maps. • IR-to-VIS upconversion emission efficiency of laser annealed glass ceramics was much increased and compared with that of the furnace-annealed glass ceramics. • Distributed volume of the glass ceramics were estimated by a confocal fluorescence microscope imaging. - Abstract: We report the glass–ceramic precipitation on the oxyfluoride glass surface by spatially selective annealing with a CO{sub 2} laser and a heat gun exposure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of major CaF{sub 2} and miner Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles. We observed ∼100 nm nanoparticle aggregation by tunneling electron microscopy and element distribution in glass and crystal phases. Spatial distribution of glass ceramics near the glass surface was probed by confocal fluorescence microscope by using much enhanced emission from the Er ions in the laser-treated area. Strong emissions at 365 nm excitation and visible up-conversion emissions at 980 nm excitation also indicated well incorporation of Er and Yb ions into a crystalline environment.

  12. Superconductivity at 31.3 K in Yb-doped La(O/F)FeAs superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Prakash; S J Singh; S Patnaik; A K Ganguli

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ytterbium substitution at the lanthanum site on the superconducting properties of La1-YbO0.8F0.2FeAs ( = 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) oxypnictides has been investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction studies show the presence of Yb2O3 and LaOF as secondary phases. The superconducting transition temperature (c) of 31.3 (± 0.05) K has been observed in = 0.1 composition which is the maximum c so far in the La(O/F)FeAs superconductor family at ambient pressure. Further increase in leads to suppression and broadening of superconducting transition. The resistive transition curves under different magnetic fields were investigated, leading to determination of upper critical field c2 () of this new superconductor. The value of c2 at zero temperature is estimated to be about 46 T corresponding to coherence length ∼ 27 Å.

  13. Utilization of IR laser pumped anti-Stokes emission of Er-Yb doped systems for identification of securities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, A.N.; Ryabtsev, G.I.; Ketko, G.A. [Institute of Physics, Belarussian Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Gorelenko, A.Yu.; Demidovich, A.A. [Science Center `Gosznak` of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Strek, W.; Maruszewicz, K.; Deren, P. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a utilization of anti-Stokes luminescence of Er-Yb systems for identification of securities. A simple method of detection of an up-conversion phenomenon in such system by means of IR laser operating in the region 960-1010 nm is proposed. (author) 3 refs, 3 figs

  14. Effect of Yb doping on the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of YVO4 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soharab, M; Bhaumik, Indranil; Bhatt, R; Saxena, A; Karnal, A K; Gupta, P K

    2017-02-20

    Single crystals of YVO4 with different doping concentrations of Yb (1.5, 3.0, 8.0, and 15.0 at. %) and with good crystalline quality (FWHM ∼43-55 arc sec of rocking curve) were grown by the optical floating zone technique. Refractive index measurements were carried out at four wavelengths as a function of temperature. The measurements show that as the doping concentration of Yb is increased, the refractive index varies marginally for ne whereas there is a significant change in the value of no. The thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) was found to be positive with a value ∼10-5/°C, which is 1 order higher than that for the undoped YVO4 crystal. The thermo-optic coefficient is higher for ne compared to that of no. Also, a set of relations describing the wavelength dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient were established that are useful for calculating the thermo-optic coefficient at any temperature in the range 30°C-150°C and at any wavelength in the range 532-1551 nm.

  15. Luminescence and Electroluminescence of Nd, Tm and Yb Doped GaAs and some II-Vi Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    the Sixth International Workshop on Electroluminescence, El Paso, Texas, 1992 ( Cingo Puntos Press, El Paso, Texas, 1992), and references therein. 2. R...34. impurity seems to be traps (represented by ellipse) with the atomiclike 4f" core ideal . states. (a) Trapping (liberation) "r.(,r) of electron on REI traps...34structured" impurity seems to be ideal . KINETIC MODEL AND COMPUTATION RESULTS The luminescence kinetic model involving RE`3 "structured" isoelectronic

  16. Femtosecond structural dynamics on the atomic length scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2014-03-15

    This thesis reports on the development and application of two different but complementary ultrafast electron diffraction setups built at the Max Planck Research Department for Structural Dynamics. One is an ultra-compact femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) setup (Egun300), which is currently operational (with a maximum electron energy of 150 keV) and provides ultrashort (∝300 fs) and bright (∝10 e/μm{sup 2}) electron bunches. The other one, named as Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a radio frequency driven 2 to 5 MeV FED setup built in collaboration with different groups from DESY. REGAE was developed as a facility that will provide high quality diffraction with sufficient coherence to even address structural protein dynamics and with electron pulses as short as 20 fs (FWHM). As one of the first students in Prof. R.J. Dwayne Miller's group, I led the femtosecond (fs) laser sub-group at REGAE being responsible for the construction of different key optical elements required to drive both of aforementioned FED systems. A third harmonic generation (THG) and a nonlinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) have been used for the photo-generation of ultrashort electron bursts as well as sample laser excitation. Different diagnostic tools have been constructed to monitor the performance of the fs optical system. A fast autocorrelator was developed to provide on the fly pulse duration correction. A transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG-FROG) was built to obtain detail information about the characteristics of fs optical pulse, i.e. phase and amplitude of its spectral components. In addition to these optical setups, I developed a fs optical pump-probe system, which supports broadband probe pulses. This setup was successfully applied to investigate the semiconductor-to-metal photoinduced phase transition in VO{sub 2} and the ultrafast photo-reduction mechanism of graphene oxide. In regard to FED setups, I have been

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of energy transportation and accumulation in femtosecond laser ablation on metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xin-yu; ZHANG Duan-ming; MAO Feng; LI Zhi-hua; YI DI; ZHANG Xiao-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The energy transportation and accumulation effect for femtosecond (fs) laser ablation on metal targets were studied using both theoretical and experimental methods.Using finite difference method,numerical simulation of energy transportation characteristics on copper target ablated by femtosecond laser was performed.Energy accumulation effects on metals of silver and copper ablated by an amplified Ti: sapphire femtosecond laser system were then studied experimentally.The simulated results show that the electrons and lattices have different temperature evolvement characteristics in the ablation stage.The electron temperature increases sharply and reaches the maximum in several femtoseconds while it needs thousands of femtoseconds for lattice to reach the maximum temperature.The experimental results show that uniform laser-induced periodic surface structures (PSS) can be formed with the appropriate pulsed numbers and laser energy density.Electron-phonon coupling coefficient plays an important role in PSS formation in different metals.Surface ripples of Cu are more pronounced than those of Au under the same laser energy density.

  18. Fabrication of 3D embedded hollow structures inside polymer dielectric PMMA with femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chong; Chen, Tao; Hu, Anming; Liu, Shibing; Li, Junwei

    2016-11-01

    Recent progresses in femtosecond laser (fs) manufacturing have already proved that fs laser is a powerful tool in three dimensional internal structure fabrications. However, most studies are mainly focused on realize such structures in inorganic transparent dielectric, such as photosensitive glass and fused silica, etc. In this study, we present two methods to fabricate embedded internal 3D structures in a polymer dielectric material polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Both continuous hollow structure such as microfluidic channels and discrete hollow structures such as single microcavities are successfully fabricated with the help of femtosecond lasers. Among them, complicated 3D microchannel with a total length longer than 10mm and diameters around 80μm to 200μm are fabricated with a low repetition rate Ti: sapphire femtosecond laser by direct laser writing at a speed ranging from 25μm/s to 2000μm/s microcavities which function as concave microball lenses (CMBLs) and can be applied in super-wide-angle imaging are fabricated with a high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser due to the distinct heat accumulation effect after 5s irradiation with the tightly focused fs laser beam. These new approaches proved that femtosecond laser direct writing technology has great application potential in 3D integrated devices manufacturing in the future.

  19. Sub-micron-structure machining on silicon by femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Yin TSAI; Shao-Wei LUO; Chih-Wei WU; Shing-Hoa WANG

    2009-01-01

    Sub-micron-structure machining on silicon substrate was studied by direct writing system of femtosecond laser with the central wavelength of 800 nm, pulse duration of 120 fs and repetition rate of 1 kHz. Three kinds of experiments were conducted: 1) the effect of photoresist on silicon; 2) machinability of different orientations of silicon; and 3) the size of micro-structure and the cross-section shape. Photoresist SU8 was coated onto silicon substrates in thicknesses of 100 μm. SU8 remained on the silicon substrate while the silicon under the machined SU8 was removed after laser machining. Orientations of (100), (110), and (111) silicon substrates were machined with the laser power of 60 μW and the scanning speed of 3 ram/rain. Spike morphologies were observed on all three orientations of silicon substrates without obvious directional difference of these spikes on different silicon substrates. In addition, the ablation threshold energies were also similar. In the consideration of ablation energy, one numerical model of the machining parameters has been proposed to simulate the cross-section of the micro-structure. The predicted shape by simulation can fit the profile of the cross-section shape well.

  20. Biomimetic surface structuring using cylindrical vector femtosecond laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulas, Evangelos; Manousaki, Alexandra; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    We report on a new, single-step and scalable method to fabricate highly ordered, multi-directional and complex surface structures that mimic the unique morphological features of certain species found in nature. Biomimetic surface structuring was realized by exploiting the unique and versatile angular profile and the electric field symmetry of cylindrical vector (CV) femtosecond (fs) laser beams. It is shown that, highly controllable, periodic structures exhibiting sizes at nano-, micro- and dual- micro/nano scales can be directly written on Ni upon line and large area scanning with radial and azimuthal polarization beams. Depending on the irradiation conditions, new complex multi-directional nanostructures, inspired by the Shark’s skin morphology, as well as superhydrophobic dual-scale structures mimicking the Lotus’ leaf water repellent properties can be attained. It is concluded that the versatility and features variations of structures formed is by far superior to those obtained via laser processing with linearly polarized beams. More important, by exploiting the capabilities offered by fs CV fields, the present technique can be further extended to fabricate even more complex and unconventional structures. We believe that our approach provides a new concept in laser materials processing, which can be further exploited for expanding the breadth and novelty of applications.

  1. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short x-ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error. For the sub-100fs range we use an amplitude modulated CW laser at 1GHz to transmit RF phase information, and control the delay through a 100m fiber by observing the retroreflected signal. Initial results show 40fs peak-to-peak error above 10Hz, and 200fs long term drift, mainly due to amplitude sensitivity in the analog mixers. For the sub-10fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes. For attosecond synchronization we propose a stabilized, free space link using bulk lens wavegu...

  2. Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...

  3. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Si, M S

    2010-01-01

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4% to 72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As far as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of ...

  4. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M S; Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not.

  5. Implications of the focal beam profile in serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Lorenzo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; Chapman, Henry N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; Metcalf, Peter [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    2015-05-12

    The photon density profile of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beam at the focal position is a critical parameter for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), but is difficult to measure because of the destructive power of the beam. A novel high intensity radiation induced phasing method (HIRIP) has been proposed as a general experimental approach for protein structure determination, but has proved to be sensitive to variations of the X-ray intensity, with uniform incident fluence desired for best performance. Here we show that experimental SFX data collected at the nano-focus chamber of the Coherent X-ray Imaging end-station at the Linac Coherent Light Source using crystals with a limited size distribution suggests an average profile of the X-ray beam that has a large variation of intensity. We propose a new method to improve the quality of high fluence data for HI-RIP, by identifying and removing diffraction patterns from crystals exposed to the low intensity region of the beam. The method requires crystals of average size comparable to the width of the focal spot.

  6. Thermal melting and ablation of silicon by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail: sikudr@lebedev.ru; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Bunkin, A. F.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The space-time dynamics of thermal melting, subsurface cavitation, spallative ablation, and fragmentation ablation of the silicon surface excited by single IR femtosecond laser pulses is studied by timeresolved optical reflection microscopy. This dynamics is revealed by monitoring picosecond and (sub)nanosecond oscillations of probe pulse reflection, which is modulated by picosecond acoustic reverberations in the dynamically growing surface melt subjected to ablation and having another acoustic impedance, and by optical interference between the probe pulse replicas reflected by the spalled layer surface and the layer retained on the target surface. The acoustic reverberation periods change during the growth and ablation of the surface melt film, which makes it possible to quantitatively estimate the contributions of these processes to the thermal dynamics of the material surface. The results on the thermal dynamics of laser excitation are supported by dynamic measurements of the ablation parameters using noncontact ultrasonic diagnostics, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical interference microscopy of the modified regions appearing on the silicon surface after ablation.

  7. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  8. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, L.S. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Ng, E.Y.K., E-mail: mykng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Zheng, H.Y. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  9. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov laser at visible wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    for the generated CR pulse is 160 fs. The FWHM of the AC of the input pump pulse at 1035 nm is 832 fs. The CR pulse is more than 5 times shorter than the pump pulse, as a result of the nonlinear pump pulse compression in the CR fiber link. We are currently working on achieving an even broader electrical tunability......Fiber-optic Cherenkov radiation (CR), also known as dispersive wave generation or non-solitonic radiation, is produced in small-core photonic crystal fibers (PCF) when a soliton perturbed by fiber higher-order dispersion co-propagates with a dispersive wave fulfilling a certain phase...... electrically tunable femtosecond CR output in the visible (VIS) spectral range of 580-630 nm, with the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm, with average power in the milliwatt range. Relative intensity noise (RIN) of this laser, affecting the sensitivity of bio-imaging and microscopy systems, is found...

  10. Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farson, Dave F.; Choi, Hae Woon; Zimmerman, Burr; Steach, Jeremy K.; Chalmers, Jeffery J.; Olesik, Susan V.; Lee, L. James

    2008-03-01

    Techniques for microfluidic channel fabrication in soda-lime glass and fused quartz using femtosecond laser ablation and ablation in conjunction with polymer coating for surface roughness improvement were tested. Systematic experiments were done to characterize how process variables (laser fluence, scanning speed and focus spot overlap, and material properties) affect the machining feature size and quality. Laser fluence and focus spot overlap showed the strongest influence on channel depth and roughness. At high fluence, the surface roughness was measured to be between 395 nm and 731 nm RMS. At low fluence, roughness decreased to 100 nm-350 nm RMS and showed a greater dependence on overlap. The surface roughness of laser ablation was also dependent on the material properties. For the same laser ablation parameters, soda-lime glass surfaces were smoother than fused quartz. For some applications, especially those using quartz, smoother channels are desired. A hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) polymer coating was applied and the roughness of the coated channels was improved to 10-50 nm RMS.

  11. Robust non-wetting PTFE surfaces by femtosecond laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Lehr, Jorge; Danielczak, Lisa; Leask, Richard; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-08

    Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability,which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here,robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters,both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.

  12. Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Staphylococcus haemolyticus following Femtosecond Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Wong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period.

  13. Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Staphylococcus haemolyticus following Femtosecond Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Margaret; Baumrind, Benjamin R; Frank, James H; Halpern, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period.

  14. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nathan David

    This thesis presents applications of Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) to a variety of aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. FLEET tagged line characteristics such as intensity, width and spectral features are investigated in various flow conditions (pressure, temperature, velocity, steadiness, etc.) and environments (gas composition) for both temporally and spatially instantaneous and averaged data. Special attention is drawn to the nature of first and second positive systems of molecular nitrogen and the ramifications on FLEET measurements. Existing laser-based diagnostic techniques are summarized and FLEET is directly compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in various low speed flows. Multidimensional velocity, acceleration, vorticity and other flow parameters are extracted in supersonic free jets and within an enclosed in-draft tunnel test section. Probability distribution functions of the mean and standard deviation of critical flow parameters are unveiled by utilizing a Bayesian statistical framework wherein likelihood functions are established from prior and posterior distributions. Advanced image processing techniques based on fuzzy logic are applied to single-shot FLEET images with low signal-to-noise ratio to improve image quality and reduce uncertainty in data processing algorithms. Lastly, FLEET second positive and first negative emission are considered at a wide range of pressures to correct for changes in select rovibrational peak magnitude and shape due to density from which bulk gas temperature may be extracted.

  15. Femtosecond electron diffraction: heralding the era of atomically resolved dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaini, Germán; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2011-09-01

    One of the great dream experiments in Science is to directly observe atomic motions as they occur. Femtosecond electron diffraction provided the first 'light' of sufficient intensity to achieve this goal by attaining atomic resolution to structural changes on the relevant timescales. This review covers the technical progress that made this new level of acuity possible and gives a survey of the new insights gained from an atomic level perspective of structural dynamics. Atomic level views of the simplest possible structural transition, melting, are discussed for a number of systems in which both thermal and purely electronically driven atomic displacements can be correlated with the degree of directional bonding. Optical manipulation of charge distributions and effects on interatomic forces/bonding can be directly observed through the ensuing atomic motions. New phenomena involving strongly correlated electron-lattice systems are also discussed in which optically induced changes in the potential energy landscape lead to ballistic structural changes. Concepts such as the structural order parameters are now directly observable at the atomic level of inspection to give a remarkable view of the extraordinary degree of cooperativity involved in strongly correlated electron-lattice systems. These recent examples, in combination with time-resolved real space imaging now possible with electron probes, are truly defining an emerging field that holds great promise to make a significant impact in how we understand structural dynamics. This article is dedicated to the memory of Professor David John Hugh Cockayne, a world leader in electron microscopy, who sadly passed away in December.

  16. Efficacy of femtosecond lasers for application of acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mika; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Hatano, Naoya; Sugano, Aki; Ito, Akihiko; Takaoka, Yutaka

    2016-12-10

    Acupuncture treatment utilizes the stimulation of metal acupuncture needles that are manually inserted into a living body. In the last decades, laser light has been used as an alternative to needles to stimulate acupuncture points. We previously reported suppression of myostatin (Mstn) gene expression in skeletal muscle by means of femtosecond laser (FL) irradiation, after electroacupuncture, in which acupuncture needles are stimulated with a low-frequency microcurrent. The purpose of the study here was to investigate the efficacy of FL irradiation in mouse skeletal muscle with regard to protein synthesis. After irradiation of the hindlimbs, we first analyzed Mstn gene expression and Mstn protein level in the skeletal muscle. We then evaluated phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream target 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The results showed that FL irradiation significantly reduced the amount of Mstn protein and enhanced the phosphorylation of p70S6K in of the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. We suggest that FL irradiation activated the protein synthetic pathway in the skeletal muscle. In conclusion, we determined that FL irradiation can serve as an alternative for acupuncture needles and has the potential of being a new non-invasive acupuncture treatment of skeletal muscle.

  17. Compression of Electron Pulses for Femtosecond Electron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Omid; Yang, Jie; Centurion, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Our goal is to improve the temporal resolution in electron diffraction experiments to 100 fs by compressing the electron pulses using a time-varying electric field. The compressed pulse can be used for a better understanding of the dynamics of molecules under study. A bunch of 3 million electrons is generated at a photocathode by femtosecond UV laser pulses and accelerated to 100 keV in a static electric field. Then, the longitudinal component of the electric field of a microwave cavity is employed to compress the bunch. The cavity's frequency and phase are accurately tuned in such a way that the electric field is parallel to the bunch motion at its arrival and antiparallel to it at its exit. Compression in the transverse directions is done by magnetic lenses. Simulations have been done to predict the bunch profile at different positions and times by General Particle Tracer code. A streak camera has been built to measure the duration of the pulses. It uses the electric field of a discharging parallel plate capacitor to rotate the bunch so that angular spreading of the bunch is proportional to its duration. The capacitor is discharged by a laser pulse incident on a photo switch.

  18. Tip-based electron source for femtosecond electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Jan-Paul; Hoffrogge, Johannes; Schenk, Markus; Krueger, Michael; Baum, Peter; Hommelhoff, Peter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Illumination of a sharp tungsten tip with femtosecond laser pulses leads to the emission of ultrashort, high brightness electron pulses that are ideally suited for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) experiments [1]. The tip's small virtual source size ({proportional_to}5 nm) results in a large transverse coherence length of the electron pulse and therefore better spatial resolution as compared to a conventional flat cathode design. The enhanced electric field at the tip apex (2 GV/m) is about two orders of magnitude larger than the maximum electric field applicable in a plate capacitor based setup (20 MV/m). This reduces the influence of the initial energy distribution on the pulse duration at the target and improves the timing jitter. Simulations show that a setup with a sharp tip as the cathode in combination with two anodes yields an electron pulse duration of about 50 fs at the sample. The electron energy is 30 keV and the gun to sample distance is 3 cm. We implemented the two anode setup with the tip experimentally. We present the experimental characteristics of the emitted electron beam both in static field emission and in laser triggered emission.

  19. Depolarization properties of the femtosecond supercontinuum generated in condensed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. Sai Santosh; Deepak, K. L. N.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we present a study of depolarization of a supercontinuum across its spectral range as a function of the femtosecond laser pump intensity for an anisotropic crystalline condensed medium, potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate (KDP) crystal, and compare our results with commonly used supercontinuum generation (SCG) materials, namely borosilicate glass Schott (BK-7) glass (representing isotropic amorphous condensed media) and BaF2 (isotropic crystalline condensed media). Our results show that at higher input powers, depolarization in the continuum increases for BK-7, BaF2 , and along the direction of the optic axis of the KDP crystal. However, in the case of KDP crystal, we observe that the depolarization properties are strongly dependent on (i) the plane of polarization of incident light and (ii) the orientation of the crystal with respect to the incident light. Our studies also confirm that one can achieve SCG in a KDP crystal that maintains the same state of input polarization even at high input intensities when proper orientation of the crystal is used.

  20. Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, D.; Mahlmann, D.; Wortmann, D.; Gottmann, J.

    2009-08-01

    By focusing fs-laser radiation in the volume of a transparent material the refractive index can be changed locally, leading to 3-dimensional waveguiding structures. Waveguides are written in phosphate glass (IOG from Schott) at a depth of 100 μm below the surface. The pulse energy and the scan velocity are varied. For the first time the optical path difference caused by the waveguides and therefore the refractive index distribution of the waveguides and their cross sections are determined using interference microscopy. The optical path difference measured in the written structures and their cross sections is analyzed by a phase-shift algorithm. Thus, the refractive index distribution both along a line perpendicular to the waveguide and in the plane of a cross section is determined. The results are visualized as 2-dimensional graphics. Several regions of opposite sign of the refractive index change are observed in the cross sections of waveguides generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The number and the size of these regions are increasing with increasing pulse energy and decreasing scan velocity.

  1. Using femtosecond lasers to modify sizes of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cordeiro, Thiago; Almeida de Matos, Ricardo; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Vieira, Nilson D.; Courrol, Lilia C.; Samad, Ricardo E.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are important on several scientific, medical and industrial areas. The control of nanoparticles characteristics has fundamental importance to increase the efficiency on the processes and applications in which they are employed. The metallic nanoparticles present specific surface plasmon resonances (SPR). These resonances are related with the collective oscillations of the electrons presents on the metallic nanoparticle. The SPR is determined by the potential defined by the nanoparticle size and geometry. There are several methods of producing gold nanoparticles, including the use of toxic chemical polymers. We already reported the use of natural polymers, as for example, the agar-agar, to produce metallic nanoparticles under xenon lamp irradiation. This technique is characterized as a "green" synthesis because the natural polymers are inoffensive to the environment. We report a technique to produce metallic nanoparticles and change its geometrical and dimensional characteristics using a femtosecond laser. The 1 ml initial solution was irradiate using a laser beam with 380 mW, 1 kHz and 40 nm of bandwidth centered at 800 nm. The setup uses an Acousto-optic modulator, Dazzler, to change the pulses spectral profiles by introduction of several orders of phase, resulting in different temporal energy distributions. The use of Dazzler has the objective of change the gold nanoparticles average size by the changing of temporal energy distributions of the laser pulses incident in the sample. After the laser irradiation, the gold nanoparticles average diameter were less than 15 nm.

  2. Femtosecond photoelectron and photoion spectrometer with vacuum ultraviolet probe pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Markus; Grilj, Jakob; Sistrunk, Emily; Gühr, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We describe a setup to study ultrafast dynamics in gas-phase molecules using time-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) probe pulses are generated via strong field high-order harmonic generation from infrared femtosecond laser pulses. The band pass characteristic in transmission of thin indium (In) metal foil is exploited to isolate the $9^{\\text{th}}$ harmonic of the 800 nm fundamental (H9, 14 eV, 89 nm) from all other high harmonics. The $9^{\\text{th}}$ harmonic is obtained with high conversion efficiencies and has sufficient photon energy to access the complete set of valence electron levels in most molecules. The setup also allows for direct comparison of VUV single-photon probe with 800 nm multi-photon probe without influencing the delay of excitation and probe pulse or the beam geometry. We use a magnetic bottle spectrometer with high collection efficiency for electrons, serving at the same time as a time of flight spectrometer for ions. Characterization measurem...

  3. Evaluation of human sclera after femtosecond laser ablation using two photon and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-08-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial thickness intrascleral channels can be created with a femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm. Such channels have the potential to increase outflow facility and reduce elevated IOP. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in human cadaver eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such channels. This demonstrates that concept of integrating femtosecond laser surgery, and two-photon and confocal imaging has the future potential for image-guided high-precision surgery in transparent and translucent tissue.

  4. 2D calculations of the thermal effects due to femtosecond laser-metal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, S.; Le Harzic, R.; Huot, N.; Audouard, E.; Fortunier, R.

    2005-07-01

    Experimental results previously published have shown that the radial heat affected zone (HAZ) for a 500 nm thick Al sample in the femtosecond case is less than 2 μm [Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 3886]. The spread of radial thermal effects for femtosecond pulses is calculated, by developing a two-dimensional version of the two temperature model (TTM). The case of an axi-symmetrical geometry is simulated by a finite element technique. A physical metallurgy approach is used to define and to estimate the radial HAZ width from the calculations. The evolution of the temperature as a function of time is studied, leading to a radial HAZ width of 220 nm for 500 nm thick Al samples. Similar calculations in the nanosecond regime are also performed and compared to the femtosecond case.

  5. Femtosecond Laser Processing of Germanium: An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    An ab initio molecular dynamics study of femtosecond laser processing of germanium is presented in this paper. The method based on the finite temperature density functional theory is adopted to probe the structural change, thermal motion of the atoms, dynamic property of the velocity autocorrelation, and the vibrational density of states. Starting from a cubic system at room temperature (300 K) containing 64 germanium atoms with an ordered arrangement of 1.132 nm in each dimension, the femtosecond laser processing is simulated by imposing the Nose Hoover thermostat to the electronic subsystem lasting for ~100 fs and continuing with microcanonical ensemble simulation of ~200 fs. The simulation results show solid, liquid and gas phases of germanium under adjusted intensities of the femtosecond laser irradiation. We find the irradiated germanium distinguishes from the usual germanium crystal by analyzing their melting and dynamic properties.

  6. Thermally-Reconfigurable Quantum Photonic Circuits at Telecom Wavelength by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Flamini, Fulvio; Rab, Adil S; Spagnolo, Nicolò; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Zandrini, Tommaso; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The importance of integrated quantum photonics in the telecom band resides on the possibility of interfacing with the optical network infrastructure developed for classical communications. In this framework, femtosecond laser written integrated photonic circuits, already assessed for quantum information experiments in the 800 nm wavelength range, have great potentials. In fact these circuits, written in glass, can be perfectly mode-matched at telecom wavelength to the in/out coupling fibers, which is a key requirement for a low-loss processing node in future quantum optical networks. In addition, for several applications quantum photonic devices will also need to be dynamically reconfigurable. Here we experimentally demonstrate the high performance of femtosecond laser written photonic circuits for quantum experiments in the telecom band and we show the use of thermal shifters, also fabricated by the same femtosecond laser, to accurately tune them. State-of-the-art manipulation of single and two-photon states...

  7. Time-resolved electron beam diagnostics with sub-femtosecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guanglei; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Haixiao; Yang, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    In modern high-gain free-electron lasers, ultra-fast photon pulses designed for studying chemical, atomic and biological systems are generated from a serial of behaviors of high-brightness electron beam at the time-scale ranging from several hundred femtoseconds to sub-femtosecond. Currently, radiofrequency transverse deflectors are widely used to provide reliable, single-shot electron beam phase space diagnostics, with a temporal resolution of femtosecond. Here, we show that the time resolution limitations caused by the intrinsic beam size in transverse deflectors, can be compensated with specific transverse-to-longitudinal coupling elements. For the purpose, an undulator with transverse gradient field is introduced before the transverse deflector. With this technique, a resolution of less than 1fs root mean square has been theoretically demonstrated for measuring the longitudinal profile and/or the micro-bunching of the electron bunch.

  8. Measurement of ablation threshold of oxide-film-coated aluminium nanoparticles irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefonov, O V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Il' ina, I V; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experiments on estimation of femtosecond laser threshold intensity at which nanoparticles are removed from the substrate surface. The studies are performed with nanoparticles obtained by femtosecond laser ablation of pure aluminium in distilled water. The attenuation (or extinction, i.e. absorption and scattering) spectra of nanoparticles are measured at room temperature in the UV and optical wavelength ranges. The size of nanoparticles is determined using atomic force microscopy. A new method of scanning photoluminescence is proposed to evaluate the threshold of nanoparticle removal from the surface of a glass substrate exposed to IR femtosecond laser pulses with intensities 10{sup 11} – 10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  9. Promotion of protein crystal growth by actively switching crystal growth mode via femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yusuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Yoshimura, Masashi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Tachibana, Masaru; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Adachi, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Mori, Yusuke

    2016-11-01

    Large single crystals with desirable shapes are essential for various scientific and industrial fields, such as X-ray/neutron crystallography and crystalline devices. However, in the case of proteins the production of such crystals is particularly challenging, despite the efforts devoted to optimization of the environmental, chemical and physical parameters. Here we report an innovative approach for promoting the growth of protein crystals by directly modifying the local crystal structure via femtosecond laser ablation. We demonstrate that protein crystals with surfaces that are locally etched (several micrometers in diameter) by femtosecond laser ablation show enhanced growth rates without losing crystal quality. Optical phase-sensitive microscopy and X-ray topography imaging techniques reveal that the local etching induces spiral growth, which is energetically advantageous compared with the spontaneous two-dimensional nucleation growth mode. These findings prove that femtosecond laser ablation can actively switch the crystal growth mode, offering flexible control over the size and shape of protein crystals.

  10. Pulsed digital micro-holography of femto-second order by double-wavelength recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-wei; WANG Xiao-lei; ZHAI Hong-chen

    2007-01-01

    Double-wavelength recording used in a pulsed digital micro-holographic system to record ultra-fast processing of the order of femto-second is reported for the first time, where a BBO crystal is used to generate harmonic wave of the incident laser wave, and both of the basic and the frequency doubled waves are time-delayed and introduced to a Michelson's interferom eter to record two sub-holograms with different spatial frequencies on a single frame of a CCD. In the experiment, an ultra fast dynamic process of air ionization induced by a single femto-second laser pulse is recorded with holography by this system, and both of intensity and phase difference images digitally reconstructed are obtained through Fourier transformation and digital filtering, which show clearly the dynamic process of formation and propagation of the plasma, with a time resolution of the order of femto-second.

  11. Threshold for permanent refractive index change in crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, D.; Chen, Z.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Van, V.

    2016-08-01

    An optical damage threshold for crystalline silicon from single femtosecond laser pulses was determined by detecting a permanent change in the refractive index of the material. This index change could be detected with unprecedented sensitivity by measuring the resonant wavelength shift of silicon integrated optics microring resonators irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths. The threshold for permanent index change at 400 nm wavelength was determined to be 0.053 ± 0.007 J/cm2, which agrees with previously reported threshold values for femtosecond laser modification of crystalline silicon. However, the threshold for index change at 800 nm wavelength was found to be 0.044 ± 0.005 J/cm2, which is five times lower than the previously reported threshold values for visual change on the silicon surface. The discrepancy is attributed to possible modification of the crystallinity of silicon below the melting temperature that has not been detected before.

  12. Femtosecond structural dynamics drives the trans/cis isomerization in photoactive yellow protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Kanupriya; Hutchison, Christopher D M; Groenhof, Gerrit; Aquila, Andy; Robinson, Josef S; Tenboer, Jason; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; DePonte, Daniel P; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Morozov, Dmitry; Oberthuer, Dominik; Gati, Cornelius; Subramanian, Ganesh; James, Daniel; Zhao, Yun; Koralek, Jake; Brayshaw, Jennifer; Kupitz, Christopher; Conrad, Chelsie; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse D; Metz, Markus; Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu; Grant, Thomas D; Koglin, Jason E; Ketawala, Gihan; Fromme, Raimund; Šrajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Spence, John C H; Ourmazd, Abbas; Schwander, Peter; Weierstall, Uwe; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Petra; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Moffat, Keith; van Thor, Jasper J; Schmidt, Marius

    2016-05-06

    A variety of organisms have evolved mechanisms to detect and respond to light, in which the response is mediated by protein structural changes after photon absorption. The initial step is often the photoisomerization of a conjugated chromophore. Isomerization occurs on ultrafast time scales and is substantially influenced by the chromophore environment. Here we identify structural changes associated with the earliest steps in the trans-to-cis isomerization of the chromophore in photoactive yellow protein. Femtosecond hard x-ray pulses emitted by the Linac Coherent Light Source were used to conduct time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography on photoactive yellow protein microcrystals over a time range from 100 femtoseconds to 3 picoseconds to determine the structural dynamics of the photoisomerization reaction.

  13. Laser ranging by time-of-flight measurement of femtosecond light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement of femtosecond light pulses was investigated for laser ranging of long distances with sub-micrometer precision in the air. The bandwidth limitation of the photo-detection electronics used in timing femtosecond pulses was overcome by adopting a type-II nonlinear second-harmonic crystal that permits producing the balanced optical cross-correlation signal between two overlapped light pulses. This method offered a sub-femtosecond timing resolution in determining the temporal offset between two pulses through lock-in control of the pulse repetition rate with reference to the atomic clock. The exceptional ranging capability was verified by measuring various distances from 1.5 m to 700 m. This method is found suited for terrestrial land surveying and space missions of formation-flying satellites.

  14. High precision laser ranging by time-of-flight measurement of femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement of femtosecond light pulses was investigated for laser ranging of long distances with sub-micrometer precision in the air. The bandwidth limitation of the photo-detection electronics used in timing femtosecond pulses was overcome by adopting a type-II nonlinear second-harmonic crystal that permits the production of a balanced optical cross-correlation signal between two overlapping light pulses. This method offered a sub-femtosecond timing resolution in determining the temporal offset between two pulses through lock-in control of the pulse repetition rate with reference to the atomic clock. The exceptional ranging capability was verified by measuring various distances of 1.5, 60 and 700 m. This method is found well suited for future space missions based on formation-flying satellites as well as large-scale industrial applications for land surveying, aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding.

  15. Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Cranfield

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study demonstrating how ultrafast laser radiation stimulates osteoblasts is presented. The study employed a custom made optical system that allowed for simultaneous confocal cell imaging and targeted femtosecond pulse laser irradiation. When femtosecond laser light was focused onto a single cell, a rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels was observed followed by contraction of the targeted cell. This contraction caused deformation of neighbouring cells leading to a heterogeneous strain field throughout the monolayer. Quantification of the strain fields in the monolayer using digital image correlation revealed local strains much higher than threshold values typically reported to stimulate extracellular bone matrix production in vitro. This use of point targeting with femtosecond pulse lasers could provide a new method for stimulating cell activity in orthopaedic tissue engineering.

  16. Study on impurity desorption induced by femtosecond pulse laser based on a stochastic process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the advantages on non-equilibrium heating and desorption induced by electronic transition, the femtosecond pulse laser introduces a new way for solving the problem of impurity pollution adsorbed on a solid thin film in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). A model based on stochastic processes was established for stimulated desorption induced by the femtosecond pulse laser to interpret the interaction of the optically excited hot electrons with the adsorbed molecules in a metal substrate. Numerical simulation results reveal a time-dependent desorption probability of adsorbed molecules and indicate that how key parameters of femtosecond pulse laser, such as incident laser energy flux, pulse duration, and wavelength of pulse, have a great effect on the desorption probability.

  17. Photomechanical ablation of biological tissue induced by focused femtosecond laser and its application for acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Ohta, Mika; Ito, Akihiko; Takaoka, Yutaka

    2013-03-01

    Photomechanical laser ablation due to focused femtosecond laser irradiation was induced on the hind legs of living mice, and its clinical influence on muscle cell proliferation was investigated via histological examination and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to examine the expression of the gene encoding myostatin, which is a growth repressor in muscle satellite cells. The histological examination suggested that damage of the tissue due to the femtosecond laser irradiation was localized on epidermis and dermis and hardly induced in the muscle tissue below. On the other hand, gene expression of the myostatin of muscle tissue after laser irradiation was suppressed. The suppression of myostatin expression facilitates the proliferation of muscle cells, because myostatin is a growth repressor in muscle satellite cells. On the basis of these results, we recognize the potential of the femtosecond laser as a tool for noncontact, high-throughput acupuncture in the treatment of muscle disease.

  18. A Comparison of Different Operating Systems for Femtosecond Lasers in Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs, coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA, the Victus (USA, and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland.

  19. Femtosecond laser 3D micromachining and its applications to biochip fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Femtosecond lasers have opened up new avenues in materials processing due to their unique characteristics of ultra-short pulse widths and extremely high peak intensities that induce strong absorption in even transparent materials due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. Then, the femtosecond laser can directly fabricate three-dimensional microfluidic, micromechanic, microelectronic, and micro-optical components in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip, which enable us to fabricate functional biochips quickly screening large number of biological analytes. In this talk, the detailed fabrication procedure of biochips using the femtosecond laser and applications of the fabricated biochips to material synthesis, analysis of biochemical samples, and determination of functions of microorganisms are introduced.

  20. Vibration measurement based on the optical cross-correlation technique with femtosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jibo; Wu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunbo; Li, Shuyi

    2016-10-01

    Two vibration measurement methods with femtosecond pulsed laser based on the optical cross-correlation technique are presented independently in this paper. The balanced optical cross-correlation technique can reflect the time jitter between the reference pluses and measurement pluses by detecting second harmonic signals using type II phase-matched nonlinear crystal and balanced amplified photo-detectors. In the first method, with the purpose of attaining the vibration displacement, the time difference of the reference pulses relative to the measurement pluses can be measured using single femtosecond pulsed laser. In the second method, there are a couple of femtosecond pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequency. Vibration displacement associated with cavity length can be calculated by means of precisely measuring the pulse repetition frequency. The results show that the range of measurement attains ±150μm for a 500fs pulse. These methods will be suited for vibration displacement measurement, including laboratory use, field testing and industrial application.

  1. Limiting the intensity of femtosecond pulses with anti-stokes excitation of organic dye solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyi, V. A.; Meshalkin, Yu. P.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2010-08-01

    Results of experimental investigations into the nonlinear absorption of the symmetric polymethine 1-butyl -3,3-dimethyl-2-[5-(1-butyl-3,3-dimethyl-3H-benz[e]indoline-2-uledene)-1,3-pentadienyl]-3H-benz[e]indolium perchlorate dye solution excited by radiation of a femtosecond titanium-sapphire laser (20 fs, 800 nm, 75 MHz, and 300 mW) by the open aperture z-scan method are presented. Record limitation of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity (by 300 times at a 93% linear transmission of the medium) was achieved. The nonlinear absorption mechanisms in organic dyes with anti-Stokes excitation by wideband high-power pulsed radiation to the absorption band edge and the prospects for organic dye application for limitation of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity are discussed.

  2. A Comparison of Different Operating Systems for Femtosecond Lasers in Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; Williams, G P; Tan, A; Mehta, J S

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs), coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA), the Victus (USA), and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland).

  3. Generation of femtosecond bunch trains using a longitudinal-to-transverse phase space exchange technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yin-e; /Fermilab; Piot, Philippe; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate analytically and via numerical simulations, how a longitudinal-to-transverse phase space manipulation can be used to produce a train of femtosecond electron bunches. The technique uses an incoming transversely-modulated electron beam obtained via destructive (e.g. using a multislits mask) methods. A transverse-to-longitudinal exchanger is used to map this transverse modulation into a temporal modulation. Limitation of the proposed method and scalability to the femtosecond regime are analyzed analytically and with the help of numerical simulation. Finally, a proof-of-principle experiment is discussed in the context of the Fermilab's A0 photoinjector.

  4. Graphene mode-locked multipass-cavity femtosecond Cr4+: forsterite laser

    OpenAIRE

    Baylam, Işınsu; Çizmeciyan, Melisa Natali; Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Ozharar, Sarper; Balcı, Osman; Pince, Ercag; Kocabaş, Coşkun

    2013-01-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of graphene as a saturable absorber in an energy-scaled femtosecond Cr4+: forsterite laser. By incorporating a multipass cavity, the repetition rate of the original short resonator was reduced to 4.51 MHz, which resulted in the generation of 100 fs, nearly transform-limited pulses at 1252 nm with a peak power of 53 kW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest peak power obtained from a room-temperature, femtosecond Cr4+: forster...

  5. Control of periodic ripples growth on metals by femtosecond laser ellipticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfu; Yang, Jianjun; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Mingwei; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2012-11-01

    Formation of the periodic ripples on metallic surfaces is investigated comprehensively using variable ellipticities of femtosecond lasers. Compared with the linearly polarized incidence, the well defined grating-like ripple structures rather than the uniform arrays of nanoparticle can always be obtained for the elliptical polarization lasers. The ripple orientation is slanted clockwise or anticlockwise depending on the laser helicity but always display a maximum angle of 45°. Theoretical analyses indicate that no circular polarization is achieved for femtosecond lasers passing through quarter waveplate, and the induced ripple orientation is determined by the major axis of the polarization ellipse. The simulation results agree well with the experimental observations.

  6. Formation of domain reversal by direct irradiation with femtosecond laser in lithium niobate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Zhu; Xianfeng Chen; Hongyun Chen; Xuewei Deng

    2009-01-01

    We propose that domain inversion can be directly induced by femtceecond laser both theoretically and experimentally, which opens a path to achieve three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear crystal with a period in sub-micron-scale. A simulation of domain inversion is modeled by considering the temporal distribution of femtosecond pulses. The calculation results clarify that the domain inversions can happen within or after the interaction with the laser pulse, and the response time of domain inversion is in the picosecond level depending on the intensity and the materials. The domain reversal windows of lithium niobate by femtosecond laser are observed which agrees with theoretical predictions qualitatively.

  7. Fabrication of uniform nanogrooves on 6H-SiC by femtosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Sungho [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Mechatronics, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Ik-Bu [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The fabrication of parallel deep nanogrooves on 6H-SiC by femtosecond laser ablation ({lambda}=785 nm) is reported. The periodicity of the nanogrooves was measured to be about 200{+-}20 nm and the depth exceeded 15 {mu}m. The nanogrooves have high uniformity in size and pattern over the entire depth. Laser fluence is found to be the critical parameter to obtain these deep and regular nanogrooves. The feasibility for large area fabrication of nanogrooves by femtosecond laser ablation is demonstrated. (orig.)

  8. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  9. Femtosecond Laser Crystallization of Boron-doped Amorphous Hydrogenated Silicon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Rybalko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon films with femtosecond laser pulses is one of the promising ways to produce nanocrystalline silicon for photovoltaics. The structure of laser treated films is the most important factor determining materials' electric and photoelectric properties. In this work we investigated the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation of boron doped amorphous hydrogenated silicon films with different fluences on crystalline volume fraction and electrical properties of this material. A sharp increase of conductivity and essential decrease of activation energy of conductivity temperature dependences accompany the crystallization process. The results obtained are explained by increase of boron doping efficiency in crystalline phase of modified silicon film.

  10. Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Litao; Nishii, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu

    2009-06-15

    In this research, we studied the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on the stainless steel surface using femtosecond laser pulses. A 780 nm wavelength femtosecond laser, through a 0.2 mm pinhole aperture for truncating fluence distribution, was focused onto the stainless steel surface. Under different experimental condition, low-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures with a period of 526 nm and high-spatial-frequency laser-induced periodic surface structures with a period of 310 nm were obtained. The mechanism of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on the stainless steel surface is discussed.

  11. Topological evolution of self-induced silicon nanogratings during prolonged femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golosov, E.V.; Kolobov, Y.R. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); Ionin, A.A.; Kudryashov, S.I.; Novoselov, Y.N.; Seleznev, L.V.; Sinitsyn, D.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ligachev, A.E. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University, MEPHI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Gradual evolution of self-induced silicon surface topology from one-dimensional ridge-like to two-dimensional spike-like nanogratings and then to isotropic sets of micro-columns was observed by evenly increasing IR and UV femtosecond laser irradiation dose. This topological evolution exhibits clear indications of consequent melting and vaporization processes being set up during the prolonged laser irradiation. Monotonously decreasing cumulative IR and UV femtosecond laser-nanostructuring thresholds may indicate an increase of optical absorbance of the laser-nanostructured silicon surfaces versus the increasing laser dose, consistent with the consequent onset of the abovementioned thermal modification processes. (orig.)

  12. Femtosecond studies of nonlinear optical switching in GaAs waveguides using time-domain interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin K.; LaGasse, Michael J.; Haus, Hermann A.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1990-05-01

    We describe the application of a new femtosecond measurement technique, time division interferometry, for investigating the transient nonlinear index in waveguides. This technique performs an interferometric measurement using a time division multiplexed reference pulse and achieves high sensitivity with increased immunity to acoustic and thermal parasitics. Using a tunable femtosecond laser source, direct measurements of the wavelength dependent nonresonant nonlinear index have been performed in A1GaAs waveguides. In addition, conventional pump and probe absorption measurements permit the investigation of carrier dynamics, band filling, and two photon absorption effects. Two photon absorption is found to be a potentially serious limiting effect for obtaining all optical switching.

  13. A versatile setup using femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yujie, E-mail: styojm@physics.tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sokolov, Alexei V. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The setup uses a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator source and a folded 4f pulse shaper, in which the pulse shaping is carried out through conventional optical elements and does not require a spatial light modulator. Our setup is simple in alignment, and can be easily switched between the collinear single-beam and the noncollinear two-beam configurations. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and reflected signals, respectively.

  14. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression of high-power femtosecond fiber lasers in Lithium Niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Wise, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs.......The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs....

  15. Research Progress on Ocular Surface Changes after Fem-tosecond Laser Small Incision Lenticule Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangfei Chen; Yan Lu; Chunhong Wang; Zhenping Huang

    2015-01-01

    The femtosecond laser has a number of advantages,.such as short pulse time,.high instantaneous power,.high repetition rate, low monopulse energy, and small thermal effect. Fem-tosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is becoming the new direction in refractive surgery, and the ocular surface changes after SMILE are attracting in-creasingly more attention. This article reviews adverse effects, including dry eye, injury of corneal nerves, and ocular sur-face inflammation,.occurring after SMILE.

  16. Effect of nonlinearity in the pass-through optics on femtosecond laser filament in air

    CERN Document Server

    Dergachev, Alexander A; Kandidov, Valery P; Mokrousova, Daria V; Seleznev, Leonid V; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V; Sunchugasheva, Elena S; Shlenov, Svyatoslav A; Shustikova, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    An influence of pass-through optics on femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in ambient air is analyzed for the first time both experimentally and numerically. Propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulse through solid optical elements introduces spatiotemporal phase modulation due to the Kerr effect. This modulation may have a strong ef-fect on the pulse filamentation in air. We demonstrated that the phase modulation obtained in the thin pass-through dielectric plate reduces the distance to the filament onset and increases the plasma channel length

  17. Effects of cavity-dispersion noncoaxiality on the generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO ZhongXing; LEI Liang; HUANG ZhiLing; WEN JinHui; LAI Tianshu; LIN WeiZhu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of cavity-dispersion noncoaxiality (CDN) on the generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in KLM Ti:sapphire laser were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It was predicted that when the laser sub-cavity works near the coaxial operation point, the limitation of CDN on the bandwidth broadening is minimum, which is favorable for ultrabroadband pulse generation. On the basis of this prediction, femtosecond pulses with bandwidth of 650 to 1000 nm were directly generated from a home built KLM Ti:sapphire laser. To our knowledge, they are the broadest bandwidth pulses produced from KLM Ti:sapphire laser with similar oscillator configuration and gain crystal length of 3 mm.

  18. Comparison of the femtosecond Laser and mechanical microkeratome for flap cutting in LASIK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Kun; Xia; Jie; Yu; Guang-Rui; Chai; Dang; Wang; Yang; Li

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To compare refractive results, higher-order aberrations(HOAs), contrast sensitivity and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) performed with a femtosecond laser versus a mechanical microkeratome for myopia and astigmatism.·METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized study,120 eyes with myopia received a LASIK surgery with the Visu Max femtosecond laser for flap cutting, and 120 eyes received a conventional LASIK surgery with a mechanical microkeratome. Flap thickness, visual acuity, manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity function(CSF) curves,HOAs and dry-eye were measured at 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after surgery.·RESULTS: At 6mo postoperatively, the mean central flap thickness in femtosecond laser procedure was113.05 ±5.89 μm(attempted thickness 110 μm), and148.36 ±21.24 μm(attempted thickness 140 μm) in mechanical microkeratome procedure. An uncorrected distance visual acuity(UDVA) of 4.9 or better was obtained in more than 98% of eyes treated by both methods, a gain in log MAR lines of corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA) occurred in more than 70% of eyes treated by both methods, and no eye lost ≥1 lines of CDVA in both groups. The difference of the mean UDVA and CDVA between two groups at any time post-surgery were not statistically significant(P >0.05). The postoperative changes of spherical equivalent occurred markedly during the first month in both groups. The total root mean square values of HOAs and spherical aberrations in the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly less than those in the microkeratome treated eyes during 6mo visit after surgery(P <0.01). The CSF values of the femtosecond treated eyes were also higherthan those of the microkeratome treated eyes at all space frequency(P <0.01). The mean ocular surface disease index scores in both groups were increased at 1wk, and recovered to preoperative level at 1mo after surgery. The mean tear breakup time(TBUT) of the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly longer than those of

  19. Transfer Functions for Direct Temporal Structure Measurement of Femtosecond Soft X-Ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yu-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Under cross correlation between linearly polarized short duration laser and narrow bandwidth soft x-ray, the temporal structure of femtosecond soft x-ray can be directly reconstructed via the presented transfer functions from energy derivative of the excited photoelectron energy spectrum measured in the direction of or perpendicular to the laser polarization. The method has a broader temporal measurement range. The energy resolution of a photoelectron spectrometer and the size of energy bin are two important parameters for both measurement and calculation. The methods can be used for ultra-fast measurements and pump-probe detections on the femtosecond time scale.

  20. Ultrafast dynamics of o-fluorophenol studied with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of o-fluorophenol via the excited states has been studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging. The photoion and photoelectron spectra taken with a time delay between 267 nm pump laser and 800 nm probe laser provide a longer-lived S1 electronic state of about ns timescale. In comparison,the spectra obtained by exciting the S2 state with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and ionizing with pulses at 800 nm suggest that the S2 state has an ultrashort lifetime about 102 fs and reflects the internal conversion dynamics of the S2 state to the S1 state.

  1. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  2. Surface modification of UHMWPE with infrared femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pradas, J.M., E-mail: jmfernandez@ub.edu [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo-Leon, S.; Morenza, J.L.; Serra, P. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene surface was modified with femtosecond laser pulses at 1027 nm wavelength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness is increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ablation efficiency is maximum for 6 {mu}J pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiated surfaces remain almost chemically unaltered. - Abstract: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer with mechanical and corrosion properties, which make it appropriate for using in biomedical devices such as hip and knee prostheses. The surface morphology and chemistry of UHMWPE influence its biocompatibility. A laser with wavelength at 1027 nm delivering 450 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz is used to modify the surface of UHMWPE samples with 0.45 {mu}m root mean square surface roughness. Micrometric resolution is achieved with the use of a focusing lens of 0.25 NA and pulse energies of few microjoules. The study focuses in the influence of different pulse energies and pulse overlaps on the laser-induced surface roughness and ablation yield. Confocal microscopy is used to characterize changes in the morphology of the irradiated surfaces, and their chemical structure is analyzed by attenuated total reflectance infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The roughness increases as the pulse energy increases until it reaches a maximum. The ablation yield increases with the pulse energy and pulse overlap. However, the ablation yield per pulse is lower for higher pulse overlap. Pulses of 6 {mu}J have the highest ablation efficiency. Infrared and Raman spectra of samples irradiated with low energy pulses are similar to those of the pristine sample. However, some C=C and C=O bonds can be detected after irradiation with the highest pulse energies.

  3. Analysis of Femtosecond Timing Noise and Stability in Microwave Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, Michael R.; /Stevens Tech. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To probe chemical dynamics, X-ray pump-probe experiments trigger a change in a sample with an optical laser pulse, followed by an X-ray probe. At the Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, timing differences between the optical pulse and x-ray probe have been observed with an accuracy as low as 50 femtoseconds. This sets a lower bound on the number of frames one can arrange over a time scale to recreate a 'movie' of the chemical reaction. The timing system is based on phase measurements from signals corresponding to the two laser pulses; these measurements are done by using a double-balanced mixer for detection. To increase the accuracy of the system, this paper studies parameters affecting phase detection systems based on mixers, such as signal input power, noise levels, temperature drift, and the effect these parameters have on components such as the mixers, splitters, amplifiers, and phase shifters. Noise data taken with a spectrum analyzer show that splitters based on ferrite cores perform with less noise than strip-line splitters. The data also shows that noise in specific mixers does not correspond with the changes in sensitivity per input power level. Temperature drift is seen to exist on a scale between 1 and 27 fs/{sup o}C for all of the components tested. Results show that any components using more metallic conductor tend to exhibit more noise as well as more temperature drift. The scale of these effects is large enough that specific care should be given when choosing components and designing the housing of high precision microwave mixing systems for use in detection systems such as the LCLS. With these improvements, the timing accuracy can be improved to lower than currently possible.

  4. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  5. Femtosecond Nonlinear Birefringence and Dichroism in Au:TiO_2 Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Au:TiO2 nanocomposite film was fabricated by rf-sputtering. Both real and imaginary parts of x(3) were investigated by optical Kerr effect and pump-probe methods with femtosecond pulse with values of about 10-8 esu.

  6. Spatial-temporal dynamics of the terahertz field generated by femtosecond filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. V.; Grachev, Ya V.; Tsypkin, A. N.; Kulya, M. S.; Putilin, S. E.; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present the study on spatial distribution of the maximum of terahertz field amplitude in time domain when generated by a femtosecond filament. It is shown that as a result of the propagation of the terahertz field forms a spherical wave front, on the edge of which the maximum of amplitude has a temporary delay in contrary to its central part.

  7. Structural Evolution in Photoactive Yellow Protein Studied by Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast structural evolution in photoactive yellow protein (PYP is studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. A comparison between wild-type PYP and E46Q mutant reveals that the hydrogen-bonding network surrounding the chromophore of PYP is immediately rearranged in the electronic excited state.

  8. A femtosecond frequency standard with an external high-finesse interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, E. V.; Golovin, N. N.; Grigor'eva, S. V.; Dmitriev, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We propose an optical frequency standard based on a femtosecond laser in which the shift of the frequency comb is controlled by means of an external high-finesse interferometer. The standard does not require having a large spectral bandwidth of the laser radiation, which allows extending the proposed method to nanosecond and picosecond mode-locked lasers.

  9. Roles of Tunneling, Multiphoton Ionization, and Cascade Ionization for Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Appl Phys B 76:215-229 [Mao04] Mao S S, Quéré F, Guizard S. Mao X, Russo E, Petite G, Martin P (2004) Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions...Wey89] Weyl G M (1989) Physics of laser-induced breakdown: An update. In Radziemski LJ, Cremers DA (eds) Laser-induced plasmas and applications. Marcel

  10. Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benko, C.; Ruehl, A.; Martin, M.J.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Fermann, M.E.; Hartl, I.; Ye, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present full phase stabilization of an amplified Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb using an intracavity electro-optic modulator and an acousto-optic modulator. These transducers provide high servo bandwidths of 580 kHz and 250 kHz for f(rep) and f(ceo), producing a robust and low phase noise fi

  11. Probing spin-vibronic dynamics using femtosecond X-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penfold, T. J.; Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Rozgonyi, T.;

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy within the X-ray regime is now possible owing to the development of X-ray Free Electrons Lasers (X-FELs) and is opening new opportunities for the direct probing of femtosecond evolution of the nuclei, the electronic and spin degrees of freedom. In this contributi...

  12. Simulation of Femtosecond Pulse Propagation through Hollow Fibre Filled with Noble Gases of Gradient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhen-Ming; ZHANG Guang-Xiao; CAO Shi-Ying; PANG Dong-Qing; CHAI Lu; WANG Qing-Yue; ZHANG Zhi-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for generating intense few to mono-cycle femtosecond pulses.The simulation demonstrate that for the temperature difference of 300K,the spectrum of the output pulses is increased by 67%and the transform limited pulse width is reduced almost by half,compared with those obtained with hollow fibres in uniform temperature.

  13. Top down fabrication of organic nanocrystals by femtosecond laser induced transfer method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Yang, Jie; Ding, Ran; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    2012-01-01

    We present the preparation of nanometer-size organic crystals using femtosecond laser induced forward transfer (Fs-LIFT) method. 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl)benzene (BSB-Me) nanocrystals are directly deposited on the substrate to form a nanocrystal film. Size and morphology as functions of applied laser

  14. Low-Noise Operation of All-Fiber Femtosecond Cherenkov Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Villanueva Ibáñez, Guillermo Eduardo; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the noise properties of a femtosecond all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source with emission wavelength around 600 nm, based on an Yb-fiber laser and a highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A relative intensity noise as low as - 103 dBc/Hz, corresponding to 2.48 % pulse-to-pulse flu...

  15. Femtosecond all-optical switching in AlGaAs waveguides using a time division interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, M. J.; Anderson, K. K.; Haus, H. A.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    1989-05-01

    All-optical switching of femtosecond pulses in AlGaAs waveguides is investigated using a novel time division interferometric technique which eliminates thermal imbalances. In addition to an instantaneous refractive index nonlinearity, free-carrier generation via two-photon absorption produces a response of several hundred picoseconds.

  16. Femtosecond-Laser Patterning of Polymers: Nonlinear and Negative Index Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    Neuroscience 7, 30 (2006). 96. Watanabe, W., Onda , S., Tamaki, T., Itoh, K. & Nishii, J. Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent...materials using femtosecond laser pulses. Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005). 98. Watanabe, W., Onda , S., Tamaki, T. & Itoh, K. Direct joining of

  17. Femtosecond laser surface structuring and oxidation of chromium thin coatings: Black chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Muller, T.F.G. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Julies, B. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Manikandan, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of the chromium thin film to chromium oxide by femtosecond laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. • Solar absorber from chromium oxide that low percentage reflectance. • Femtosecond laser oxidation, with a de-focused laser. • Chromium oxide formation by femtosecond laser in normal ambient. - Abstract: In view of their potential applications as selective solar absorbers, chromium coatings on float glass substrates were nano/micro structured by femtosecond laser in air. Raman and X-rays diffraction investigations confirmed the formation of an ultra-porous α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the surface; higher is the input laser power, enhanced is the crystallinity of the α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with the Cr underneath it in addition to the photo-induced porosity acted as a classical ceramic–metal nano-composite making the reflectance to decrease significantly within the spectral range of 190–1100 nm. The average reflectance decreased from 70 to 2%.

  18. Apparatus and method for nanoflow liquid jet and serial femtosecond x-ray protein crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.

    2016-03-01

    Techniques for nanoflow serial femtosecond x-ray protein crystallography include providing a sample fluid by mixing a plurality of a first target of interest with a carrier fluid and injecting the sample fluid into a vacuum chamber at a rate less than about 4 microliters per minute. In some embodiments, the carrier fluid has a viscosity greater than about 3 centipoise.

  19. Imaging Molecular Structure through Femtosecond Photoelectron Diffraction on Aligned and Oriented Gas-Phase Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Rebecca; Rouzee, Arnaud; Adolph, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an account of our progress towards performing femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron diffraction on gas-phase molecules in a pump-probe setup combining optical lasers and an X-ray Free-Electron Laser. We present results of two experiments aimed at measuring photoelectron angular...

  20. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  1. Sub-wavelength Ripple Formation on Silicon Induced by Femtosecond Laser Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ming; YUAN Dong-Qing; ZHANG Wei; SHEN Jian; LI Bao-Jia; SONG Juan; CAI Lan

    2009-01-01

    Periodic microstructures on silicon bulk are formed by the irradiation of the femtosecond laser with the laser wavelength of 8OO nm and the pulse length of 130 fs.We investigate the surface periodic ripple structures produced by femtosecond laser treatment.The effects of feedrate of sample,v,on laser-induced surface topography are studied.We find that the femtosecond laser produce periodic ripples of the sub-micron level on silicon surface.At the same time,we realize the optimal conditions to produce these surface structures.When choosing N A=0.3,and v = 2000 μm/s or 3000 μm/s,we find a series of periodic-structure ripples where the spacing is about 120 nm and the width is about 450 nm.The experimental results indicate that femtosecond laser treatment can produce line arrays on the sub-micron level,which is a positive factor for fabricating grating and other optical applications in nanoscales.

  2. Fourth-Order Interference in Femtosecond Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yun-Kun; SHI Bao-Sen; LI Jian; FAN Xiao-Feng; GUO Guang-Can

    2000-01-01

    We report a fourth-order interference experiment in which pairs of photons are produced in spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by femtosecond pulses interfere in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The visibilityof the interference is (64±4)%, exceeding the bound of 50% predicted by classical interference theory.

  3. Filamentation of arbitrary polarized femtosecond laser pulses in case of high-order Kerr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Nikolay A; Makarov, Vladimir A; Fedorov, Vladimir Y; Kosareva, Olga G

    2013-02-15

    We developed a model of femtosecond filamentation which includes high-order Kerr effect and an arbitrary polarization of a laser pulse. We show that a circularly polarized pulse has maximum filament intensity. Also, we show that, independently of the initial pulse polarization, the value of a maximum filament intensity tends to the maximum intensity of either linearly or circularly polarized pulse.

  4. Femtosecond study of self-trapped vibrational excitons in crystalline acetanilide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edler, J.; Hamm, Peter; Scott, Alwyn C.

    2002-01-01

    Femtosecond IR spectroscopy of delocalized NH excitations of crystalline acetanilide confirms that self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded peptide units exists and does stabilize the excitation. Two phonons with frequencies of 48 and 76 cm(-1) are identified as the major degrees of freedom that mediate ...

  5. Quenching Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Electron Gas by a Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael; Rudin, Sergey; Greg Rupper Collaboration; Andrey Muraviev Collaboration

    Plasmonic detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the plasma wave excitation in 2D electron gas are capable of detecting ultra short THz pulses. To study the plasma wave propagation and decay, we used femtosecond laser pulses to quench the plasma waves excited by a short THz pulse. The femtosecond laser pulse generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs effectively shorting the 2D electron gas channel and dramatically increasing the channel conductance. Immediately after the application of the femtosecond laser pulse, the equivalent circuit of the device reduces to the source and drain contact resistances connected by a short. The total response charge is equal to the integral of the current induced by the THz pulse from the moment of the THz pulse application to the moment of the femtosecond laser pulse application. This current is determined by the plasma wave rectification. Registering the charge as a function of the time delay between the THz and laser pulses allowed us to follow the plasmonic wave decay. We observed the decaying oscillations in a sample with a partially gated channel. The decay depends on the gate bias and reflects the interplay between the gated and ungated plasmons in the device channel. Army Research Office.

  6. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Yanny Y. Y.; Hendrikse, Fred; Pels, Elisabeth; Wijdh, Robert-Jan; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Eggink, Cathariena A.; van Rij, Gabriel; Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J.; Nuijts, Rudy M. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary visual results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). Methods: We prospectively analyzed results of 20 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or aphakic/pseudophakic bullous ke

  7. Femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus and keratectasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Lu; Yu-Hua; Shi; Li-Ping; Yang; Yi-Rui; Ge; Xiang-Fei; Chen; Yan; Wu; Zhen-Ping; Huang

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the initial outcomes and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty(DALK) for keratoconus and post-LASIK keratectasia.·METHODS: In this non-comparative case series, 10 eyes of 9 patients underwent DALK procedures with a femtosecond laser(Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena,Germany). Of the 9 patients, 7 had keratoconus and 2had post-LASIK keratectasia. A 500 kHz VisuMax femtosecond laser was used to perform corneal cuts on both donor and recipient corneas. The outcome measures were the uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA),best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal thickness,astigmatism, endothelial density count(EDC), and corneal power.·RESULTS: All eyes were successfully treated. Early postoperative evaluation showed a clear graft in all cases. Intraoperative complications included one case of a small Descemet’s membrane perforation.Postoperatively, there was one case of stromal rejection,one of loosened sutures, and one of wound dehiscence.A normal corneal pattern topography and transparency were restored, UCVA and BCVA improved significantly,and astigmatism improved slightly. There was no statistically significant decrease in EDC.· CONCLUSION: Our early results indicate that femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty could improve UCVA and BCVA in patients with anterior corneal pathology. This approach shows promise as a safe and effective surgical choice in the treatment of keratoconus and post-LASIK keratectasia.

  8. Femtosecond Electron Diffraction Study of the Cyclization Reaction in Crystalline Diarylethene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciaini G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond electron diffraction is used to directly resolve the atomic motions involved in the ring closing reaction induced in a photochromic single crystal. The measurements were performed using our newly developed setup capable of delivering sub-500 fs electron bunches containing 106 electrons per pulse. Theoretical calculations were also performed.

  9. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...

  10. Electronically driven adsorbate excitation mechanism in femtosecond-pulse laser desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per; Heinz, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    Femtosecond-pulse laser desorption is a process in which desorption is driven by a subpicosecond temperature pulse of order 5000 K in the substrate-adsorbate electron system, whose energy is transferred into the adsorbate center-of-mass degrees of freedom by a direct coupling mechanism. We presen...

  11. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  12. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Larour, J.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-01

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  13. Ultra-high-Q microcavities fabricated on fused silica chips with three-dimentional arrangement by femtosecond laser direct writing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Ma, Yaoguang; Fang, Wei; He, Fei; Qiao, Lingling; Tong, Limin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of ultra-high-Q whispering gallery microcavities on a fused silica chip by femtosecond laser microfabriction, enabled by the high spatial resolution and three-dimensional nature of femtosecond laser direct writing. The processing mainly consists of two steps: (1) formation of freestanding microdisks by femtosecond laser direct writing and subsequent chemical wet etching; and (2) transformation of microdisks to microtoroids by annealing with CO2 laser. We show that three-dimensionally arranged ultra-high Q microcavities with a Q-factor up to 1.07x10^6 can be achieved.

  14. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Tian Long, E-mail: tianlong.see@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Liu, Zhu [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhong, Xiang Li [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablation threshold for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Effective optical penetration depth for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Two ablation characteristic regimes are observed for femtosecond laser ablation. • Reduction of C=C bond following excimer or fs laser ablation is observed. • Addition of oxygen- and nitrogen-rich functional groups is observed. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser–material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 0.087 J/cm{sup 2}) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 1.576 J/cm{sup 2}), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the C=C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas

  15. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bainbridge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics.

  16. Wavelength-dependent femtosecond pulse amplification in wideband tapered-waveguide quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we study the wavelength-dependent amplification in three different wideband quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers (QWAs) having conventional, exponentially tapered, and linearly tapered active region waveguide structures. A new theoretical model for tapered-waveguide QWAs considering the effect of lateral carrier density distribution and the strain effect in the quantum well is established based on a quantum well transmission line modeling method. The temporal and spectral characteristics of amplified femtosecond pulse are analyzed for each structure. It was found that, for the amplification of a single femtosecond pulse, the tapered-waveguide QWA provides higher saturation gain, and the output spectra of the amplified pulse in all three structures exhibit an apparent redshift and bandwidth narrowing due to the reduction of carrier density; however, the output spectrum in the tapered-waveguide amplifier is less distorted and exhibits smaller bandwidth narrowing. For the simultaneous amplification of two femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies, in all the three structures, two peaks appear in the output spectra while the peak at the frequency closer to the peak frequency of the QWA gain spectrum receives higher amplification due to the frequency (wavelength) dependence of the QWA gain. At a low peak power level of the input pulse, the bandwidth of each window in the tapered structure is larger than that of the conventional waveguide structure, which aggravates the spectrum alias in the amplification of femtosecond pulses with different central frequencies. As the peak powers of the two pulses increase, the spectrum alias in the conventional waveguide becomes more serious while there are small changes in the tapered structures. Also, we have found that in the amplification of a femtosecond pulse train, the linear-tapered QWAs exhibit the fastest gain recovery as compared with the conventional and exponentially tapered QWAs.

  17. The photoluminescence of ZnSe bulk single crystals excited by femtosecond pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huan-Yong; Jie Wan-Qi; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong; Xu Ke-Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe single crystal with trace chlorine excited by the femtosecond laser pulse. Three emission bands, including second-harmonic-generation, two-photon-excited peak and a broad band at 500-700nm, were detected. The thermal strain induced by femtosecond pulse strongly influences the photoluminescence of ZnSe crystal. The corresponding strain e in ZnSe crystal is estimated to be about 8.8 × 10-3 at room temperature. The zinc-vacancy, as the main point defect induced by femtosecond pulse, is successfully used to interpret the broad emission at 500-700nm. The research shows that self-activated luminescence possesses the recombination mechanism of donor-vacancy pair, and it is also influenced by a few selenium defects and the temperature.The rapid decrease in photoluminescence intensity of two-photon-excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation emission at lower temperature is attributed to the fact that more point defects result in the thermal activation of the two-photo-absorption energy converting to the stronger recombination emission of chlorine-zinc vacancy in 500-700nm. The experimental results indicate that the femtosecond exciting photoluminescence shows a completely different emission mechanism to that of He-Cd exciting luminescence in ZnSe single crystal. The femtosecond laser exhibits a higher sensitive to the impurity in crystal materials, which can be recommended as an efficient way to estimate the trace impurity in high quality crystals.

  18. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, A. R.; Barlow Myers, C. W.; Bryan, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM) in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs) combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics. PMID:27158637

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of heat-affected zone of copper metal ablated with femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yoichi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-03-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation of materials with high thermal conductivity is of paramount importance, because the chemical composition and properties of the area ablated with femtosecond laser are kept unchanged. The material processing by femtosecond laser can well control the heat-affected zone, compared to nanosecond laser ablation. We report on the heat-affected zone of crystalline copper (Cu) by use of femtosecond laser experimentally and theoretically. Laser ablation of Cu is investigated theoretically by two temperature model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD simulation takes into account of electron temperature and thermal diffusion length calculated by two temperature model. The dependence of lattice temperature on time and depth is calculated by the MD simulation and two temperature model. The heat-affected zone estimated from the temperature is mainly studied and calculated to be 3 nm at 0.02 J/cm2 which is below the threshold fluence of 0.137 J/cm2. In addition, the thickness of heat-affected zone of copper crystal ablated with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser is experimentally studied. As a result of X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the ablated surface, the surface crystallinity is partially changed into disordered structure from crystal form. The residual energy left in the metal, which is not used for ablation, will induce liquid phase, leading to the amorphous phase of the metal during resolidification. The thickness of heat-affected zone depends on laser fluence and is experimentally measured to be less than 1 μm at higher laser fluences than the ablation threshold.

  20. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  1. Refractive Index Change and Color Center Formation in LiYF_4 Crystal Induced by a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The refractive index change and color centers formation in LiYF4 crystal at room temperature are induced by a femtosecond laser irradiation. A mechanism for refractive index change and color centers formation is proposed.

  2. Widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond resonant radiation induced by self-defocusing solitons in a quadratic nonlinear medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Liu, Xing; Guo, Hairun;

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally observe widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond pulses by resonant radiation, generated by direct three-wave-mixing from a soliton in PPLN. The poling pitch gives a parametrically tunable resonant radiation, a feature absent in Kerr media....

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation properties of transparent materials: impact of the laser process parameters on the machining throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matylitsky, V. V.; Hendricks, F.; Aus der Au, J.

    2013-03-01

    High average power, high repetition rate femtosecond lasers with μJ pulse energies are increasingly used for bio-medical and material processing applications. With the introduction of femtosecond laser systems such as the SpiritTM platform developed by High Q Lasers and Spectra-Physics, micro-processing of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses have obtained new perspectives for industrial applications [1]. The unique advantage of material processing with subpicosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition, which leads to high ablation efficiency and accuracy in nearly all kinds of solid materials. The study on the impact of the laser processing parameters on the removal rate for transparent substrate using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. In particular, examples of micro-processing of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) - bio-degradable polyester and XensationTM glass (Schott) machined with SpiritTM ultrafast laser will be shown.

  4. Refractive Index Change and Color Center Formation in LiYF4 Crystal Induced by a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanzhong Zhao; Jianrong Qiu; Lüyun Yang; Xiongwei Jiang; Congshan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The refractive index change and color centers formation in LiYF4 crystal at room temperature are induced by a femtosecond laser irradiation. A mechanism for refractive index change and color centers formation is proposed.

  5. Generation, temporal characterization and applications of femtosecond-/ attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Isabell

    The work of this thesis is arranged into three parts: (A) Generation and temporal characterization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) attosecond pulses. In this work I present the generation and first temporal characterization of sub-optical cycle EUV radiation generated in a noble-gas filled hollow-core waveguide. Two regimes of EUV radiation were characterized, ranging from 200 attoseconds to ˜ 1 femtosecond in duration. The first regime that was characterized distinguishes itself from EUV radiation generated by other methods by its narrow (˜ 1 eV) spectral width, its simple energy tunability and its temporal confinement to ˜ 1 femtosecond. In the second regime, single isolated pulses of 200 attoseconds duration (and accordingly larger bandwidth) were generated. In both regimes dynamic phase-matching effects create an extremely short time window within which efficient nonlinear conversion is possible, while it is suppressed outside this window. Temporal characterization of the generated EUV pulses was approached by two-color pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy. Therefore an efficient photoelectron spectrometer was set up, detecting electrons in a 2pi collection angle. For the interpretation of the experimental data, an analytical model as well as an iterative algorithm were developed, to allow extraction of complex EUV waveforms. The demonstrated radiation will allow for time-resolved studies of the fastest processes in molecules and condensed matter, while at the same time ensuring adequate energy resolution for addressing individual electronic states. (B) Application of a COLTRIMS reaction microscope in combination with femtosecond EUV pulses to questions in molecular physics. The combination of the sensitive detection capabilities of a COLTRIMS reaction microscope with the high time resolution of pump-probe experiments using femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses makes it possible to answer very fundamental open questions in molecular physics such as the

  6. Optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Zuo-Liang; Chen Jian-Ping; Li Ru-Xin; Lin Li-Huang; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We report the experiments on the optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate and with several hundreds micro-joule-energy. A 10m-long filament and its breakup and merging at the nonlinear focal region produced by modulational instability of femtosecond laser pulses in air are observed. A simple model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation coupled with multiphoton ionization law is presented to explain the several experimental results.

  7. Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films via femtosecond laser processing of amorphous VO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charipar, N.A.; Kim, H.; Charipar, K.M.; Mathews, S.A.; Pique, A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC (United States); Breckenfeld, E. [National Research Council Fellow at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Femtosecond laser processing of pulsed laser-deposited amorphous vanadium oxide thin films was investigated. Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films were achieved by femtosecond laser processing in air at room temperature. The electrical transport properties, crystal structure, surface morphology, and optical properties were characterized. The laser-processed films exhibited a metal-insulator phase transition characteristic of VO{sub 2}, thus presenting a pathway for the growth of crystalline vanadium dioxide films on low-temperature substrates. (orig.)

  8. Femtosecond studies of intervalley scattering in GaAs and Al xGa 1-xAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D. W.; Stanton, C. J.; Hess, K.; LaGasse, M. J.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    1989-12-01

    Results are presented from ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of the relaxation of photoexcited electrons and holes. The results are compared directly with three types of femtosecond optical experiments: transient absorption saturation, pump and continuum probe, and tunable pump-probe experiments. For these experiments we find that intervalley scattering has a dominant effect for the first several hundred femtoseconds, and that electron-electron scattering is only important at later times.

  9. Femtosecond refractive-index tailoring of an optical fiber and phase retrieval from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation.......A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation....

  10. Effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface morphology and microstructure of a bulk TiCuPdZr glass alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongshui; LIANG Chunyong; CHEN Xueguang; WANG Lei; YANG Yang; YANG Jianjun; ZHU Shengli; LI Changyi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface characteristics and microstructure of a bulk TiCuPdZr glass alloy were investigated. The heat influence zone of femtosecond laser ablated with a laser energy of 100 μJ exhibits a ripple-like feather, while a porous structure appears on the surface of the specimen ablated by a 200 μJ femtosecond laser. The contents of Ti, Zr, and Pd on the ablated surface decrease and that of Cu increases with increasing laser energy. The crystallization process occurs on the glass alloy specimens during femtosecond laser ablation, and the crystallinity of a 100 μJ femtosecond laser-ablated specimen is greater than that of a 200 μJ femtosecond laser-ablated one.

  11. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  12. Understanding Femtosecond-Pulse Laser Damage through Fundamental Physics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A., III

    It did not take long after the invention of the laser for the field of laser damage to appear. For several decades researchers have been studying how lasers damage materials, both for the basic scientific understanding of highly nonequilibrium processes as well as for industrial applications. Femtosecond pulse lasers create little collateral damage and a readily reproducible damage pattern. They are easily tailored to desired specifications and are particularly powerful and versatile tools, contributing even more industrial interest in the field. As with most long-standing fields of research, many theoretical tools have been developed to model the laser damage process, covering a wide range of complexities and regimes of applicability. However, most of the modeling methods developed are either too limited in spatial extent to model the full morphology of the damage crater, or incorporate only a small subset of the important physics and require numerous fitting parameters and assumptions in order to match values interpolated from experimental data. Demonstrated in this work is the first simulation method capable of fundamentally modeling the full laser damage process, from the laser interaction all the way through to the resolidification of the target, on a large enough scale that can capture the full morphology of the laser damage crater so as to be compared directly to experimental measurements instead of extrapolated values, and all without any fitting parameters. The design, implementation, and testing of this simulation technique, based on a modified version of the particle-in-cell (PIC) method, is presented. For a 60 fs, 1 mum wavelength laser pulse with fluences of 0.5 J/cm 2, 1.0 J/cm2, and 2.0 J/cm2 the resulting laser damage craters in copper are shown and, using the same technique applied to experimental crater morphologies, a laser damage fluence threshold is calculated of 0.15 J/cm2, consistent with current experiments performed under conditions similar

  13. The effect of chirped intense femtosecond laser pulses on the Argon cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaforyan, H; Irani, E

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with atomic Argon clusters has been investigated by using nano-plasma model. Based on the dynamic simulations, ionization process, heating and expansion of a cluster after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses at intensities up to 2*1017 Wcm-2 are studied. The analytical calculation provides ionization ratefor different mechanisms and time evolution of the density of electrons for different pulse shapes. In this approach the strong dependence of laser intensity, pulse duration and laser shape on the electron energy, the electron density and the cluster size are presented using the intense chirped laser pulses. Based on the presented theoretical modifications, the effect of chirped laser pulse on the complex dynamical process of the interaction is studied. It is found that the energy of electrons and the radius of cluster for the negatively chirped pulsesare improved up to 20% in comparison to the unchirped and positively chirped pulses.

  14. High fill-factor multilevel Fresnel zone plate arrays by femtosecond laser direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Gang; Wang, Dian; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Si-Zhu; Li, Ai-Wu; Song, Jun-Feng

    2011-02-01

    Fresnel zone plate arrays (FZPAs), as a kind of an important integrated micro-optical device, have attracted great attention. However, the fill factor of present FZPAs by femtosecond technology is a little low, which leads to serious light loss and low signal-to-noise. Here we reported high fill-factor square and hexagonal FZPAs by femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization of the resin SU-8. Their optical focusing and imaging properties showed the high uniformity and high fidelity of these FZPAs. Moreover, 100% fill-factor FZPAs were demonstrated by optimal theoretical design and experimental parameters. With this high quality FZPAs, clear imaging "F" was obtained. At last, high-level phase type FZPAs were prepared to further enhance the diffractive efficiency to as much as 75%.

  15. Narrow titanium oxide nanowires induced by femtosecond laser pulses on a titanium surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Tie, Shao-Long; Lan, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of the nanostructure induced on a titanium (Ti) surface with increasing irradiation pulse number by using a 400-nm femtosecond laser was examined by using scanning electron microscopy. High spatial frequency periodic structures of TiO2 parallel to the laser polarization were initially observed because of the laser-induced oxidation of the Ti surface and the larger efficacy factor of TiO2 in this direction. Periodically aligned TiO2 nanowires with featured width as small as 20 nm were obtained. With increasing pulse number, however, low spatial frequency periodic structures of Ti perpendicular to the laser polarization became dominant because Ti possesses a larger efficacy factor in this direction. The competition between the high- and low-spatial frequency periodic structures is in good agreement with the prediction of the efficacy factor theory and it should also be observed in the femtosecond laser ablation of other metals which are easily oxidized in air.

  16. Preparation of porous microstructures on NiTi alloy surface with femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG ChunYong; YANG Yang; WANG HongShui; YANG JianJun; YANG XianJin

    2008-01-01

    Porous microstructures on Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy surfaces were prepared by linearly polarized femtosecond lasers with moving focal point at a certain speed. It was found that various novel micro-structures from feather-like ripples to cluster-like porous textures could be formed with increasing laser energy. Particularly, when the laser energy was 400 μJ, a periodic porous metal surface was gen-erated. Measurement of X-ray diffraction showed that the grains on the sample surface were refined through femtosecond laser ablation processes, but the crystal structures still kept their original states. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Ni/Ti on the sample surface was changed with an evident oxidization of titanium element under different laser energies. This investigation pro-vides a new approach to improve the biocompatibility of NiTi-based implant devices.

  17. The Effect of Chirped Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses on the Argon Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghaforyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with atomic Argon clusters has been investigated by using nanoplasma model. Based on the dynamic simulations, ionization process, heating, and expansion of a cluster after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses at intensities up to 2 × 1017 Wcm−2 are studied. The analytical calculation provides ionization rate for different mechanisms and time evolution of the density of electrons for different pulse shapes. In this approach, the strong dependence of laser intensity, pulse duration, and laser shape on the electron energy, the electron density, and the cluster size is presented using the intense chirped laser pulses. Based on the presented theoretical modifications, the effect of chirped laser pulse on the complex dynamical process of the interaction is studied. It is found that the energy of electrons and the radius of cluster for the negatively chirped pulses are improved up to 20% in comparison to the unchirped and positively chirped pulses.

  18. Control of femtosecond multi-filamentation in glass by designable patterned optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping-Ping; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Lü, Jia-Qi; Wang, Dan; Liu, Gui-Geng; Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-12-01

    We present a scheme for realizing femtosecond multi-filamentation with designable quantity and locations of filaments, based on the control of multi-focal spots formed by patterned optical fields (POFs) composed of multiple individual optical fields (IOFs). A computer-controlled spatial light modulator is used to engineer the POFs. In particular, we introduce a blazed phase grating in any IOF, which increases a degree of freedom, making the engineering of multi-focal spots becomes more flexible. We achieve experimentally the aim controlling femtosecond multi-filamentation in a K9 glass. Our scheme has great flexibility and convenience in controlling the multi-filamentation in quantity and locations of filaments and strength of interaction between filaments.

  19. Enhancement of ultrafast electron photoemission from metallic nano antennas excited by a femtosecond laser pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Gubko, M A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Nathala, C S R; Rudenko, A A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Treshin, I V

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time that an array of nanoantennas (central nanotips inside sub-micron pits) on an aluminum surface, fabricated using a specific double-pulse femtosecond laser irradiation scheme, results in a 28-fold enhancement of the non-linear (three-photon) electron photoemission yield, driven by a third intense IR femtosecond laser pulse. The supporting numerical electrodynamic modeling indicates that the electron emission is increased not owing to a larger effective aluminum surface, but due to instant local electromagnetic field enhancement near the nanoantenna, contributed by both the tip's lightning rod effect and the focusing effect of the pit as a microreflector and annular edge as a plasmonic lens.

  20. Microcapillary sign of flap alignment in femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fathy Fawzy,1,2 Sherine S Wahba,1,3 Nader Fawzy1,4 1Al Watany Eye Hospital, 2Ophthalmology Department, Military Medical Academy, 3Ophthalmology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Sehkraft Augenzentrum, Cologne, Germany Abstract: We present an observational sign that ensures perfect alignment during femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS LASIK. Alignment is assured when a microsponge is used to dry the flap and the area of dryness exceeds the area of direct touch of the microsponge. The area might even reach the whole circumference of the flap at the first touch. This sign of alignment can be explained by microcapillary action. This sign was not elicited in flaps created by a microkeratome. Keywords: capillarity, femtosecond LASIK flap, corneal flap alignment

  1. Torsion sensing characteristics of long period fiber gratings fabricated by femtosecond laser in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ji'an; Xie, Zheng; Wang, Cong; Zhou, Jianying; Li, Haitao; Luo, Zhi; Chu, Dongkai; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    With the alignment of the fiber core systems containing dual-CCDs and high-precision electric displacement platform, twisted long period fiber gratings (T-LPFGs) were fabricated in two different twisted SMF-28 fibers by femtosecond laser. The torsion characteristics of the T-LPFGs were experimentally and theoretical investigated and demonstrated in this study. The achieved torsion sensitivity is 117.4 pm/(rad/m) in the torsion range -105-0 rad/m with a linearity of 0.9995. Experimental results show that compared with the ordinary long period fiber gratings, the resonance wavelength of the gratings presents an opposite symmetrical shift depending on the twisting direction after the applied torsion is removed. In addition, high sensitivity could be obtained, which is very suitable for the applications in the torsion sensor. These results are important for the design of new torsion sensors based on T-LPFGs fabricated by femtosecond laser.

  2. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty in a child with corneal opacity:case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacities are the fourth cause of blindness world-wide. Over the past two centuries, various corneal transplantation (i.e., keratoplasty methods have been developed and improved. Nowadays, femtolaserssisted keratoplasty is one of most promising techniques. Femtosecond laser have several advantages that provide additional surgical benefits. Among them, no thermal injury, the ability to cut deeply on a single plane and to perform various corneal profiles should be mentioned. In children, corneal disorders are of special importance while femtosecondassisted keraatoplasty case reports are rare. Here, we describe femtosecond laserssisted penetrating keratoplasty in a girl with a rough central corneal opacity.

  3. Infrared Femtosecond Laser Direct-Writing Digital Volume Gratings in Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Yu-Hua; Lu, Pei-Xiang

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate that digital volume gratings can be fabricated in fused silica glass conveniently by direct femtosecond laser writing. The diffraction efficiencies of volume gratings can be essentially modulated by simply stacking and offsetting the unit structure. A series of volume gratings, which have the pitches of 5 μm and the size of 1 mm × 1 mm, have been fabricated with the writing speed of 500 μm/s, with which the processing period of each grating layer could be reduced to several minutes with a 1-kHz femtosecond laser system. Results show that the power spectrum of the diffracted waves of the volume gratings are dependent on the layer gap and layer offsetting.

  4. Dynamics of Molecular Emission Features from Nanosecond, Femtosecond Laser and Filament Ablation Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-06-15

    The evolutionary paths of molecular species and nanoparticles in laser ablation plumes are not well understood due to the complexity of numerous physical processes that occur simultaneously in a transient laser-plasma system. It is well known that the emission features of ions, atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in a laser ablation plume strongly depend on the laser irradiation conditions. In this letter we report the temporal emission features of AlO molecules in plasmas generated using a nanosecond laser, a femtosecond laser and filaments generated from a femtosecond laser. Our results show that, at a fixed laser energy, the persistence of AlO is found to be highest and lowest in ns and filament laser plasmas respectively while molecular species are formed at early times for both ultrashort pulse (fs and filament) generated plasmas. Analysis of the AlO emission band features show that the vibrational temperature of AlO decays rapidly in filament assisted laser ablation plumes.

  5. Femtosecond powder diffraction with a laser-driven hard X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, F; Ansari, Z; Woerner, M; Elsaesser, T

    2010-01-18

    X-ray powder diffraction with a femtosecond time resolution is introduced to map ultrafast structural dynamics of polycrystalline condensed matter. Our pump-probe approach is based on photoexcitation of a powder sample with a femtosecond optical pulse and probing changes of its structure by diffracting a hard X-ray pulse generated in a laser-driven plasma source. We discuss the key aspects of this scheme including an analysis of detection sensitivity and angular resolution. Applying this technique to the prototype molecular material ammonium sulfate, up to 20 powder diffraction rings are recorded simultaneously with a time resolution of 100 fs. We describe how to derive transient charge density maps of the material from the extensive set of diffraction data in a quantitative way.

  6. Femtosecond optical transfection as a tool for genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mapa, M. L.; Gardner, J.; Bradburn, H.; King, J.; Dholakia, K.; Gunn-Moore, F.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond optical transfection for the genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells. Using a system with an SLM combined with a scanning mirror allows poration of both single-cell and colony-formed human embryonic stem cells in a rapid and targeted manner. In this work, we show successful transfection of plasmid DNA tagged with fluorescent reporters into human embryonic stem cells using three doses of focused femtosecond laser. A significant number of transfected cells retained their undifferentiated morphological feature of large nucleus with high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio, 48h after photoporation. Furthermore, DNA constructs driven by different types of promoters were also successfully transfected into human embryonic stem cells using this technique.

  7. Mechanisms of femtosecond LIPSS formation induced by periodic surface temperature modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Evgeny L.

    2016-06-01

    Here we analyze the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on metal surfaces upon single femtosecond laser pulses. Most of the existing models of the femtosecond LIPSS formation discuss only the appearance of a periodic modulation of the electron and ion temperatures. However the mechanism how the inhomogeneous surface temperature distribution induces the periodically-modulated surface profile under the conditions corresponding to ultrashort-pulse laser ablation is still not clear. Estimations made on the basis of different hydrodynamic instabilities allow to sort out mechanisms, which can bridge the gap between the temperature modulation and the LIPSS. The proposed theory shows that the periodic structures can be generated by single ultrashort laser pulses due to ablative instabilities. The Marangoni and Rayleigh-Bénard convection on the contrary cannot cause the LIPSS formation.

  8. Femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structure on poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Shuhei; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2015-03-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is one of the most remarkable nanostructures formed only by a simple procedure of laser irradiation that enables to control cell behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, however, LIPSS formation on a scaffold-usable biodegradable polymer had not been succeede d probably due to relatively-low glass transition temperature and melting temperature of such polymers. In this study, we demonstrate LIPSS formation on a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), a versatile biodegradable polymer which has been widely used in clinical practice. Experimental results revealed that the repetition rate of femtosecond laser is one of the key parameters for LIPSS formation on PLLA, suggesting that thermal properties and photochemical reactions should be considered. The present study expands the potential of femtosecond laser processing for fabrication of highly-biocompatible scaffold in tissue engineering.

  9. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Bo [Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhou Ming, E-mail: zm_laser@126.com [Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Li Jian; Ye Xia; Li Gang; Cai Lan [Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces induced by femtosecond laser is a research hotspot of superhydrophobic surface studies nowadays. We present a simple and easily-controlled method for fabricating stainless steel-based superhydrophobic surfaces. The method consists of microstructuring stainless steel surfaces by irradiating samples with femtosecond laser pulses and silanizing the surfaces. By low laser fluence, we fabricated typical laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the submicron level. The apparent contact angle (CA) on the surface is 150.3 deg. With laser fluence increasing, we fabricated periodic ripples and periodic cone-shaped spikes on the micron scale, both covered with LIPSS. The stainless steel-based surfaces with micro- and submicron double-scale structure have higher apparent CAs. On the surface of double-scale structure, the maximal apparent CA is 166.3 deg. and at the same time, the sliding angle (SA) is 4.2 deg.

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of polymeric substrates for the fabrication of microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella, E-mail: raffaella.suriano@chem.polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' Giulio Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Kuznetsov, Arseniy [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Eaton, Shane M. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Kiyan, Roman [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Cerullo, Giulio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Osellame, Roberto [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Chichkov, Boris N. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' Giulio Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    This manuscript presents a study of physical and chemical properties of microchannels fabricated by femtosecond laser processing technology in thermoplastic polymeric materials, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and cyclic olefin polymer (COP). By surface electron microscopy and optical profilometry, the dimensions of microchannels in the polymers were found to be easily tunable, with surface roughness values comparable to those obtained by standard prototyping techniques such as micromilling. Through colorimetric analysis and optical microscopy, PMMA was found to remain nearly transparent after ablation while COP and PS darkened significantly. Using infrared spectroscopy, the darkening in PS and COP was attributed to significant oxidation and dehydrogenation during laser ablation, unlike PMMA, which was found to degrade by a thermal depolymerization process. The more stable molecular structure of PMMA makes it the most viable thermoplastic polymer for femtosecond laser fabrication of microfluidic channels.

  11. Fabrication and multifunction integration of microfluidic chips by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Xia, Hong; Dong, Wen-Fei; Ding, Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2013-05-07

    In the pursuit of modern microfluidic chips with multifunction integration, micronanofabrication techniques play an increasingly important role. Despite the fact that conventional fabrication approaches such as lithography, imprinting and soft lithography have been widely used for the preparation of microfluidic chips, it is still challenging to achieve complex microfluidic chips with multifunction integration. Therefore, novel micronanofabrication approaches that could be used to achieve this end are highly desired. As a powerful 3D processing tool, femtosecond laser fabrication shows great potential to endow general microfluidic chips with multifunctional units. In this review, we briefly introduce the fundamental principles of femtosecond laser micronanofabrication. With the help of laser techniques, both the preparation and functionalization of advanced microfluidic chips are summarized. Finally, the current challenges and future perspective of this dynamic field are discussed based on our own opinion.

  12. Fabrication of micro-scale gratings for moiré method with a femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaosheng Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of micro gratings using a femtosecond laser exposure system is experimentally investigated for the electron moiré method. Micro holes and lines are firstly etched for parameter study. Grating profile is theoretically optimized to form high quality moiré patterns. For a demonstration, a parallel grating is fabricated on a specimen of quartz glass. The minimum line width and the distance between two adjacent lines are both set to be 1μm, and the frequency of grating is 500lines/mm. The experimental results indicate that the quality of gratings is good and the relative error of the gratings pitch is about 1.5%. Based on moiré method, scanning electron microscope (SEM moiré patterns are observed clearly, which manifests that gratings fabricated with the femtosecond laser exposure is suitable for micro scale deformation measurement.

  13. Femtosecond investigations of optical switching and χ(3) in GaAs waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Michael J.; Anderson, Kristin K.; Wang, Christine A.; Haus, Hermann A.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1990-08-01

    We describe a new technique for performing femtosecond transient measurements of nonlinear index and absorption in waveguide devices. Using a time division interferometry technique in conjunction with a tunable femtosecond laser source we have performed the first measurement of the wavelength dependent nonresonant nonlinear index in A1GaAs. Contributions to nonlinear index arise from both virtual as well as real population mediated processes depending on the wavelength detuning from resonance. Complementary pump-probe measurements of transient absorption provide information on excited state population as well as two-photon induced absorption processes. These measurements provide imformation on the mechanism and dynamics of fundamental nonlinear optical processes below the band edge in semiconductors and are relevant to possible all optical switching applications in waveguide devices.

  14. Pulsed digital holography system recording ultrafast process of the femtosecond order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhai, Hongchen; Mu, Guoguang

    2006-06-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, a pulsed digital microholographic system with spatial angular multiplexing for recording the ultrafast process of the femtosecond order. The optimized design of the two sets of subpulse-train generators in this system makes it possible to implement a digital holographic recording with spatial angular multiplexing of a frame interval of the femtosecond order, while keeping the incident angle of the object beams unchanged. Three pairs of amplitude and phase images from the same view angle digitally reconstructed by the system demonstrated the ultrafast dynamic process of laser-induced ionization of ambient air at a wavelength of 800 nm, with a time resolution of 50 fs and a frame interval of 300 fs.

  15. High repetition rate tunable femtosecond pulses and broadband amplification from fiber laser pumped parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, O; Bruchmann, C; Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Cormier, E; Tünnermann, A

    2006-05-29

    We report on the generation of high energy femtosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate from a fiber laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Nonlinear bandwidth enhancement in fibers provides the intrinsically synchronized signal for the parametric amplifier. We demonstrate large tunability extending from 700 nm to 1500 nm of femtosecond pulses with pulse energies as high as 1.2 muJ when the OPA is seeded by a supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Broadband amplification over more than 85 nm is achieved at a fixed wavelength. Subsequent compression in a prism sequence resulted in 46 fs pulses. With an average power of 0.5 W these pulses have a peak-power above 10 MW. In particular, the average power and pulse energy scalability of both involved concepts, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier, will enable easy up-scaling to higher powers.

  16. Terahertz imaging with sub-wavelength resolution by femtosecond laser filament in air

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jiayu; Guo, Lanjun; Wang, Zhi; Cheng, Ya; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging provides cutting edge technique in biology, medical sciences and non-destructive evaluation. However, due to the long wavelength of the THz wave, the obtained resolution of THz imaging is normally a few hundred microns and is much lower than that of the traditional optical imaging. We introduce a sub-wavelength resolution THz imaging technique which uses the THz radiation generated by a femtosecond laser filament in air as the probe. This method is based on the fact that the femtosecond laser filament forms a waveguide for the THz wave in air. The diameter of the THz beam, which propagates inside the filament, varies from 20 {\\mu}m to 50 {\\mu}m, which is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the THz wave. Using this highly spatially confined THz beam as the probe, THz imaging with resolution as high as 20 {\\mu}m (~{\\lambda}/38) can be realized.

  17. Quantum physical states for describing photonic assisted chemical change: I. Torsional phenomenon at femtosecond time scale

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, O

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond torsional relaxation processes experimentally detected and recently reported by Clark et al. (Nature Phys. 8,225 (2012)) are theoretically dissected with a Hilbert/Fock quantum physical (QP) framework incorporating entanglement of photon/matter base states overcoming standard semi-classic vibrational descriptions. The quantum analysis of a generic Z/E (cis/trans) isomerization in abstract QP terms shed light to fundamental roles played by photonic spin and excited electronic singlet coupled to triplet states. It is shown that one photon activation cannot elicit femtosecond phenomenon, while a two-photon pulse would do. Estimated time scales for the two-photon case indicate the process to lie between a slower than electronic Franck-Condon-like transition yet faster than (semi-classic) vibration relaxation ones.

  18. Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamaly, E G; Tikhonchuk, V T; Luther-Davies, B

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of ablation of solids by intense femtosecond laser pulses is described in an explicit analytical form. It is shown that at high intensities when the ionization of the target material is complete before the end of the pulse, the ablation mechanism is the same for both metals and dielectrics. The physics of this new ablation regime involves ion acceleration in the electrostatic field caused by charge separation created by energetic electrons escaping from the target. The formulae for ablation thresholds and ablation rates for metals and dielectrics, combining the laser and target parameters, are derived and compared to experimental data. The calculated dependence of the ablation thresholds on the pulse duration is in agreement with the experimental data in a femtosecond range, and it is linked to the dependence for nanosecond pulses.

  19. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C; Decker, F-J; Ding, Y; Dolgashev, V A; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krejcik, P; Loos, H; Lutman, A; Maxwell, T J; Turner, J; Wang, J; Wang, M-H; Welch, J; Wu, J

    2014-04-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers, with pulse durations ranging from a few to several hundred femtoseconds, are uniquely suited for studying atomic, molecular, chemical and biological systems. Characterizing the temporal profiles of these femtosecond X-ray pulses that vary from shot to shot is not only challenging but also important for data interpretation. Here we report the time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers by using an X-band radiofrequency transverse deflector at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate this method to be a simple, non-invasive technique with a large dynamic range for single-shot electron and X-ray temporal characterization. A resolution of less than 1 fs root mean square has been achieved for soft X-ray pulses. The lasing evolution along the undulator has been studied with the electron trapping being observed as the X-ray peak power approaches 100 GW.

  20. Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Venkatram; Ji Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Goh, Bee Min; Loh, Kian Ping; Xu Qinghua, E-mail: chmxqh@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: phyjiwei@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-10-15

    A water soluble conjugated thiophene polymer, sodium salt of poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (TPP), and graphene oxide (GO) composite film (GO-TPP) device was prepared. Transient photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the GO-TPP composite film using 150 ns laser pulses of 527 nm wavelength. Highly efficient photocurrent generation was observed from the GO-TPP film. The relationships of the film photoconductivity, photocurrent decay time and electron decay times with the incident light intensity were investigated. The photoconductive gain of the film was determined to be greater than 40% and to be independent of the light intensity. Furthermore, the femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of the GO-TPP film were measured using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and the composite film exhibited high nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients.

  1. Nanocomposite tantalum-carbon-based films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchikh, N. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Wolski, K. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS - URA CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 02 (France); Donnet, C. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)]. E-mail: Christophe.Donnet@univ-st-etienne.fr; Fillit, R.Y. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS - URA CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 02 (France); Rogemond, F. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Subtil, J.L. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Rouzaud, J.N. [Laboratoire de Geologie de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris 24, rue Lhomond 75231-Paris Cedex 5 (France); Laval, J.Y. [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231-Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-01-03

    Nanostructured coatings of metal (tantalum) containing diamond-like carbon (a-C:Ta) have been prepared by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films, containing 15 at.% tantalum, have been deposited by ablating sequentially graphite and metallic tantalum in vacuum conditions with an amplified Ti:sapphire laser. The coatings have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing angle X-ray diffraction, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy, scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. Evidence of metallic {alpha}-Ta and {beta}-Ta particles (diameter in the 100 nm range) and smaller quasi-amorphous tantalum clusters embedded in the carbonaceous matrix have been shown. A thin tantalum carbide interface between the carbon matrix and the top surface of the tantalum nodules has also been identified. The ability of femtosecond pulsed laser deposition to synthetize nanocomposite carbon-based films and to control their nanostructure is discussed.

  2. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Diego; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Valtorta, Flavia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged.

  3. Perspective: Structural dynamics in condensed matter mapped by femtosecond x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsaesser, T.; Woerner, M. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    Ultrashort soft and hard x-ray pulses are sensitive probes of structural dynamics on the picometer length and femtosecond time scales of electronic and atomic motions. Recent progress in generating such pulses has initiated new directions of condensed matter research, exploiting a variety of x-ray absorption, scattering, and diffraction methods to probe photoinduced structural dynamics. Atomic motion, changes of local structure and long-range order, as well as correlated electron motion and charge transfer have been resolved in space and time, providing a most direct access to the physical mechanisms and interactions driving reversible and irreversible changes of structure. This perspective combines an overview of recent advances in femtosecond x-ray diffraction with a discussion on ongoing and future developments.

  4. Femtosecond laser based small incision lenticule extraction for moderate and high myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Asp, Sven; Ivarsen, Anders

    Femtosecond laser based small incision lenticule extraction for moderate and high myopia. Jesper Hjortdal, Sven Asp, Anders Ivarsen, Anders Vestergaard Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark Purpose: ReLEx® smile is a new keratorefractive procedure whereby a stromal...... lenticule is cut by a femtosecond laser and manually extracted through a peripheral corneal tunnel. The purpose of the prospective quality study is to present our initial clinical experience with ReLEx smile for treatment of moderate and high myopia. Methods: 379 eyes (198 patients) were treated for myopia...... (spherical equivalent (SE) ranging from -13.13 to -1.63 D, mean -7.28 D) with ReLEx smile and followed for 3 months. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent (SE), proportion of eyes within ± 0.5/1.0 D, loss/gain of lines of CDVA, patient...

  5. Two-photon fluorescence imaging and femtosecond laser microsurgery to study drosophila dorsal closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayil K. N., Anisha; Pereira, Andrea; Mathew, Manoj; Artigas, David; Martín Blanco, Enrique; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2008-02-01

    Dorsal closure is a key morphogenic process that occurs at the last stages of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. It involves a well coordinated rearrangement and movement of tissues that resemble epithelial wound healing in mammals. The cell dynamics and intracellular signaling pathways that accompany hole closure are expected to be similar during would healing providing a model system to study epithelial healing. Here we demonstrate the use of two-photon fluorescence microscope together with femtosecond laser ablation to examine the epithelial wound healing during embryonic dorsal closure. By using tightly focused NIR femtosecond pulses of subnanojoule energy we are able to produce highly confined microsurgery on the epithelial cells of a developing embryo. We observed that drosophila epidermis heals from the laser wounds with increased activity of actin near the wound edges.

  6. Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Eaton, Shane M; Zhang, Haibin; Herman, Peter R

    2008-07-21

    A femtosecond fiber laser was applied to fabricate broadband directional couplers inside bulk glass for general power splitting application in the 1250 to 1650-nm wavelength telecom spectrum. The broadband response was optimized over the 400-nm bandwidth by tailoring the coupling strength and the waveguide interaction length to balance the differing wavelength dependence of the straight interaction and bent transition regions. High spatial finesse of the femtosecond-laser writing technique enabled close placement (approxiamtely 6 microm) of adjacent waveguides that underpinned the wavelength-flattened broadband response at any coupling ratio in the 0% to 100% range. The spectral responses were well-represented by coupled mode theory, permitting simple design and implementation of broadband couplers for bulk 3D optical circuit integration.

  7. Propagation of femtosecond pulses in a hollow-core revolver fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Yu P.; Krylov, A. A.; Pryamikov, A. D.; Kosolapov, A. F.; Kolyadin, A. N.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Bufetov, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have studied for the first time the propagation of femtosecond pulses through an optical fibre with an air-filled hollow core and a cladding in the form of one ring of noncontacting cylindrical capillaries for high-power radiation transmission in the 1.55-μm telecom range. Numerical analysis results demonstrate that the parameters of the fibre enable radiation transmission in the form of megawatt-power Raman solitons through up to a 25-m length of the fibre and tuning of the emission wavelength over 130 nm. We have experimentally demonstrated femtosecond pulse transmission through fibres up to 5 m in length in the linear propagation regime, without distortions of the pulse spectrum, with a dispersion-induced temporal pulse broadening within 20%.

  8. Nano Brazing of Pt-Ag Nanoparticles under Femtosecond Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Liu; H Huang; A Hu; G Zou; L Quintino; Y Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nano brazing of Pt-Ag nanoparticles with nano Ag filler metal is reported in this letter, which presents an effective way to join nanoobjects by femtosecond laser irradiation. The nano brazed interface between Pt-Ag and Ag showed good lattice matching along (111)Ag//(111)Ag-Pt. Lattice mismatch can hardly be observed at the interface between the filler metal and Pt-Ag nanoparticle, which is important for the joint strength and normally does not occur during joining. The very low mismatch also suggested that melting and solidification occurred during nano brazing by femtosecond laser. The role of Brownian motion on the nano joining process is also discussed in this paper.

  9. Probing the π -π* transitions in conjugated compounds with an infrared femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Li, Pengcheng; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-03-01

    We show that the processes of π -π* transitions imprint themselves on the high-harmonic spectra when conjugated molecules interact with intense femtosecond laser pulses. It is found that a noninteger order peak appears in the harmonic spectrum with the photon energy equaling the excitation energy of the π -π* excitation. Further studies prove that this radiation is caused by the π -π* transition. The transition signals are prominent and can be easily measured as the corresponding radiation intensities are comparable to those of integer order harmonics. Our results pave the way for the study of excited-state electron-ion dynamics using high-harmonic spectroscopy. In comparison to the traditional absorption spectroscopy method relying on the synchrotron radiation source, the present approach is easily accessible for the use of a tabletop laser-based source. Furthermore, our study also provides a potential tool to probe the π -π* transition processes in femtosecond resolution.

  10. Control of femtosecond multi-filamentation in glass by designable patterned optical fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a scheme for realizing femtosecond multi-filamentation with designable quantity and locations of filaments, based on the control of multi-focal spots formed by patterned optical fields (POFs composed of multiple individual optical fields (IOFs. A computer-controlled spatial light modulator is used to engineer the POFs. In particular, we introduce a blazed phase grating in any IOF, which increases a degree of freedom, making the engineering of multi-focal spots becomes more flexible. We achieve experimentally the aim controlling femtosecond multi-filamentation in a K9 glass. Our scheme has great flexibility and convenience in controlling the multi-filamentation in quantity and locations of filaments and strength of interaction between filaments.

  11. Femtosecond fibre laser stabilisation to an optical frequency standard using a KTP electro-optic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyushkov, B N [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pivtsov, V S; Koliada, N A [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kaplun, A B; Meshalkin, A B [S.S. Kutateladze Institute of Heat Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    A miniature intracavity KTP-based electro-optic phase modulator has been developed which can be used for effective stabilisation of an optical frequency comb of a femtosecond erbiumdoped fibre laser to an optical frequency standard. The use of such an electro-optic modulator (EOM) has made it possible to extend the working frequency band of a phase-locked loop system for laser stabilisation to several hundred kilohertz. We demonstrate that the KTP-based EOM is sufficiently sensitive even at a small optical length, which allows it to be readily integrated into cavities of femtosecond fibre lasers with high mode frequency spacings (over 100 MHz). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  12. Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Route to Femtosecond Ångstrom Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, Mikio; Morita, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    "Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy" deals with both the ultrashort laser-pulse technology in the few- to mono-cycle region and the laser-surface-controlled scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) extending into the spatiotemporal extreme technology. The former covers the theory of nonlinear pulse propagation beyond the slowly-varing-envelope approximation, the generation and active chirp compensation of ultrabroadband optical pulses, the amplitude and phase characterization of few- to mono-cycle pulses, and the feedback field control for the mono-cycle-like pulse generation. In addition, the wavelength-multiplex shaping of ultrabroadband pulse is described. The latter covers the CW-laser-excitation STM, the femtosecond-time-resolved STM and atomic-level surface phenomena controlled by femtosecond pulses.

  13. Effect of high-power nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses on silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G.; Volodin, V. A.; Marin, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Deutschmann, M. [Laser Zentrum Hannover (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The effect of high-power nanosecond (20 ns) and femtosecond (120 fs) laser pulses on silicon nanostructures produced by ion-beam-assisted synthesis in SiO{sub 2} layers or by deposition onto glassy substrates is studied. Nanosecond annealing brings about a photoluminescence band at about 500 mn, with the intensity increasing with the energy and number of laser pulses. The source of the emission is thought to be the clusters of Si atoms segregated from the oxide. In addition, the nanosecond pulses allow crystallization of amorphous silicon nanoprecipitates in SiO{sub 2}. Heavy doping promotes crystallization. The duration of femtosecond pulses is too short for excess Si to be segregated from SiO{sub 2}. At the same time, such short pulses induce crystallization of Thin a-Si films on glassy substrates. The energy region in which crystallization is observed for both types of pulses allows short-term melting of the surface layer.

  14. Webcam autofocus mechanism used as a delay line for the characterization of femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Marín, Pablo; Kapellmann-Zafra, Gabriel; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.garduno@ccadet.unam.mx; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, A. P. 70-186, CP 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we present an electromagnetic focusing mechanism (EFM), from a commercial webcam, implemented as a delay line of a femtosecond laser pulse characterization system. The characterization system consists on a second order autocorrelator based on a two-photon-absorption detection. The results presented here were performed for two different home-made femtosecond oscillators: Ti:sapph @ 820 nm and highly chirped pulses generated with an Erbium Doped Fiber @ 1550 nm. The EFM applied as a delay line represents an excellent alternative due its performance in terms of stability, resolution, and long scan range up to 3 ps. Due its low power consumption, the device can be connected through the Universal Serial Bus (USB) port. Details of components, schematics of electronic controls, and detection systems are presented.

  15. Formation of color centers and light scattering structures by femtosecond laser pulses in sodium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukvina, L. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Martynovich, E. F.

    2014-11-01

    Modification of sodium fluoride crystal lattice by means of femtosecond laser pulses with λmax=800 nm, energy 0.5 mJ, duration 30 fs and repetition rate 1 kHz has been considered in the paper. Effective formation of simple and complex aggregate color centers and light scattering nanodefects in the channel of a laser beam in NaF crystal have been shown for the first time. Dependences of color centers concentration on the distance between the channel center and its periphery and along the channel have been presented. Influence of external focusing on color centers creation has been revealed. Explanations of the observed phenomena have been presented on the basis of nonlinear processes taking place under the effect of high-intensity femtosecond pulses.

  16. Peculiarities of the inverse Faraday effect induced in iron garnet films by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhaev, M. A.; Chernov, A. I.; Savochkin, I. V.; Kuz'michev, A. N.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    The inverse Faraday effect in iron garnet films subjected to femtosecond laser pulses is experimentally investigated. It is found that the magnitude of the observed effect depends nonlinearly on the energy of the optical pump pulses, which is in contradiction with the notion that the inverse Faraday effect is linear with respect to the pump energy. Thus, for pump pulses with a central wavelength of 650 nm and an energy density of 1 mJ/cm2, the deviation from a linear dependence is as large as 50%. Analysis of the experimental data demonstrates that the observed behavior is explained by the fact that the optically induced normal component of the magnetization is determined, apart from the field resulting from the inverse Faraday effect, by a decrease in the magnitude of the precessing magnetization under the influence of the femtosecond electromagnetic field.

  17. Fabrication of three-dimensional microdisk resonators in calcium fluoride by femtosecond laser micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Wang, Nengwen; Song, Jiangxin; He, Fei; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We report on fabrication of on-chip calcium fluoride (CaF2) microdisk resonators using water-assisted femtosecond laser micromachining. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is used to create ultra-smooth sidewalls. The quality (Q)-factors of the fabricated microresonators are measured to be 4.2x10^4 at wavelengths near 1550 nm. The Q factor is mainly limited by the scattering from the bottom surface of the disk whose roughness remains high due to the femtosecond laser micromachining process. This technique facilitates formation of on-chip microresonators on various kinds of bulk crystalline materials, which can benefit a wide range of applications such as nonlinear optics, quantum optics, and chip-level integration of photonic devices.

  18. Role of ambient gas in heating of metal samples by femtosecond pulses of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, V. P.; Bulgakova, N. M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we consider an experimentally observed effect of significant increasing of the residual heat in metal targets at their irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses in an ambient gas in respect to the vacuum conditions. Numerical modelling of heating of a platinum target by femtosecond laser pulses in argon under normal conditions has been performed taking into account gas breakdown in the focussing region of the laser beam in front of the target. The applied model is based on a combination of a thermal model describing heating and phase transitions in irradiated samples and a hydrodynamic model to describe motion of the ambient gas perturbed by laser irradiation as a result of multiphoton ionization. The hot ambient gas is shown to heat efficiently the irradiated sample. The hydrodynamic processes in the ambient gas play an important role in heating.

  19. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  20. Formation of arrayed holes on metal foil and metal film by multibeam interfering femtosecond laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Quan-Zhong; Qiu Jian-Rong; Zhao Chong-Jun; Jiang Xiong-Wei; Zhu Cong-Shan

    2005-01-01

    We report on an optical interference method to fabricate arrayed holes on metal nickel foil and aluminum film deposited on glass substrate by means of five-beam interference of femtosecond laser pulses. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope observations revealed that arrayed holes of micrometre-order were fabricated on both metal foil and metal film. The present technique allows one-step, large-area, micrometric processing of metal materials for potential industrial applications.