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Sample records for all-glass evacuated tube

  1. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the...

  2. High temperature collecting performance of a new all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with U-shaped tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar air heater with simplified CPC and U-type heat exchanger is designed and tested. • The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • The air heater can propose the heated air exceeding 200 °C with great air flow rate. - Abstract: Experiment and simulation are conducted on a new-type all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with simplified compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels and each panel includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a U-shaped copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. Air is gradually heated when passing through each U-shaped copper tube. The heat transfer model of the solar air heater is established and the outlet air temperature, the heat power and heat efficiency are calculated. Calculated and experimental results show that the present experimental system can provide the heated air exceeding 200 °C. The whole system has an outstanding high-temperature collecting performance and the present heat transfer model can meet the general requirements of engineering calculations

  3. 全玻璃真空太阳集热管光-热性能%SOLAR THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED COLLECTOR TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志强; 唐轩

    2001-01-01

    Three solar thermal parameters,i.e.heat loss coeffi cientULT,irradiation H and stagnation par ameter Y of all-glass evacuated collector tubes were derived on the basis of energy balance equation,which depen ds on solar transmittance of cover glass tube,solar absorptance and thermal emit tance of the selective absorbing surface and gas pressure in the jacket between cover and inner glass tubes,and solar irradiance,temperatures and the geometry o f the collector tube.Calculated results of solar thermal parameters of all-glass evacuated collector tubes agree well with experiments.These solar thermal param eters of all-glass evacuated collector tube were adopted by China national stand ard GB/T 17049-1997.%从能量平衡方程导出全玻璃真空太阳集热管的3个光-热性能参数,即热损系数ULT、闷晒太阳曝辐量H和空晒性能参数Y与真空集热管的罩管玻璃的太阳透射比τ、选择性吸收表面的太阳吸收比α、发射比ε、和集热管内的气体压强p,以及太阳辐照度、环境温度和真空太阳集热管的几何尺寸等函数关系。理论计算的真空太阳集热管的3个热性能参数与实验的结果比较一致。上述全玻璃真空太阳集热管的光-热性能参数已经被国家标准《全玻璃真空太阳集热管》(GB/T17049-1997)采用。

  4. A Study on the Improvement of Thermal Efficiency and Durability of All-Glass Solar Vacuum Collector Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jun Ho

    2002-02-15

    Nature has been giving us energy from the beginning of the world. But human hardly use it. Solar energy is a kind of energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Heat for comfort in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to the water heater systems. To utilize the solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. We must think about how to absorb the solar energy more efficiently, how to store more energy, and other problems such as additional electrical-heating system. This study deals with the collection of solar energy and its storage in all-glass solar vacuum tubes for different types of header design, flow passage and heat transfer devices. In order to elicit the most efficient combination of header design, flow passage, heat transfer hardware and operating conditions, we have studied four different types of solar collectors utilizing vacuum tubes. We selected the evacuated solar collector with metal cap and the all-glass evacuated solar collector. These collectors are more efficient than flat-plate collectors in both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The all-glass evacuated collector have been widely utilized due to their high efficiency, low heat losses, long lifetime and low costs. The evacuated solar collector in the present study uses a single vacuum solar collector either with a heat pipe (SEIDO 5) or with a 'dual pipe' flow passage (SEIDO 2). The one with heat pipe is designed such that the condensing section of heat pipe is inserted into a pipe header where the water from the storage tank is constantly circulated. Solar energy is transferred in the form of heat as it is ultimately saved in the

  5. A Study on the Improvement of Thermal Efficiency and Durability of All-Glass Solar Vacuum Collector Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature has been giving us energy from the beginning of the world. But human hardly use it. Solar energy is a kind of energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Heat for comfort in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to the water heater systems. To utilize the solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. We must think about how to absorb the solar energy more efficiently, how to store more energy, and other problems such as additional electrical-heating system. This study deals with the collection of solar energy and its storage in all-glass solar vacuum tubes for different types of header design, flow passage and heat transfer devices. In order to elicit the most efficient combination of header design, flow passage, heat transfer hardware and operating conditions, we have studied four different types of solar collectors utilizing vacuum tubes. We selected the evacuated solar collector with metal cap and the all-glass evacuated solar collector. These collectors are more efficient than flat-plate collectors in both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The all-glass evacuated collector have been widely utilized due to their high efficiency, low heat losses, long lifetime and low costs. The evacuated solar collector in the present study uses a single vacuum solar collector either with a heat pipe (SEIDO 5) or with a 'dual pipe' flow passage (SEIDO 2). The one with heat pipe is designed such that the condensing section of heat pipe is inserted into a pipe header where the water from the storage tank is constantly circulated. Solar energy is transferred in the form of heat as it is ultimately saved in the storage tank

  6. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN A GLASS TUBE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR AIR HEATER%全玻璃真空管空气集热器管内流动与换热的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2001-01-01

    目前,对于太阳能集热器的数值模拟大多是基于一维、非稳态的简化模型之上。该文采用三维数学及物理模型对插管提热系统的流动与换热情况进行了数值模拟。并对模拟结果进行了实验验证。%A study on heat transfer and air flow in a tube of a ll-glassevacuated solar air heater was presented.The three-dimension physical a nd mathematical models have been used.The computational results are in good agre ement with the experimental ones.

  7. Improving the productivity of solar still using evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qays A.Rashak, Ala'a A. Jassim, Husam N. Khanfoos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of life and population growth makes the rate of water consumption to be very high, also the operation costs of the conventional methods of the desalination process are very expensive and unfriendly to the environment; therefor it is very important to find new, cheap, clean and simple methods for producing drinkable water such as solar energy desalination systems. To improve the performance of solar still by using evacuated tubes. The effect of parameter variables such as solar intensity, wind velocity, the tilt angle and numbers of the evacuated tubes are studied and then discussed. It can be concluded that the maximum productivity of water has achieved when the tilt angle of the evacuated tubes was 15˚ on the horizone using four evacuated tubes.

  8. Investigation of evacuated tube heated by solar trough concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of solar evacuated tube have been used to measure their heating efficiency and temperature with fluids of water and N2 respectively with a parabolic trough concentrator. Experiments demonstrate that both evacuated tubes present a good heat transfer with the fluid of water, the heating efficiency is about 70-80%, and the water is easy to boil when liquid rate is less than 0.0046 kg/s. However, the efficiency of solar concentrating system with evacuated tube for heating N2 gas is less than 40% when the temperature of N2 gas reaches 320-460 deg. C. A model for evacuated tube heated by solar trough concentrating system has been built in order to further analyze the characteristics of fluid which flow evacuated tube. It is found that the model agrees with the experiments to within 5.2% accuracy. The characteristics of fluid via evacuated tube heated by solar concentrated system are analyzed under the varying conditions of solar radiation and trough aperture area. This study supports research work on using a solar trough concentrating system to perform ammonia thermo-chemical energy storage for 24 h power generation. The current research work also has application to solar refrigeration

  9. Main Vacuum Technical Issues of Evacuated Tube Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Li, S. S.; Wang, M. X.

    In the future, Evacuated Tube Transportation (ETT) would be built and faster than jets. ETT tube with diameter 2∼4m and length over 1000 km will be the largest scale vacuum equipment on earth. This paper listed some main vacuum technical issues to be solved in ETT as follow. How to build ultra-large-scale vacuum chamber like ETT tube with low cost and high reliability? How to pump gas out off the ETT tube in short time? How to release heat or reduce temperature in the vacuum tube? Hot to avoid vacuum electricity discharge? How to manufacture vehicles with airproof shells and equip the life support system? How to detect leakage and find leakage position efficiently and fast as possible? Some relative solutions and suggestions are put up.

  10. Solar evacuated tube collector: absorption chiller systems simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflar, J.A.; Duff, W.S.

    1977-12-01

    A residential air conditioning system incorporating an Arkla Solaire absorption chiller and Corning Glass Works evacuated tube collectors is simulated and the design parameters studied. Mathematical models of the evacuated tube collector and Arkla absorption chiller based on experimental results of the components have been created and incorporated into a complete system simulation. The chiller model includes transient start-up effects and the evacuated tube collector model includes numerous optical effects. A standard Arkla chiller in a humid climate (Washington, D.C.) and an Arkla unit with a modified charge for dry climates (Fort Collins, Colorado) are studied. Design parameters considered include the use of chilled water storage to reduce transient start-up effects of the absorption unit, the effects of removing heat from the solar system for preheating service hot water, the use of a tempering valve to prevent over-firing of the absorption unit in dry climates, and solar storage sizing considerations. The study results and conclusions are used to specify a cooling system design.

  11. Acknowledgement Of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Over Flat Plate Solar Water Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Dharamvir Mangal; Devander Kumar Lamba; Tarun Gupta; Kiran Jhamb

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents acknowledgement to one of the latest solar water heater which is evacuated solar water heater based on a Thermo siphon principle used for heating water for domestic purposes in household by utilizing solar radiations. As the air is evacuated from the solar tube to form a vacuum, this greatly reduces conductive and convective heat loss from the interior of tube. As a result wind and cold temperature have less effect on the efficiency of evacuated solar water heater. Result ...

  12. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  13. A study on energy gain on evacuated collector tube with cylindric absorber on building southern facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Zijian [Information Engineering Coll., Capital Normal Univ., BJ (China); Ge Hongchuan [Beijing Eurocon Solar Energy Tech. Co., Ltd., BJ (China); Ma Yiqing [Special Education Coll. of Beijing Union Univ., BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the Clear-Day Model, daily energy gain and its annual variation of single evacuated collector tube with cylindric absorber in three different installation on building southern facade are studied. The solar energy gain of vertical installed tube and east-west horizontal installed tube comparing with local latitude tilted installed tube are presented. During the summer season the east-west horizontal installed tube has more solar energy gain than the vertical installed tube. (orig.)

  14. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  15. Acknowledgement Of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Over Flat Plate Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharamvir Mangal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents acknowledgement to one of the latest solar water heater which is evacuated solar water heater based on a Thermo siphon principle used for heating water for domestic purposes in household by utilizing solar radiations. As the air is evacuated from the solar tube to form a vacuum, this greatly reduces conductive and convective heat loss from the interior of tube. As a result wind and cold temperature have less effect on the efficiency of evacuated solar water heater. Result of less heat loss is fastly heating of water as compared to flat plate solar water heater/collector.

  16. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of a developed Central Receiver Based on Evacuated Solar Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Basil. H.; Gilani S. I.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.

    2016-01-01

    Solar central receiver plays a considerable role in the plant output power; it is one of the most important synthesis in the solar power tower plants. Its performance directly affects the efficiency of the entire solar power generation system. In this study, a new designed receiver model based on evacuated solar tube was proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the developed receiver were investigated. In order to optimise and evaluate the dynamic characteristics of solar power plant comp...

  18. 全玻璃真空管太阳能空气集热器热性能试验方法研究%STUDY ON MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR AIR HEATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2001-01-01

    全玻璃真空管空气集热器是一种热损较小的太阳能空气加热装置。该文对该类集热器热性能评价方法进行了研究,并对集热器的时间常数、热延迟常数、角系数修正因子及瞬时热效率的实验方法进行了初步的实验研究。研究表明,用热延迟常数比时间常数能更好地反映真空管集热器的热性能,真空管集热器的角系数修正因子在垂直入射时最小。%Evacuated tubular solar collector is good for solar air heater as its low heat loss.A study on the thermal performance of the solar air heater is presented.The methods to test the time constant,resident time,incident angular modifier and instantaneous thermal efficiency are suggested.The resident time would be better than time constant to represent the thermal properties of the solar air heater.The incident angular modifier will be minimal at solar noon for the evacuated tubular solar air heater.

  19. Modified mathematical model for evaluating the performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector considering tube shading effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the absorbed solar radiation and heat transfer process in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collectors. The procedure is developed to calculate the daily utilized solar energy and outlet collector temperature for different tilt angles, collector azimuth angles and geometric parameters without requirement for any experimental factor determination. Total absorbed solar radiation is evaluated by integrating the flat-plate solar collector performance equations over the tube circumference taking into account the shading of the adjacent tubes and variance of transmissivity–absorptivity product with the incidence angle of radiation. The heat transfer into the collector fluid is evaluated by subtracting the heat loss from the total absorbed solar radiation. Comparison between calculated and measured tank temperature shows a good agreement between them under different heating loads. Performance of solar collector at different tilt angles, collector Azimuth angles, tubes spacing and collector mass flow rate is investigated theoretically. In Egypt (30° Latitude angle), the results show that 10°, 30° and 45° are the optimum solar collector tilt angles during the summer, vernal and autumnal equinox and winter operation respectively. Also, the utilized solar energy increases about 2.8% when the mass flow rate increases 100%, and the solar collector with south-facing has the best performance except for vertical tube solar collector. The simulation results also show that solar collector with wide tube spacing reduce the shading effect and hence increase the absorbed radiation. The final tank temperature as a function of collector's mass flow rate for three different days; 21 March, 21 June and 21 December is also investigated. The total incidence radiation, absorbed solar radiation and utilized heat per tube are presented for the three optimum tilt angles 10°, 30° and 45°. Efficiency curve of water

  20. Numerical study of a low temperature water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector is studied via CFD techniques. • Buoyancy effects are simulated using two different numerical approaches. • Temperature increase and pressure drop in the solar collector is predicted. • The thermal and hydraulic performance of the solar collector is obtained. • Numerical thermal efficiency is presented. - Abstract: A numerical study of a low temperature water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented in this work. The prediction of the water temperature at the outlet of the solar collector manifold was obtained using two different approaches for the simulation of the buoyancy effects; the first model consisted in the use of the Boussinesq approximation (BA) and the second model is to allow the variation of the proprieties with temperature (VPT). Four tests under real operational conditions, based on an Official Mexican Standard, were used to obtain the experimental temperature at the outlet of the solar collector manifold. The results show that the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency of the solar collector using the BA model is closer to the experimental data than those obtained using the VPT model

  1. Estimation and optimization of thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Ezen, H. Hüseyin; Küçüksille, Ecir U.; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) in order to predict the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system have been used. The experimental data for the training and testing of the networks were used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. The R2-value for the thermal performance values of collector is 0.811914 which can be considered as satisfactory. The results obtained when unknown data were presented to the networks are satisfactory and indicate that the proposed method can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collectors. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the calculation of the thermal performance. The advantages of this approaches compared to the conventional methods are speed, simplicity, and the capacity of the network to learn from examples. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to maximize the thermal performance of the system. The optimum working conditions of the system were determined by the GA.

  2. Thermal performance of direct-flow coaxial evacuated-tube solar collectors with and without a heat shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Collection efficiency plots and linear characterization of evacuated tube solar collector with a heat shield (ETC-HS) and evacuated tube solar collector without a heat shield (ETC-NHS). - Highlights: • Evacuated solar collector (ETC) with a heat shield had better thermal performance. • Efficiency of ETC with a heat shield is 54.70% at inlet temperature 123.9 °C. • 31.49% higher than efficiency of ETC without a heat shield at this temperature. • Heat loss coefficients of ETC with a heat shield was 1.86 W/(m2 K). • A 50.80% improvement in heat loss reduced compared to ETC without a heat shield. - Abstract: Experimental performance evaluation and comparative analyses based on heat extraction of direct-flow coaxial evacuated-tube solar collectors with and without heat shields are presented in this paper. A test system to evaluate the thermal performance of medium-temperature solar collectors was developed. The experimental analysis shows the evacuated-tube solar collector performed better with a heat shield, especially at higher working temperatures. The collection efficiency of the solar collector with a heat shield was 54.70% at the highest inlet temperature of 123.9 °C during the test period, which is 31.49% higher than for the solar collector without a heat shield. The calculated heat-loss coefficient for the evacuated-tube solar collector with a heat shield was 1.86 W/(m2 K), which is an improvement of 50.80% compared with that of the collector without a heat shield

  3. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  4. Mathematical Modeling of a developed Central Receiver Based on Evacuated Solar Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Basil. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar central receiver plays a considerable role in the plant output power; it is one of the most important synthesis in the solar power tower plants. Its performance directly affects the efficiency of the entire solar power generation system. In this study, a new designed receiver model based on evacuated solar tube was proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the developed receiver were investigated. In order to optimise and evaluate the dynamic characteristics of solar power plant components, the model investigates the solar radiation heat conversion process through the developed receiver, where the energy and mass conservation equations are used to determine the working fluid temperature and state through the receiver parts, beside the calculation and analysis of the thermal losses.

  5. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) Reflector( C

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Pei; Guiqiang Li; Xi Zhou; Jie Ji; Yuehong Su

    2012-01-01

    Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E), China. The first and sec...

  6. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) Reflector(C < 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehong Su; Gang Pei; Guiqiang Li; Xi Zhou; Jie Ji

    2012-01-01

    Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E), China. The first and secon...

  7. Study of the thermal performance and air-flow features of a solar air heater with evacuated tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, E.; Belessiotis, V. [Solar and other Energy Systems Lab., ' ' Democritos' ' National Center for Scientific Research, Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Li, X.; Wang, Z. [Solar Energy Lab., Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, aspects related to the energy performance of a solar air heater comprising an array of dual-glass evacuated tubes using air as the working fluid, are investigated. Design parameters affecting the performance of the heater are the air flow-rate, the diameter and length ratios (insert tube/inner glass tube), the latter defining the discharge location, the flow configuration (series or parallel connection of tubes) etc. Numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer within a single tube are performed for a selected configuration, giving insight into details of the flow and temperature fields, which are valuable in the pursuit of the optimal design of the geometric and physical parameters. Besides, efficiency curves for the air heater are obtained from experimental measurements at both cooperating laboratories. (orig.)

  8. Validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems with flat plate and heat pipe evacuated tube collectors

    OpenAIRE

    MC CORMACK, SARAH

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS mo...

  9. Validated TRNSYS Model for Forced Circulation Solar Water Heating Systems with Flat Plate and Heat Pipe Evacuated Tube Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour; Duffy, Aidan; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Conlon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS model was the T...

  10. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was devel...

  11. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  12. PERFORMANCE OF EVACUATED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR USING WATER-BASED TITANIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahendran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are undertaken to determine the efficiency of an evacuated tube solar collector using water-based Titanium Oxide (TiO2 nanofluid at the Pekan Campus (3˚32’ N, 103˚25’ E, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, for the conversion of solar thermal energy. Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone with an average daily solar insolation of more than 900 W/m², which can reach a maximum of 1200 W/m² for most of the year. Traditionally water is pumped through the collector at an optimum flow rate, for the extraction of solar thermal energy. If the outlet temperature of the water is high, further circulation of the water through the collector is useless. This is due to the low thermal conductivity of water of 0.6 W/m.K compared to metals which is many orders higher. Hence it is necessary to reduce the surface temperature either by pumping water at a higher flow rate or by enhancing the fluid’s properties by the dispersion of nanoparticles. Pumping water at higher flow rates is not advantageous as the overall efficiency of the system is lowered. Liquids in which nanosized particles of metal or their oxides are dispersed in a base liquid such as water are known as 'Nanofluids'. This results in higher values of thermal conductivity compared to the base liquid. The thermal conductivity increases with the concentration and temperature of the nanofluid. The increase in thermal conductivity with temperature is advantageous for application in collectors as the solar insolation varies throughout the day, with a minimum in the morning reaching a maximum at 2.00p.m and reducing thereafter. The efficiency of the collector estimated using a TiO2 nanofluid of 0.3% concentration is about 0.73, compared to water which is about 0.58. The efficiency is enhanced by 16.7% maximum with 30–50nm sized TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the water, compared to the system working solely with water. The flow rate is fixed at 2.7 liters per

  13. The bearable lightness of all glass structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To conclude this paper ,all glass structures like a glass bridge, glass columns, a glass brick wall and a corrugated glass faced are shown in realised projects.

  14. The Future of all glass structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To conclude this paper ,all glass structures like a glass bridge, glass columns, a glass brick wall and a corrugated glass faced are shown in realised projects.

  15. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  16. Performance study on evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Instant hot water at temperatures between 40 °C and 68 °C in the low solar radiation range of 240–540 W/m2. • Usage of therminol D-12 and parabolic trough in low temperature application. • Stability of thermal and flow properties of therminol D-12 are studied. - Abstract: Fossil fuels and electrical energy are widely used for instant hot water generation in rural and urban areas. Also, conventional solar water heaters do not support instant hot water generation because of various problems. A new system with evacuated tube collector using synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is developed and studied experimentally for instant hot water generation in the presence of low solar irradiance. Among the different grades of therminol, therminol D-12 is chosen for the study because of its thermal stability. Parabolic trough is coupled to evacuated tube to enhance the flow as well as heating characteristics of therminol. Heating efficiency and temperature characteristics are determined for the newly developed system under low solar irradiance conditions. Instant hot water can be produced by the new system at a temperature of 60 °C in the presence of low solar radiation. This newly developed system has the ability to check the fossil fuel consumption and electrical energy consumption for instant hot water generation in household applications. The stability of the heat transfer fluid is also ensured by repeated experiments

  17. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  18. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic performance analysis of a solar dryer using an evacuated-tube air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We evaluate an evacuated-tube solar air collector and use it to develop a novel dryer. ► Apple, carrot and apricot thin-layer drying experiments are conducted. ► Best overall fitting among several available thin-layer drying models is pursued. ► Thermodynamic analysis yields optimal collector area, energy utilization/exergy loss. ► The proposed dryer has a capacity for drying larger quantities of products. -- Abstract: The present work presents a thermodynamic performance analysis of a solar dryer with an evacuated-tube collector. Drying experiments for apples, carrots and apricots were conducted, after a preliminary stage of the investigation which included measurements for the determination of the collector efficiency. These results showed that the warm outlet air of the collector attains temperature levels suitable for drying of agricultural products without the need of preheating. Thus, the present collector was used as the heat source for a drying chamber in the frame of the development of a novel, convective, indirect solar dryer; given the fact that in the literature there are only a few studies about this type of collectors in conjunction with solar drying applications. Thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental drying curves, including the recent model of Diamante et al. which showed good correlation coefficients for all the tested products. Drying parameters such as moisture ratio and drying rates were calculated. Furthermore, an energetic/exergetic analysis of the dryer was also conducted and performance coefficients such as pick-up and exergy efficiencies, energy utilization ratio, exergy losses were determined for several configurations such as single and double-trays and several drying air velocities. On the other hand, an optimal collector surface area study was conducted, based on laws for minimum entropy generation. Design parameters such as optimum collector area were determined based on the minimum entropy

  19. 利用同心套管的简化CPC式中高温真空管太阳能集热系统设计与实验研究%Design and experimental study of simplified CPC style medium and high temperature evacuated tubular solar collectors with concentric copper tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志兵; 刘振华; 赵峰; 肖红升

    2013-01-01

    通过实验研究了一种利用简化复合抛物面聚光器(compound parabolic concentrato,CPC),全玻璃真空集热管和同心套管组成的太阳能中高温空气集热设备,可以满足工业过程对150℃至200℃的中高温度空气需求.该太阳能空气集热系统由8级集热单元串联而成.各单元都包括一个简化式CPC、一个双层玻璃真空管和一根铜套管.套管被安装在玻璃管内,空气在套管内逐级加热.对各种天气条件和流动参数对集热系统出口空气温度、系统功率和集热效率的影响进行了分析和试验研究.结果表明,整个系统具有良好的中高温集热性能.即使出口空气温度达到210℃,系统平均集热效率仍然达到20%;秋天晴天系统出口空气温度可达210℃,秋季阴雨天也可达168℃.试验结果确认这种简化CPC式全真空玻璃集热管和套管的组合装置是一种有工业实用前途的太阳能高温空气集热器.%A set of evacuated tube solar moderate temperature collectors with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube device was studied to provide air with moderate temperature of 150℃ to 200 ℃ for industrial production. The solar collector system consists of 8 linked collector units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a concentric copper tube installed inside. A kind of high thermal conductivity medium is filled between evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through the solar collector system and is progressively heated in each concentric copper tube. An experimental investigation of the outlet air temperature of the collector system, system mean collecting efficiency and system effective collecting power was conducted. Experimental results demonstrate the present solar system has good collecting efficient efficiency and quite high system power even at the outlet air temperature of 210℃ on the sunny days. The whole system has

  20. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  1. Evacuation simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work with the evacuation system EVAS, the concept and realisation of which is dealt with in another study, describes the conditions at a specific site to be investigated by means of input data. The paper on hand deals with the compilation of such data for the site Hamm-Schmehausen. Data on the resident population, employees and jobs are registered for an area of approx. 700 km2. The transport network to be used for evacuation will take place in ease of a reactor accident is described in detail. Additionally, the number of cars, lorries and buses available if the occasion arises is estimated. The survey emphasizes the practical execution of data acquisition. (orig.)

  2. Evacuation of rectilinear polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Fekete, Sandor P; Kroeller, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the problem of creating fast evacuation plans for buildings that are modeled as grid polygons, possibly containing exponentially many cells. We study this problem in two contexts: the ``confluent'' context in which the routes to exits remain fixed over time, and the ``non-confluent'' context in which routes may change. Confluent evacuation plans are simpler to carry out, as they allocate contiguous regions to exits; non-confluent allocation can possibly create faster evacuation plans. We give results on the hardness of creating the evacuation plans and strongly polynomial algorithms for finding confluent evacuation plans when the building has two exits. We also give a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm for non-confluent evacuation plans. Finally, we show that the worst-case bound between confluent and non-confluent plans is 2-2/(k+1).

  3. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    and carrying through an evacuation where the youngest children need the most assistance in both phases. Self preservation i.e. where children descended stairs unassisted, was less than 25 % for children aged 0-2 years but over 85 % for children aged 3-6 years. Warning method influenced pre-evacuation time...

  4. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce the...... space heating demand in residential buildings. The U-value of the glazing can be designed to meet the required value by increasing the monolithic silica aerogel thickness without the need for additional layers of glass. An aerogel glazing with 20 mm glass distance can reach a U-value below 0.5 W/(m(2) K...

  5. Feasibility of evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main question is whether evacuation of people is feasible in case of accidents with a nuclear power plant. The limiting conditions of this question are extracted from other studies. This study is therefore focused on a postulated accident in a newly built nuclear power plant with an electric capacity of 1000 Megawatt and a source term of one percent. In this particular case an evacuation should take place within the period between the accident and the emission of nuclear materials. Initial focus is on the administrative-organizational aspects of evacuation. Then bottlenecks in the technical implementation of evacuation are determined. An analysis is made for each potential Dutch location (Borssele, Eemshaven, Maasvlakte, Moerdijk and Westelijke Noordoostpolderdijk) of a nuclear power plant. By means of a model the following question is examined: can the population leave the danger area or be evacuated on time, under certain circumstances. It is concluded that preventive evacuation of the population from the planned locations is feasible, but at Moerdijk complications may occur because of the presence of some homes for the elderly and a nursing home. 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  7. Large-Scale Integration of All-Glass Valves on a Microfluidic Device

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxiaer Yalikun; Yo Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabricatio...

  8. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children. The...

  9. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  10. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  11. A highly efficient all-glass double-clad ytterbium doped holey fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, K.; Malinowski, A.; Price, J.H.V.; Monro, T.M.; Sahu, J. K.; Nilsson, J; Richardson, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We report an all-glass double-clad ytterbium doped holey fiber and a highly efficient diode-pumped fiber laser based upon this fiber. The output power of our CW laser exceeds 1W with greater than 80% efficiency.

  12. Counterflow in Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    It is shown in this work that the average individual egress time and other performance indicators for egress of people from a building can be improved under certain circumstances if counterflow occurs. The circumstances include widely varying walking speeds and two differently far located exits with different capacity. The result is achieved both with a paper and pencil calculation as well as with a micro simulation of an example scenario. As the difficulty of exit signage with counterflow remains one cannot conclude from the result that an emergency evacuation procedure with counterflow would really be the better variant.

  13. Medical evacuations from offshore structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J N; Ballantine, B N; Brebner, J A; Brown, B; Gauld, S J; Mawdsley, J; Roythorne, C; Valentine, M J; Wilcock, S E

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on medical evacuations from the installations of four major oil or gas producing companies, or both, operating offshore on the United Kingdom continental shelf. The study covered 1976-84 during which 2162 evacuations were recorded. Of these, 137 (7.7%) required the use of a chartered helicopter. In the earlier years of the study there were substantially more injuries sustained than episodes of illness recorded but from 1980 onwards the cases of illness equalled those of injury. Using the International Classification of Diseases, the digestive system was responsible for most evacuations for illness and of those, about half (115 evacuations) were for dental problems. Suspected fractures were responsible for about one third of those evacuated for an injury but injuries of hands and eye conditions were particularly common, accounting for 25% of all evacuations. As the age of the evacuee increased the proportion of evacuations for injury decreased and that for illness increased. The mean age for evacuation for injury was 28.3 years and for illness 34.4 years. Few evacuations were required for those aged over 45. PMID:3179237

  14. Large-Scale Integration of All-Glass Valves on a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiaer Yalikun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabrication methods, especially for the through-hole fabrication step. Therefore, we have developed a fabrication method for the large-scale integration of all-glass valves in a microfluidic device that contains 110 individually controllable diaphragm valve units on a 30 mm × 70 mm glass slide. This prototype device was fabricated by first sandwiching a 0.4-mm-thick glass slide that contained 110 1.5-mm-diameter shallow chambers, each with two 50-μm-diameter through-holes, between an ultra-thin glass sheet (4 μm thick and another 0.7-mm-thick glass slide that contained etched channels. After the fusion bonding of these three layers, the large-scale microfluidic device was obtained with integrated all-glass valves consisting of 110 individual diaphragm valve units. We demonstrated its use as a pump capable of generating a flow rate of approximately 0.06–5.33 μL/min. The maximum frequency of flow switching was approximately 12 Hz.

  15. All-glass shell scale models made with an adjustable mould

    OpenAIRE

    Belis, JLIF Jan; Pronk, ADC Arno; Schuurmans, WB; Blancke, T

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Lucio Blandini developed a doubly curved synclastic shell with adhesively bonded glass components, the concept of building a self-supporting glass-only shell has almost become within reach. In the current contribution a small-scaled experimental concept is presented of a self-supporting anticlastic all-glass shell scale model, created by means of an adaptable mould. First, different manufacturing parameters of relatively small shells are investigated, such as mould type, glass s...

  16. Nuclear criticality evacuation with telemonitoring and microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory, criticality alarms are required at widely separated locations to evacuate personnel in case of accident while emergency teams or maintenance personnel respond from a central location. The system functions have been divided in a similar manner. The alarm site hardware can independently detect a criticality and sound the evacuation signal while general monitoring and routine tests are handled by a communication link to a central monitoring station. The radiation detectors and evacuation sounders at each site are interconnected by a common two conductor cable in a unique telemonitoring format. This format allows both control and data information to be received or transmitted at any point on the cable which can be up to 3000 meters total length. The site microprocessor maintains a current data table, detects several faults, drives a printer, and communicates with the central telemonitoring station. The radiation detectors are made with plastic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes operated in a constant current mode with a 4 decade measurement range. The detectors also respond within microseconds to the criticality radiation burst. These characteristics can be tested with an internal light emitting diode either completely with a manual procedure or routinely with a system test initiated by the central monitoring station. Although the system was developed for a criticality alarm which requires reliable and redundant features, the basic techniques are useable for other monitoring and instrumentation applications

  17. Effective leadership for crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit; Lee, Eric Wai Ming

    2016-05-01

    Evacuation leaders (individuals guiding the crowd) can make crowd evacuation more efficient. Selecting their number and positions within the crowd is particularly important when the other evacuees are not familiar with the internal layout of the building. This paper investigates the effects of leadership on crowd evacuation in rooms with limited visibility range by an extended social force model. We find that, (i) For a large evacuees crowd, a small proportion of the evacuation leaders is already sufficient to guide the whole crowd efficiently, even if the visibility range of the room is very limited. And the smaller the crowd size, the larger the proportion of the leaders is needed to achieve a satisfactory evacuation guidance. (ii) The optimal proportion or number (i.e., the proportion or number that is necessary for guiding the crowd) of the leaders in an evacuees crowd to achieve a satisfactory guidance is related to the visibility range of the room and the distribution range of the evacuees crowd. (iii) Leadership is not always positive to the crowd evacuation. It may have a negative effect on crowd evacuation when the visibility range of the room and the size of the evacuees crowd are large enough. The findings provide a new insight into the effects of leadership on crowd evacuation.

  18. Evacuation from a Complex Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2014-01-01

    How is the total evacuation time of a mixed population and its subgroups predicted by the evacuation tool STEPS? Simulation using STEPS is compared with experimental data and evaluated based on individual total egress times. It was found that the total egress times were similar for the simulation...... and experiment, but the human behavior occurring in the experiment was not reproduced in the simulations....

  19. Evacuation modeling trends

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Orlando; Alvear, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book c...

  20. Experimental Study on the Optical Performance of Evacuated Solar Collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out to find the ideal operating conditions for solar vacuum tube collectors which are widely used at present. Various types of solar collectors including a flat plate one were experimentally tested and examined to determine their thermal efficiencies and operating characteristics. Generally, solar vacuum tubes can be classified into two groups according to their design features. Of these, one is characterized by the insertion of a metallic device(such as a finned heat pipe) in an evacuated glass tube for the collection and transportation of solar energy. The other utilizes double glass tubes where the smaller one is contained inside the bigger one and soldered to each other after the small gap between them is evacuated. Both of these solar collectors are designed to minimize convection heat losses by removing the air which is in direct contact with the absorber surface. The performance of the former type can be readily analyzed by applying the relevant correlations developed for flat plate solar collectors. This has been demonstrated in the present study for the case of a solar collector where a heat pipe is inserted in an evacuated tube

  1. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select one PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  2. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of human behavior during evacuations. John Leach’s Dynamic Disaster Model describes three phases and five stages: A Pre-impact phase (Threat Stage and Warning Stage), an Impact phase, and a Post-impact ...

  3. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  4. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  5. Simulation study on the effect of pre-evacuation time and exit width on evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Guanquan; SUN Jinhua; WANG Qingsong; CHEN Sining

    2006-01-01

    Occupant pre-evacuation time is often oversimplified into an explicit value in evacuation calculation. In fact, it is not an explicit value but a random variable following some kind of probability distribution. In order to analyze the importance of pre-evacuation time in evacuation calculation, GridFlow evacuation model is utilized to study the effect of pre-evacuation time on evacuation under different occupant densities and exit widths in a single room scenario. The evacuation time calculated by using normal pre-evacuation distribution is compared with that calculated by explicit pre-evacuation time. Two faults are presented when pre-evacuation time is considered as an explicit value. The theory of congestion and queue is presented to analyze the calculation results. Moreover, this paper also presents probability distribution of the total evacuation time when the pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution. The results show that the evacuation time is dominated by pre-evacuation time and hardly dependent on occupant density when the mean pre- evacuation time is long. For long mean pre-evacua- tion time, low occupant density or wide exit, when pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution, the total evacuation time also follows normal distribution.

  6. An ultra-low detection-limit optofluidic biosensor based on all glass Fabry-Perot cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Huang, Hui; Bai, Min; Liu, Pengbo; Chao, Ming; Hu, Jie; Hao, Jian; Cao, Tun

    2014-12-29

    An all glass optofludic biosensor with high quality-factor Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC) channel was reported. The all glass sandwich structure can completely eliminate the etching roughness of the channel surface, and can extend the operating wavelength to visible and ultraviolet regions compared with that of Si-based sensor. The quality-factor of the FPC channel is 875, and the system noise can be reduced to 1.2 nV by combining optical differential detection with phase lock-in detection. A detection limit of 15ng/mL for glucose solution, which corresponds to a refractive index unit of 2.0 × 10-9, was experimentally demonstrated. The all glass FPC sensor features low cost and robust compared with surface-plasmon-resonance sensor and ring-resonator sensor. PMID:25607165

  7. Stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Two types of systems are available for evacuating the surgical smoke created by electrosurgery and laser surgery: portable and stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems. While portable systems dominate the market today, stationary systems are an alternative worth considering--even though they are still in their infancy, with fewer than 90 systems installed to date. Stationary systems represent a major commitment on the part of the healthcare facility. Several system components must be installed as part of the physical plant (for instance, within the walls), making the system a permanent fixture in the surgical suite. Installation of these systems is often carried out during building construction or major renovation--although the systems can be cost-effective even if no renovations are planned. For this Evaluation, we tested three stationary systems. All three are adequate to capture surgical smoke and evacuate it from the operating room. These systems are easy to use, are quietter than their portable counterparts, and require minimal user maintenance. They represent an excellent option for most hospitals actively evacuating surgical smoke. In this article, we discuss the factors to consider when selecting from among these systems. We also offer guidance on choosing between stationary systems and portable ones. PMID:11321758

  8. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  9. A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Yue (Larry) Peng

    2016-01-01

    A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, a...

  10. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803... Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have means for rapid evacuation in a crash landing, with the landing gear (1) extended and (2) retracted, considering the possibility of fire....

  11. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  12. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Nero C; Örtenwall P; Khorram-Manesh A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals´ complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for planning, performance and evaluation of such evacuation. Methods: A risk and vulnerability analysis at two county hospitals along with a systematic online literature search based on the following keywords; “evacuation/closure”, “hospitals/medical facilities” and“disaster/hazards” alone or with “planning”, was conducted. Results: We found that although all hospitals have a disaster plan, there is a lack of knowledge and appropriate instruments to plan, perform and evaluate a hospital evacuation. Risk and vulnerability analysis can be used to reveal threats leading to an evacuation (e.g. on-going climate changes and terror actions). These key points can later be used to plan, perform and evaluate such evacuation. Conclusion: There is a need for an elaborated evacuation planning for hospitals. An evacuation plan should continuously be drilled based on a risk and vulnerability analysis. A general guide can be used as foundation to plan, perform and evaluate such plan.

  13. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  14. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography (CT) is now effective not only for definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematomas but also for coordination of the center of a hematoma. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma was performed in 51 cases: 34 of basal ganglionic hematoma with or without ventricular perforation, 11 of subcortical hematoma, 3 of thalamic hematoma and 3 of cerebellar hematoma. Three dimensional CT images or biplane CT images were taken to determine the coordinates of the target point, which was the center of the hematoma. Then, a silicon tube (O.D. 3.5 phi, I.D. 2.1 phi) was inserted into the center of the hematoma through a burr-hole under local anesthesia, and the liquid or solid hematoma was aspirated as completely as possible with a syringe. Urokinase (6,000 I.U./5 ml saline) was administered through this silicon tube every 6 or 12 hours for several days until the hematoma had drained out competely. The silicon tube was taken out when repeated CT scanning revealed no hematoma. The results of clinical follow-ups indicated that this procedure is as good as, or rather better than conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. Moreover this CT-guided stereotactic approach for evacuation of the hematoma has the following advantages: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation can be performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma is drained out completely with the aid of urokinase. This surgery seems indicated as an emergency treatment for high-age or high risk patients and also as a routine surgery for intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herination signs. (author)

  16. Alternative evacuation strategies for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the U.S., current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced, allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping using geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the size of the population evacuated. - Highlights: • Developed framework to compare nuclear power accident evacuation strategies. • Evacuation strategies were compared on basis of radiological and evacuation risk. • Current strategies are adequate for smaller scale nuclear power accidents. • New strategies reduced radiation exposure and evacuation size for larger accidents

  17. Langevin Equations for Modeling Evacuation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the processes of evacuating rooms and buildings of different types are modeled using Langevin equations with the social force term describing the mental component in pedestrian motion. The level of panic during an evacuation is connected with the desired velocity - a parameter in the social force term. Introducing an additional vertical force exerted on pedestrians on the staircases makes it possible to extend the application of the model to multistorey buildings. Numerical simulations make it possible to observe trajectories of pedestrians and to calculate the time it takes to evacuate different buildings. Factors influencing the effectiveness of evacuation are discussed. (authors)

  18. Modelling Traveller Behaviour under Emergency Evacuation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This paper focuses on limitations in the modelling of travellers’ behaviour with respect to traffic information and compliance to evacuation instructions. More specifically, we propose a model fra

  19. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  20. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  1. Spatial game in cellular automaton evacuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Anton; Ehtamo, Harri

    2015-11-01

    For numerical simulations of crowd dynamics in an evacuation we need a computationally light environment, such as the cellular automaton model (CA). By choosing the right model parameters, different types of crowd behavior and collective effects can be produced. But the CA does not answer why, when, and how these different behaviors and collective effects occur. In this article, we present a model, where we couple a spatial evacuation game to the CA. In the game, an agent chooses its strategy by observing its neighbors' strategies. The game matrix changes with the distance to the exit as the evacuation conditions develop. In the resulting model, an agent's strategy choice alters the parameters that govern its behavior in the CA. Thus, with our model, we are able to simulate how evacuation conditions affect the behavior of the crowd. Also, we show that some of the collective effects observed in evacuations are a result of the simple game the agents play.

  2. Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyarof, Z.; Sutarto, D. Y.; Atika, D. R.; Fajriya Hakim, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem does not well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

  3. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Sun, Xubin; Wang, Qianling; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The role of guide who is in charge of leading pedestrians to evacuate in the case of emergency plays a critical role for the uninformed people. This paper first investigates the influence of mass behavior on evacuation dynamics and mainly focuses on the guided evacuation dynamics. In the extended crowd model proposed in this paper, individualistic behavior, herding behavior and environment influence are all considered for pedestrians who are not informed by the guide. According to the simulation results, herding behavior makes more pedestrians evacuate from the room in the same period of time. Besides, guided crowd demonstrates the same behavior of group dynamics which is characterized by gathering, conflicts and balance. Moreover, simulation results indicate guides with appropriate initial positions and quantity are more conducive to evacuation under a moderate initial density of pedestrians.

  4. [Air medical evacuation on modern stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Bochenkov, A A; Iamenskov, V V; Grebeniuk, S A; Peshkov, V V

    2010-01-01

    There was effectuated an analyze of using of aircrafts for medical air evacuation of ill and wounded persons, was shown it's place in system of treatment-evacuation measures during the war and peaceful time in course of liquidation of consequences of natural disasters. The article presents main clinical-physiological aspects of medical air evacuation, peculiarities of organization of delivery of health care aboard aircraft, state of medical air evacuation for now-days. The article presents characteristics of purposes and supply of created sanitary planes and helicopters: Mi-8MB "Bisectrix", An-26M "Saver", Il-76MD "Bistoury". There elaborated recommendations upon organization of medical air evacuation during war and peaceful time. PMID:20536037

  5. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  6. Electron - Dark Matter Scattering in an Evacuated Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Yonatan(Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A.); Schmitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The light dark matter model can explain both the primordial abundance of dark matter and the anomalous 511 keV gamma-ray signal from the galactic center. This model posits a light neutral scalar, \\chi, with a mass in the range 1 MeV e+e-. Since the dark matter particle is light, its number density is relatively large if it accounts for a local dark matter density of 0.3 GeV/cm^3. W...

  7. A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yue (Larry Peng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, and can immediately begin to run when a liquid enters its inlet channel. It is also more reliable than conventional micro pumps for practical use due to its ability to restart after the formation of a blocking bubble, which can serve as a valuable troubleshooting procedure. Its volumetric pump output was 0.5–0.7 nL·s−1 under a pump head pressure of 300 Pa.

  8. Simulation of people's evacuation in tunnel fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The simulation model Tunev(tunnel evacuation) was developed for people's evacuation in tunnel fire. It contains simple database of the people's behavioral reaction and structure characteristic parameters of tunnel fireproofing. The model can be used to calculate the total evacuation time in various scenes when fire occurs in the different locations of the tunnel. Combined with fire simulation soft ware CFD- POENICS3.5, Tunev model can be used to calculate the fire danger coming time; by comparing with these two kinds of time, it can be used to assess the safety of the evacuation, and the evacuation process also have a dynamic demo. The simulation results show that the Tunev model can be used to predict the reliability of safe evacuation for people in tunnel fire and provide references for people's safe escape scheme. Some relevant concepts of the model were described and an evacuation simulation of a typical tunnel case, i.e. Xuefeng Mountain Tunnel was performed by using this model. And the model's validation and actual application were also described.

  9. Emergency evacuation system for mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qing-yi; BUDIMAN Jeff; SHEN Jay

    2011-01-01

    There are many potential hazards in the underground mining these include fire,explosion,inundation,roof collapse,toxic gases,chemical pollution,etc.Over past centuries,in US alone,more than 100 000 miners lost their life in different accidents.The primary safety methods used in underground mines concentrate on the monitoring of the hazardous gases,fire detection and ventilation.Using advanced instruments and monitoring techniques have significantly reduced the accidents in the modem mines.However despite the advancement of these monitoring facilities,accidents still occur in underground mining annually in the world,and many miners were killed because they were trapped and unable to escape due to blocked of exit access.Described a new development for the emergency evacuation system in underground mines and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the system.It is expected that the new system will greatly improve the emergency exit methods and save more lives in the future.

  10. Emergency evacuation plans for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical commentary is presented on nuclear power plant emergency evacuation plans and procedures. The author alleges a deliberate withholding of information by officials in order to avoid generating public concern over power plant hazards

  11. Room evacuation through two contiguous exits

    CERN Document Server

    Sticco, I M; Dorso, C O

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations demand that at least two exits should be available for a safe evacuation during a panic situation. Although the "faster is slower" effect is expected to take place near the exits, the evacuation time will improve because of the additional exits. However, rooms having contiguous doors not always reduce the leaving time as expected. We investigated the relation between the doors separation and the evacuation performance. We found that there exists a separation distance range that does not really improve the evacuation time, or it can even worsen the process performance. To our knowledge, no attention has been given to this issue in the literature. This work reports how the pedestrians dynamics differ when the separation distance between two exit doors changes and how this affects the overall performance.

  12. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Jennings; Jordan Johnston; Gary P. Moynihan; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a d...

  13. Athermal distributed Brillouin sensors utilizing all-glass optical fibers fabricated from rare earth garnets: LuAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragic, P. D.; Pamato, M. G.; Iordache, V.; Bass, J. D.; Kucera, C. J.; Jones, M.; Hawkins, T. W.; Ballato, J.

    2016-01-01

    An all-glass optical fiber derived from single-crystal LuAG is investigated for its potential use in athermal Brillouin distributed strain sensors. Such sensor systems are comprised of fiber whose Brillouin frequency shift is independent of temperature, but not independent of strain. Bulk Brillouin spectroscopy measurements on the precursor LuAG crystal are performed to gain insight into the crystal-to-glass transition. Results suggest that both the mass density and acoustic velocity are reduced relative to the crystal phase, in common with the other rare earth aluminosilicates. Advantages of the LuAG derived fiber over other rare earth garnet-derived fibers for the sensing application are a stronger strain response and larger Brilloun gain with narrower Brillouin spectral width.

  14. Evacuation of institutionalized and specialized populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the needs of organizations caring for institutional and specialized populations when faced with a threat or hazard requiring an evacuation. Individuals within specialized populations are unlike other victims of disaster because of their inherent dependency on organizational care givers and require different management strategies on the part of organizations and agencies in an evacuation. The research sought to identify those aspects of coping strategies that have been used successfully to manage an emergency evacuation. To identify special populations that have evacuated from institutions and similar facilities over a four-year period, a computerized search was conducted of media accounts describing such events. The search yielded a total of 1024 accounts from which four major subgroups were identified: nursing homes and related care facilities, hospitals, educational institutions, and correctional facilities. A miscellaneous group including housing for the elderly, apartments and other building complexes, workplaces and factories, public facilities, and places occupied by transient populations, such as transportation units and recreational facilities, could be used for future study. Among the factors found to affect evacuations were the extent of organizational resources (such as the number of staff or other individuals available at the time of the event), the type and number of clientele, and such community characteristics as population density. The study focuses on selected organizational characteristics of health care facilities (nursing homes and related care facilities and hospitals) which have recently experienced either a partial or complete evacuation of their facilities. 165 refs., 13 tabs.

  15. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from any projections of the vessel's structure or equipment. (4) The marine evacuation system's passage... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation...

  16. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  17. Fire incidents during construction work of tunnels - evacuation aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzich, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    The report focuses on evacuation aspects at tunnel construction sites. An introduction provides a framework on what determines the outcome of an evacuation, i.e. the physical environment and management aspects. Analyses of the evacuation conditions for several fire scenarios are performed using a combined smoke spread and evacuation model developed as a part of the project. Finally, general recommendations on how to analyse the evacuation safety in a specific tunnel is provided.

  18. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shahbazi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  19. Technology for Simulating Crowd Evacuation Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hu Qin; Guo-Hui Su; Xiao-Na Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for simulating crowd evacuation and investigates three widely recognized problems. For the space continuity problem, this paper presents two computation algorithms: one uses grid space to evaluate the coordinates of the obstacle's bounding box and the other employs the geometry rule to establish individual evacuation routes. For the problem of collision, avoidance, and excess among the individuals, this paper computes the generalized force and friction force and then modifies the direction of march to obtain a speed model based on the crowd density and real time speed. For the exit selection problem, this paper establishes a method of selecting the exits by combining the exit's crowd state with the individuals. Finally, a particle system is used to simulate the behavior of crowd evacuation and produces useful test results.

  20. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    EU project a promising method was proposed, so the time for evacuation could be reduced from several hours to a few minutes.The aim of this project was to design and build an apparatus for evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings up to 60 cm x 60 cm based on the proposed method.The key element of...... the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the...

  1. [Evacuation of patients from the North Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K G

    1989-06-10

    In 1986 and 1987 the department of orthopaedic surgery at the Central Hospital of Esbjerg dealt with 135 medical problems by radio-telephone contacts to persons at sea. Of these, 28% needed a chartered helicopter. This eguals one third of all chartered helicopter evacuations from Danish waters. 77% of the evacuations were from fishing boats and the rest from offshore structures or other kinds of ships. The mechanism of trauma and the diagnosis agreed with the findings in an earlier Danish publication. PMID:2749648

  2. Simulation of Emergency Evacuation in Virtual Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Aizhu; CHEN Chi; LUO Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A virtual reality system was developed to simulate emergency evacuations during fires.The spreading of the flame and smoke in the virtual fire was modeled based on numerical fire simulations,so that the conditions are similar to real life.A multi-grid,multi-base-state database model was used to overcome the disadvantages of traditional smoke spreading simulations.Textured images and particle systems provide visualization of the flame and smoke.The system immerses the user in a virtual environment with detailed interactions between the users and the virtual environment.The system can show which evacuation methods are effective for building safety evaluations.

  3. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  4. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  5. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  6. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  8. Radionuclide investigation of gastric evacuate function in ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide method using labelled food was employed in 127 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer to determine the gastric evacuate function. The method is physiologic and safe. The character of disorders of gastric evacuate rate was established in pyloroduodenal and mediogastral ulcers as well as the effect of gastric acid production on the rate of gastric evacuation

  9. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  10. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 400 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  11. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Evacuation Process in Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chang-Qun; ZHENG Rong-Sen; GAO Chun-Yuan; QIU Bing; DENG Min-Yi; KONC Ling-Jiang; LIU Mu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations on the evacuation process in a story are launched with cellular automaton in this article. The story is composed of five rooms and one corridor. Influence of various parameters on the evacuation process is investigated. It shows that the width of the door of rooms has little influence but the width of the corridor and themaximum velocity of the pedestrian have great influence on the time for evacuation. The relation between evacuation time and the width of corridor is found as tc ∝ W-.0.84. It is also found that appropriate shape of the room is helpful to evacuation.

  12. A disaster evacuation planning tool (ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry; Ferguson, James; Hosch, Rebecca

    2010-04-01

    Natural disasters take hundreds of thousands of lives each year. They generate billions of dollars in financial losses annually. Some of these losses are inevitable due to the high population densities in areas at risk for earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and other powerful forces in nature. However with improvements in weather forecasting, the emergence of better modeling and simulation tools, and the application of these tools to disaster preparation and recovery planning these losses in human life and infrastructure can be greatly mitigated. ADEPT is an application developed by Rite-Solutions that joins storm surge modeling with evacuation route planning. It can be used to train citizens and first responders in best disaster evacuation practices.

  13. Geiger-Muller tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geiger-Muller tube designed for use in an environment (for example, mounted on a rock drill) where subjected to mechanical shock and vibration has a tensioned anode wire secured by welding to securement members between first and second mounts at opposite ends of the tube envelope. The wire tension is adjusted to a high value with a screwable-adjustment means which is locked eg. by a spot-weld or by a locking nut, in the adjusted position, so that the natural frequency of the vibration of the tensioned wire does not resonate with (and may be much higher than) the frequencies to which the tube is subjected in use. The wire frequency is typically in excess of 400Hz and even 500Hz. The adjustment means may be included in the mount via which the envelope is evacuated and back-filled with the ionizible gas, and a gas-tight seal can be provided around this part of the mount, for example by sealing off the gas pump tube. However the adjustment means may be designed into another part of the tube, for example using telescopic parts of the envelope whose sliding junction is made gas tight with a flexible seal. (author)

  14. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  15. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  16. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  17. Primary Intracerebral Haematoma Evacuation: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velnar, Tomaz; Bunc, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the most devastating types of stroke, leading to disability and high mortality rate. Besides blood pressure reduction and intensive medical and surgical treatment, immediate coagulopathy reversal is vital. On the other hand, the haemostatic disturbances may contribute to improve the recovery. We describe the evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage with the insertion of external ventricular drainage in a patient suffering from deep hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage and haematocephalus. PMID:27066398

  18. Evacuation exercise at the CERN Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector. The fire brigade checked that the buil...

  19. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  20. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...

  1. Thermal performance of an open thermosyphon using nanofluid for evacuated tubular high temperature air solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar air collector with simplified CPC and open thermosyphon is designed and tested. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • Nanofluid effectively improves thermal performance of the above solar air collector. • Solar air collector with open thermosyphon is better than that with concentric tube. - Abstract: A novel evacuated tubular solar air collector integrated with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and special open thermosyphon using water based CuO nanofluid as the working fluid is designed to provide air with high and moderate temperature. The experimental system has two linked panels and each panel includes an evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and an open thermosyphon. Outdoor experimental study has been carried out to investigate the actual solar collecting performance of the designed system. Experimental results show that air outlet temperature and system collecting efficiency of the solar air collector using nanofluid as the open thermosyphon’s working fluid are both higher than that using water. Its maximum air outlet temperature exceeds 170 °C at the air volume rate of 7.6 m3/h in winter, even though the experimental system consists of only two collecting panels. The solar collecting performance of the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon is also compared with that integrated with common concentric tube. Experimental results show that the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon has a much better collecting performance

  2. Emergency evacuation around nuclear power stations :a systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Uday Shankar

    1990-01-01

    Prior to this work, MASSVAC (MASS eVACuation) had evolved as a micro-computer simulation model for analysis and evaluation of areas facing natural disasters (hurricanes and floods). Conceptual and technical enhancements have been made to procedures within MASSVAC to deal with the special problems of evacuating around nuclear power stations. Its incorporation into TEDSS-3 (Transportation-Evacuation Decision Support System) has resulted in a powerful tool to assist development...

  3. CT guided stereotactic evacuation for hypertensive intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-one cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma were evacuated by CT guided stereotactic method. The operation was performed in the CT room under general anesthesia using the KOMAI-NAKAJIMA STEREOTACTIC DEVICE. This instrument has a micromanipulater that can be used for various kinds of stereotactic procedures. Three dimensional position of the target point (aspiration point of the hematoma) was determined on the film obtained from CT scanning of the patient in the stereotactic system. If the hematoma was small, the target point was enough to be one point at the center of the hematoma, but in case of the large hematoma, several target points were given according to the shape of hematoma. The probe, ordinarily a steel tube 4 mm in outer diameter, was inserted through brain to the target point and the hematoma was aspirated through a silicon tube connected to a vacuum system. Among 61 cases examined, 30 cases of thalamic hemorrhage were operated upon and 36 cases were not operated. They were classified according to the volume of hematoma into 3 groups as follows: A=less than 10 ml, B=11-25 ml, C=more than 25 ml. The operated cases were compared with the non operated cases on the improvement of consciousness in each group. In the A group, the operated patients in the level I recovered more slowly than the non operated patients, but in the level II patients, this was reversed. In the B group, the operated patients improved more quickly except the level I patients. In the C group, almost all of non operated patients died. Thus, this operation was very useful in improving consciousness of level II or III patients independent of hematoma volume. It accelerated the recovery of motor function in the level I. This non inversive technique is considered effective for the removal of deep intracerebral hematoma. (author)

  4. Evacuation time estimate for total pedestrian evacuation using a queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bharat; Simini, Filippo; Johansson, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a nontrivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow, and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, the number of evacuees, and the resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). Using volunteered geographic information, we divide 50 United Kingdom cities into a total of 704 catchment areas (CAs) which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. 90% of the agents are within ≈6 ,847 m of CA exit nodes with ≈13 ,778 agents/CA. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node, and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in a free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based "queuing network" model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETEs. This relationship could enable emergency planners to make a rapid appraisal of evacuation strategies and help support decisions in the run up to a crisis.

  5. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  6. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  7. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  8. Evacuation plan of the city of almere: simulating the impact of driving behavior on evacuation clearance time

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, H.; Tamminga, G.F.; De Wit, J.; Berg, W

    2010-01-01

    The evacuation clearance time is one of the key indicators in an evacuation plan and is determined by the expected behavior of the endangered residents and roadway network characteristics. The city of Almere has developed an evacuation plan in case of the emergency of a flooding, but assumes a normal driving behavior of the evacuees. In this paper a microscopic S-Paramics simulation framework in an evacuation condition is set up to assess the impact of variations in driving behavior on the ev...

  9. Modeling Evacuation of a Hospital without Electric Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Hospital evacuations that occur during, or as a result of, infrastructure outages are complicated and demanding. Loss of infrastructure services can initiate a chain of events with corresponding management challenges. This report describes a modeling case study of the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas (USA). The study uses a model designed to track such cascading events following loss of infrastructure services and to identify the staff, resources, and operational adaptations required to sustain patient care and/or conduct an evacuation. The model is based on the assumption that a hospital's primary mission is to provide necessary medical care to all of its patients, even when critical infrastructure services to the hospital and surrounding areas are disrupted. Model logic evaluates the hospital's ability to provide an adequate level of care for all of its patients throughout a period of disruption. If hospital resources are insufficient to provide such care, the model recommends an evacuation. Model features also provide information to support evacuation and resource allocation decisions for optimizing care over the entire population of patients. This report documents the application of the model to a scenario designed to resemble the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital, demonstrating the model's ability to recreate the timeline of an actual evacuation. The model is also applied to scenarios demonstrating how its output can inform evacuation planning activities and timing. PMID:25868416

  10. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  11. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  14. Application of Mathematical Model of Evacuation for Large Stadium Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sports arena accidents show that the main reasons which leading to crowd stampede are the exports blockage and the poor surrounding transportations. In the process of evacuation, the most common problem is that there are a large number of people are stranded and also they are the main carrier which leading to crowded stampede. With large amounts of data and reasonable evaluations on staffs and transportation instruments. We propose inflow model in the crowding state, principle of maximum flow on channel design, optimal model of vehicle parking, evacuation model of subways and buses, according to sections of evacuation in stadiums. We analyze their usage area, marginal conditions and real data. Finally, we get some valuable results, which are curves of density and flow, evacuation time, formula for channel design, optimal parking design and formulas for evacuation time of subways and buses. Such data suits the real data from varied references. With the help of models and results, we get the total time of evacuation, simulation of progress and give parts of real situations of evacuation. According to such results, 100000 people’s evacuation can be finished in about 45 min. On such basis, we propose some optimal plans for stadium and its surroundings building.

  15. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    able-bodied. This is expected since the model is based on data for this group. Likewise, the theoretical model is conservative estimate for the hearing impaired participants moving on horizontal planes. For all tested subpopulations the walking speed decreased with increasing person density, but the...... fire for this segment of the population is larger than for able-bodied people. It can therefore be questioned whether our buildings provide a sufficient safety level for this group of people. The aim of the PhD Study is to increase knowledge and data on evacuation characteristics of vulnerable people...... and with a special focus on blind and visually impaired people. An experimental program is designed to obtain data on walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs, interaction between participants and their interaction with the building environment. Experiments are conducted in different...

  16. Chapter 11. Digestive tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration of the digestive tube by radioactive tracers relates mainly to the functional study of certain digestion or absorption troubles. The tracer absorbed by the digestibe system was followed by counting of the stools, successive measurements of the plasma radioactivity, measurements of urinary elimination or uptake on a storage organ such as the liver in the case of vitamin B12, measurement of whole-body radioactivity for vitamin B12 and iron. The different isotopic techniques used to study intestinal absorption of lipids, proteins and aminoacids, vitamin B 12 and iron were described and their contribution to the detection of exudative enteropathies and digestive haemorrhage was shown. It was pointed out that the stomach is one of the organs most accessible to standard exploration techniques. The role of sup(99m)Tc in both the morphological exploration of stomach and the study of gastric secretion, of 51Cr and 129Cs in the study of gastric evacuation were demonstrated

  17. Escaping in couples facilitates evacuation: Experimental study and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Hu, Mao-Bin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Ding, Zhong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of escaping in couples on the evacuation dynamics has been investigated via experiments and modeling. Two sets of experiments have been implemented, in which pedestrians are asked to escape either in individual or in couples. The experiments show that escaping in couples can decrease the average evacuation time. Moreover, it is found that the average evacuation time gap is essentially constant, which means that the evacuation speed essentially does not depend on the number of pedestrians that have not yet escaped. To model the evacuation dynamics, an improved social force model has been proposed, in which it is assumed that the driving force of a pedestrian cannot be fulfilled when the composition of physical forces exceeds a threshold because the pedestrian cannot keep his/her body balance under this circumstance. To model the effect of escaping in couples, attraction force has been introduced between the partners. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  18. Evacuation time estimate for a total pedestrian evacuation using queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    CERN Document Server

    Kunwar, Bharat; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a non-trivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, number of evacuees and resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). We divide $50$ medium sized UK cities into a total of $697$ catchment areas which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. In these catchment areas, 90% of agents are within $5.4$ km of their designated exit node. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based `queuing network' model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETE. This relationship could enable e...

  19. Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students, evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building׳s layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two different types of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order. The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students׳ evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

  20. An analysis of evacuation options for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of release of a hazardous substance into the atmosphere will sometimes require that the population at risk be evacuated. If the substance is particularly hazardous or the release is exceptionally large, then an extensive area may have to be evacuated at substantial cost. In this report we consider the threat posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant. The report's objective is to establish relationships between radiation dose and the cost of evacuation under a wide variety of conditions. The dose can almost always be reduced by evacuating the population from a larger area. However, extending the evacuation zone outward will cause evacuation costs to increase. The purpose of this analysis was to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a data base for evaluating whether implementation costs and risks averted could be used to justify evacuation at lower doses than would be required based on acceptable risk of health effects alone. The procedures used and results of these analyses are being made available as background information for use by others. In this report we develop cost/dose relationships for 54 scenarios that are based upon the severity of the reactor accident, meteorological conditions during the release of radionuclides into the environment, and the angular width of the evacuation zone. The 54 scenarios are derived from combinations of three accident severity levels, six meteorological conditions and evacuation zone widths of 70 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg. Appendix tables are provided to allow acceptable evaluation of the cost/dose relationships for a wide variety of scenarios. Guidance and examples are provided in the text to show how these tables can be used

  1. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM: a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant. Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM. The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc. and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  2. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  3. Theoretical Basis for the Design of a DWPF Evacuated Canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routt, K.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report provides the theoretical bases for use of an evacuated canister for draining a glass melter. Design recommendations are also presented to ensure satisfactory performance in future tests of the concept.

  4. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  5. Investigating the impact of culture on evacuation response behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, Edwin R.; Markus, Sauter; Deere, Steven J.; Filippidis, Lazaros

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether social culture impacts how people respond to an evacuation alarm. As part of this work four unannounced library evacuations were conducted in the Czech Republic, Turkey, Poland and the UK. In an attempt to isolate social culture as the primary independent variable across the trials, the key parameters that are known to influence Response Phase behaviour and performance e.g. population demographics, type of structure, alarm system, etc were contr...

  6. Dynamic Evacuation Routes for Personnel on a Naval Ship (DRAFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Peréz‐VillaLonga, F.; J. Salmerón; Wood, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Naval Research Logistics, 55, pp. 785‐799. Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) Paper. We propose a “dynamic escape route system” for emergency evacuation of a naval ship. The system employs signals that adapt to the causative contingency and the crew’s physical distribution about the ship. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, with underlying network structure, optimizes the evacuation process. The network’s nodes represent compartments, closures (e.g., doors, hatches) and in...

  7. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose...

  8. Passengers’ Evacuation in Ships Based on Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gan-Nan Yuan; Li-Na Zhang; Li-Qiang Liu; Kan Wang

    2014-01-01

    A new intelligent model to simulate evacuation behavior in ships called neighborhood particle swarm optimization is proposed. This model determines the rules of behavior and velocity updating formulas to solve staff conflicts. The individuals in evacuation are taken as particles in PSO and update their behaviors by individual attributes, neighborhood attributes, and social attributes. Putting the degree of freedom movement of ships into environment factor and using the real Ro-Ro ship informa...

  9. Study of evacuation times based on general accident history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RADTRAN 4 computer code, which calculates estimates of accident dose-risk corresponding to specified transportation scenarios, ascribes doses to potentially exposed members of the public. These persons are modeled as not being evacuated from the affected area for 24 hours following a release of radioactive material. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that this value may be unnecessarily conservative; consequently risk estimates are unnecessarily high. An initial survey of recent trucking accidents, reported in newspapers and other periodicals (1988 through 1994), that involved evacuation of the general population in the affected areas was undertaken to establish the actual time required for such evacuations. Accidents involving hazardous materials other than those which are radioactive (e.g., gasoline, insecticides, other chemicals) but also requiring evacuations of nearby residents were included in the survey. However, the resultant set of sufficiently documented trucking incidents yielded rather sparse data [1]. When the probability density distribution of the truck accident data was compared with that resulting from addition of four other (rail and fixed site) incidents, there was no statistically significant difference between them. Therefore, in order to improve the statistical significance of the data set, i.e., maximize the number of pertinent samples, a search for evacuations resulting from all types of accidents was performed. This resulted in many more references; a set of 48 incidents which could be adequately verified was compiled and merged with the original two data sets for a total of 66 evacuation accounts

  10. Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.; Soewono, E. [Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Civil Engineering Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-05-22

    Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

  11. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  12. Forecasting pedestrian evacuation times by using swarm intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, J.; Montalvo, I.; Pérez, R.; Fuertes, V. S.

    2009-04-01

    Many models have been developed to provide designers with methods for forecasting the time required for evacuation from various places under a variety of conditions. Particularly for high traffic buildings or buildings of cultural, governmental, or industrial importance, it is of paramount importance to properly evaluate and plan for the necessary evacuation time. To address this need, a number of models for pedestrian simulation, either considering the system as a whole or studying the behavior and decisions of individual pedestrians and their interactions with other pedestrians, have been developed over the years. In this work, a model for evacuation simulation and for estimating evacuation times is proposed. It is inspired by the so-called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The multi-agent-based simulation characteristics of PSO and the way this technique combines individual and collective intelligence make it suitable for this problem. The PSO-based model presented here allows for assessment of the behavioral patterns followed by individuals during a rapid evacuation event. Evaluation of these behaviors can address a variety of public safety concerns, such as architectural design, evacuation protocol definition, and regulation of public space.

  13. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  14. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  15. Evacuation Shelters, Evacuation Facilities, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Steuben County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Evacuation Shelters dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as...

  16. Optimization-based Logistics Planning and Performance Measurement for Hospital Evacuation and Emergency Management

    OpenAIRE

    Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the development of optimization models for hospital evacuation logistics, as well as the analyses of various resource management strategies in terms of the equity of evacuation plans generated. We first formulate the evacuation transportation problem of a hospital as an integer programming model that minimizes the total evacuation risk consisting of the threat risk necessitating evacuation and the transportation risk experienced en route. Patients, categorized base...

  17. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  18. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP, in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in

  19. Evacuation of pedestrians from a hall by game strategy update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model considering game strategy update is proposed to study the pedestrian evacuation in a hall. Pedestrians are classified into two categories, i.e., cooperators and defectors, and they walk to an exit according to their own strategy change. The conflicts that two or three pedestrians try to occupy the same site at the same time are investigated in the Game theory model. Based on it, the relationship between the pedestrian flow rate and the evacuation time as well as the variation of cooperative proportion against evacuation time is investigated from the different initial cooperative proportions under the influence of noise. The critical value of the noise is found when there is a small number of defectors in the initial time. Moreover, the influences of the initial cooperative proportion and strength of noise on evacuation are discussed. The results show that the lower the initial cooperative proportion as well as the bigger the strength of noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation. (general)

  20. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  1. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  2. Simple technique for evacuation of traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatley Edward

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic subcutaneous haematomas are common cases in the accident and emergency department. Occasionally, urgent evacuation is required to prevent skin necrosis. Methods We present a simple and safe technique, based on a principle similar to liposuction to evacuate traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension. Instruments readily available in the accident and emergency department are used without the need of general anaesthesia. Results The technique was performed in six cases without complication such as infection or re-collection of the haematoma under tension. We present two typical scenarios where urgent evacuation was indicated and the technique performed. Conclusion The technique is useful as an urgent and safe procedure in the accident and emergency department setting.

  3. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A generic transportation network model for the calculation of evacuation time estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuation times for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies. (author)

  4. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. PMID:27170110

  5. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  6. Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Onorati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes, and iNeres as the interface to receive and visualize these routes on smartphones. The usability and understandability of proposed interface has been assessed through a user study performed in a fire simulation in an indoor environment. This evaluation demonstrated that users considered iNeres easy to understand, to learn and to use, and they also found very innovative the idea to use smartphones as a support for escaping instead of static signals on walls and doors.

  7. Simulation of evacuation behaviors in fire using spacial grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; ZHAO Daoliang; LI Jian; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (CA) model to demonstrate the special phenomena of occupants evacuating from fire room is presented. A set of simple but effective models is proposed to investigate the effect of fire smoke on route choice. The concept of danger grade is introduced, and occupants select the target cell according to the value of danger grade at each time step. Some technique is introduced to substitute the human intelligence, such as premeditation. The simulation results show that human evacuation is influenced greatly by both human visual field and building exit.

  8. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of human evacuation dynamics and performance are important when designing complex buildings such as bridges and when applying performance-based codes in order to reduce the risk of exposing occupants to critical conditions in case of fire. The majority of previous studies deal wi...

  9. Virtual environment simulation as a tool to support evacuation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a preliminary study of the use of a free game-engine as a tool to build and to navigate in virtual environments, with a good degree of realism, for virtual simulations of evacuation from building and risk zones. To achieve this goal, some adjustments in the game engine have been implemented. A real building with four floors, consisting of some rooms with furniture and people, has been virtually implemented. Simulations of simple different evacuation scenarios have been performed, measuring the total time spent in each case. The measured times have been compared with their corresponding real evacuation times, measured in the real building. The first results have demonstrated that the virtual environment building with the free game engine is capable to reproduce the real situation with a satisfactory level. However, it is important to emphasize that such virtual simulations serve only as an aid in the planning of real evacuation simulations, and as such must never substitute the later. (author)

  10. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane emergency lighting system. (b) The airplane must be in a normal attitude with landing gear... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency Evacuation J Appendix J to Part... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. J Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency...

  11. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    spiral stairs when the children were familiar with the evacuation path. Higher person densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in the current literature on adults. Children in the younger age group were generally slower than the older children. The children...

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger; Marschler, Christian; Schilder, Frank; Dederichs, Anne; Hjorth, Poul G.

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...

  13. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  14. Development of Cladding Materials for Evacuated Panel Superinsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Weaver, F.J.; Cumberbatch, G.M.; Begnoche, B.; Brodie, V.; Lamb, W.; Reitz, R.; Caldwell, P.; Meyer, C.

    1999-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, VacuPanel, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Evacuated panel superinsulations have thermal resistivities (R) substantially above that of conventional existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as foam insulations blown with Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  15. A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping

    2005-01-01

    There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.

  16. CT guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive and traumatic intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancement of CT system provides not only definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematoma but also coordinates of the center of the hematoma. Trials of stereotactic evacuation of the hematoma have been reported by some authors in the cases of subacute or chronic stages of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. In this series, similar surgery has been performed in 33 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma including 22 cases in acute stage, and 2 cases of traumatic hematoma. Clinical outcomes were investigated and the results were considered to be equivalent or rather better in the conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. However, there still remained controversial problems in the cases of threatened herniation signs, because in these cases regular surgery with total evacuation of the hematoma at one time might have been preferable. The benefits of this CT guided stereotactic approach for the evacuation of the hematoma were thought to be as follow: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation is readily performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma was drained out totally by means of urokinase activity. It is our impression that this surgery not only is indicated as emergency treatment for the patients of high-age or in high risk, but also can institute as a routine surgery for the intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herniation sign. (J.P.N.)

  17. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  18. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.;

    2013-01-01

    the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially......This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp...... the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is...

  19. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Morales; Ramon Alcarria; Diego Martin; Tomas Robles

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carr...

  20. Modelling of impact of fire on safe people evacuation in tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and its evacuation module, Evac for modelling fire and people evacuation in a road tunnel is illustrated. For given fire scenario and traffic situation in the tunnel, behaviour of individual evacuees as well as groups of evacuees is analyzed in order to demonstrate the impact of fire on people evacuation. Some specific features of the use of FDS+Evac for simulation of people evacuation in case of tunnel fire are also discussed

  1. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and light at the tip) inserted through the ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  2. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... 24-consecutive hour period of a HEMES assignment, unless an emergency medical evacuation operation...

  3. A Study on the Development of Nonglass Solar Vacuum Tube Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature has been providing us energy from the beginning of the world. However human has hardly used it wisely. Solar energy is a kind of renewable energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources such as hydrogen, biomass, wind and geothermal energy, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Space heating in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to water heater systems. By tapping into solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. There are currently two types of evacuated tube; a single glass tube and a double glass tube. The former consists of a single glass tube which contains a flat or curved aluminium plate attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The latter consists of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes, each of which contains an absorber tube. Evacuated tube collectors introduced above, however, pose some problems as they break rather easily under mechanical stresses. This paper introduces some preliminary results in design and fabrication of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector in which the thermosyphon(heat pipe)made of copper is used as a heat transfer device. A series of tests have been performed to assess the ability of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector. The series of experiments are as follows: 1)Vacuum level inside a vacuum tube. 2)Effects of the air remaining inside a vacuum tube on the temperature on the absorber plate. 3)Comparison of a non-glass vacuum solar collector with a single glass evacuated tube(SEIDO 5). Different vacuum levels inside non-glass vacuum tubes were applied to check any leakage or unexpected physical or chemical developments with time. The vacuum level changed from 10-2torr to 5torr in 5 days due to air infiltration from

  4. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR THERMAL EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR USING DIFFERENT NANOFLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima A. *, P. Sreekala, Bobin K. Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Energy use and energy security are greatly interrelated and corresponds to a major concern in the Indian energy sector. Renewable energy sector occupies an inevitable role in the sustainable development technologies in which the needs of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. Drastically increasing energy demand and environmental issues have motivated many international researchers for searching an alternative option t...

  6. Intelligent Exit-Selection Behaviors during a Room Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zarita Zainuddin; Lim Eng Aik

    2012-01-01

    A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles. Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions, it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models. To resolve these issues, we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation. Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model. From the simulation results, it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low, but if the density is high they will go to an aiternative exit so as to avoid a long wait. This reflects the fact that occupants may not fully utilize multiple exits during evacuation. The improvement in our proposed model is valuable for further study and for upgrading the safety aspects of building designs.%A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles.Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions,it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models.To resolve these issues,we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians,and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation.Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model.From the simulation results,it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low,but if the density is high they will go to an alternative exit so as to avoid a long wait.This reflects the fact

  7. Coiled tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas wells that flow on initial completion eventually reach a condition of liquid loading that kills the wells. This results form declining reservoir pressure, decreased gas volume (velocity), increased water production and other factors that cause liquids to accumulate at the bottom of the well and exert back pressure on the formation. This restricts or in some cases prevents fluid entry into the wellbore form the formation. Flowing production can be restored or increased by reducing surface backpressure, well bore stimulation, pressure maintenance or by installing a string of smaller diameter tubing. This paper reports on installation (hanging off) of a concentric string of coiled tubing inside existing production tubing which is an economically viable, safe, convenient and effective alterative for returning some of these liquid loaded )logged-up) wells to flowing status

  8. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    bridges are considered. The populations applied in the experiment are mixed according to a composition corresponding to the population of Denmark. The study has the following findings: the total evacuation times increase with a factor 1.5 when accounting for a mixed population comprehending a variety of...... below 15 years. The discussion of "equal access" is only followed slowly by the demand on "equal egress". However, the passengers on trains on bridges are rarely homogeneous mixture. At the same time equal egress is far from assured today. In this paper the evacuation of mixed populations from trains on...... age and impairments. The seating of the people in the train affects these times. More real data on subgroups of a mixed population are needed as input and validation data for models like STEPS....

  9. Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

  10. Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    von Sivers, I; Künzner, F; Köster, G; Drury, J; Philippides, A; Neckel, T; Bungartz, H -J

    2016-01-01

    Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd psychology. ...

  11. Evacuation in the Social Force Model is not stationary

    CERN Document Server

    Gawroński, P; Kämpf, M; Kantelhardt, J W

    2011-01-01

    An evacuation process is simulated within the Social Force Model. Thousand pedestrians are leaving a room by one exit. We investigate the stationarity of the distribution of time lags between instants when two successive pedestrians cross the exit. The exponential tail of the distribution is shown to gradually vanish. Taking fluctuations apart, the time lags decrease in time till there are only about 50 pedestrians in the room, then they start to increase. This suggests that at the last stage the flow is laminar. In the first stage, clogging events slow the evacuation down. As they are more likely for larger crowds, the flow is not stationary. The data are investigated with detrended fluctuation analysis.

  12. Should evacuation standards be reviewed after a nuclear accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments the current practices of post-accident management of nuclear disasters. He outlines the peculiarities of nuclear evacuations with respect to other disasters. After referring to the use of life expectancy or of the reduction of life expectancy, for example for smokers, he suggests that irradiation could be expressed this way and then provide some intuitive information. He discusses the notion of linear no-threshold relationship which has been introduced by the ICRP after analysis of cancers noticed on survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He addresses the case of Fukushima, the issue of low doses applied to large populations. He discusses the limitations of the linear no-threshold relationship. He discusses possible improvements of evacuation procedures

  13. Agent-based modeling of a multi-room multi-floor building emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vi; Lykotrafitis, George

    2012-04-01

    Panic during emergency building evacuation can cause crowd stampede, resulting in serious injuries and casualties. Agent-based methods have been successfully employed to investigate the collective human behavior during emergency evacuation in cases where the configurational space is extremely simple-usually one rectangular room-but not in evacuations of multi-room or multi-floor buildings. This implies that the effect of the complexity of building architecture on the collective behavior of the agents during evacuation has not been fully investigated. Here, we employ a system of self-moving particles whose motion is governed by the social-force model to investigate the effect of complex building architecture on the uncoordinated crowd motion during urgent evacuation. In particular, we study how the room door size, the size of the main exit, the desired speed and the friction coefficient affect the evacuation time and under what circumstances the evacuation efficiency improves.

  14. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Shashi; George, Betsy; Lu, Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    Efficient tools are needed to identify routes and schedules to evacuate affected populations to safety in face of natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Challenges arise due to violation of key assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of alternative routes, Wardrop equilibrium) behind popular shortest path algorithms (e.g. Dijktra's, A*) and microscopic traffic simulators (e.g. DYNASMART). Time-expanded graphs (TEG) based mathematical programming paradigm does not scale up to large urban scenari...

  15. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  16. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  18. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  19. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy

  20. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  1. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  2. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alaeddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.. The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1 a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2 an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37 which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45 which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster. Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  3. Why Don't People Evacuate When Nature Threatens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Broad, K.; Meyer, R.; Orlove, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Why do so many Southern Californians fail to evacuate when warned that winter storms have critically raised the risk of a debris flow in their neighborhoods? Have they perhaps not seen or heeded news coverage of past debris flow events? Are they unaware that recent fires made the hillsides above them more prone to gravity-driven processes? Do they think they can wait to start their cars until they can actually see the flow coming? Or have they merely experienced too many "false alarms" in past years, and no longer put much stock in the judgment of public officials or the ability of scientists to judge debris flow risk? In preparation for a simulation study that will place decision makers in a virtual house in the California foothills during a winter storm event, we explore the reasons that people do and do not evacuate in the face of potential debris flows. Working in collaboration with the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project for Southern California, we are surveying hundreds of local residents, from debris-flow prone areas and from elsewhere in the state, to establish their baseline knowledge (and misconceptions) about, attitudes toward, information use regarding, and experience with debris flows. Initial interviews with residents of recently hit neighborhoods give qualitative data suggesting that false-alarm effects and underestimation of risk are driving factors; these surveys will provide quantitative evidence to extend those findings. We will discuss the results of this survey in the context of a comprehensive body of psychology research that seeks to explain why people frequently appear to ignore or discount hazard warnings: neglecting to insure their homes and crops (Kunreuther, 1984), failing to evacuate in the face of storms and fires (Baker, 1991; Packham, 1995), and (barring a recent, vivid event) showing little support for measures that would manage or mitigate future hazards (Kunreuther, 2006a, 2006b; Weber, 2006). We will also consider the

  4. Electron tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Motohiro (Hamamatsu, JP); Fukasawa, Atsuhito (Hamamatsu, JP); Arisaka, Katsushi (Los Angeles, CA); Wang, Hanguo (North Hills, CA)

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  5. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  6. Straightening tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal wrapper tubes, especially for nuclear reactor core sub-assemblies, may suffer from unacceptable bow as a result of welding wear pads to the wrapper and heat treatment. Straightening of the bow is effected by a method wherein at each of a series of axially spaced locations the faces or vertices of the tube are measured relative to a reference to determine the direction of bow at the locations. From these measurements, the appropriate axial locations for the application of corrective loading can be determined, whereby by application of the loading at a selected face or vertex for such measurements the bow is reduced. Such loading, by an actuator, can be repeated at the locations until the bow is reduced to within tolerances. (author)

  7. Geiger-Muller tubes and their manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geiger-Muller tube designed for use in an environment subjected to mechanical shock and vibration has a tensioned anode wire secured between first and second mounts located at opposite ends of the tube envelope. The wire tension is adjusted, preferably with a screwable-adjustment means which is locked in the adjusted position, so that the natural frequency of vibration of the tensioned wire does not resonate with any frequency to which the tube is subjected in use. The adjustment means may be included in the mount via which the envelope is evacuated and back-filled with the ionizable gas, and a gas-tight seal can be provided around this part of the mount for example by sealing off the gas pump tube. However the adjustment means may be designed into another part of the tube, for example using telescopic parts of the envelope whose sliding junction is made gas tight with a flexible seal. Alternatively, the desired tension may be obtained by welding the wire to the first mount, passing it through the second mount, tensioning it and then crimping it to the second mount. (Author)

  8. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  9. Modeling pedestrian evacuation with guiders based on a multi-grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Pedestrian evacuation with guidance is investigated by a multi-grid model in this paper. The effects of guider type, guider number, guider distribution and guidance strategy on evacuation are discussed. From the analysis of simulation results, it is found that the identified guiders are more beneficial to evacuation because they can be distinguished easily by pedestrians during evacuation; The optimal guider number exists in view of the human cost and can be obtained in our model; The uniform distribution of guiders covers more area in the room and makes evacuation efficient; Evacuation guidance is more effective when the speed of guider is about 75% of herding pedestrian's speed in our simulation scenario; The performance of evacuation guidance strategy considering both distance and occupant number is the best when compared to other strategies; The coordination and cooperation between guiders are very important and necessary to facilitate the evacuation. The study may be useful for understanding the importance of guidance in evacuation and developing efficient evacuation strategy for management under emergency.

  10. Tracking population density as a function of time and radial distance using the CLEAR model to simulate an emergency evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the population density as a function of radial distance during an emergency evacuation identifies several significant contributors to evacuation time. Population distribution and density, as well as the location of high population density centers, are critical to evacuation time. A thorough understanding of the population characteristics of an EPZ and their effect on evacuation time is necessary if emergency planners are to select the best method of evacuation

  11. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  12. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Augusto; Alcarria, Ramon; Martin, Diego; Robles, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating. PMID:24961212

  13. Precision of ingestion time and evacuation predictors for individual prey in stomachs of predatory fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Without evaluating precision, gastric evacuation models in combination with stomach data are widely used to investigate the feeding biology of wild predatory fishes. Assuming each predator individual to operate with its own evacuation rate parameter, the precision of estimated ingestion times for...... individual prey in the stomachs of predatory fishes was derived in this study. This way, the variability of gastric evacuation not accounted for by a deterministic model of gastric evacuation was described. The variability of initial body mass of ingested prey was included as well. General values 0.03 and 0...... whiting (Merlangius merlangus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and saithe (pollock) (Pollachius virens). Deriving the variance of gastric evacuation rate, evacuation time, and remaining prey mass, the study also established a basis for statistical analyses of the results obtained from laboratory experiments...

  14. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  15. Incorporating emergency evacuation planning, through human reliability analysis, in the risk management of industrial installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: luquetti@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation presents many risks in the form of the process hazards, such as fire, explosion, gas and radiation release. In these situations, workers may need to evacuate from the work environment as soon as possible. In this case, the emergency evacuation planning is a key element that involves an iterative process to identify the best evacuation routes and to estimate the time required to evacuate the area at risk. The mean aspects for a successful emergency evacuation are influenced by the type of human error and the severity of the initiator event. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework for the identification of the performance shaping factors and prediction of human error probabilities of the responsible by the emergency evacuation of the workers in an industrial installation, providing a proactive approach for the allocation of the human factors in the risk assessment of the industrial installation. (author)

  16. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  17. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  18. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  19. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  20. Agent-Based Model for Pedestrians’ Evacuation after a Blast Integrated with a Human Behavior Model

    OpenAIRE

    PLUCHINO Salvatore; TRIBOLATO Chiara; CAVERZAN ALESSIO; MC QUILLAN Alexandro; Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; MAHIN Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a powerful tool for model complex and heterogeneous systems as pedestrian evacuation after extreme events. Several studies on Emergency Management exist in literature, but the majority of them do not consider how human behavior impacts the evacuation plan. Indeed, these can change drastically a critical scenario because are driven by emotions, knowledge and perception which are unpredictable. The aim of this study is to develop an ABM of an evacuation scenario du...

  1. Evacuation studies for nuclear power plant sites: a new challenge for transportation engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only one evacuation time component is discussed: travel time through the transportation network or clearance time. A methodology is suggested for conducting a clearance-time study given the evacuating population's spatial and temporal distribution. A special-purpose traffic simulation model, NETVACI, is included which describes the traffic pattern in a transportation network during an emergency evacuation. Some applications of the model are described. 9 refs

  2. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

  3. The need for a verification and validation protocol for evacuation models

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no standard Verification and Validation (V&V) protocol for the evaluation of evacuation model predictions. This paper is intended to open a discussion on the main issues associated with the definition of a standard procedure for the V&V of building fire evacuation models. Examples of such issues are discussed, namely 1) the definition of tests able to investigate the capability of evacuation models of representing emergent behaviours, 2) a discussion on the methods e...

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF AN EVACUATION FROM A TSUNAMI AT PARANGTRITIS BEACH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radianta Triatmadja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami disaster in Calang (Aceh, Indonesia in December 2004 caused traffic jam at a bottleneck on an evacuation road that was fatal, killing most of the evacuees. This tragedy provides an invaluable lesson for evacuation planning in several other locations that are prone to tsunami events. Parangtritis is a local tourism destination that is also prone to tsunami hazard. Although the evacuation routes have been prepared and evacuation direction sign boards have been provided, a study on their capacity and suitability were required. One of the methods was employing mathematical simulations. This paper addresses the development of a mathematical model based on the Dijkstra algorithm and its application to evacuation during a tsunami at Parangtritis Beach, Indonesia. The running speeds of evacuees were derived from world athletes’ running records but with significantly lower coefficients to model ordinary people. Trial runs were also carried out to calibrate the value of f that represented the ratio between running speed on the certain route and on well paved, horizontal and obstacle free road. The results suggested that the existing evacuation routes were not sufficient and that the direction of evacuation need adjustment. It was found that relatively slower runners that were in front of faster runners would potentially decrease the average evacuation speed. Vertical evacuation routes, such as along steep hills or high buildings, must be wide enough (to ensure a low crowd density and easily accessible (to ensure a higher evacuation route speed to avoid traffic jams. The number of people to be evacuated and road condition are vital factors to determine the evacuation routes to the selected shelters.

  5. Experiment and modeling of paired effect on evacuation from a three-dimensional space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Hu [MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Huijun, Sun, E-mail: hjsun1@bjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Juan, Wei [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Xiaodan, Chen [College of Information Science and Technology, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106 (China); Lei, You [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); College of Information Science and Technology, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106 (China); Musong, Gu [Faculty of Computer Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China)

    2014-10-24

    A novel three-dimensional cellular automata evacuation model was proposed based on stairs factor for paired effect and variety velocities in pedestrian evacuation. In the model pedestrians' moving probability of target position at the next moment was defined based on distance profit and repulsive force profit, and evacuation strategy was elaborated in detail through analyzing variety velocities and repulsive phenomenon in moving process. At last, experiments with the simulation platform were conducted to study the relationships of evacuation time, average velocity and pedestrian velocity. The results showed that when the ratio of single pedestrian was higher in the system, the shortest route strategy was good for improving evacuation efficiency; in turn, if ratio of paired pedestrians was higher, it is good for improving evacuation efficiency to adopt strategy that avoided conflicts, and priority should be given to scattered evacuation. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional evacuation model was presented with stair factor. • The paired effect and variety velocities were considered in evacuation model. • The cellular automata model is improved by repulsive force.

  6. Advanced evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic during an accident in LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evacuation of people located inside the enclosed area of an LNG terminal is a complex problem, especially considering that accidents involving LNG are potentially very hazardous. In order to create an evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic, extensive influence must be generated from safety analyses. A very important moment in the optimal functioning of an evacuation model is the creation of a database which incorporates all input indicators. The output result is the creation of a safety evacuation route which is active at the moment of the accident. (Author)

  7. Experiment and modeling of paired effect on evacuation from a three-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel three-dimensional cellular automata evacuation model was proposed based on stairs factor for paired effect and variety velocities in pedestrian evacuation. In the model pedestrians' moving probability of target position at the next moment was defined based on distance profit and repulsive force profit, and evacuation strategy was elaborated in detail through analyzing variety velocities and repulsive phenomenon in moving process. At last, experiments with the simulation platform were conducted to study the relationships of evacuation time, average velocity and pedestrian velocity. The results showed that when the ratio of single pedestrian was higher in the system, the shortest route strategy was good for improving evacuation efficiency; in turn, if ratio of paired pedestrians was higher, it is good for improving evacuation efficiency to adopt strategy that avoided conflicts, and priority should be given to scattered evacuation. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional evacuation model was presented with stair factor. • The paired effect and variety velocities were considered in evacuation model. • The cellular automata model is improved by repulsive force

  8. Some properties of the floor field cellular automata evacuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwizdałła, Tomasz M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the process of evacuation of pedestrians from the room with the given arrangement of doors and obstacles by using the cellular automata technique. The technique which became quite popular is characterized by the discretization of time as well as space. For such a discretized space we use so-called floor field model which generally corresponds to the description of every cell by some monotonic function of distance between this cell and the closest exit. We study several types of effects. We start from some general features of model like the kind of a neighborhood or the factors disrupting the motion. Then we analyze the influence of asymmetry and size on the evacuation time. Finally we show characteristics concerning different arrangements of exits and include a particular approach to the proxemics effects. The scaling analyses help us to distinguish these cases which just reflect the geometry of the system and those which depend also on the simulation properties. All calculations are performed for a wide range of initial densities corresponding to different occupation rates as described by the typical crowd counting techniques.

  9. Study on estimation of evacuation distances for nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have conducted the analytical studies on the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the severe accidents, and the optimization of protective actions. Based on the results of these studies, JAERI are investigating the method for taking urgent protective actions more reasonably. If an accident occurs in a nuclear power plant (NPP), early protective actions are carried out. To implement these actions more effectively, emergency preparedness and emergency planning are important, and especially prompt evacuation is expected to reduce a large amount of radiation exposures. To examine the effect of early protective measures by using a PSA method, estimation of the parameter uncertainty related in the time for early protective actions is needed. For this purpose, we have developed an analytical method for urgent protective actions using geographic information, and estimated the movement distance based on gathering points arrangement an population distribution. For this analysis, we used the gathering point data shown on each regional plans for disaster prevention which will be used in actual emergency situation and targeted the population inside Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). By applying this method for the existing sixteen commercial NPP sites, we estimated the average value and distribution of the movement distance for each sites. This report provides a brief description of the method for estimating the movement distance, input data for this analysis, and the result. Moreover, the problem on the method of evacuation distance analysis and usefulness of this method for emergency planning were discussed. (author)

  10. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  11. Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. [CSU Solar House 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loef, G.O.G.; Duff, W.S.

    1979-09-01

    Solar House I, the first residential solar system test facility at the Colorado State University, is described. Provision was made for the removal and replacement of the various subsystems so that the facility could be utilized to evaluate other residential size solar components and systems. Two evacuated tube collectors and one flat plate collector were evaluated. The operations history, system performance, performance assessment, and comparison with model are included. (MHR)

  12. Numerical Simulation of Evacuation Process in Malaysia By Using Distinct-Element-Method Based Multi-Agent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustan, M. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Gotoh, H.; Harada, E.; Talib, S. H. A.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, not many researches on crowd evacuation simulation had been reported. Hence, the development of numerical crowd evacuation process by taking into account people behavioral patterns and psychological characteristics is crucial in Malaysia. On the other hand, tsunami disaster began to gain attention of Malaysian citizens after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that need quick evacuation process. In relation to the above circumstances, we have conducted simulations of tsunami evacuation process at the Miami Beach of Penang Island by using Distinct Element Method (DEM)-based crowd behavior simulator. The main objectives are to investigate and reproduce current conditions of evacuation process at the said locations under different hypothetical scenarios for the efficiency study of the evacuation. The sim-1 is initial condition of evacuation planning while sim-2 as improvement of evacuation planning by adding new evacuation area. From the simulation result, sim-2 have a shorter time of evacuation process compared to the sim-1. The evacuation time recuded 53 second. The effect of the additional evacuation place is confirmed from decreasing of the evacuation completion time. Simultaneously, the numerical simulation may be promoted as an effective tool in studying crowd evacuation process.

  13. Comparison of blood specimens from plain and gel vacuum blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2001-05-01

    This study was set in the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chulalongkorn Hospital. All 2,000 blood specimens were randomly collected using evacuated blood collection by plain or gel vacuum tubes. After collection, each specimen was considered and judged using criteria of specimen rejection to determine how proper the specimen presentations were. All data were reviewed, collected and interpreted. It revealed that there were only 20 (1%) improper specimens and all were improper in quality. There was no significant difference between the ratio of improper specimens in both groups (P > 0.30). From this study, it revealed that efficacy of both types of vacuum tubes was not different. The new gel vacuum tube seems to be an effective tool in the evacuated blood collection system due to its advantage in reduction of time in specimen processing. PMID:11560224

  14. Experimental evaluation of a fixed collector employing vee-trough concentrator and vacuum tube receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test bed for experimental evaluation of a fixed solar collector which combines an evacuated glass tube solar receiver with a flat plate/black chrome plated copper absorber and an asymmetric vee-trough concentrator was designed and constructed. Earlier predictions of thermal performance were compared with test data acquired for a bare vacuum tube receiver; and receiver tubes with Alzak aluminum, aluminized FEP Teflon film laminated sheet metal and second surface ordinary mirror reflectors. Test results and system economics as well as objectives of an ongoing program to obtain long-term performance data are discussed.

  15. 48 CFR 728.307-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). 728.307-70 Section 728.307-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services...

  16. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  17. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION... consist of questionnaires that will be handed out to occupants who have evacuated previously- identified high-rise buildings as a part of a scheduled evacuation drill. The purpose of these questionnaires...

  18. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  19. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  20. The visualization of surgical smoke produced by energy delivery devices: significance and effectiveness of evacuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Devices delivering energy to biological tissues (eg lasers, RF and ultrasound) can induce surgical smoke consisting of particles, vapor, gasses and aerosols. Besides interfering with the view of the surgeon, the smoke is a risk for the health of both the users and patients. In literature, it has been shown that surgical smoke can contain carcinogenic and harmful biological agents. However, the impact on health of the users and patients is widely debated. The use of smoke evacuation systems in the OR is usually governed by economical reason instead of safety issues. A special image enhancement technique is used to study the behavior of smoke and aerosols and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. A back scatter illumination technique using 1 μs light flashes at video rate was applied to image the smoke production of various surgical devices without and with smoke evacuation while ablating biological tissues. The effectiveness of various smoke evacuation devices and strategies were compared. The ablative thermal devices produced smoke but also aerosols. If the thermal energy was delivered in high peak pulses, the presence of aerosols was more significant. Ultrasound based devices produce mainly aerosols. The distance to the target, the opening of the evacuation nozzle and the dimension of aerosols were leading for the effectiveness of the smoke evacuation. The smoke visualization technique has proven an effective tool for study the effectiveness of smoke and aerosols evacuation. The results can contribute to the necessity to use evacuation systems in the OR.

  1. 5 CFR 550.406 - Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty. 550.406 Section 550.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.406 Work...

  2. An accessibility graph-based model to optimize tsunami evacuation sites and routes in Martinique, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péroche, M.; Leone, F.; Gutton, R.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tsunami threatens the whole Caribbean coastline especially the Lesser Antilles. The first available models of tsunami propagation estimate that the travel time from the closest seismic sources would only take few minutes to impact the Martinique Island. Considering this threat, the most effective measure is a planned and organized evacuation of the coastal population. This requires an efficient regional warning system, estimation of the maximum expected tsunami flood height, preparation of the population to evacuate, and drawing up of local and regional emergency plans. In order to produce an efficient evacuation plan, we have to assess the number of people at risk, the potential evacuation routes, the safe areas and the available time to evacuate. However, this essential information is still lacking in the French West Indies emergency plans. This paper proposes a model of tsunami evacuation sites accessibility for Martinique directly addressed to decision makers. It is based on a population database at a local scale, the development of connected graphs of roads, the identification of potential safe areas and the velocity setting for pedestrians. Evacuation routes are calculated using the Dijkstra's algorithm which gives the shortest path between areas at risk and designated evacuation sites. The first results allow us to map the theoretical times and routes to keep the exposed population safe and to compare these results with a tsunami travel time scenario.

  3. Modeling and assessment of civil aircraft evacuation based on finer-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Studying civil aircraft emergency evacuation process by using computer model is an effective way. In this study, the evacuation of Airbus A380 is simulated using a Finer-Grid Civil Aircraft Evacuation (FGCAE) model. In this model, the effect of seat area and others on escape process and pedestrian's "hesitation" before leaving exits are considered, and an optimized rule of exit choice is defined. Simulations reproduce typical characteristics of aircraft evacuation, such as the movement synchronization between adjacent pedestrians, route choice and so on, and indicate that evacuation efficiency will be determined by pedestrian's "preference" and "hesitation". Based on the model, an assessment procedure of aircraft evacuation safety is presented. The assessment and comparison with the actual evacuation test demonstrate that the available exit setting of "one exit from each exit pair" used by practical demonstration test is not the worst scenario. The half exits of one end of the cabin are all unavailable is the worst one, that should be paid more attention to, and even be adopted in the certification test. The model and method presented in this study could be useful for assessing, validating and improving the evacuation performance of aircraft.

  4. Mechanical strength evaluation of the glass base material in the JRR-3 neutron guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime of the thermal neutron guide tube installed JRR-3 was investigated after 6 years from their first installation. And it was confirmed that a crack had been piercing into the glass base material of the side plate of the neutron guide tube. The cause of the crack was estimated as a static fatigue of the guide tube where an inside of the tube had been evacuated and stressed as well as an embrittlement of the glass base material by gamma ray irradiation. In this report, we evaluate the mechanical strength of the glass base material and estimate the time when the base material gets fatigue fracture. Furthermore, we evaluate a lifetime of the neutron guide tube and confirm the validity of update timing in 2000 and 2001 when the thermal neutron guide tubes T1 and T2 were exchanged into those using the super mirror. (author)

  5. Severe hemoperitoneum after patient self-induced fecal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesini, S; Lanzara, S; Stano, R; Santini, S; De Troia, A; Gennari, S; Vasquez, G

    2011-01-01

    An increasing incidence of rectal injuries following patient self-induced harmful acts, aimed to sexual or laxatives porpouses, is a fact reported in literature (El-Ashaal et al., 2008). We herein report a case of severe hemoperitoneum related to a middle and upper rectal third seromuscolar tear caused by a self-induced fecal evacuation by means of an arrow with a covered cork tip. An urgent intestinal diversion by means of a Hartmann's operation was performed. The clinical case is presented in relation to the literature debate, regarding the issue of primary repair or resection and anastomosis versus fecal diversion for penetrating rectal injuries (Fabian, 2002; Cleary et al., 2006; Office of the Surgeon General, 1943; Busic et al., 2002). In conclusion, the importance of avoiding an anastomotic breakdown in a patient undergoing a hemorrhagic shock is highlighted. PMID:21876699

  6. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  7. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  8. Optimizing evacuation flow in a two-channel exclusion process

    CERN Document Server

    Galla, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We use a basic setup of two coupled exclusion processes to model a stylised situation in evacuation dynamics, in which evacuees have to choose between two escape routes. The coupling between the two processes occurs through one common point at which particles are injected, the process can be controlled by directing incoming individuals into either of the two escape routes. Based on a mean-field approach we determine the phase behaviour of the model, and analytically compute optimal control strategies, maximising the total current through the system. Results are confirmed by numerical simulations. We also show that dynamic intervention, exploiting fluctuations about the mean-field stationary state, can lead to a further increase in total current.

  9. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  10. Effects of Data Resolution and Human Behavior on Large Scale Evacuation Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) based macroscopic simulation studies are mostly applied in evacuation planning and operation areas. The large size in TAZ and aggregated information of macroscopic simulation underestimate the real evacuation performance. To take advantage of the high resolution demographic data LandScan USA (the zone size is much smaller than TAZ) and agent-based microscopic traffic simulation models, many new problems appeared and novel solutions are needed. A series of studies are conducted using LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) data for evacuation assignments with different network configurations, travel demand models, and travelers compliance behavior. First, a new Multiple Source Nearest Destination Shortest Path (MSNDSP) problem is defined for generating Origin Destination matrix in evacuation assignments when using LandScan dataset. Second, a new agent-based traffic assignment framework using LandScan and TRANSIMS modules is proposed for evacuation planning and operation study. Impact a...

  11. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with flat fins and one model is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with curved fins. The models are characterized by detailed calculations of the heat transfer processes in the fins, by detailed shadow modeling and by fins with...... selective coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  12. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  13. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with flat fins and one model is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with curved fins. The models are characterized by detailed calculations of the heat transfer processes in the fins, by detailed shadow modeling and by fins with...... selective coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  14. Application of Spatial and Network Analysis to Evaluate Shelter Plan for Tsunami Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for evaluating shelter plan for emergency evacuation prior to a tsunami based on service area analysis. The evacuation service areas are generated using both spatial and network analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS. A case study in Pacitan city, East Java Province, Indonesia which is located in the South coastal area of Java Island, is picked as study area. The field has a possibility of suffering tsunami disaster because of the movement of Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. The simulation result shows that the current evacuation shelters arranged by local government are not easy to access if tsunami occurs. About 50% of the residents do not have enough time to evacuate to the shelters because many shelters are located far from residential area. Utilizing public buildings around residential area for temporary shelters proposed in this study, about 96% residents in inundation area have sufficient time to evacuate to the shelters.

  15. Suction and Evacuation for Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Makhija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the authors' experience in Suction and Evacuation with cannula followed by maintenance of negative pressure in the uterine cavity by keeping the cannula inside for 20-30minutes, which was performed for controlling intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study carried out from July 2011 to December 2012 at our institute. Nine patients who delivered either vaginally or via caesarian section and developed primary PPH refractory to conventional medical treatment, were included in the study. Suction and evacuation of the uterine cavity was done and then the cannula was kept inside the uterine cavity for 20-30 minutes thereby maintaining negative pressure (400-600mmHg in the cavity. Data were retrieved from patients' hospital records. Results: Intractable primary hemorrhage was encountered in 9 patients of whom 6 had bleeding after caesarian section and 3 after vaginal deliveries. Uterine atony due to prolonged labour was the commonest cause. Hemorrhage was effectively controlled in 8 out of 9 cases (88.9% and hysterectomy was avoided. In one patient (11.1 % the procedure failed and life saving hysterectomy was done to control the bleeding. This approach not only controls PPH but also preserves the woman´s reproductive functions and avoids hysterectomy and its related complications and consequences. Conclusion: This is a simple conservative surgical method to treat PPH in low resource settings. It requires minimal training, conserves the uterus, and is technically less challenging and associated with less blood loss than hysterectomy.

  16. Beat-the-wave evacuation mapping for tsunami hazards in Seaside, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, George R.; Stimely, Laura; Wood, Nathan J.; Madin, Ian; Watzig, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    Previous pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunamis has not considered variable wave arrival times or critical junctures (e.g., bridges), nor does it effectively communicate multiple evacuee travel speeds. We summarize an approach that identifies evacuation corridors, recognizes variable wave arrival times, and produces a map of minimum pedestrian travel speeds to reach safety, termed a “beat-the-wave” (BTW) evacuation analysis. We demonstrate the improved approach by evaluating difficulty of pedestrian evacuation of Seaside, Oregon, for a local tsunami generated by a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. We establish evacuation paths by calculating the least cost distance (LCD) to safety for every grid cell in a tsunami-hazard zone using geospatial, anisotropic path distance algorithms. Minimum BTW speed to safety on LCD paths is calculated for every grid cell by dividing surface distance from that cell to safety by the tsunami arrival time at safety. We evaluated three scenarios of evacuation difficulty: (1) all bridges are intact with a 5-minute evacuation delay from the start of earthquake, (2) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 5-minute delay, and (3) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 10-minute delay. BTW maps also take into account critical evacuation points along complex shorelines (e.g., peninsulas, bridges over shore-parallel estuaries) where evacuees could be caught by tsunami waves. The BTW map is able to communicate multiple pedestrian travel speeds, which are typically visualized by multiple maps with current LCD-based mapping practices. Results demonstrate that evacuation of Seaside is problematic seaward of the shore-parallel waterways for those with any limitations on mobility. Tsunami vertical-evacuation refuges or additional pedestrian bridges may be effective ways of reducing loss of life seaward of these waterways.

  17. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  18. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  19. Analysis of Tsunami Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based Modeling. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Yuriage, Natori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, tsunami awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, tsunami evacuation simulation can be applied to tsunami mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 tsunami, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the tsunami warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the model. The case study shows the contribution of tsunami evacuation models as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of tsunami evacuation models.

  20. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  1. Transit-Based Emergency Evacuation with Transit Signal Priority in Sudden-Onset Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents methods of transit signal priority without transit-only lanes for a transit-based emergency evacuation in a sudden-onset disaster. Arterial priority signal coordination is optimized when a traffic signal control system provides priority signals for transit vehicles along an evacuation route. Transit signal priority is determined by “transit vehicle arrival time estimation,” “queuing vehicle dissipation time estimation,” “traffic signal status estimation,” “transit signal optimization,” and “arterial traffic signal coordination for transit vehicle in evacuation route.” It takes advantage of the large capacities of transit vehicles, reduces the evacuation time, and evacuates as many evacuees as possible. The proposed methods were tested on a simulation platform with Paramics V6.0. To evaluate and compare the performance of transit signal priority, three scenarios were simulated in the simulator. The results indicate that the methods of this study can reduce the travel times of transit vehicles along an evacuation route by 13% and 10%, improve the standard deviation of travel time by 16% and 46%, and decrease the average person delay at a signalized intersection by 22% and 17% when the traffic flow saturation along an evacuation route is 0.81.0, respectively.

  2. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia – implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  3. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  4. Adjustable off-focal aperture for x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an x-ray tube assembly for radiographic scanners. It comprises: an evacuated envelope; an anode rotatably mounted within the envelope; a housing surrounding the envelope to define a cooling fluid reservoir therebetween, the housing defining an aperture therein and having a collar surrounding the aperture; an x-ray permeable, fluid impermeable window mounted to the housing to seal the aperture; an x-ray beam defining means, an off-focal radiation attenuating means, a flexible cable means, and a first stop means

  5. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent building emergency management research has highlighted the need for the effective utilization of dynamically changing building information. BIM (building information modelling can play a significant role in this process due to its comprehensive and standardized data format and integrated process. This paper introduces a BIM based virtual environment supported by virtual reality (VR and a serious game engine to address several key issues for building emergency management, for example, timely two-way information updating and better emergency awareness training. The focus of this paper lies on how to utilize BIM as a comprehensive building information provider to work with virtual reality technologies to build an adaptable immersive serious game environment to provide real-time fire evacuation guidance. The innovation lies on the seamless integration between BIM and a serious game based virtual reality (VR environment aiming at practical problem solving by leveraging state-of-the-art computing technologies. The system has been tested for its robustness and functionality against the development requirements, and the results showed promising potential to support more effective emergency management.

  6. Extended cell-transmission-based evacuation planning in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Kimms

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A well-known traffic simulation model bases on the idea to represent street sections by so-called cells where vehicles are streaming from one cell to another in order to give a realistic image of traffic flows. Its basic ideas were picked up recently to formulate an optimization model for evacuationplanning purposes. We will address three major weaknesses of the recent model, namely the usage of afixed single cell size, missing consideration of lanes as well as missing limitations for traffic flows andshow how to overcome them. Stimulated by this, we formulate the extended Cell-Transmission-Based Evacuation Planning Model and a new optimization model to facilitate this model in terms of choosing the optimum cell size. Additionally, we will present an iterative simulation-based optimization approach in order to evaluate and to enhance results in a more realistic environment. This approach takes advantage of a standalone vehicle reallocation optimization model, additional traffic flow limitations as well as a state-of-the-art microscopic traffic simulation. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in a real-world example.

  7. Transfer of hydrogen and helium through corrugated, flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of liquid gas or cold gas through corrugated tubes is an alternative to rigid systems for the use in reactor technique. Advantages: flexibility for easy installation; these tubes together with their associated terminations and hardware are assembled, leak-tested and evacuated at the factory. This permits simple and cost saving installation on site. All tubes are helium leak-tested with a sensitivity of 10E-9 mbar 1/sec. Following the leak test, the vacuum space is pumped down to the operation vacuum level and properly sealed. The vacuum integrity is guaranteed as a result of the high degree of cleanliness observed during production and from the use of a specially selected better material inside the vacuum space. Disadvantage: pressure is limited to 20 bar. To fulfil all rules of the reactor safety, different tests have to be done. Because of the longitudinal weld of the corrugated tube, a bursting test of different sizes gives the best information of the liability of this kind of tube. It can be shown that the bursting pressure of such a tube is more than 5 times higher than the max. working pressure

  8. The evaluation of 'the drill of evacuation with family car' conducted in the Ibaraki prefecture comprehensive nuclear disaster exercise 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibaraki prefecture had conducted 'Drill of evacuation for employees working near the nuclear sites with family car', 'Drill of evacuation for the disabled with family car' and 'Drill of evacuation for residents living near the nuclear sites' in the Ibaraki Prefecture Comprehensive Nuclear Disaster Exercise on September 30th, 2010. This work evaluated the dynamic traffic flow of evacuees' cars during the evacuation drills with three kinds of data, i.e. questionnaire for the participants, GPS tracking data of vehicles of evacuees, and photography's shot from the ground. The opinion survey was also conducted to participants of evacuation drill to get the data of choice of measures for evacuation. Consideration based on the survey of these drills revealed important outcomes as follows. The evacuation routes should be chosen more than one per one residential district from the roads including low capacity road to ease traffic congestion and to secure substitute route. Taking into account traffic control and guiding at the intersections on the evacuation routes by policemen and staffs is very important to make the vehicles of evacuees running smoothly. Considering of the capacity and the gate size of the parking of reception center is very important to make the stream of vehicles smooth when Reception centers are chosen. Considering of the effect from experiments of participants is important for the opinion surveys to get the choice of measures of evacuation. The opinion surveys about evacuation from Nuclear disaster should be done in the wide area including the outside of the evacuation zone. (author)

  9. Recent Advances in Agent-Based Tsunami Evacuation Simulations: Case Studies in Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Erick; Koshimura, Shunichi; Imamura, Fumihiko; Suppasri, Anawat; Muhari, Abdul; Adriano, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    As confirmed by the extreme tsunami events over the last decade (the 2004 Indian Ocean, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunami events), mitigation measures and effective evacuation planning are needed to reduce disaster risks. Modeling tsunami evacuations is an alternative means to analyze evacuation plans and possible scenarios of evacuees' behaviors. In this paper, practical applications of an agent-based tsunami evacuation model are presented to demonstrate the contributions that agent-based modeling has added to tsunami evacuation simulations and tsunami mitigation efforts. A brief review of previous agent-based evacuation models in the literature is given to highlight recent progress in agent-based methods. Finally, challenges are noted for bridging gaps between geoscience and social science within the agent-based approach for modeling tsunami evacuations.

  10. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk management: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. González-Riancho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This methodology considers (i the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time, (ii the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network, (iii the current tsunami risk management situation (time needed by the responsible authorities to warn the local communities, (iv the time needed for evacuation of the population, and (v the identification of measures to improve the evacuation. The proposed methodological framework aims to fill the gap between risk assessment and management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan.

  11. Empirical study of the influence of social groups in evacuation scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Svachiy, Anton; Wohak, Oliver; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social groups on pedestrian dynamics, especially in evacuation scenarios, have attracted some interest recently. However, due to the lack of reliable empirical data, most of the studies focussed on modelling aspects. It was shown that social groups can have a considerable effect, e.g. on evacuation times. In order to test the model predictions we have performed laboratory experiments of evacuations with different types and sizes of the social groups. The experiments have been performed with pupils of different ages. Parameters that have been considered are (1) group size, (2) strength of intra-group interactions, and (3) composition of the groups (young adults, children, and mixtures). For all the experiments high-quality trajectories for all participants have been obtained using the PeTrack software. This allows for a detailed analysis of the group effects. One surprising observation is a decrease of the evacuation time with increasing group size.

  12. Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas, Evacuation Zones, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Evacuation Zones'. Data...

  13. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined....... Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is, the...

  14. Variations in disaster evacuation behavior: public responses versus private sector executive decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, T E

    1992-06-01

    Data obtained from 65 executives working for tourism firms in three sample communities permitted comparison with the public warning response literature regarding three topics: disaster evacuation planning, initial warning responses, and disaster evacuation behavior. Disaster evacuation planning was reported by nearly all of these business executives, although it was highly variable in content, completeness, and formality. Managerial responses to post-disaster warnings paralleled the type of complex social processes that have been documented within the public response literature, except that warning sources and confirmation behavior were significantly affected by contact with authorities. Five key areas of difference were discovered in disaster evacuation behavior pertaining to: influence of planning, firm versus family priorities, shelter selection, looting concerns, and media contacts. PMID:20958741

  15. Analysis of techniques for estimating evacuation times for emergency planning zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations of current methodologies and some alternatives are discussed that point out that evacuation time is a combination of the time required for four separate actions. These are decision, notification, preparation, and response (travel) time. Times for these actions will overlap to some degree with some people receiving notification, some preparing to leave, and others traveling. Notification and preparation times significantly affect the evacuation time and must be known before time to clear an area can be calculated accurately. (author)

  16. A methodology for evacuation route planning inside buildings using geospatial technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Morte, Alfredo; Rodríguez Hidalgo, A.B.; Navarro Carrión, José Tomás; Zaragozí Zaragozí, Benito Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Evacuation route planning is a fundamental task for building engineering projects. Safety regulations are established so that all occupants are driven on time out of a building to a secure place when faced with an emergency situation. As an example, Spanish building code requires the planning of evacuation routes on large and, usually, public buildings. Engineers often plan these routes on single building projects, repeatedly assigning clusters of rooms to each emergency exit in a trial-and-e...

  17. Evacuation of a Smoke Filled Tunnel: Human Behaviour, Movement Speed and Exit Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolf, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on an evacuation experiment, which was performed within the second work package of the Swedish METRO project. The experiment involved 100 participants, both men and women in the ages 18-66 years, who individually evacuated a smoke-filled rail tunnel of approximately 200 metres length. The main purpose of the experiment was to collect and derive data on human behaviour and movement speeds, and to study the effectiveness of different technical emergency exit installations, sy...

  18. Simulation of evacuation processes using a bionics-inspired cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Ansgar; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    We present simulations of evacuation processes using a recently introduced cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics. This model applies a bionics approach to describe the interaction between the pedestrians using ideas from chemotaxis. Here we study a rather simple situation, namely the evacuation from a large room with one or two doors. It is shown that the variation of the model parameters allows to describe different types of behaviour, from regular to panic. We find a non-monotoni...

  19. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami-evacuation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Jones, J. M.; Schmidtlein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis potentially arriving in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. We developed a geospatial-modeling method for characterizing pedestrian-evacuation flow paths and evacuation basins to support evacuation and relief planning efforts for coastal communities in this region. We demonstrate this approach using the coastal communities of Aberdeen, Hoquiam, and Cosmopolis in southwestern Grays Harbor County, Washington (USA), where previous research suggests approximately 20,500 people (99% of the residents in tsunami-hazard zones) will likely have enough time to evacuate before tsunami-wave arrival. Geospatial, anisotropic, path distance models were developed to map the most efficient pedestrian paths to higher ground from locations within the tsunami-hazard zone. This information was then used to identify evacuation basins, outlining neighborhoods sharing a common evacuation pathway to safety. We then estimated the number of people traveling along designated evacuation pathways and arriving at pre-determined safe assembly areas, helping determine shelter demand and relief support (e.g., for elderly individuals or tourists). Finally, we assessed which paths may become inaccessible due to earthquake-induced ground failures, a factor which may impact an individual's success in reaching safe ground. The presentation will include a discussion of the implications of our analysis for developing more comprehensive coastal community tsunami-evacuation planning strategies worldwide.

  20. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  1. Simulation of the Emotion Dynamics in a Group of Agents in an Evacuation Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh; Adam, Carole; Canal, Richard; Gaudou, Benoit; HO, Tuong Vinh; Taillandier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more emergency evacuation simulations are used to evaluate the safety level of a building during an emergency evacuation after an accident. The heart of this kind of simulations is the simulation of human behavior because simulation results depend for a big part on how this behavior is simulated. However, human behaviors in a real emergency situation are determined by a lot of cognitive mechanisms. In order to make the simulation more realistic, plenty of factors (e.g. inna...

  2. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Yingyan Lou; Gary P. Moynihan; Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2013-01-01

    Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carrie...

  3. [The principles of aviation support for rescue-evacuation operations in eliminating the consequences of disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnov, E S; Golovchits, V N

    1993-01-01

    Analysing practical results of an Air Force participation in liquidation of the earthquake consequences in Armenia, 1988, and after technological catastrophe in Bashkiria, 1989, the authors substantiate the role and significance of air transportation in the system of rescue and evacuation measures, define main tasks for aviation, propose methods for calculation of required number of aircraft and its types. The data cited in this article have formed a basis for the principles of air support during rescue and evacuation procedures. PMID:8484227

  4. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi An; Ze Wang; Jianxun Cui

    2015-01-01

    Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences ...

  5. Evacuation of a neonatal intensive care unit in a disaster: lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael; Patil, Uday; Cruz, Hannaise; Gupta, Arpit; Matterson, Heideh; Kim, Yang; Caprio, Martha; Mally, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    NICU patients are among those potentially most vulnerable to the effects of natural or man-made disaster on a medical center. The published data on evacuations of NICU patients in the setting of disaster are sparse. In October of 2012, New York University Langone Medical Center was evacuated during Hurricane Sandy in the setting of a power outage secondary to a coastal surge. In this setting, 21 neonates were safely evacuated from the medical center's NICU to receiving hospitals within New York City in a span of 4.5 hours. Using data recorded during the evacuation and from staff debriefings, we describe the challenges faced and lessons learned during both the power outage and vertical evacuation. From our experience, we identify several elements that are important to the functioning of an NICU in a disaster or to an evacuation that may be incorporated into future NICU-focused disaster planning. These include a clear command structure, backups (personnel, communication, medical information, and equipment), establishing situational awareness, regional coordination, and flexibility as well as special attention to families and to the availability of neonatal transport resources. PMID:25384488

  6. Dispositional and situational variables related to evacuation at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to explore some of the factors influential in local residents' evacuating or remaining in the Three Mile Island area during the nuclear power plant accident of March, 1979. Investigated variables included individuals' behavioral dispositions to attend or to avoid threatening stimuli as well as situational concerns related to demographic characteristics and subjective experience. Investigation of situational variables also probed respondents' concerns about accident-related fears. Two main relationships were investigated. The first hypothesized that positive relationships existed both between dispositional attention to threat and evacuation and between dispositional avoidance of threat and remaining. The second investigation task of the research explored evacuation-related situational variables in regard to individuals' awareness of potential danger at TMI. No support was found for the hypothesized relationships between evacuation and dispositions relative to threat. Situational variables significantly related to evacuation included: specific directives to evacuate the area; disruption of telephone service during the week of the accident; and household proximity to TMI

  7. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  8. An indoor augmented reality mobile application for simulation of building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Jerripothula, Shanmukha

    2015-03-01

    Augmented Reality enables people to remain connected with the physical environment they are in, and invites them to look at the world from new and alternative perspectives. There has been an increasing interest in emergency evacuation applications for mobile devices. Nearly all the smart phones these days are Wi-Fi and GPS enabled. In this paper, we propose a novel emergency evacuation system that will help people to safely evacuate a building in case of an emergency situation. It will further enhance knowledge and understanding of where the exits are in the building and safety evacuation procedures. We have applied mobile augmented reality (mobile AR) to create an application with Unity 3D gaming engine. We show how the mobile AR application is able to display a 3D model of the building and animation of people evacuation using markers and web camera. The system gives a visual representation of a building in 3D space, allowing people to see where exits are in the building through the use of a smart phone or tablets. Pilot studies were conducted with the system showing its partial success and demonstrated the effectiveness of the application in emergency evacuation. Our computer vision methods give good results when the markers are closer to the camera, but accuracy decreases when the markers are far away from the camera.

  9. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  10. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results

  11. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  12. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, ...

  13. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  14. Experimental study of propagation of intense relativistic electron beams in nonconducting vacuum drift tubes after passage through a localized plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destler, W.W.; O' Shea, P.G.; Segalov, Z.

    1987-04-01

    The propagation of intense relativistic electron beams into evacuated nonconducting drift tubes after passage through a localized plasma source has been experimentally studied. Time-integrated photographs of the propagation process have been obtained, as well as quantitative measurements of the propagated beam current and energy.

  15. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gastrostomy tube. Delmar’s Fundamental and Advanced Nursing Skills . 2nd Ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning; 2003: 742-749. Simmons, Remmington R.The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: a nurse's guide to PEG tubes. Medsurg Nurs . 2013 Mar- ...

  16. KER-2 tube history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banister, W.C.

    1963-08-16

    Zirconium process tube No. 1986 was installed in KE Reactor tube channel No. 2864 on April 16, 1959. This report describes the history and the conditions to which it was exposed during its residence in the reactor. The tube was removed on May 31, 1963.

  17. Propagation of atmospheric pressure fronts in long vacuum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work was undertaken during the development of a system using fast acting valves to protect the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) vacuum chamber at CERN against damage from the implosion of thin wall vacuum chambers. A 30 m cylindrical tube with a diameter of 130 mm and similar to that used on the ISR, was evacuated to 10-2 torr. Following the sudden entry of atmospheric pressure at one end the pressure versus time diagram was observed a several points along the tube. These diagrams show a characteristic 'staircase' function which permits the determination of the propagation velocity. There is an initial weak pressure front of a few torr, propagated at 950 m s-1, which presents little mechanical danger, even to delicate components such as ionisation gauges. After a formation time of 0.1 s, one or more large amplitude (several tens of torr) and potentially dangerous pressure fronts are propagated with a velocity of 770 m s-1

  18. A large scale evacuation. Tasks of evacuator. Collapse of medical system at the time of areal indication for large scale indoor refuge and problems for restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About the evacuation from disasters of quake/tsunami on Mar. 11, 2011, and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 12-15), described are its social background, influence on the local society, medicare and works of medical staff. The disaster immediately blocked means of communication and transportation in Minamisoma City, and the Japan government indicated the indoor refuge of residents in the zone at 3 km distance from the Plant, then at 20 km on 12th and 30 km on 15th. About 123 thousands residents nearby had to evacuate after all: the largest scale of evacuation by the nuclear accident in Japan. Author's Minamisoma Citizens' Hospital (MCH) was located at 23 km from the Plant. Residents could know about the government indications through various media before their official announcements, and many had begun to evacuate. MCH accepted >100 victims, and measured their contamination as well as the ambient dose, using GM counter from 12th. The highest dose was 16 mc-Sv/h on 20th. Following the hydrogen explosion of no.3 reactor on 14th, residents were bewildered by the indication of indoor refuge, which impacted social activities like stoppage of commerce and brought about residents' mental conflict and solitary. Movement of all 107 hospitalized patients to neighboring facilities in Niigata prefecture started on 18th and actually completed on 20th with help from Self Defense Force. Children, pregnant women and certain patients were prohibited to enter the newly defined emergent evacuation preparation (EEP) zone on Apr. 11, within 30 km afar from the Plant, which inhibited the areal restoration and medicare. At present that 1.5 years have passed since the disaster, the number of medical stuff is quite insufficient near the old EEP zone. There, now 2/3 of population before the disaster are beginning their life, and most are elderly, suggesting the necessity of rearrangement of medical systems which were seemingly once collapsed. (T.T.)

  19. A risk-based method for planning of bus–subway corridor evacuation under hybrid uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergencies involved in a bus–subway corridor system are associated with many processes and factors with social and economic implications. These processes and factors and their interactions are related to a variety of uncertainties. In this study, an interval chance-constrained integer programming (EICI) method is developed in response to such challenges for bus–subway corridor based evacuation planning. The method couples a chance-constrained programming with an interval integer programming model framework. It can thus deal with interval uncertainties that cannot be quantified with specified probability distribution functions. Meanwhile, it can also reflect stochastic features of traffic flow capacity, and thereby help examine the related violation risk of constraint. The EICI method is applied to a subway incident based evacuation case study. It is solved through an interactive algorithm that does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. A number of decision alternatives could be directly generated based on results from the EICI method. It is indicated that the solutions cannot only help decision makers identify desired population evacuation and vehicle dispatch schemes under hybrid uncertainties, but also provide bases for in-depth analyses of tradeoffs among evacuation plans, total evacuation time, and constraint-violation risks. - Highlights: • An inexact model is developed for the bus–subway corridor evacuation management. • It tackles stochastic and interval uncertainties in an integer programming problem. • It can examine violation risk of the roadway flow capacity related constraint. • It will help identify evacuation schemes under hybrid uncertainties

  20. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  1. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  2. Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd. is backed by Tsinghua University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. Tsinghua Solar invented "graded Al-N/Al selective coating," which is the key technology of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes. The company owns the independent intellectual property rights over the key technology of all-glass vacuum solar water heaters. The registered capital of the company is 153.5 mil-

  3. The evacuation of schools and school facilities for children, pupils and students with special educational needs in South Bohemia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of schools and educational institutions in the South Bohemian Region in terms of their preparedness to evacuate children and students with special educational needs. This thesis assesses the preparedness and awareness of individual schools. The work is divided into two parts, a theoretical part and a research part. The theoretical part deals mainly with evacuations as a reaction on an emergence of an incident or crisis. Evacuation applies to people of all a...

  4. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Michio Murakami; Kyoko Ono; Masaharu Tsubokura; Shuhei Nomura; Tomoyoshi Oikawa; Tosihiro Oka; Masahiro Kami; Taikan Oki

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "r...

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  7. A fuzzy Bayesian network approach to quantify the human behaviour during an evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian Network (BN) has been regarded as a successful representation of inter-relationship of factors affecting human behavior during an emergency. This paper is an extension of earlier work of quantifying the variables involved in the BN model of human behavior during an evacuation using a well-known direct probability elicitation technique. To overcome judgment bias and reduce the expert's burden in providing precise probability values, a new approach for the elicitation technique is required. This study proposes a new fuzzy BN approach for quantifying human behavior during an evacuation. Three major phases of methodology are involved, namely 1) development of qualitative model representing human factors during an evacuation, 2) quantification of BN model using fuzzy probability and 3) inferencing and interpreting the BN result. A case study of three inter-dependencies of human evacuation factors such as danger assessment ability, information about the threat and stressful conditions are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. This approach will serve as an alternative to the conventional probability elicitation technique in understanding the human behavior during an evacuation.

  8. Influences of exit and stair conditions on human evacuation in a dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Wang, Xiaowei

    2012-12-01

    Evacuation processes of students are investigated by experiment and simulation. The experiment is performed for students evacuating from a dormitory with an exit and stairs. FDS+Evac is proposed to simulate the exit and stair dynamics of occupant evacuation. Concerning the exit and stair widths, we put forward some useful standpoints. Good agreement is achieved between the predicted results and experimental results. With the increase of exit width, a significant stratification phenomenon will be found in flow rate. Stratification phenomenon is that two different stable flow rates will emerge during the evacuation. And the flow rate curve looks like a ladder. The larger the exit width, the earlier the stratification phenomenon appears. When exit width is more than 2.0 m, the flow rate of each exit width is divided into two stable stages, and the evacuation times show almost no change. The judgment that the existence of stairs causes flow stratification is reasonable. By changing the width of the stairs, we proved that judgment. The smaller the width of BC, the earlier the stratification appears. We found that scenario 5 is the most adverse circumstance. Those results are helpful in performance-based design of buildings.

  9. The Study of Evacuation Route Algorithm in Flooding by Localized Heavy Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhang; Eunmi Kim; Yun Sung Go; Chang Soo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the worst hazards of natural disaster. One of the adverse effect of flooding is that it disrupts the traffic system of a city or nation. Therefore, finding the safe path to the destination to drivers is required to implement an efficient evacuation system during a heavy rain. How to efficiently evacuate people in a road is required as well. In this study, we compared the A* algorithm and Dijkstra algorithm to find an optimal and efficient path between departure point to destination point if there is a hazard area. The result indicates A* algorithm can find the shorter optimal path better Dijkstra algorithm. We develop the evacuation route algorithm using A* algorithm when this algorithm was used in evacuation route, the road network was graded according to the flooding history and flooding danger area which is defined by lowland area information. We simulate the suggested algorithm for the test experiments demonstrate that this algorithm can enhance the efficiency of evacuation route in Busan.

  10. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  11. Performance assessment of three concentrating solar thermal units designed with XCPC reflectors and evacuated tubes, using an analytical thermal model

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a part of an ongoing applied research project at the Solar Energy Laboratory at UC Merced, with the objective of developing a solar thermal system able to increase the temperature of a heat transfer fluid to output temperatures around 200°C(∼400°F). The goal of this project is to design and implement a modular, low profile, scalable and solar-powered system to offer an on-site heat source. Operating temperatures on the target range of this project create the possibility of pro...

  12. Pollinators and Other Flying Insects inside and outside the Fukushima Evacuation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Mishima, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants in 2011, a large evacuation zone was imposed in an area where residents had historically managed forests and farmlands. Thus, the human activities that had maintained biodiversity and ecosystem services in the zone were discontinued. Such change can affect insects, a biodiversity component that is relatively tolerant to radiation exposure. In this study, we investigated flying insects, including pollinators, important ecosystem providers inside and outside the zone, using Malaise traps. The results showed that the number of individuals of Xylocopa appendiculata, the largest Apidae species in the region, was significantly lower inside the evacuation zone than outside it, whereas those of other insects were not lower significantly. Although we suggest that flying insects and their ecosystem services (i.e., benefits from them such as pollination) 3 years after the disaster were not critically impacted, it is important to monitor the long-term effects of the evacuation in the future. PMID:26561045

  13. Agent-Based Evacuation Model Incorporating Fire Scene and Building Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the key factors affecting evacuations at fire scones is necessary for accurate simulations.An agent-based simulation model which incorporates the fire scene and the building geometry is developed using a fire dynamics simulator (FDS) based on the computational fluid dynamics and geographic information system (GIS) data to model the occupant response.The building entities are generated for FDS simulation while the spatial analysis on GIS data represents the occupant's knowledge of the building.The influence of the fire is based on a hazard assessment of the combustion products.The agent behavior and decisions are affected by environmental features and the fire field.A case study demonstrates that the evacuation model effectively simulates the coexistence and interactions of the major factors including occupants,building geometry,and fire disaster during the evacuation.The results can be used for the assessments of building designs regarding fire safety.

  14. How to evacuate a psychiatric hospital: a Hurricane Katrina success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joan; Lackey, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the successful evacuation of an entire psychiatric hospital from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Memphis, Tennessee, on a weekend night. The destination site was 400 miles away and buses were used for transport. The evacuation occurred shortly before Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans and included 73 adult, adolescent, and child acute psychiatric patients. Thirty-five staff members also participated in the evacuation with their families and pets. This report is significant because little is known about how to implement a disaster plan that involves the transport of an entire psychiatric hospital-patients, nurses, physicians, staff, and family members--to another city. The knowledge gained can also benefit psychiatric nurses and their organizations when establishing or modifying their disaster plans. PMID:18251350

  15. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event. PMID:24909363

  16. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  17. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  18. Conduction cooled tube supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  19. Tubing weld cracking test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  20. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami evacuation and disaster relief planning in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Schmidtlein, Mathew; Schelling, John; Frazier, T.

    2016-01-01

    Successful evacuations are critical to saving lives from future tsunamis. Pedestrian-evacuation modeling related to tsunami hazards primarily has focused on identifying areas and the number of people in these areas where successful evacuations are unlikely. Less attention has been paid to identifying evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas for at-risk individuals that may have sufficient time to evacuate. We use the neighboring coastal communities of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, least-cost-distance evacuation modeling for supporting evacuation outreach, response, and relief planning. We demonstrate an approach that uses geospatial evacuation modeling to (a) map the minimum pedestrian travel speeds to safety, the most efficient paths, and collective evacuation basins, (b) estimate the total number and demographic description of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas, and (c) determine which paths may be compromised due to earthquake-induced ground failure. Results suggest a wide range in the magnitude and type of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas and highlight parts of the communities with no readily accessible assembly area. Earthquake-induced ground failures could obstruct access to some assembly areas, cause evacuees to reroute to get to other assembly areas, and isolate some evacuees from relief personnel. Evacuation-modeling methods and results discussed here have implications and application to tsunami-evacuation outreach, training, response procedures, mitigation, and long-term land use planning to increase community resilience.

  1. Hypertensive thalamic hematoma treated by CT stereotactic evacuation (with two cases reports)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate new surgical method to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma. Methods: Two medial-degree coma patients with hypertensive thalamic hematoma were treated by CT stereotactic evacuation. Results: One week after operation the two patients regained consciousness. The function of paraplegic appendage restored partly, and one patient could take care of himself. Conclusion: CT stereotactic evacuation to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma has the advantages of small trauma, little complication and good clinical results. The authors suggest that it be selected firstly in treating hypertensive thalamic hematoma

  2. Pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition: The impact of communication and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shan, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition based on the social force approach. It is assumed that there are two types of pedestrians: Informed individuals know the exit location whereas uninformed individuals do not. The uninformed individuals can communicate with the informed ones within their perceptual fields, thus learning to know and memorize the exit location. We consider cases with and without communication/memory. The simulations show communication and memory are able to enhance the evacuation efficiency. We also investigate the impact of communication on the efficiency of an emergency exit.

  3. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  4. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  5. Calibrations of photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental methods for calibration photomultiplier tubes used in the multichannel fast-pulse-detection system of Thomson scattering measurements for nuclear fusion devices is reported. The most important parameters of the photomultiplier tubes to be calibrated include: linearity of output electric signals to input light signals, response time of pulsed light, spectral response, absolute responsibility, and sensitivity as a function of the chain voltage. The calibrations of all these parameters are carried out by using EMI 9558 B and RCA 7265 photomultiplier tubes respectively. The experimental methods presented in the paper are common to those quantitative measurements that require phomultiplier tubes as detectors

  6. Composite Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  7. Manual tube welding torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a welding torch which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and a boss on the back side of a tube plate, a split housing encloses a tungsten electrode, a filler wire duct and a fiber optic bundle arranged to observe the welding process. A shielding gas duct is provided in the housing. A screw is provided for setting electrode/work distance. Difficult remote tube welding operations can be performed with the apparatus. (author)

  8. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  9. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection. PMID:16330387

  10. Method of joining nuclear fuel rod end caps and nuclear fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of joining fuel rod end caps and cladding tubes by resistance pressure welding within a welding chamber is described. A welding device is brought into engagement with an end portion of a rigidly mounted cladding tube. An opening chuck as well as a divided welding electrode, both of which are mounted at one side of the welding chamber, are shifted along a predetermined length of the cladding tube end portion. The chuck and the divided welding electrode are brought into contact with the cladding tube end portion. Another welding electrode carrying an end cap is thrust into the welding chamber from the other side thereof so that the end cap is fed to the open end of the cladding tube end portion. The welding chamber is sealed by sealing members sealingly engaging the cladding tube end portion and the other welding electrode and then the interior of the welding chamber is evacuated and filled with protective gas. The end cap is pressed onto the open end of the cladding tube end portion. A welding current is passed through the welding electrodes so as to weld the end cap to the end of the cladding tube end portion

  11. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  12. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  13. Performance enhancement of filled-type solar collector with U-tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 张吉礼; 赵亮; 马良栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar collector, a methodology is proposed based on the analysis of its influencing factors, such as thermal conductivity of filled layer, structure forms of filled layer and heat loss coefficient. The results of analysis show that the heat transfer between pipes in evacuated tube is one of the most important factors, which can lead to the decrease of the outlet temperature of working fluid. In order to eliminate the negative influence of the heat transfer between pipes, the hollow filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube (HUFET) was developed, and the heat transfer characteristics of HUFET were analyzed by theoretical and experimental studies. The results show that the thermal resistances decrease with the increase of the thermal conductivity of filled layer. When the thermal conductivity is over 10 W/(m·K), the change of thermal resistances is very little. Furthermore, the larger the thermal conductivity of filled layer, the less the rate of the energy transfer between the two pipes to the total energy transfer, which is between the absorber tube and the working fluid. There is a little difference between the efficiencies of HUFET and UFET, with the efficiency of HUFET 2.4%higher than that of UFET. Meanwhile, the validation of the model developed was confirmed by the experiment.

  14. Optimization of non-evacuated receiver of solar collector having non-uniform temperature distribution for minimum heat loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non-uniform flux and temperature distribution on receiver pipe. • CFD model of heat losses from air filled receivers with different diameter of pipe and radius ratio. • Comparison with uniform temperature case. • Critical radius ratio (RR). - Abstract: The present paper contains a numerical study of heat loss from a non-evacuated receiver typically used in parabolic trough collectors. To calculate temperature distributions on the receiver pipe (TP), an energy balance has been established over the entire cross-section of the receiver pipe at different fluid temperatures. In the energy balance, the flux distribution has been estimated by assuming normal incidence of solar insolation considering the sun as a point source. The temperature distributions of the receiver pipe are found, as per expectation, to be non-uniform. These temperature distributions have been fitted by sinusoidal and step functions and are used as temperature boundary conditions in a CFD study to optimize the size of the receiver. The mechanisms of heat loss that have been considered in this study are heat loss from (1) pipe to glass tube by conduction, convection and radiation and (2) glass tube to surrounding by convection (natural and forced) and radiation. The values of diameters of receiver pipe taken in this study are 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm. The radius ratio (RR) varied from 1.2 to 3 by changing diameter of glass tube. It is observed that, the critical value of RR for minimum heat loss is dependent upon receiver pipe diameter (DPo). The critical values of RR for pipe diameter (DPo) 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm are 1.5, 1.4, 1.375, 1.35, 1.3 and 1.25 respectively. The value of critical RR is lower for higher values of pipe diameter. The value of critical RR for a particular diameter of receiver is independent of receiver temperature and external wind velocity. Comparison of heat losses in non-uniform and uniform temperature cases

  15. Results of psychosomatic screening of people having suffered from the Chernobyl accident and evacuated from the alienation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A psychosomatic screening of 105 persons evacuated from the alienation area was fulfilled. The received data were compared with those of migrants from areas from which people were evacuated later. Sociometric, psychometric, adaptive characteristics evidence of close relations between conditions of living and worsening of psychosomatic health. The tendency to a higher frequency of psychoorganic syndrome in that group was revealed

  16. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  17. Welding Tubes In Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, R.

    1984-01-01

    Special welding equipment joins metal tubes that carry pressurized cyrogenic fluids. Equipment small enough to be used in confined spaces in which such tubes often mounted. Welded joints lighter in weight and more leak-proof than joints made with mechanical fittings.

  18. Usability and Visual Communication for Southern California Tsunami Evacuation Information: The importance of information design in disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, C.; Schandler, S.; Wells, M.; Danielsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation behavior, including participation and response, is rarely an individual and isolated process and the outcomes are usually systemic. Ineffective evacuation information can easily attribute to delayed evacuation response. Delays increase demands on already extended emergency personal, increase the likelihood of traffic congestion, and can cause harm to self and property. From an information design perspective, addressing issues in cognitive recall and emergency psychology, this case study examines evacuation messaging including written, audio, and visual presentation of information, and describes the application of design principles and role of visual communication for Southern California tsunami evacuation outreach. The niche of this project is the inclusion of cognitive processing as the driving influence when making formal design decisions and measurable data from a 4-year cognitive recall study to support the solution. Image included shows a tsunami evacaution map before and after the redesign.

  19. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC...

  20. Exitus: An Agent-Based Evacuation Simulation Model for Heterogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation planning for private-sector organizations is an important consideration given the continuing occurrence of both natural and human-caused disasters that inordinately affect them. Unfortunately, the traditional management approach that is focused on fire drills presents several practical challenges at the scale required for many…

  1. Development of Simulation System for the Disaster Evacuation Based on Multi-Agent Model Using GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keisuke Uno; Kazuo Kashitama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation system for the disaster evacuation based on multi-agent model considering geographical information. This system consists of three parts, the modeling for the land and buildings using GIS data, the analysis of disaster evacuation using multi-agent model, and the visualization for the numerical results using the virtual reality technique. By introducing the numerical solver of the natural disaster to the present system, it is possible to evaluate not only the damage of structure but also the dam- age of human being. Furthermore, it is possible to investigate the appropriate evacuation route by the simu- lation. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to obtain shortest route to the refuge. In addition, the visualization us- ing virtual reality technique is curried out to understand the feeling of refugee. The present system is applied to the evacuation analysis by the flood flow in urban area and is shown to be a useful tool to investigate the damage by natural disasters.

  2. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carried out contraflow operations several times in past hurricane evacuations. The timing for the deployment of equipment and personnel and the initiation and termination of actual contraflow affects the effectiveness, safety, and cost of the operation. Researchers from the University of Alabama were tasked with the design of a decision support system for contraflow evacuation planning. The conceived decision support system consists of three main modules: the demand module, the network optimization module, and the incident and characterization module. This paper focuses on the design of the traffic incident generation and characterization module of the planned decision support system.

  3. Evacuation infrastructure for new generating station: Options available in Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing a deficit of 9% in power generation, India needs to harness all forms of generation including renewable energy (RE) which presently contributes less than 8% to total generation capacity. To increase the same, concerns of RE developers are being addressed by the government and regulatory bodies. One such concern is availability of transmission grid for evacuation of power. Transmission lines required for power evacuation from RE generators are typically not included in their network plan by the transmission utility. Considering the financial health and underperformance of these utilities, even if the required transmission lines are included in the network plan, RE developers are uncertain and unsure of the timely execution of the plan. Ministry of Power has earlier notified guidelines [. Resolution on tariff based competitive-bidding guidelines for transmission service; . Resolution on guidelines for encouraging competition in development of transmission projects] for enabling private sector participation in transmission to enable the private developers to build the required evacuation infrastructure. This paper evaluates the options available as per the legislative and regulatory framework in India through which the evacuation infrastructure for the RE projects can be built by the transmission utility or the potential investors. The key concept of 'dedicated transmission line', which has been a keenly debated and often a misunderstood issue, is also discussed in great detail

  4. State of the art in evacuation time estimate studies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a major accident at a commercial nuclear power station, exposure of the public to airborne radioactive materials can be prevented or greatly reduced by evacuating the area immediately surrounding the reactor site. Reactor licensees are required to conduct studies to estimate the time needed to evacuate the public from the area surrounding each nuclear power station. The results of such studies are used by regulatory personnel and emergency planners to assess the potential effectiveness of protective responses for the public. The time required to evacuate the public from a 10-mile emergency planning radius is estimated by analyzing the available transportation facilities and other relevant conditions within this radius. To support the analysis, data must be collected and assumptions must be made regarding the transportation facilities, the size and characteristics of the population and other conditions in the planning zone. This report describes standard approaches and provides recommendations regarding the relevant information, assumptions and methods to be used in performing evacuation time estimate studies

  5. Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We compared four different methods for estimating predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, based on gastric evacuation rates, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics model. The bioenergetics model was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation rate models produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics model predicted food consumption rates intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation models. Using the standard ICES model and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation rate models produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics model estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between models were due to consumption rate estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  6. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  7. Disaster Evacuation from Japan's 2011 Tsunami Disaster and the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The triple disaster that hit the Tohoku region of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggered a massive human displacement: more than 400,000 people evacuated their homes as a gigantic tsunami induced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake engulfed the coastal areas, and the following nuclear accident in Fukushima released a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. This study analyses the disaster response, with a particular focus on evacuation of the population, and social consequences of this complex crisis, based on intensive fieldwork carried out one year after the catastrophe. It reveals that the responses of the Japanese authorities and population were significantly different between a natural disaster and an industrial (man-made) accident. Being prone to both earthquakes and tsunamis, Japan had been preparing itself against such risks for many years. A tsunami alert was immediately issued and the population knew how and where to evacuate. In contrast, the evacuation from the nuclear accident was organised in total chaos, as a severe accident or large-scale evacuation had never been envisaged -let alone exercised- before the disaster. The population was thus forced to flee with no information as to the gravity of the accident or radiation risk. In both cases, the risk perception prior to the catastrophe played a key role in determining the vulnerability of the population at the time of the crisis. While tsunami evacuees are struggling with a slow reconstruction process due to financial difficulties, nuclear evacuees are suffering from uncertainty as to their prospect of return. One year after the accident, the Japanese authorities began to encourage nuclear evacuees to return to the areas contaminated by radiation according to a newly established safety standard. This triggered a vivid controversy within the affected communities, creating a rift between those who trust the government's notion of safety and those who do not. The nuclear disaster has thus

  8. A scenario-based modeling approach for emergency evacuation management and risk analysis under multiple uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming method is developed. ► It is useful for nuclear emergency management practices under uncertainties. ► It can schedule optimal routes with maximizing evacuees during a finite time. ► Scenario-based analysis enhances robustness in controlling system risk. ► The method will help to improve the capability of disaster responses. -- Abstract: Nuclear emergency evacuation is important to prevent radioactive harms by hazardous materials and to limit the accidents’ consequences; however, uncertainties are involved in the components and processes of such a management system. In the study, an interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming (IJIP) method is developed for emergency evacuation management under uncertainties. Optimization techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and joint-probabilistic constrained (JPC) programming are incorporated into an integer linear programming framework, so that the approach can deal with uncertainties expressed as joint probability and interval values. The IJIP method can schedule the optimal routes to guarantee the maximum population evacuated away from the effected zone during a finite time. Furthermore, it can also facilitate post optimization analysis to enhance robustness in controlling system violation risk imposed on the joint-probabilistic constraints. The developed method has been applied to a case study of nuclear emergency management; meanwhile, a number of scenarios under different system conditions have been analyzed. It is indicated that the solutions are useful for evacuation management practices. The result of the IJIP method can not only help to raise the capability of disaster responses in a systematic manner, but also provide an insight into complex relationships among evacuation planning, resources utilizations, policy requirements and system risks

  9. Functional Requirements of Personal Evacuation Supporting System in the Preparation for the Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national radiological emergency response scheme is composed of the several committees and management and advisory centers in central government and/or local government according to their responsibilities and functions. JPIC(Joint Public Information Center) has the charge of providing accurate and unified information about radiological disaster. The role of JPIC is very crucial since public announcement and communication affects the result of evacuation/sheltering and public protection directly. Therefore, Not only the alarm or notification for emergency, more active supporting measures for residents are required in order to protect them from radiological emergency safely in case of emergency and to enhance the public acceptance during an emergency exercise. Utilizing the recent It technology based on the personal data communication device which is well equipped by wireless internet and GPS modules, for example smart phone, the personalized and computerized supporting system for residents evacuation can provide the exact information about emergency and evacuation on an individual basis in real time. In this study, for the development of the support system which can be utilized in the radiological emergency, the review and investigation on the functional requirements and anticipated effects of the system are conducted. The computerized supporting system for residents evacuation will contribute to ensure a safe and efficient evacuation in case of radiological emergency. Utilizing the distribution of radioactivity concentration and geological location of individual, personalized supports can be possible. In addition to that, it will enhance the effectiveness and reliability of the national exercise of radiological emergency preparedness. It will contribute to minimize the radiation risk of the public and reduce the concern of residents for nuclear accident, ultimately enhance nuclear safety and the public acceptance

  10. Evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhages by neuroendoscopy with transparent sheath. Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Otero-Rodriguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH has been developed in order to reduce the tissue injury that conventional craniotomy could generate. Experimental studies are important to assess the effectiveness of the technique and its modifications. The objectives of this study are to develop in pig an experimental model of endoscopic evacuation of ICHs, to assess effectiveness of surgical evacuation, and to evaluate a new transparent sheath as complement to the endoscopy. Methods: Autologous blood was infused into the frontal lobe white matter in 16 pigs. In the problem group, endoscopic evacuation was performed with the aid of a new transparent sheath, which has outer and inner sheaths with blunt and closed finals. Pigs were sacrificed at 4 h, 24 h and 5 days. The volumes of hematoma and histopathological features were determined. Results: Residual volume of the problem group was significantly 70.09% lower than in control group, without significant differences in injected volumes, in percentage of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in time interval from hematoma induction to pig´s death. The vital reaction after hemorrhage was similar in both groups. Conclusions: The experimental model developed is useful to assess endoscopic evacuation of ICHs. The endoscopy is an effective technique in the treatment of ICHs, without increasing the vital reaction secondary to hematoma. The new transparent sheath increases the visualization of surgical field and allows a continuous visual control since the beginning of the procedure. Its closed final prevents unwanted injury of the brain by the instruments used to remove the hematoma.

  11. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  12. A gastric evacuation model for three predatory gadoids and implications of using pooled field data of stomach contents to estimate food rations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2001-01-01

    evacuation rate was related by a negative power function to energy density of fish prey,) er an extended range from 3(.)4 to 11(.)5 kJ g (1) of the effector variable. Gastric evacuation of crustacean prey seemed to depend on the characteristics of their exoskeleton, Gastric evacuation of mixed meal, composed...

  13. Development of non-destructive vacuum testing system using high frequency spark generator for sterile evacuated vials verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile evacuated vial (SEV) used for elution of 99mTc from the 99mTc/99Mo generator for radiopharmaceuticals preparation have direct impact on the capability and product sterility. Conventional visual inspection by puncture tests may detect level of vacuum within SEV, but this technique is rather a destructive procedure. A non-destructive vacuum testing is thus considered highly desirable. A new system for checking the vacuum of SEV has been developed to provide rapid, reliable and non-destructive procedure. Vacuum verification were made in a set of thirty 10 ml clear glass tubing SEV with pre-control 20% failure pattern. The SEV was placed in the multipoint test compartment, according to pre-defined pattern and a high frequency, low voltage is applied to the electrical discharge distribution plate to ionized residual gas within the SEV. The glow discharge within the SEV ware transmitted via light guide module (LGM) and recorded as high resolution color images. The images are then subjected to image processing and analysis using HSL color space algorithm. The testing was repeated using 3 different test patterns. The results of this experiment show that the system was adhere to the pre-defined patterns. These types of testing for verification would not be possible with a destructive testing method. The system, provide a virtually instant verification of the presence of vacuum, selecting against simple pass/fail criteria or reporting quantitative testing of vacuum level. The ability of nondestructively vacuum testing over a short period of time in substantial quantity in a single container can reduce the cost and time for testing while providing for more meaningful data for decision making. (Author)

  14. The application of Firefly algorithm in an Adaptive Emergency Evacuation Centre Management (AEECM) for dynamic relocation of flood victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Hashim, Nor Laily; Yusof, Yuhanis; Hussain, Azham

    2016-08-01

    Flood evacuation centre is defined as a temporary location or area of people from disaster particularly flood as a rescue or precautionary measure. Gazetted evacuation centres are normally located at secure places which have small chances from being drowned by flood. However, due to extreme flood several evacuation centres in Kelantan were unexpectedly drowned. Currently, there is no study done on proposing a decision support aid to reallocate victims and resources of the evacuation centre when the situation getting worsens. Therefore, this study proposes a decision aid model to be utilized in realizing an adaptive emergency evacuation centre management system. This study undergoes two main phases; development of algorithm and models, and development of a web-based and mobile app. The proposed model operates using Firefly multi-objective optimization algorithm that creates an optimal schedule for the relocation of victims and resources for an evacuation centre. The proposed decision aid model and the adaptive system can be applied in supporting the National Security Council's respond mechanisms for handling disaster management level II (State level) especially in providing better management of the flood evacuating centres.

  15. Magnetic flux tube tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of orthogonal magnetic flux tubes. The simulations were carried out using a parallelized spectral algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the flux tubes can open-quotes tunnelclose quotes through each other, a behavior not previously seen in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic flux tube interactions. Two conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch >1, and the Lundquist number must be somewhat large, ≥2880. An examination of magnetic field lines suggests that tunneling is due to a double-reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections, and open-quotes passclose quotes through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  17. Neural Tube Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechani...

  18. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  19. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  20. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  1. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  2. CST receiver tube qualification, Phase 1, Investigation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, I.; Rossy, J.-P.

    2010-05-15

    In this report the different application possibilities for concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems are studied. Further, the possible measuring methods for characterising and qualifying the receivers with their embedded absorber tubes are investigated. The investigations show that CST systems can be used as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels in many applications. The best known one is the generation of electrical power, but concentrated solar energy can also be used for desalination, industrial process heat, and for cooling of buildings. Industrial process heat is a large potential area with temperature in the range of 120 {sup o}C to over 400 {sup o}C. Heat below 400 {sup o}C can be provided by various parabolic trough and Fresnel systems, which are optimised for the temperature required. In order to further increase the usage of CST systems, it is of great importance to provide standards for the qualification and characterisation of the different components of the CST systems. Huge efforts are currently made to define a standard for evacuated receiver tubes. For the characterisation of the black absorber tubes the development is still at the beginning, although the need here is also given. (authors)

  3. Evacuation Routes, Evacuation Routes from Maryland Transit Admnistration's Maintenace Facilities (Bus, Light Rail, Metro & MARC), Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Evacuation Routes dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as...

  4. Treatment of Pediatric Diseases by the Method of Evacuating the Bowels to Remove the Internal Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Evacuating the bowels to remove internal heat is one of the major therapeutic principles in treating pediatric diseases. Since the children are incapable of controlling in take of milk or food, the accumulated foodstuffs in the body will impede the spleen and stomach in digestion and transportation. In addition, children are easy to be attacked by exopathogens, because their organs are tender and do not fully develop. Once an exopathogen gets into the interior, it will transform into heat. However, simple measures of eliminating the heat often fail in the treatment of some critical and emergent pediatric cases. We have treated such cases by the method of evacuating bowels to remove the internal heat with miracle effects and would like to share our experience with our colleagues. The following are some examples.

  5. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  6. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  7. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  8. Diode laser 87Rb optical pumping in an evacuated wall-coated cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The evacuated wall coated sealed cell coupled with diode laser optical pumping offers a number of attractive potential advantages for use in Rb or Cs atomic frequency standards. An investigation of systematic effects is required to explore possible limitations of the technique. The use of diode laser optical pumping of 87 Rb in an evacuated wall coated sealed cell is presented. Experimental results/discussion to be presented include the signal strength and line broadening of the 0 - 0 hyperfine resonance as a function of light intensity for the D1 optical transitions (F - F prime) - (2 1 prime) and (2 - 2 prime), shift of the 0 - 0 hyperfine frequency as a function of laser intensity and de-tuning from optical resonance, and diode laser frequency stabilization techniques.

  9. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: Techniques, indications, results and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, University Hospital and Outpatient Center, 550 N. University Blvd. UH 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu; Bartram, Clive [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Consulting Radiology, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, Harrow HA1 3UJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  10. The Reality Check: Evacuation Planning done by Mixed Reality and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Keus, D.; Veldhoven, E.R. van; Heemskerck Pillis, F. van; Brink, T. van den; van Laar, J

    2011-01-01

    Severe natural or man-made disasters that occur in urban areas often require evacuation measures to protect or rescue the population. In crisis situations, different kinds of knowledge are necessary to get insight in the consequences of the proposed set of measures. In addition, there are typically many different parties involved in the decision making process. These decision makers can be supported by simulation models that assist in assessing and predicting the emergency situation and assis...

  11. SEMA4A : a knowledge base for accessible evacuation and alert notifications in emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Onorati, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    When an emergency occurs or is going to occur, the aim of organizations and agencies involved in the response phase is to restore quickly a safe situation and reduce the number of victims and damages. The notification of information about the kind of emergency, its characteristics, the location of safe places and available procedures for reaching them has a crucial role in order to facilitate the evacuation of citizens. Several organizations and agencies have been promoting ...

  12. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Nikolai W.F.; Jordan Miller; Rick O’Gorman; Edward A. Codling

    2015-01-01

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whet...

  13. Anal gas evacuation and colonic microbiota in patients with flatulence: effect of diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Roca, Joaquim; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterise the influence of diet on abdominal symptoms, anal gas evacuation, intestinal gas distribution and colonic microbiota in patients complaining of flatulence. Design Patients complaining of flatulence (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=20) were instructed to follow their usual diet for 3 days (basal phase) and to consume a high-flatulogenic diet for another 3 days (challenge phase). Results: During basal phase, patients recorded more abdominal symptoms than healthy subject...

  14. Comparison between transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhui Wang; Hong Liang; Minhui Xu; Guangjian Shen; Lunshan Xu

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia is a potentially life-threatening cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Surgical evacuation is an important treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage. However, little is reported about the comparison on the efficacy of various approaches on the prognosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage which surgically treated via transsylvian-transinsular approach or transcortical-transtemporal approach were co...

  15. Developing a Decision Analytic Framework Based on Influence Diagrams in Relation to Mass Evacuations

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorecki, A; McNaught, K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role which decision analysis can play in a situation requiring a mass evacuation. In particular, we focus on the influence diagram as a tool for reasoning and supporting decision-makers under conditions of risk and uncertainty. This powerful modelling tool can help to bridge multiple specialist domains and provide a common framework for supporting decision-makers in different agencies. An influence diagram is also referred to as a decision netwo...

  16. Identification of Evacuation Routes in Tacloban City using Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is the second most at risk to natural hazards according to the 2014 World Risk Report. On 8 November 2013, category 5 Typhoon Haiyan crossed the central region of the Philippines with maximum sustained wind reaching 315 kph. Considered as one of the strongest typhoons that made landfall in recorded history, Typhoon Haiyan caused USD 8 billion damage to properties, 6,293 deaths, 28,689 injured and 1,061 missing persons. Tacloban City, located in the north-eastern part of the island of Leyte in Eastern Visayas region, is one of the area most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. The city is susceptible to other natural hazards given its geography, topography and geology. This condition emphasizes the need for preventive measures to avoid further loss of lives and destruction to properties. Evacuation is a mitigating strategy which involves the process of moving people from dangerous places to safer locations. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), a multi-hazard map of Tacloban City was created to determine safe areas for evacuation centers. The optimal route for evacuation was identified using ArcGIS Network Analyst's routing solver based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The medium of transportation used in the analysis is by foot with an average speed of 5.0 kph. Furthermore, the study assumes that all roads are passable and fully functional during the travel period and that there are no structures, trees and other debris that may act as road blockage. The study can be used as a reference in hazard assessment for disaster risk management and evacuation planning. This can be further improved by incorporating behaviour of the affected population and other socio-economic factors, different modes of transportation and detailed analysis of topography.

  17. Pollinators and Other Flying Insects inside and outside the Fukushima Evacuation Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshioka

    Full Text Available Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants in 2011, a large evacuation zone was imposed in an area where residents had historically managed forests and farmlands. Thus, the human activities that had maintained biodiversity and ecosystem services in the zone were discontinued. Such change can affect insects, a biodiversity component that is relatively tolerant to radiation exposure. In this study, we investigated flying insects, including pollinators, important ecosystem providers inside and outside the zone, using Malaise traps. The results showed that the number of individuals of Xylocopa appendiculata, the largest Apidae species in the region, was significantly lower inside the evacuation zone than outside it, whereas those of other insects were not lower significantly. Although we suggest that flying insects and their ecosystem services (i.e., benefits from them such as pollination 3 years after the disaster were not critically impacted, it is important to monitor the long-term effects of the evacuation in the future.

  18. Effects of individual attitudes and motion decisions in room evacuation models

    CERN Document Server

    Dossetti, Víctor; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This lead us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the {\\em faster-is-slower} effect. The proposed model enables for the introduction of Game Theory elements to solve conflicts between pedestrians which try to occupy the same space. Moreover, it allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts. In the...

  19. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  20. Emergency Evacuation Simulation for Radiological Emergency; A Case Study of Gijang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyu M.; Na, Kyoungseok; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ahn, Seokyoung; Park, Seonghee [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The recent nuclear reactor accident at Fukushima caused the residents at Gijang to be concerned about the safety of their local nuclear plants. The nuclear reactor-related accidents is very rare but may cause the serious consequences and last for significant period. Especially, Gijang is located next to Busan, at which most population is concentrated. Hence, the effective and efficient emergency evacuation plan cannot be overemphasized in addition to well-designed nuclear disaster prevention measures. The central government has studied the safety issues of nuclear plants and developed the prevention systems. However, the local government also needs their emergency evacuation plan for its residents, considering its geographical and local factors such as various modes of transportations, transportation and shelters systems. The disasters related to nuclear power plants is rare but their influence is considerable. Therefore, while maintaining the safe facilities, the disaster preparedness cannot be overemphasized. An agent-based emergency evacuation simulation tool has been developed and tested for Gijang area.

  1. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  2. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  3. Evacuation zone changes in Belarussian wildlife populations following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine years of wildlife monitoring in the 30-km Chernobyl evacuation zone documented effects on faunal biodiversity at various levels of ecosystem integration, helping to focus future investigations needed to distinguish radioecological impacts from those caused by reduced human activity within this zone. Following the direct, aucte radiation effects on the fauna, some long-term stabilization appears in the radionuclide content of animal tissues. The recovery of faunal populations seems to depend more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impacts. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of human activity has most benefited the commercially hunted bird and mammal populations. Wild boar, elk, and roe deer populations also have increased to new levels of post-accident equilibrium whereas the recovery of other animal populations is less pronounced. While the number of some rare wildlife species increased in the affected communities, many of those wildlife populations normally associated with human activity have disappeared. In abandoned settlements, the succession of plant communities dominated by trees and shrubs now promotes recolonization by those wildlife communities that are more typical of woodland habitats undisturbed by human activity. These dynamic processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes

  4. Emergency Evacuation Simulation for Radiological Emergency; A Case Study of Gijang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent nuclear reactor accident at Fukushima caused the residents at Gijang to be concerned about the safety of their local nuclear plants. The nuclear reactor-related accidents is very rare but may cause the serious consequences and last for significant period. Especially, Gijang is located next to Busan, at which most population is concentrated. Hence, the effective and efficient emergency evacuation plan cannot be overemphasized in addition to well-designed nuclear disaster prevention measures. The central government has studied the safety issues of nuclear plants and developed the prevention systems. However, the local government also needs their emergency evacuation plan for its residents, considering its geographical and local factors such as various modes of transportations, transportation and shelters systems. The disasters related to nuclear power plants is rare but their influence is considerable. Therefore, while maintaining the safe facilities, the disaster preparedness cannot be overemphasized. An agent-based emergency evacuation simulation tool has been developed and tested for Gijang area

  5. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences on travel mode choice, respectively. According to the data collected from the stated preference (SP survey on evacuee mode choice, the estimation results show that the regret-based model performs better than the utility model. Moreover, based on the estimates from behavioral analysis, the elasticities of evacuee mode choices are calculated, and transit strategy simulation is undertaken to investigate the influence on evacuee mode switching from private automobile to public transit. The results are expected to help emergency administrators to make a transit-oriented strategy for a sustainable evacuation plan, especially for the benefit of carless people.

  6. Regional analysis of social characteristics for evacuation resource planning: ARkStorm scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Allan Baez; Sleeter, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Local planning is insufficient for regional catastrophes; regional exercises are needed to test emergency plans and decision-making structures. The ARkStorm scenario would trigger a mass evacuation that would be complicated by the social characteristics of populations [e.g., vehicle ownership, age, poverty, English language limitation (ELL), and shelter needs]. Land cover data and dasymetric mapping improves the allocation of residential populations and their social characteristics to the ARkStorm flood zone in 21 counties in California. Numbers and concentrations of county, urban, and rural residents exposed to flooding as well as populations in and out of the scenario flood zone are profiled. The results inform mass evacuation planning by providing a means to (1) examine the sufficiency of mutual aid agreements, (2) underscore planning for carless populations, and (3) tailor multilingual communication strategies. The various geographical distinctions emphasize different challenges throughout the region. It will be important to investigate behavioral responses to warnings, identify evacuation constraints (e.g., shelter capacity versus need), and obtain comparable data on transient populations.

  7. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  8. Symmetry in behavior of complex social systems - discussion of models of crowd evacuation organized in agreement with symmetry conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, W

    2011-01-01

    The evacuation of football stadium scenarios are discussed as model realizing ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given group is. The speeds of individuals at every point in the presented model have the same quantity. As the results the times of evacuation and average forces acting on individuals during the evacuation are given. Both parameters are compared with the same parameters got without symmetry considerations. They are calculated in the simulation procedure. The new program (using modified Helbing model) has been elaborated and presented in this work for realization the simulation tasks the.

  9. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  10. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  11. A fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible vee-through reflectors and evaluated tube receivers for solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The Vee-Trough/Evacuated Tube Collector (VTETC) was analyzed rigorously and various mathematical models were developed to calculate the optical performance of the vee-trough concentrators, and the quasi-steady state thermal performance of the evacuated tube receivers. Tests were run to verify the mathematical analyses. Back-silvered glass mirror, Alzak, Aluminized Teflon, and Kinglux (electropolished aluminum reflectors) were tested. Additional tests were run at temperatures ranging from 80 to 190 C (176-374 F). For the glass mirror reflectors, peak efficiencies, based on aperture area and operating temperatures of 125 C (257 F), were over 40%. Efficiencies of about 40% were observed at temperatures of 150 C (302 F) and 30% at 175 C (347 F). Test data for several days, predicted daily useful heats, and efficiency values are presented for a full year. These theoretical values were then compared with actual data points for the same temperature range.

  12. Kajian Efektifitas Sistem Struktur Tube Dengan Sistem Struktur Tube In Tube Di Bawah Beban Gempa

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Dian Frisca

    2010-01-01

    Berkembangnya teknologi telah melahirkan berbagai sistem struktur bangunan tahan gempa, seperti penggunaan sistem tube.Tube adalah merupakan frame penahan gaya yang menahan gaya gaya lateral dengan struktur kantilever kotak yang memiliki jarak kolom yang berdekatan yang dipasang pada sekeliling gedung, sehingga penampilan wajah depan gedung seperti lubang jendela jendela yang terbuka. Rancangan tube ini kemudian dimodifikasi lagi dengan menambah pengaku pada bagian dalam ( konsep tube in tube...

  13. 候车厅内人员疏散模型的研究%On the Evacuation Model in Waiting Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锡铅

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,using cellular automata model waiting chamber evacuation simulation of the evacuation.There are a number of factors affect the evacuation time,the recount gate count not only affect the evacuation time,but also on the economic costs in the evacuation.The study found that there is an evacuation time and economic costs both to recount the number of gates.%本文用元胞自动机模型研究候车厅内人员的疏散,模拟仿真了疏散过程。人员疏散中有多个因素影响疏散时间,验票门数不仅影响疏散时间,而且也影响到经济成本。研究发现,存在着一个疏散时间与经济成本相兼顾的验票门数。

  14. Neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have bee...

  15. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  16. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  17. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  18. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  19. Laser welding of a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For sleeving PWR steam generator tubes, the welding laser work is made under protection of a primary gas going out by the crossing window of the laser and under a secondary gas flowing axially through the head and the tube

  20. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  1. Ultrasonic nondestructive tubing inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for measuring the extent of tube wall erosion in an inspection region of a heat exchanger tube of a nuclear steam generator, uses an ultrasonic means driven helically inside the eroded tube which may be filled with a fluid (e.g., water) to minimize ultrasonic wave attenuation. A control means cooperates with the ultrasonic means to produce a map of the tube wall thickness in an inspection region

  2. Sleeve puller salvages welded tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Tool removes sleeve remnants without distorting or damaging tubes, unlike pliers and other conventional handtools. Tubes can be reused, saving time, labor, and material in many applications. Sleeve-removal fixture consists of pressure screw, swing arm, locking screws, and base. It removes sleeve remnant from tubing after welded joint has been sawed through.

  3. Evaluating the physical demands when using sled-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Mehta, Jay P; Hedman, Glenn E; Park, Sanghyun; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M

    2015-09-01

    The physical demands on evacuators were investigated when using different types of sled-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings. Twelve firefighters used six sled-type stair descent devices during simulated evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, and descent velocities. All stair descent speeds were below those reported during pedestrian egress trials. With the exception of the inflatable device, the devices operated by two evacuators had higher descent speeds than those operated by a single evacuator. High friction materials under the sleds facilitated control and reduced the muscle demands on stairs but increased physical demands on the landings. Usability assessments found devices with shorter overall lengths had fewer wall contacts on the landing, and handles integrated in the straps were preferred by the evacuators. PMID:25959322

  4. Time matters: post-surgical recovery of gastric evacuation rate in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Gräns, Albin; Andersen, Niels Gerner;

    fish, which may affect the animal, and studies dealing with the affect of surgery and implants are still scarce. A variable known to be sensitive to postsurgical and other stressors is the gastric evacuation rate (GER). GER is tightly linked to gut blood flow and in the present study we analysed how...... procedure was repeated for both groups of fish after one additional week of recovery. After two days GER was significantly lower in the group of fish with surgical implants compared to the control group, but the difference was not maintained after one additional week of recovery. We conclude that 10 days of...

  5. A Simple, Safe Technique for Thorough Seroma Evacuation in the Outpatient Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Park, MD, FACS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Seroma formation, a common postoperative complication in reconstructive cases, can lead to capsular contracture and increased office visits and expenses. The authors present a safe, novel technique for ensuring the thorough removal of serous fluid in the outpatient setting. By relying on access with an angiocatheter, potential injury to permanent implants is minimized. The use of low continuous wall suction obviates the need of manual suction via multiple syringes and offers a rapid and thorough evacuation of all types of seromas.

  6. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, S.; Berube, A; Deakin, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has laid bare many of the disparities that continue to separate Americans by race and class. One disparity that was immediately apparent in Katrina’s aftermath concerned the size and composition of the area’s population lacking access to an automobile. These households, largely dependent on the limited emergency public transportation available to evacuate the city in advance of the storm, were those most likely to be left behind. In New Orleans...

  8. CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中的应用%Clinical application of CAD/CAM all glass-ceramic inlay/onlays in the restoration of the posterior teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜利英; 王春清; 王有明

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical use of CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays in the restoration of the posterior teeth. Method:Thirty patients with thirty teeth of residual crown were selected and restored with CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays after completely root canal therapy. Result:With 3 to 13 months following study,the retention, marginal adaptation and periodontal tissue of the dental prosthetic restoration of 30 teeth were satisfactory. Conclusion:The CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays in the restoration for the posterior teeth can provide better effect of retention and esthetics.%目的:研究计算机辅助设计和计算机辅助制作( CAD∕CAM)玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中的应用。方法:30例患者后牙经完善根管治疗后,使用CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体修复。结果:随访3~13个月,30例嵌体∕高嵌体修复体的固位、边缘密合度、牙周状况均良好。结论:CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中能够提供较好的固位及美学效果。

  9. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  10. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  11. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  12. Compact monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing a disk-cathode molybdenum tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbo molecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean molybdenum Kα lines are produced using a 20 μm-thick zirconium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current were 120 kV and 1.0 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 70 ns, and the generator produced instantaneous number of Kα photons was approximately 3x107 photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.5 m from the source of 3.0 mm in diameter

  13. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average fr value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  14. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  15. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  16. An example of extreme cardiology: chest pain on the high seas and helicoptered medical evacuations: the French Navy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinsonneau, Ulric; Cavel, Christiane; Bombert, Christophe; Lely, Laurent; Paleiron, Nicolas; Vergez-Larrouget, Claude; Cornily, Jean-Christophe; Castellant, Philippe; Gilard, Martine; Paule, Paule; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel

    2012-10-01

    Medicalized high sea rescue is very different from prehospital medical evacuation. It requires specifically trained medical teams because the difficulties are marine, aerial, and medically related. The French Navy provides medical evacuations by helicopter on the Atlantic coast, up to 320 km offshore and under all weather conditions. The epidemiology of acute chest pain in the high seas has been poorly described. Therefore, in this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and constraints found in the management of these emergencies. From January 1, 2000, to April 30, 2009, 286 medical evacuations by helicopter were performed, 132 of which were due to traumatological emergencies, and 154 to medical emergencies. Acute chest pain, with 36 missions, was the leading cause of medical evacuation. All evacuated patients were men who were either professional sailors or ferry passengers. The median age was 48 years (range, 26-79). The most common prehospital diagnosis was coronary chest pain in 23 patients (64%), including 11 patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation. Thirty-two patients were airlifted by helicopter. All patients benefited from monitoring, electrocardiogram, peripheral venous catheter, and medical management as soon as the technical conditions allowed it. PMID:22205005

  17. A fuzzy-theory-based behavioral model for studying pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2016-08-01

    Many mass events in recent years have highlighted the importance of research on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. A number of models have been developed to analyze crowd behavior under evacuation situations. However, few focus on pedestrians' decision-making with respect to uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. In this paper, a discrete evacuation model defined on the cellular space is proposed according to the fuzzy theory which is able to describe imprecise and subjective information. Pedestrians' percept information and various characteristics are regarded as fuzzy input. Then fuzzy inference systems with rule bases, which resemble human reasoning, are established to obtain fuzzy output that decides pedestrians' movement direction. This model is tested in two scenarios, namely in a single-exit room with and without obstacles. Simulation results reproduce some classic dynamics phenomena discovered in real building evacuation situations, and are consistent with those in other models and experiments. It is hoped that this study will enrich movement rules and approaches in traditional cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics.

  18. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  19. Spectrometer beam tube dimensional optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project examined the optimization of the design of a beam tube. An ANSYS model was used to find the minimum tube thickness and the best camber in a beam tube under vacuum and preloaded by a pair of magnet poles. After the tube was modeled one version of it was built for use in the accelerator. This beam tube was put under a vacuum and the dimensional changes were recorded and compared to the ANSYS predictions. These deflection results were quite close to the predicted numbers and would suggest that the stresses are similar to the predictions as well

  20. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  1. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H- ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  2. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  3. Mass medical evacuation: Hurricane Katrina and nursing experiences at the New Orleans airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelly R; Nagel, Nanci E

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, a category 4 storm, struck the U.S. Gulf states in late August, 2005, resulting in the most costly and second most deadly natural disaster in recent United States history. The storm and subsequent flooding due to levee failure necessitated the evacuation of 80% of the city of New Orleans' 484,674 residents. Most of the city's hospitals and other health care resources were destroyed or inoperable. The hurricane devastated many communities, stranding people in hospitals, shelters, homes, and nursing homes. Nurses and other health care providers deployed to New Orleans to provide medical assistance experienced substantial challenges in making triage and treatment decisions for patients whose numbers far exceeded supplies and personnel. This article describes the experiences and solutions of nurses and other personnel from 3 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams assigned to the New Orleans airport responsible for perhaps the most massive patient assessment, stabilization, and evacuation operation in U.S. history. As the frequency of disasters continues to rise, it is imperative that the nursing profession realize its value in the disaster arena and continually take leadership roles. PMID:17517364

  4. Influence of Heat Input, Working Fluid and Evacuation Level on the Performance of Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rama Narasimha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on pulsating heat pipe (PHP is presented in this work. A closed loop PHP with a single U turn is fabricated and tested. The transient and steady state experiments are conducted and operating temperatures are measured. The experiments are carried out for different working fluids, heat input and for different evacuation levels. The derived parameters include thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient of PHP. The results of these experiments show an intermittent motion of the working fluid at lower heat input. The temperature difference between evaporator and condenser at steady state is found lower for acetone compared to water, ethanol and methanol. Lower value of thermal resistance and higher value of heat transfer coefficient are observed in case of acetone compared to water, ethanol and methanol. Lower values of temperature difference between evaporator and condenser and thermal resistance and higher value of heat transfer coefficient are observed at atmospheric conditions of operation of PHP compared to evacuation conditions. The Power Spectral Density Analysis is also carried out on the results of these experiments using FFT technique to analyse the pulsating motion of the fluid in a PHP. In the Power Spectral Density analysis, the frequency distribution of temperature variation in PHP was observed over a wider range, signifying the periodic motion in the fluid flow of the liquid slug and vapour plug. This characteristic frequency corresponded to the characteristic time for a couple of adjacent vapour plug and liquid slug passing through a specific local wall surface in a PHP.

  5. Crowd Evacuation for Indoor Public Spaces Using Coulomb’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Kamkarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on designing a tool for guiding a group of people out of a public building when they are faced with dangerous situations that require immediate evacuation. Despite architectural attempts to produce safe floor plans and exit door placements, people will still commit to fatal route decisions. Since they have access to global views, we believe supervisory people in the control room can use our simulation tools to determine the best courses of action for people. Accordingly, supervisors can guide people to safety. In this paper, we combine Coulomb’s electrical law, graph theory, and convex and centroid concepts to demonstrate a computer-generated evacuation scenario that divides the environment into different safe boundaries around the locations of each exit door in order to guide people through exit doors safely and in the most expedient time frame. Our mechanism continually updates the safe boundaries at each moment based on the latest location of individuals who are present inside the environment. Guiding people toward exit doors depends on the momentary situations in the environment, which in turn rely on the specifications of each exit door. Our mechanism rapidly adapts to changes in the environment in terms of moving agents and changes in the environmental layout that might be caused by explosions or falling walls.

  6. Evacuation and Risk of Hypertension After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that evacuation may have increased the risk of hypertension among residents in Fukushima. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 31 252 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from 2011 through 2013. A total of 21 989 participants (follow-up proportion, 70.4%) received follow-up examinations. Mean blood pressure significantly increased in both evacuees and nonevacuees after the disaster, with greater changes in blood pressure among the former. The changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the evacuees and nonevacuees were +5.8/3.4 versus +4.6/2.1 mm Hg (PEarthquake. Evacuation may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men in the 2 years after the disaster. PMID:27480836

  7. A GIS-Based 3D Simulation for Occupant Evacuation in a Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; ZHANG Xin

    2008-01-01

    The evacuation efficiency of building plans is of obvious importance to the public safety.The cem- plexity of building plans,however,makes it difficult for the efficiency evaluation.This paper presents a com- putational model AutoEscape,which can simulate the evacuation process for any given occupant distribu. Uon in buildings.Designed as an extensible multi-level structure, the model constructs the geometry level and occupant level and establishes the interactions between levels.The GIS-based environmental analysis is realized to automatically generate the geometric representation and formulate the cognition of agents. The multi-agent based technology is employed to simulate the crowd behaviom with autonomously acting individuals.A visualization component,which provides 3D free observations for the simulation process,is developed on the platform of OGRE and integrated into the system interface in form of ActiveX control.Fi- nally,a case study has been conducted and the results have been compared with the results of an existing model to show the reliability and capacity of AutoEscape simulation.

  8. Comparison between transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia is a potentially life-threatening cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Surgical evacuation is an important treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage. However, little is reported about the comparison on the efficacy of various approaches on the prognosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage which surgically treated via transsylvian-transinsular approach or transcortical-transtemporal approach were collected. The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, revision surgery, the average length of hospital stay, and the six-month efficacy (defined by an ADL score rate between these two groups were compared. RESULTS: The six-month efficacy rates were 75% and 50% in patients receiving transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal surgery, respectively (p<0.05. Compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, the proportion of revision surgery was statistically significantly lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, (p<0.05. The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, the incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, and the average length of hospital stay were lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, but no statistically significant differences were noted in them between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The transsylvian-transinsular approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma demonstrates limited complications, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved long-term efficacy and prognosis. These findings suggest this operative approach has potential for wider application.

  9. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Miller, Jordan; O'Gorman, Rick; Codling, Edward A.

    2015-11-01

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whether to help or not. In a novel situation where it is difficult to assess the risks associated with higher costs, we reproduce the finding that increasing costs reduce helping and find that the reduction in the frequency of helping behaviour is gradual rather than a sudden transition for a threshold cost level. Interestingly, younger and male participants were more likely to help. We provide potential explanations for this result relating to the nature of our experiment. Finally, we find no evidence that participants in our experiment plan ahead over two consecutive, inter-dependent helping opportunities when conducting cost-benefit trade-offs in spontaneous decisions. We discuss potential applications of our findings to research into decision-making during evacuations.

  10. A Study on Evacuation Performance of Siphon-Type Water Closets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Seng; Lee, Ruey-Tsung; Liu, Chia-Hung; Hsia, Cheng-Wei

    2010-06-01

    Many designs of sit-type water closets have been in the market. Different design uses different mechanism to bring down the waste. One of these many designs utilizes siphon effect to flush, therefore is called siphon type. This type of water closet has simple structure and is very widely used at home. To obtain good flush effect, water volume for each flush is crucial. However, it is limited to no more than 6 liters by government regulation in many countries. It is a common sense that the water passage in the closet affects the flush effect. This research uses 3 different passages, a commercial existed one and two others to compare how the flush effect varies at different water volume and different passages. Tests were used to examine the evacuation effect and flow velocities of water in passages were also measured by particle tracking technique. Observations indicate air is always trapped in the passage. The passage creates better evacuation effect contains fewer air trap and completes a flush process at less time span. A correlation based on non-dimensional parameters based on water volume and flush time and geometry dimensions is also constructed. A diagram established according to these non-dimensional parameters depicts different regions for good and poor flush performance.

  11. Reliability and availability analysis of two alternative evacuation systems designed for the Next European Torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the reliability and availability issues in case of two different evacuation system designs which have been proposed for the Next European Torus (NET). One of these designs uses turbo molecular pumps while the other employs cryogenic pumps to evacuate waste products from the torus after every fusion cycle. The aim of this paper is to assess and compare the feasibility of the above two designs form the reliability and availability point of view. A detailed failure mode analysis has been carried out for these two systems and appropriate mathematical mdoels have been developed to calculate their respective reliabilities. Using these mathematical models an extensive parameter study of the system reliability has been carried out over a given range of the component reliabilities. This parameter study shows that the maximum value of the turbo molecular pump system reliability is 96% while the corresponding value for the cryogenic pump system is only 81.6%. The target value for the system availability is 99.9%. This requires that the system mean repair time should be 48 h, appropriate modifications must be made to the turbo pump system design to increase its reliability accordingly. (author). 4 refs.; 10 figs

  12. Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Peter, B. Luh

    2015-06-01

    As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB719705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91224008, 91024032, and 71373139).

  13. Expatriate clinics and medical evacuation companies are a growth industry worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Roselieb, Marcus; Hanvesakul, Rekha; Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Pruksapong, Chumsak

    2003-01-01

    Globalization and the growth of tourism, which now includes "adventure" visits to very remote regions, has created new employment but also new problems. For example, elderly tourists break their hips where there is no competent orthopedic surgeon, a traveler gets bitten by a cobra in rural Cambodia where there is not even an "Ambu" bag to keep him oxygenated, and a tour guide develops high-altitude cerebral edema on a remote Nepalese mountain. What would we do without organizations that are capable of removing such victims rapidly and safely to a place able to provide appropriate medical care? Fortunately, several well-staffed and well-equipped air ambulance companies stand ready almost worldwide to help 24 hours a day. Medical assistance firms, which sell their own travel insurance and/or act as agents of large insurance companies, are also at hand and have offices in major cities worldwide. They have 24-hour telephone numbers and are prepared to advise a sick or injured traveler where he or she should go to obtain competent medical care. Most of these firms have regional medical advisors in strategic locations who maintain a network of contacts. They can ensure that an ill traveler is receiving appropriate care and will act as quality controllers. They are also able to advise whether medical evacuation to a higher level of care is needed and where the traveler should be evacuated to. PMID:14642196

  14. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Evacuation planning for plausible worst case inundation scenarios in Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Honolulu is susceptible to coastal flooding hazards. Like other coastal cities, Honolulu&s long-term economic viability and sustainability depends on how well it can adapt to changes in the natural and built environment. While there is a disagreement over the magnitude and extent of localized impacts associated with climate change, it is widely accepted that by 2100 there will be at least a meter in sea level rise (SLR) and an increase in extreme weather events. Increased exposure and vulnerabilities associated with urbanization and location of human activities in coastal areas warrants serious consideration by planners and policy makers. This article has three objectives. First, flooding due to the combined effects of SLR and episodic hydro-meteorological and geophysical events in Honolulu are investigated and the risks to the community are quantified. Second, the risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure and the surface transportation system are described. Third, using the travel demand software, travel distances and travel times for evacuation from inundated areas are modeled. Data from three inundation models were used. The first model simulated storm surge from a category 4 hurricane similar to Hurricane Iniki which devastated the island of Kauai in 1992. The second model estimates inundation based on five tsunamis that struck Hawaii. A 1-m increase in sea level was included in both the hurricane storm surge and tsunami flooding models. The third model used in this article generated a 500-year flood event due to riverine flooding. Using a uniform grid cell structure, the three inundation maps were used to assess the worst case flooding scenario. Based on the flood depths, the ruling hazard (hurricane, tsunami, or riverine flooding) for each grid cell was determined. The hazard layer was analyzed with socioeconomic data layers to determine the impact on vulnerable populations, economic activity, and critical infrastructure. The analysis focused both

  16. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer Hwai Gilbert Thio

    Full Text Available A centrifugal compact disc (CD microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes.

  17. 火灾时人员疏散的行为规律%Behavior Rules of Human Evacuation in Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培红; 陈宝智

    2001-01-01

    基于对火灾时影响人员疏散行动的开始时间的不确定因子的分析,以及对火灾时人员疏散行动能力的主要影响因素的研究,在综合考虑建筑物空间疏散性状的排队现象和多态现象的前提下, 建立火灾时人员疏散行为的数学模型。利用网论和关系数据库技术,在Mapinfo平台上,实现人员应急疏散路线的全局最优化,实现对疏散出口群集疏散流动规律的预测和评价其研究成果,可以为建筑物性能化防火设计和应急疏散计划的制定提供科学的参考依据,防止群集事故的发生,减少群集事故的损失%On the basis of analysing the indetermination factors affecting the evacuation start time,studying the main parameters on human evacuation motive ability,and considering the queuing characteristic and multi-state phenomenon involved in evacuation performance,mathematical model on the human evacuation behavior in fire was set up.Based on net-work theory and relational data base technology. The computer simulation on the optimum of human evacuation routes was realized on Mapinfo platform. This simulation can realize the evaluation and prediction of the crowd flow pattern in building fire scenarios. The analysis of the simulation may provide valuable scientific references for the performance based fire protection design of buildings and the prescription of the emergency evacuation plan. The crow accident can be prevent or mitigated.

  18. Analysis, development and testing of a fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible Vee-Trough reflectors and vacuum tube receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Vee-Trough/Vacuum Tube Collector (VTVTC) aimed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of collectors assembled from evacuated tube receivers. The VTVTC was analyzed rigorously and a mathematical model was developed to calculate the optical performance of the vee-trough concentrator and the thermal performance of the evacuated tube receiver. A test bed was constructed to verify the mathematical analyses and compare reflectors made out of glass, Alzak and aluminized GEB Teflon. Tests were run at temperatures ranging from 95 to 180 C during the months of April, May, June, July and August 1977. Vee-trough collector efficiencies of 35-40 per cent were observed at an operating temperature of about 175 C. Test results compared well with the calculated values. Test data covering a complete day are presented for selected dates throughout the test season. Predicted daily useful heat collection and efficiency values are presented for a year's duration at operation temperatures ranging from 65 to 230 C. Estimated collector costs and resulting thermal energy costs are presented. Analytical and experimental results are discussed along with an economic evaluation.

  19. BILATERAL SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL BLOCKS AS THE PRIMARY ANESTHETIC FOR THE PATIENT UNDERGOING AN EVACUATION OF NECK HEMATOMA AFTER PARATHYROID SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Benjamin; Levine, Adam

    2015-10-01

    This is the case of an 80-year-old female who presented for evacuation of a neck hematoma on POD#3 after a parathyroidectomy. Her medical history included coronary artery disease with a drug-eluding stent, off aspirin for 2 weeks. She had a significant hematoma from the hyoid bone extending down to below the suprasternal notch. She reported hoarseness. The anesthesiology team provided regional anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical blocks, supplemented with minimal sedation for patient compliance. The surgical team used no adjuvant local anesthetic. A deep exploration was performed and significant clot was evacuated. The patient went home safely from the PACU. PMID:26860031

  20. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  1. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  2. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  3. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  4. Educating the Communists of the Future: Notes on the Educational Life of the Spanish Children Evacuated to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Blas, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of child mortality registered during the early months of the Civil War led the Republican authorities to initiate several operations to evacuate youngsters with the purpose of protecting and saving the children of Spain. At the beginning, the children were evacuated to zones in the interior of the country far removed from the front…

  5. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  6. Dermatology on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Boyers, Lindsay N.; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results inclu...

  7. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  8. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  9. Evacuated FM08 Fuses Carry a Sustained Arc in a Bus over 75 VDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidecker, Henning; Slonaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    The FM08 style fuse is specified to interrupt an overcurrent of up to 300 A in a bus of up to 125 VDC, but this applies only when its barrel is filled with air. When placed into a space-grade vacuum, the FM08 style fuse exhausts its air within a year. Then, the probability of an enduring arc is high for all ratings when the bus is above 75 VDC, and the overcurrent is large. The arc endures until something else interrupts the current. The fuse can violently eject metal vapor or other material during the sustained arcing. The evacuated FM08 does not develop a sustained arc when interrupted in a bus of 38 VDC or less, at least when there is little inductance in the circuit. This is consistent with its successful use in many spacecraft having buses in the range 24 to 36 volts.

  10. 'Subarachnoid cyst' after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: Case report of an unusual postoperative morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Low Y Y; Wai Hoe, N G

    2016-01-01

    Burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematomas are routine operative procedures done by neurosurgical residents. Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalus, intracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction. We report an interesting post-operative complication of a 'subarachnoid cyst' after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma. The authors hypothesize that the 'cyst' is likely secondary to the splitting of the adjacent neomembrane within its arachnoid-brain interface by iatrogenic irrigation of the subdural space. Over time, this 'cyst' develops into an area of gliosis which eventually causes long-term scar epilepsy in the patient. As far as we are aware, this is the first complication of such a 'subarachnoid cyst' post burr-hole drainage reported in the literature. PMID:27366276

  11. Crowd Behaviour during High-Stress Evacuations in an Immersive Virtual Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Thrash, Tyler; Sumner, Robert W; Gross, Markus; Helbing, Dirk; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the collective dynamics of crowd movements during stressful emergency situations is central to reducing the risk of deadly crowd disasters. Yet, their systematic experimental study remains a challenging open problem due to ethical and methodological constraints. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of shared 3D virtual environments as an experimental platform for conducting crowd experiments with real people. In particular, we show that crowds of real human subjects moving and interacting in an immersive 3D virtual environment exhibit typical patterns of real crowds as observed in real-life crowded situations. These include the manifestation of social conventions and the emergence of self-organized patterns during egress scenarios. High-stress evacuation experiments conducted in this virtual environment reveal movements characterized by mass herding and dangerous overcrowding as they occur in crowd disasters. We describe the behavioral mechanisms at play under such extreme conditions and ...

  12. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  13. Optical trapping and control of nanoparticles inside evacuated hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Grass, David; Hofer, Sebastian G; Kiesel, Nikolai; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical conveyor belt for levitated nano-particles over several centimeters inside both air-filled and evacuated hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCF). Detection of the transmitted light field allows three-dimensional read-out of the particle center-of-mass motion. An additional laser enables axial radiation pressure based feedback cooling over the full fiber length. We show that the particle dynamics is a sensitive local probe for characterizing the optical intensity profile inside the fiber as well as the pressure distribution along the fiber axis. In contrast to previous indirect measurement methods we find a linear pressure dependence inside the HCPCF extending over three orders of magnitude from 0.2 mbar to 100 mbar. A targeted application is the controlled delivery of nano-particles from ambient pressure into medium vacuum.

  14. Using Rule Base System in Mobile Platform to Build Alert System for Evacuation and Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysoon Fouad Abulkhair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have witnessed the widespread use of mobile technology. Billions of citizens around the world own smartphones, which they use for both personal and business applications. Thus, technologies will minimize the risk of losing people's lives. Mobile platform is one of the most popular plat-form technologies utilized on a wide scale and accessible to a high number of people. There has been a huge increase in natural and manmade disasters in the last few years. Such disasters can hap-pen anytime and anywhere causing major damage to people and property. The environment affluence and the failure of people to go to other safe places are the results of catastrophic events re-cently in Jeddah city. Flood causes the sinking and destruction of homes and private properties. Thus, this paper describes a sys-tem that can help in determining the affected properties, evacuat-ing them, and providing a proper guidance to the registered users in the system. This system notifies mobile phone users by sending guidance messages and sound alerts, in a real-time when disasters (fires, floods hit. Warnings and tips are received on the mobile user to teach him/her how to react before, during, and after the disaster. Provide a mobile application using GPS to determine the user location and guide the user for the best way with the aid of rule-based system that built through the interview with the Experts domains. Moreover, the user will re-ceive Google map updates for any added information. This sys-tem consists of two subsystems: the first helps students in our university to evacuate during a catastrophe and the second aids all people in the city. Due to all these features, the system can access the required information at the needed time.

  15. Hypertensive intracranial hematomas: endoscopic-assisted keyhole evacuation and application of patent viewing dissector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱永明; 林毅兴; 田鑫; 罗其中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of endoscopic-assisted keyhole operation (EAKO) on treating hypertensive intracranial hematomas and the value of our patent dissector appli ed during the operation.Methods A total of 25 patients with hypertensive intracranial hematomas underwent endos copic-assisted keyhole evacuation, during which, the viewing dissector, which h ad recently achieved national patent, was connected to the tip of endoscope and used to help dissect hematomas. The outcome of this procedure were compared wit h those of 22 comparable cases undergone conventional surgical treatment (large or smaller craniotomy). The items for comparison included the volum e of remaining hematoma, the duration of operation, postsurgical Glasgow Coma Sc ale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Results Remaining hematoma was ascertained 48 h after operation with the use of computerized tomography (CT) scans. In the case of EAKO, nearly complete evacuation (>84%) was achieved in 21 cases; GCS was evaluated at 7 d postsurgery result ing in GCS >12 in 9 patients, GCS 9-12 in 12 patients and GCS <9 in 4 patients. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 21 mon. GOS was estimated at half a year and good recovery rate as defined by GOS was assigned to 76% of the EAKO pa tients. There are significant differences in the volumes of remaining hematomas and the duration of operation between the EAKO and craniotomy group (P<0.0 5). In addition, better clinical outcomes were obtained in EAKO. Conclusion EAKO has the advantage of being minimally invasive, improving surgical results and the prognosis of hypertensive intracranial hematoma patients. We conclude th at keyhole operation is a safe, effective alternative for removal of hypertensiv e intracranial hematoma, particularly during acute stages.

  16. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  17. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  18. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 29 - Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency Evacuation Procedures Under § 29.803

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency.... 29, App. D Appendix D to Part 29—Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency Evacuation Procedures Under... rotorcraft's windows or doors. (b) The rotorcraft must be in a normal attitude with landing gear extended....

  19. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 121 - Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency Evacuation Procedures Under § 121.291

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency... Appendix D to Part 121—Criteria for Demonstration of Emergency Evacuation Procedures Under § 121.291 (a... with landing gear extended. (3) Unless the airplane is equipped with an off-wing descent means,...

  20. The influence of the technologically advanced evacuation models on the risk analyses during accidents in LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evacuation of people located in different safety zones of an LNG terminal is a complex problem considering that the accidents involving LNG are very hazardous and post the biggest threat to the safety of the people located near the LNG leakage. The safety risk criteria define the parameters which one LNG terminal should meet in terms of safety. Those criteria also contain an evacuation as an evasive action with the objective to mitigate the influence of the LNG accident on the people at risk. Till date, not a lot of attention has been paid to technologically advanced evacuations intended for LNG terminals. Creating the technologically advanced evacuation influences directly on the decrease of the probability of fatalities Pf,i, thus influencing the calculation of the individual risk as well as the societal risk which results in the positioning of the F-N curve in the acceptable part of the ALARP zone. With this paper, we aim to present the difference between the safety analyses in cases when conservative data for Pf,i is being used while calculating the risk, and in cases when real data for Pf,i is been used. (Author)

  1. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarda, Hitesh; Gurav, Abhijit; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant; Shete, Abhijeet; Gaikwad, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU) with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination. PMID:25346838

  2. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment

  3. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment

  4. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  5. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  7. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  8. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  9. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  10. International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilard, Istvan; Cserti, Arpad; Hoxha, Ruhija; Gorbacheva, Olga; O'Rourke, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and

  11. Bilamellar type streak tube design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ICF experiments, high dynamic range, high temporal and spatial resolution X-ray streak camera is a necessary diagnosis tool. To meet this requirement, a streak tube which uses bilamellar electrode lens and quadrupolar lens to focus electrons has been designed. This tube uses different ways to focus electrons in temporal axis and spatial axis. In temporal axis, it uses two effectively. The spatial resolution of this tube reaches 40 lp/mm even at the edge of photocathode, the temporal resolution is about 10 ps and the effective length of photocathode is 20 mm. Using different focusing ways in temporal and spatial directions, the tube will not focus electrons to a small spot, compared with conventional rotary and symmetric tubes, and thus its space charge effect is much weaker, and dynamic range is much larger. (authors)

  12. The rotating tubing hanger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam pump systems are among the most cost efficient artificial lift systems in the industry, assuming a long run time between pulling jobs to repair tubing failures caused by rod wear. The tubing string represents the second largest investment in the well. The longer the period of time the well can be kept on-line and producing between pulling jobs, the more efficient and cost effective is the beam pump system. This paper describes in detail the conception, development and implementation of a new system that extends tubing life on rod pumped wells. The system uses a very simple concept; rotate the tubing string to extend the length of time between tubing failures and the resultant pulling jobs. The system is powered directly from the walking beam and requires no additional power source; nor does the system use any additional energy

  13. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  14. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  15. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  16. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak

  17. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  18. Vacuum distribution in the Vivitron accelerating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outgassing and conductance performances of HVEC type accelerating tube sections are calculated, measured and discussed. Based on the proposed Vivitron terminal stripping arrangement and tube pumping system, the vacuum pressure distribution along the accelerating tube has been determined

  19. Computer simulation of nuclear pollutant diffusion from Shimane nuclear power plants and development of an evacuation strategy in the event of a nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning from Tohoku (northeastern) Earthquake on March 11, an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in a substantial release of radioactivity to the environment. The accident forced a large number of residents to evacuate from surrounding areas. Moreover, the nuclear incident was life-threatening for the elderly and for people with serious illnesses who were confined in hospital or nursing homes. Strikingly, the causes of death were not directly attributed to radiation exposure but to problems encountered during evacuation. Using nuclear diffusion data from the Fukushima incident, we simulated nuclear pollutant dispersion using computer software A2C in an area of Tottori and Shimane Prefectures surrounding the Shimane Nuclear Power Plant. We generated a model for the spread of nuclear pollutants around the Emergency Planning Zone, id est (i.e.) EPZ. From these findings, we proposed evacuation strategies for residents near the power plant to ensure a safe and reliable escape from nuclear pollutants. Our recommendations include: immediate evacuation from PAZ area (within 5 km), securing indoor shelter in the area of the UPZ (from 5 km to 30 km) and preparations to evacuate further outwards from the nuclear plant site, daytime evacuation within a 30 km area after considering wind direction and velocity, and preparation of a planned evacuation strategy that identifies secure facilities for weaker people in the event of a disaster. (author)

  20. Postglacial sediment evacuation from the tributaries of the Upper Rhone, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Anna; Prasicek, Günther; Blöthe, Jan; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mey, Jürgen; Schrott, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    The paraglacial concept implies that most of the sediment from the last glaciation at the end of the Pleistocene should be evacuated from the headwaters and currently be stored further downstream. However, the location and spatial distribution of sediment storages (e.g. valley fills, debris cones, talus slopes) in alpine regions has mainly been addressed in small-scale sediment budget studies (catchments up to 10² km²). Our study tests the assumptions of the paraglacial concept by assessing the rate of Postglacial sediment evacuation from the large-scale Upper Rhone basin (URB, c. 5400 km²) based on the mapping of Postglacial sediment storages, knickpoints and valley fills as well as estimates of valley fill volumes. We investigate the distribution of sediment storage in the URB, how sediment storage changes with increasing drainage area and how this is related to Pleistocene glacial imprint, the morphometry of the tributaries as well as the location of knickpoints in the river network. Therefore, we examine whether the areal extent of sediment coverage varies with the degree of glacial imprint and if knickpoints control the location of valley fills. Bedrock and sediment storage was mapped in five sub-regions of the URB (Goms, Lötschen valley, Val d'Illiez, Vallée de la Liène, Turtmann valley) in the field as well as from high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model (2 m, SwissALTI3D by swisstopo) and Landsat imagery, we derived 23 parameters characterizing topography, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover. Subsequently, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) and used the uncorrelated PCs with the highest explanatory power as predictors in a stepwise logistic regression model to predict the spatial distribution of bedrock and sediment storage for the whole URB. Model performance was tested with odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The morphometric analysis of the

  1. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  2. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding. PMID:26016095

  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Affairs Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  4. drift tube for linear accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    A drift tube from the Linac 1. This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  6. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  8. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ... questions and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  9. Lattice tube model of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Banavar, Jayanth R.; Cieplak, Marek; Maritan, Amos

    2004-01-01

    We present a new lattice model for proteins that incorporates a tube-like anisotropy by introducing a preference for mutually parallel alignments in the conformations. The model is demonstrated to capture many aspects of real proteins.

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  11. Indoor radiocaesium contamination in residential houses within evacuation areas after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Kanagami, Takashi; Satoh, Yasushi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Naitoh, Yutaka; Kameyama, Mizuki

    2016-05-01

    Indoor contaminants were investigated from July 2013 to January 2015 within ninety-five residential houses in five evacuation zones, Iitate village, Odaka district, and the towns of Futaba, Okuma, and Tomioka. A dry smear test was applied to the surface of materials and structures in rooms and in the roof-space of houses. We found that 134Cs and 137Cs were the dominant radionuclides in indoor surface contamination, and there was a distance dependence from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). For surface contamination in Iitate village (29–49 km from the FDNPP), 24.8% of samples exceeded the detection limit, which is quite a low value, while in Okuma (detection limit and surface contamination levels exceeded 20 Bq/cm2 (the value was corrected to March 2011). In residential houses in Okuma, Futaba, and Tomioka, closer to the FDNPP than those in Odaka district and Iitate village, surface contamination was inversely proportional to the square of the distance between a house and the FDNPP. In the houses closest to the FDNPP, the contribution of surface contamination to the ambient dose equivalent rate was evaluated to be approximately 0.3 μSv/h.

  12. Integrated doses calculation in evacuation scenarios of the neutron generator facility at Missouri S&T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.

    2016-08-01

    Any source of ionizing radiations could lead to considerable dose acquisition to individuals in a nuclear facility. Evacuation may be required when elevated levels of radiation is detected within a facility. In this situation, individuals are more likely to take the closest exit. This may not be the most expedient decision as it may lead to higher dose acquisition. The strategy followed in preventing large dose acquisitions should be predicated on the path that offers least dose acquisition. In this work, the neutron generator facility at Missouri University of Science and Technology was analyzed. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was used to model the entire floor of the generator's building. The simulated dose rates in the hallways were used to estimate the integrated doses for different paths leading to exits. It was shown that shortest path did not always lead to minimum dose acquisition and the approach was successful in predicting the expedient path as opposed to the approach of taking the nearest exit.

  13. Experimental testing method for solar light simulator with an attached evacuated solar collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shatat, Saffa Riffat, Francis Agyenim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel solar simulator of high solar irradiation. It consists of an array of 30 halogen lamps of 400W each, covering a gross area of 2.32 m2. A standardized empirical method for solar simulator testing facility based on an experimental performance is presented. A uniform geometrical configuration design for a solar simulator was evaluated by its illuminance distribution to optimize the maximum source-to-target transfer efficiency of irradiative power. Experimental tests were carried out for various distances from the simulator surface. It was determined that the optimal distance between the light surface simulator and the solar collector is about 23 cm at different solar irradiance. The unevenness of solar radiation values were investigated at different points under the simulator facility and the maximum unevenness error percentage was found to be about 9.1%, which is well within the allowable limits of 15% set by British Standards for testing a solar simulator . The performance of an evacuated solar collector with an aperture area of 1.73 m2 to simulate solar insolation during March in the Middle East region was investigated and it was proved that the efficiency of the solar collector was closely correlated with the efficiency data provided by the manufacturer. The design of such a solar light simulator associated with the development of a standardized test procedure can be utilized as a reliable and efficient experimental platform to investigate various solar collectors and materials.

  14. AGENT-BASED CROWD SIMULATION CONSIDERING EMOTION CONTAGION FOR EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Faroqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During emergencies, emotions greatly affect human behaviour. For more realistic multi-agent systems in simulations of emergency evacuations, it is important to incorporate emotions and their effects on the agents. In few words, emotional contagion is a process in which a person or group influences the emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes. In this study, we simulate an emergency situation in an open square area with three exits considering Adults and Children agents with different behavior. Also, Security agents are considered in order to guide Adults and Children for finding the exits and be calm. Six levels of emotion levels are considered for each agent in different scenarios and situations. The agent-based simulated model initialize with the random scattering of agent populations and then when an alarm occurs, each agent react to the situation based on its and neighbors current circumstances. The main goal of each agent is firstly to find the exit, and then help other agents to find their ways. Numbers of exited agents along with their emotion levels and damaged agents are compared in different scenarios with different initialization in order to evaluate the achieved results of the simulated model. NetLogo 5.2 is used as the multi-agent simulation framework with R language as the developing language.

  15. Agent-Based Crowd Simulation Considering Emotion Contagion for Emergency Evacuation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi, H.; Mesgari, M.-S.

    2015-12-01

    During emergencies, emotions greatly affect human behaviour. For more realistic multi-agent systems in simulations of emergency evacuations, it is important to incorporate emotions and their effects on the agents. In few words, emotional contagion is a process in which a person or group influences the emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes. In this study, we simulate an emergency situation in an open square area with three exits considering Adults and Children agents with different behavior. Also, Security agents are considered in order to guide Adults and Children for finding the exits and be calm. Six levels of emotion levels are considered for each agent in different scenarios and situations. The agent-based simulated model initialize with the random scattering of agent populations and then when an alarm occurs, each agent react to the situation based on its and neighbors current circumstances. The main goal of each agent is firstly to find the exit, and then help other agents to find their ways. Numbers of exited agents along with their emotion levels and damaged agents are compared in different scenarios with different initialization in order to evaluate the achieved results of the simulated model. NetLogo 5.2 is used as the multi-agent simulation framework with R language as the developing language.

  16. Antithermal shield for rockets with heat evacuation by infrared radiation reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan RUSU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At high speed, the friction between the air mass and the rocket surface causes a localheating of over 1000 Celsius degrees. For the heat protection of the rocket, on its outside surfacethermal shields are installed.Studying the Coanda effect, the fluid flow on solids surface, respectively, the author Ioan Rusuhas discovered by simply researches that the Coanda effect could be /extended also to the fluid flowon discontinuous solids, namely, on solids provided with orifices. This phenomenon was named by theauthor, the expanded Coanda effect. Starting with this discovery, the author has invented a thermalshield, registered at The State Office for inventions and Trademarks OSIM, deposit F 2010 0153This thermal shield:- is built as a covering rocket sheet with many orifices installed with a minimum space fromthe rocket body- takes over the heat fluid generated by the frontal part of the rocket and avoids the directcontact between the heat fluid and the rocket body- ensures the evacuation of the infrared radiation, generated by the heat fluid flowing overthe shield because of the extended Coanda effect by reflection from the rocket bodysurface.

  17. Human reliability analysis as an evaluation tool of the emergency evacuation process on industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some required activity by the system in a required time period and performs no extraneous activity that can degrade the system. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. The human error concept must not have connotation of guilt and punishment, having to be treated as a natural consequence, that emerges due to the not continuity between the human capacity and the system demand. The majority of the human error is a consequence of the work situation and not of the responsibility lack of the worker. The anticipation and the control of potentially adverse impacts of human action or interactions between the humans and the system are integral parts of the process safety, where the factors that influence the human performance must be recognized and managed. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to evaluate the emergency evacuation process on industrial installations including SLIM-MAUD, a HRA first-generation method, and using virtual reality and simulation software to build and to simulate the chosen emergency scenes. (author)

  18. A markov decision process model for the optimal dispatch of military medical evacuation assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneally, Sean K; Robbins, Matthew J; Lunday, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    We develop a Markov decision process (MDP) model to examine aerial military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) dispatch policies in a combat environment. The problem of deciding which aeromedical asset to dispatch to each service request is complicated by the threat conditions at the service locations and the priority class of each casualty event. We assume requests for MEDEVAC support arrive sequentially, with the location and the priority of each casualty known upon initiation of the request. The United States military uses a 9-line MEDEVAC request system to classify casualties as being one of three priority levels: urgent, priority, and routine. Multiple casualties can be present at a single casualty event, with the highest priority casualty determining the priority level for the casualty event. Moreover, an armed escort may be required depending on the threat level indicated by the 9-line MEDEVAC request. The proposed MDP model indicates how to optimally dispatch MEDEVAC helicopters to casualty events in order to maximize steady-state system utility. The utility gained from servicing a specific request depends on the number of casualties, the priority class for each of the casualties, and the locations of both the servicing ambulatory helicopter and casualty event. Instances of the dispatching problem are solved using a relative value iteration dynamic programming algorithm. Computational examples are used to investigate optimal dispatch policies under different threat situations and armed escort delays; the examples are based on combat scenarios in which United States Army MEDEVAC units support ground operations in Afghanistan. PMID:25223847

  19. Indoor radiocaesium contamination in residential houses within evacuation areas after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Kanagami, Takashi; Satoh, Yasushi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Naitoh, Yutaka; Kameyama, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor contaminants were investigated from July 2013 to January 2015 within ninety-five residential houses in five evacuation zones, Iitate village, Odaka district, and the towns of Futaba, Okuma, and Tomioka. A dry smear test was applied to the surface of materials and structures in rooms and in the roof-space of houses. We found that (134)Cs and (137)Cs were the dominant radionuclides in indoor surface contamination, and there was a distance dependence from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). For surface contamination in Iitate village (29-49 km from the FDNPP), 24.8% of samples exceeded the detection limit, which is quite a low value, while in Okuma (houses in Okuma, Futaba, and Tomioka, closer to the FDNPP than those in Odaka district and Iitate village, surface contamination was inversely proportional to the square of the distance between a house and the FDNPP. In the houses closest to the FDNPP, the contribution of surface contamination to the ambient dose equivalent rate was evaluated to be approximately 0.3 μSv/h. PMID:27212076

  20. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...