WorldWideScience

Sample records for all-glass evacuated tube

  1. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...... on the convective heat transfer in the tube. The buoyancy induced flow circulation in different parts of the tube was analyzed. It is shown that fluid flow becomes stochastic and turbulent if fluid temperature is high enough. The flow instability leads to mixing of the warm uprising flow and the cold downward flow...

  2. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...

  3. High temperature collecting performance of a new all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with U-shaped tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar air heater with simplified CPC and U-type heat exchanger is designed and tested. • The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • The air heater can propose the heated air exceeding 200 °C with great air flow rate. - Abstract: Experiment and simulation are conducted on a new-type all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with simplified compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels and each panel includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a U-shaped copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. Air is gradually heated when passing through each U-shaped copper tube. The heat transfer model of the solar air heater is established and the outlet air temperature, the heat power and heat efficiency are calculated. Calculated and experimental results show that the present experimental system can provide the heated air exceeding 200 °C. The whole system has an outstanding high-temperature collecting performance and the present heat transfer model can meet the general requirements of engineering calculations

  4. 全玻璃真空太阳集热管光-热性能%SOLAR THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED COLLECTOR TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志强; 唐轩

    2001-01-01

    Three solar thermal parameters,i.e.heat loss coeffi cientULT,irradiation H and stagnation par ameter Y of all-glass evacuated collector tubes were derived on the basis of energy balance equation,which depen ds on solar transmittance of cover glass tube,solar absorptance and thermal emit tance of the selective absorbing surface and gas pressure in the jacket between cover and inner glass tubes,and solar irradiance,temperatures and the geometry o f the collector tube.Calculated results of solar thermal parameters of all-glass evacuated collector tubes agree well with experiments.These solar thermal param eters of all-glass evacuated collector tube were adopted by China national stand ard GB/T 17049-1997.%从能量平衡方程导出全玻璃真空太阳集热管的3个光-热性能参数,即热损系数ULT、闷晒太阳曝辐量H和空晒性能参数Y与真空集热管的罩管玻璃的太阳透射比τ、选择性吸收表面的太阳吸收比α、发射比ε、和集热管内的气体压强p,以及太阳辐照度、环境温度和真空太阳集热管的几何尺寸等函数关系。理论计算的真空太阳集热管的3个热性能参数与实验的结果比较一致。上述全玻璃真空太阳集热管的光-热性能参数已经被国家标准《全玻璃真空太阳集热管》(GB/T17049-1997)采用。

  5. Experiment and simulation for convective heat transfer in all-glass evacuated tube solar collectors%全玻璃真空管太阳能集热器对流换热试验与模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 韩吉田; 田瑞; 于泽庭

    2016-01-01

    efficiency of experiment for high absorption is 1.17% higher than that of low absorption. The thermal efficiency of experiment for solar collectors increases by 2.17% after equipped with guide plate, because the mixed flow in the vacuumvacuum tube disappears and the guide plate strengthens the flow at the bottom of the vacuum tube. The reasonable plate thickness of guide plate for all-glass vacuum tube water heaters is 2 mm, the reasonable plate length of guide plate is 60-100 mm distance from the bottom of the vacuum tube, and the reasonable position of guide plate is 16-20 mm above the axial line of the vacuum tube. The forced convection results show that the Reynolds number and the Nusselt number decrease gradually after the fluent flow into manifold but the Reynolds number and the Nusselt number increase gradually at the exit of manifold. Although the fluent is extremely volatile along the vacuum tube, the Reynolds number and the Nusselt number of horizontal double collectors are higher than that of vertical single collector. The angle between speed vector and temperature gradient vector is 0° with downward fluid and 180° with upward flow, because the collector overall temperature is gradually reduced from vacuum tube bottom to manifold. It makes more fluid absorb the bottom heat, because the internal flow of vacuum tube is smooth and the mixed flow in vacuum tube disappears. Manifold velocity gradually decreases because there is backflow interiorly, but temperature increases because fluid absorbs solar radiation, and the field synergy in collector outlet is higher than others because temperature field is consistent with velocity field according to numerical simulation. Although the entransy increments of vertical single collector and horizontal double collectors are negative values in initial period, they gradually rise with the heat time increasing. There are 2 parts for entransy dissipation in the vacuum tube. The entransy dissipation of horizontal double collectors

  6. 内聚光膜式全玻璃真空太阳集热管真空品质表征方法%Characterization of the vacuum quality of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes with inner membrane capable of concentrating sunlight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建明; 周旭; 池华敬; 陈革; 章其初

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative method was proposed for indicating the vacuum quality of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes with inner membrane capable of concentrating sunlight by calculating their gaseous flow evacuated during the baking -evacuating, and then the vacuum quality of the tubes was validated by high -temperature baking & accelerating -aging experiments. It is the first time to indicate the vacuum quality of the tubes by the temperature curve of aluminium membrane dependent on aging time in the process of high temperature baking and good results were achieved. It is effective to indicate the vacuum quality of the tubes by combining quantitative analysis with experiment validation.%本文计算了内聚光膜式全玻璃真空太阳集热管在烘烤排气过程中的排气量,提出了一种定量表征其真空品质的方法,然后通过集热管高温烘烤——加速老化实验对其真空性能进行了验证,首次利用内聚光膜式集热管高温烘烤过程中铝膜温度随老化时间的变化曲线表征其真空性能,且效果良好.实践表明,这种定量分析结合实验验证的方法表征内聚光膜式集热管真空品质是行之有效的.

  7. A Mechanical and Experimental Study on the Heat Loss of Solar Evacuated Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-zhong; LIU Zhen-yan; ZHANG Min; HUANG Chen; WANG Li-hui; ZOU Zhi-jun

    2009-01-01

    The experimental system of heat loss of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes (evacuated tube) is firstly designed and constructed, which uses electric heater as thermal resource. The equilibrium temperatures are less than ±1℃ during the test, and the temperature differences of up/middle/low node in the tube are less than 1 ℃, 3 ℃, and 7℃ respectively. The heat loss of evacuated tube increases about 2.7% with vacuum state of 0.01-1 mPa, and it has the best performance at tube temperature of 20-280℃. The invalidation tube (> 200 mPa) has the biggest heat loss that increases linearly with the tube temperature. The evacuated tubes with the vacuum of 0.01-1 mPa are suitable for most solar adsorption refrigeration.

  8. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN A GLASS TUBE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR AIR HEATER%全玻璃真空管空气集热器管内流动与换热的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2001-01-01

    目前,对于太阳能集热器的数值模拟大多是基于一维、非稳态的简化模型之上。该文采用三维数学及物理模型对插管提热系统的流动与换热情况进行了数值模拟。并对模拟结果进行了实验验证。%A study on heat transfer and air flow in a tube of a ll-glassevacuated solar air heater was presented.The three-dimension physical a nd mathematical models have been used.The computational results are in good agre ement with the experimental ones.

  9. Improving the productivity of solar still using evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qays A.Rashak, Ala'a A. Jassim, Husam N. Khanfoos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of life and population growth makes the rate of water consumption to be very high, also the operation costs of the conventional methods of the desalination process are very expensive and unfriendly to the environment; therefor it is very important to find new, cheap, clean and simple methods for producing drinkable water such as solar energy desalination systems. To improve the performance of solar still by using evacuated tubes. The effect of parameter variables such as solar intensity, wind velocity, the tilt angle and numbers of the evacuated tubes are studied and then discussed. It can be concluded that the maximum productivity of water has achieved when the tilt angle of the evacuated tubes was 15˚ on the horizone using four evacuated tubes.

  10. 内聚光膜式全玻璃真空太阳集热管烘烤排气工艺研究%Compromised Degassing Process of All-Glass Solar Collector Tubes Coated with Sunlight Concentration Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建明; 周恒智

    2013-01-01

    对内聚光膜式全玻璃真空太阳集热管进行了9组烘烤排气实验,通过对比各组集热管在烘烤排气过程中的排气量及分析高温烘烤——加速老化实验数据,得到了其烘烤排气最佳工艺参数.9组实验中,450℃/50min,450℃/40 min,450℃/30 min及400℃/50min四个工艺制作的集热管真空品质相差不多,优于其余五个工艺;单从集热管真空品质角度看,450℃/50min烘烤排气工艺最好,若从真空品质和制作成本两方面考虑,400℃/50 min是较好的工艺参数.%The impacts of the degassing conditions,the baking temperature and time,on the quality and fabrication cost of the all-glass solar collector tubes,the inside walls of which were coated with sunlight concentration membrane,were experimentally evaluated to optimize the baking-evacuation process on industrial scale.The results show that the baking temperature and time strongly affect the tube quality and production cost.For instance,when it comes to high quality of the tubes,the optimized baking evacuation conditions were found to be the 450℃/50 min process.We suggest that a compromised baking evacuating process,400℃/50 min.Minimize the production cost and ensure high quality of the tubes.

  11. Design and Optical Performance of Compound Parabolic Solar Concentrators with Evacuated Tube as Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, six symmetric compound parabolic solar concentrators (CPCs with all-glass evacuated solar tubes (EST as the receiver are designed, and a comparative study on their optical performance is performed based on theoretical analysis and ray-tracing simulations. In terms of optical loss through gaps of CPCs and optical efficiency averaged for radiation over the acceptance angle, CPC-6, designed based on a fictitious “hat”-shaped absorber with a “V” groove at the bottom, is the optimal design, and CPC-1, designed based on the cover tube, is the worst solution, whereas from the point of view of the annual collectible radiation on the EST, it is found that CPC-4, designed based on a fictitious “ice-cream” absorber, is the optimal design and CPC-1 is the worst solution. CPC-6, commonly regarded as the best design in the past, is not an optimal design in terms of annual collectible radiation after truncation. Results also indicate that, for high temperature applications, CPC-6 and CPC-4 are advisable due to the high solar flux on the EST resulting from the high optical efficiency for radiation within the acceptance angle.

  12. Acknowledgement Of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Over Flat Plate Solar Water Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Dharamvir Mangal; Devander Kumar Lamba; Tarun Gupta; Kiran Jhamb

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents acknowledgement to one of the latest solar water heater which is evacuated solar water heater based on a Thermo siphon principle used for heating water for domestic purposes in household by utilizing solar radiations. As the air is evacuated from the solar tube to form a vacuum, this greatly reduces conductive and convective heat loss from the interior of tube. As a result wind and cold temperature have less effect on the efficiency of evacuated solar water heater. Result ...

  13. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  14. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  15. An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector using Therminol D-12 as Heat Transfer Fluid Coupled with Parabolic Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is studied in this paper. An experimental set-up was constructed to study the performance of evacuated tube collector with therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid. The parabolic trough is coupled with evacuated tube collector for better performance. In the traditional solar collectors water is used as heat transfer fluid. The problems in using water as heat transfer fluid are addressed in detail in this paper. The temperature characteristics of heat transfer fluid and water in the storage tank and the heating efficiency are determined under various conditions. The efficiency of therminol based evacuated tube collector coupled with parabolic trough is 40% more than that of water based evacuated tube collector coupled with parabolic trough. This study projects the potential of therminol based evacuated tube solar collector coupled with parabolic trough in the instant hot water generation.

  16. Performance analysis of new all-glass evacuated tubular solar high temperature air collector with simplified CPC%简化CPC式全真空玻璃集热管太阳能高温空气集热器的传热模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琳; 陈秀娟; 何志兵; 刘振华

    2012-01-01

    对一种新型简化CPC(非追踪式复合抛物线聚光板)式全真空玻璃集热管太阳能高温空气集热系统的传热过程进行了理论分析和数值模拟计算,通过实验数据对该传热模型进行了验证分析.该系统由多个集热单元组成,每个集热单元包括一个简化CPC集热板,一根全真空玻璃集热管,在玻璃集热管内安装一个U形铜管.流动空气在各级U形铜管内被逐级加热.计算研究表明:系统空气最大出口温度可达到200℃,系统平均集热效率达到0.3以上,整个系统表现了良好的高温集热特性.同时,计算也表明当系统工质流量增加时,只要系统增加更多的集热管以增加系统总功率即可满足工质温度达到200℃的设计要求.研究提出的新型简化CPC式全真空玻璃集热管太阳能高温空气集热系统是一种有工业实用前途的太阳能集热器;研究提出的传热模型模拟效果也可以满足一般性工程计算需求.%Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation were carried out on a new all-glass evacuated tubular solar high temperature air collector with simplified CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator). The system consists of multiple collecting units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC heating panel and an all-glass evacuated tube. A U-shaped copper tube is installed in the glass tube. Air is progressively heated in each U-shaped copper tube. Computational and experimental studies show that the maximum air outlet temperature can be as high as 200 ℃ and the average collector efficiency of the system is more than 0. 3 at the outlet temperature of 200 ℃. The whole system has a good high-temperature heat characteristic. The present heat transfer model can meet the general requirements of engineering calculations.

  17. Glycol/water evacuated-tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance of 8 tube and 10 tube commercially produced solar collectors. Tests include thermal efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency with Sun angle, and temperature rise if circulation is stopped.

  18. Energy and exergy efficiency of heat pipe evacuated tube solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarkazemi Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed theoretical method for energy and exergy analysis of the collector is provided. The method is also evaluated by experiments. The results showed a good agreement between the experiment and theory. Using the theoretical model, the effect of different parameters on the collector’s energy and exergy efficiency has been investigated. It is concluded that inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow rate, the transmittance of tubes and absorptance of the absorber surface have a direct effect on the energy and exergy efficiency of the heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector. Increasing water inlet temperature in heat pipe evacuated solar collectors leads to a decrease in heat transfer rate between the heat pipe’s condenser and water.

  19. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of a developed Central Receiver Based on Evacuated Solar Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Basil. H.; Gilani S. I.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.

    2016-01-01

    Solar central receiver plays a considerable role in the plant output power; it is one of the most important synthesis in the solar power tower plants. Its performance directly affects the efficiency of the entire solar power generation system. In this study, a new designed receiver model based on evacuated solar tube was proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the developed receiver were investigated. In order to optimise and evaluate the dynamic characteristics of solar power plant comp...

  1. A New Model for the Analysis of Performance in Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulmagd, Ahmed; Padovan, Andrea; De Césaro Oliveski, Rejane; Del Col, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Solar collectors can provide a useful response to the heat demand in buildings, such as heating of domestic water and spaces. Among the different types of solar collectors, the evacuated tube ones can better display their features when the temperature difference between operating fluid and ambient air is high, which are the typical operating conditions during space heating of buildings. Beside the heating application, there is also need for addressing the increasing energy consumption due to ...

  2. 全玻璃真空管太阳能空气集热器热性能试验方法研究%STUDY ON MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR AIR HEATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2001-01-01

    全玻璃真空管空气集热器是一种热损较小的太阳能空气加热装置。该文对该类集热器热性能评价方法进行了研究,并对集热器的时间常数、热延迟常数、角系数修正因子及瞬时热效率的实验方法进行了初步的实验研究。研究表明,用热延迟常数比时间常数能更好地反映真空管集热器的热性能,真空管集热器的角系数修正因子在垂直入射时最小。%Evacuated tubular solar collector is good for solar air heater as its low heat loss.A study on the thermal performance of the solar air heater is presented.The methods to test the time constant,resident time,incident angular modifier and instantaneous thermal efficiency are suggested.The resident time would be better than time constant to represent the thermal properties of the solar air heater.The incident angular modifier will be minimal at solar noon for the evacuated tubular solar air heater.

  3. Analysis and two years of testing of the vee-trough concentrator/evacuated tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Aghan, A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper summarizes the mathematical analysis and presents the experimental results for a vee-trough/evacuated tube collector (VTETC). Test results reported represent the performance of the VTETC based on an aperture area. The effectiveness of vee-trough reflectors is demonstrated by comparing the useful heat collected by a receiver tube with and without concentrators.

  4. Estimation and optimization of thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Ezen, H. Hüseyin; Küçüksille, Ecir U.; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) in order to predict the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system have been used. The experimental data for the training and testing of the networks were used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. The R2-value for the thermal performance values of collector is 0.811914 which can be considered as satisfactory. The results obtained when unknown data were presented to the networks are satisfactory and indicate that the proposed method can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collectors. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the calculation of the thermal performance. The advantages of this approaches compared to the conventional methods are speed, simplicity, and the capacity of the network to learn from examples. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to maximize the thermal performance of the system. The optimum working conditions of the system were determined by the GA.

  5. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  6. Solar refrigerating unit with an adsorption reactor and evacuated tube collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, M.E.; Moreira, H.B.C. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Energia Solar Aplicada

    1997-09-01

    This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactors, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected from the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: eugenia at ufc.br

  7. Validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems with flat plate and heat pipe evacuated tube collectors

    OpenAIRE

    MC CORMACK, SARAH

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS mo...

  8. Validated TRNSYS Model for Forced Circulation Solar Water Heating Systems with Flat Plate and Heat Pipe Evacuated Tube Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour; Duffy, Aidan; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Conlon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS model was the T...

  9. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was devel...

  10. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  11. PERFORMANCE OF EVACUATED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR USING WATER-BASED TITANIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahendran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are undertaken to determine the efficiency of an evacuated tube solar collector using water-based Titanium Oxide (TiO2 nanofluid at the Pekan Campus (3˚32’ N, 103˚25’ E, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, for the conversion of solar thermal energy. Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone with an average daily solar insolation of more than 900 W/m², which can reach a maximum of 1200 W/m² for most of the year. Traditionally water is pumped through the collector at an optimum flow rate, for the extraction of solar thermal energy. If the outlet temperature of the water is high, further circulation of the water through the collector is useless. This is due to the low thermal conductivity of water of 0.6 W/m.K compared to metals which is many orders higher. Hence it is necessary to reduce the surface temperature either by pumping water at a higher flow rate or by enhancing the fluid’s properties by the dispersion of nanoparticles. Pumping water at higher flow rates is not advantageous as the overall efficiency of the system is lowered. Liquids in which nanosized particles of metal or their oxides are dispersed in a base liquid such as water are known as 'Nanofluids'. This results in higher values of thermal conductivity compared to the base liquid. The thermal conductivity increases with the concentration and temperature of the nanofluid. The increase in thermal conductivity with temperature is advantageous for application in collectors as the solar insolation varies throughout the day, with a minimum in the morning reaching a maximum at 2.00p.m and reducing thereafter. The efficiency of the collector estimated using a TiO2 nanofluid of 0.3% concentration is about 0.73, compared to water which is about 0.58. The efficiency is enhanced by 16.7% maximum with 30–50nm sized TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the water, compared to the system working solely with water. The flow rate is fixed at 2.7 liters per

  12. The bearable lightness of all glass structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To conclude this paper ,all glass structures like a glass bridge, glass columns, a glass brick wall and a corrugated glass faced are shown in realised projects.

  13. The Future of all glass structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nijsse, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To conclude this paper ,all glass structures like a glass bridge, glass columns, a glass brick wall and a corrugated glass faced are shown in realised projects.

  14. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  15. The Future of all glass structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To

  16. The bearable lightness of all glass structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To

  17. Performance study on evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Instant hot water at temperatures between 40 °C and 68 °C in the low solar radiation range of 240–540 W/m2. • Usage of therminol D-12 and parabolic trough in low temperature application. • Stability of thermal and flow properties of therminol D-12 are studied. - Abstract: Fossil fuels and electrical energy are widely used for instant hot water generation in rural and urban areas. Also, conventional solar water heaters do not support instant hot water generation because of various problems. A new system with evacuated tube collector using synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is developed and studied experimentally for instant hot water generation in the presence of low solar irradiance. Among the different grades of therminol, therminol D-12 is chosen for the study because of its thermal stability. Parabolic trough is coupled to evacuated tube to enhance the flow as well as heating characteristics of therminol. Heating efficiency and temperature characteristics are determined for the newly developed system under low solar irradiance conditions. Instant hot water can be produced by the new system at a temperature of 60 °C in the presence of low solar radiation. This newly developed system has the ability to check the fossil fuel consumption and electrical energy consumption for instant hot water generation in household applications. The stability of the heat transfer fluid is also ensured by repeated experiments

  18. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  19. Laminar Natural Convective Heat Transfer in the Enclosed Evacuated Collector Tube with East—West Symmetric Heat Input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHeng-Yun; GeXin-Shi

    1997-01-01

    Heat transfer in the evacuated collector tube is a three-dimensional laminar natural convection problem driven by buoyancy.Because of its complexity,no effective theoretical model is available despite of limited experimental work which is confined to one aspect.The present work aims to depict the convective heat transfer inside a two-ended inclined tube with East-West symmetric heat input using numerical methods,Based on reasonable assumptions,governing equations of the inside fluid are established.The corresponding discretizated equations are solved by emplogying numerical metholds.The calculated results are displayed for velocity and temperature profiles on different cross-sectional plasnes.which present the flow pattern characterized by upflow and downflow along the axial direction and adherent flow along the peripheral direction,and the heat transfer rpocess from the wall to the center,Furthermore,the transient Nusselt number and average temperature level are shown and discussed.Finally,the parametric effects of the tube radius and the heat input on the flow and heat transfer are also given.

  20. Design of Pumping Station for the Solar Evacuated Collector Tubes%太阳能真空集热管排气台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任家生; 毛福明; 赵正中; 刘兆斌

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the design requirements and constructure speciality of pumping station for the solar evacuated collector tubes are reported.%本文介绍了太阳能真空集热管排气台的设计要求与结构特点.

  1. 利用同心套管的简化CPC式中高温真空管太阳能集热系统设计与实验研究%Design and experimental study of simplified CPC style medium and high temperature evacuated tubular solar collectors with concentric copper tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志兵; 刘振华; 赵峰; 肖红升

    2013-01-01

    通过实验研究了一种利用简化复合抛物面聚光器(compound parabolic concentrato,CPC),全玻璃真空集热管和同心套管组成的太阳能中高温空气集热设备,可以满足工业过程对150℃至200℃的中高温度空气需求.该太阳能空气集热系统由8级集热单元串联而成.各单元都包括一个简化式CPC、一个双层玻璃真空管和一根铜套管.套管被安装在玻璃管内,空气在套管内逐级加热.对各种天气条件和流动参数对集热系统出口空气温度、系统功率和集热效率的影响进行了分析和试验研究.结果表明,整个系统具有良好的中高温集热性能.即使出口空气温度达到210℃,系统平均集热效率仍然达到20%;秋天晴天系统出口空气温度可达210℃,秋季阴雨天也可达168℃.试验结果确认这种简化CPC式全真空玻璃集热管和套管的组合装置是一种有工业实用前途的太阳能高温空气集热器.%A set of evacuated tube solar moderate temperature collectors with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube device was studied to provide air with moderate temperature of 150℃ to 200 ℃ for industrial production. The solar collector system consists of 8 linked collector units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a concentric copper tube installed inside. A kind of high thermal conductivity medium is filled between evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through the solar collector system and is progressively heated in each concentric copper tube. An experimental investigation of the outlet air temperature of the collector system, system mean collecting efficiency and system effective collecting power was conducted. Experimental results demonstrate the present solar system has good collecting efficient efficiency and quite high system power even at the outlet air temperature of 210℃ on the sunny days. The whole system has

  2. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  3. Evacuation of rectilinear polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Fekete, Sandor P; Kroeller, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the problem of creating fast evacuation plans for buildings that are modeled as grid polygons, possibly containing exponentially many cells. We study this problem in two contexts: the ``confluent'' context in which the routes to exits remain fixed over time, and the ``non-confluent'' context in which routes may change. Confluent evacuation plans are simpler to carry out, as they allocate contiguous regions to exits; non-confluent allocation can possibly create faster evacuation plans. We give results on the hardness of creating the evacuation plans and strongly polynomial algorithms for finding confluent evacuation plans when the building has two exits. We also give a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm for non-confluent evacuation plans. Finally, we show that the worst-case bound between confluent and non-confluent plans is 2-2/(k+1).

  4. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to deliver new data and to bring attention to the subject of evacuation of children. Evacuation characteristics such as flow, densities and walking speeds are in focus. Currently literature on evacuation com-prehends mostly studies on adults. Ten Danish daycare centers...... higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  5. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    and carrying through an evacuation where the youngest children need the most assistance in both phases. Self preservation i.e. where children descended stairs unassisted, was less than 25 % for children aged 0-2 years but over 85 % for children aged 3-6 years. Warning method influenced pre-evacuation time...

  6. 聚光型热管式真空集热管的(火用)分析%EXERGY ANALYSIS OF CONCENTRATING HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED SOLAR COLLECTOR TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷伟; 王军; 余雷; 金叶佳; 张耀明

    2012-01-01

    以聚光型热管式真空集热管为研究对象,结合槽式极轴跟踪聚光器,分析太阳直射辐射能到放热段传热流体热能的热转化过程,且用能量系统的(火用)分析方法对集热管的传热过程搭建(火用)效率的数学模型,给出热效率及(火用)效率的表达式,并进行室外动态性能实验,实验结果如下:实验值归一化瞬时效率为72%~73%,实验(火用)效率为6%~11%,总(火用)损率在89%以上,其中无效(火用)损失仅占很小部分,2%~5%;提高集热管焦斑的热流密度可增大集热管的(火用)效率,且集热管的(火用)效率与流量对应存在最大值.最后将(火用)效率实验值与模拟值进行比较,实际最大(火用)效率还可提高2.49%.%The thermal conversion process from the sun radiation to the heat transfer fluid of exothermic section of collector tube with polar tracking parabolic trough concentrator, and exergy efficiency mathematical model has been built by using the exergy analysis method of energy system towards the heat transfer process of collector tube, expressions of thermal efficiency were exergy efficiency were given. The outdoor dynamic performance experiment results are as follows; Experimental normalized instantaneous efficiency is about 72% ~73% , experimental exergy efficiency is 6% ~ 11% , general exergy loss rate is above 89% , and the invalid exergy loss only take a very small part, about 2% -5% ; Improving the focal spot heat flux can increase the exergy efficiency, and exergy efficiency has a maximum when the flow changes. Eventually, by comparing exergy efficiency experimental results with simulation results, the actual exergy efficiency can also be improved 2.49% more.

  7. Large-Scale Integration of All-Glass Valves on a Microfluidic Device

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxiaer Yalikun; Yo Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabricatio...

  8. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...... the space heating demand in residential buildings. The U-value of the glazing can be designed to meet the required value by increasing the monolithic silica aerogel thickness without the need for additional layers of glass. An aerogel glazing with 20 mm glass distance can reach a U-value below 0.5 W/(m(2) K...

  9. Feasibility of evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main question is whether evacuation of people is feasible in case of accidents with a nuclear power plant. The limiting conditions of this question are extracted from other studies. This study is therefore focused on a postulated accident in a newly built nuclear power plant with an electric capacity of 1000 Megawatt and a source term of one percent. In this particular case an evacuation should take place within the period between the accident and the emission of nuclear materials. Initial focus is on the administrative-organizational aspects of evacuation. Then bottlenecks in the technical implementation of evacuation are determined. An analysis is made for each potential Dutch location (Borssele, Eemshaven, Maasvlakte, Moerdijk and Westelijke Noordoostpolderdijk) of a nuclear power plant. By means of a model the following question is examined: can the population leave the danger area or be evacuated on time, under certain circumstances. It is concluded that preventive evacuation of the population from the planned locations is feasible, but at Moerdijk complications may occur because of the presence of some homes for the elderly and a nursing home. 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Disaster aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama, Nicholas G; Riddles, Lawrence M; Pollan, William A; Profenna, Leonardo C

    2011-10-01

    Successful disaster aeromedical evacuation depends on applying the principles learned by moving patients since World War II, culminating in today's global patient movement system. This article describes the role of the Department of Defense patient movement system in providing defense support to civil authorities during the 2008 hurricane season and the international disaster response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Adapting and applying the principles of active partnerships, establishing patient movement requirements, patient preparation, and in-transit visibility have resulted in the successful aeromedical evacuation of over 1,600 patients since the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.

  11. A Long Term Test of Differently Designed Evacuated Tubular Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    During three years seven differently designed evacuated tubular collectors (ETCs) utilizing solar radiation from all directions have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co. Ltd, four heat pipe ETCs...... of the inlet fluid to the collectors have been the same for all collectors. The volume flow rate through each of the collectors is adjusted so that the mean solar collector fluid temperature has been the same for all collectors. Thus a direct performance comparison is possible. The side-by-side tests were...... carried out with different mean solar collector fluid temperatures and in different seasons of the year. The results of the measurements are presented in this paper. The influence of the mean solar collector fluid temperature on the thermal performance of the different collector designs will be discussed...

  12. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  13. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co....... and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...... a direct performance comparison is possible. The results of the measurements will be presented in this paper. Among other things, the influence on the thermal performance of the absorber design will be explained. Further, it will be illustrated how the thermal performances of the different collector types...

  15. Large-Scale Integration of All-Glass Valves on a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiaer Yalikun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabrication methods, especially for the through-hole fabrication step. Therefore, we have developed a fabrication method for the large-scale integration of all-glass valves in a microfluidic device that contains 110 individually controllable diaphragm valve units on a 30 mm × 70 mm glass slide. This prototype device was fabricated by first sandwiching a 0.4-mm-thick glass slide that contained 110 1.5-mm-diameter shallow chambers, each with two 50-μm-diameter through-holes, between an ultra-thin glass sheet (4 μm thick and another 0.7-mm-thick glass slide that contained etched channels. After the fusion bonding of these three layers, the large-scale microfluidic device was obtained with integrated all-glass valves consisting of 110 individual diaphragm valve units. We demonstrated its use as a pump capable of generating a flow rate of approximately 0.06–5.33 μL/min. The maximum frequency of flow switching was approximately 12 Hz.

  16. All-glass shell scale models made with an adjustable mould

    OpenAIRE

    Belis, JLIF Jan; Pronk, ADC Arno; Schuurmans, WB; Blancke, T

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Lucio Blandini developed a doubly curved synclastic shell with adhesively bonded glass components, the concept of building a self-supporting glass-only shell has almost become within reach. In the current contribution a small-scaled experimental concept is presented of a self-supporting anticlastic all-glass shell scale model, created by means of an adaptable mould. First, different manufacturing parameters of relatively small shells are investigated, such as mould type, glass s...

  17. Counterflow in Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    It is shown in this work that the average individual egress time and other performance indicators for egress of people from a building can be improved under certain circumstances if counterflow occurs. The circumstances include widely varying walking speeds and two differently far located exits with different capacity. The result is achieved both with a paper and pencil calculation as well as with a micro simulation of an example scenario. As the difficulty of exit signage with counterflow remains one cannot conclude from the result that an emergency evacuation procedure with counterflow would really be the better variant.

  18. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  19. Evacuation from a Complex Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2014-01-01

    How is the total evacuation time of a mixed population and its subgroups predicted by the evacuation tool STEPS? Simulation using STEPS is compared with experimental data and evaluated based on individual total egress times. It was found that the total egress times were similar for the simulation...

  20. Evacuation modeling trends

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Orlando; Alvear, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book c...

  1. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  2. An ultra-low detection-limit optofluidic biosensor based on all glass Fabry-Perot cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Huang, Hui; Bai, Min; Liu, Pengbo; Chao, Ming; Hu, Jie; Hao, Jian; Cao, Tun

    2014-12-29

    An all glass optofludic biosensor with high quality-factor Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC) channel was reported. The all glass sandwich structure can completely eliminate the etching roughness of the channel surface, and can extend the operating wavelength to visible and ultraviolet regions compared with that of Si-based sensor. The quality-factor of the FPC channel is 875, and the system noise can be reduced to 1.2 nV by combining optical differential detection with phase lock-in detection. A detection limit of 15ng/mL for glucose solution, which corresponds to a refractive index unit of 2.0 × 10-9, was experimentally demonstrated. The all glass FPC sensor features low cost and robust compared with surface-plasmon-resonance sensor and ring-resonator sensor. PMID:25607165

  3. A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Yue (Larry) Peng

    2016-01-01

    A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, a...

  4. Simulation study on the effect of pre-evacuation time and exit width on evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Guanquan; SUN Jinhua; WANG Qingsong; CHEN Sining

    2006-01-01

    Occupant pre-evacuation time is often oversimplified into an explicit value in evacuation calculation. In fact, it is not an explicit value but a random variable following some kind of probability distribution. In order to analyze the importance of pre-evacuation time in evacuation calculation, GridFlow evacuation model is utilized to study the effect of pre-evacuation time on evacuation under different occupant densities and exit widths in a single room scenario. The evacuation time calculated by using normal pre-evacuation distribution is compared with that calculated by explicit pre-evacuation time. Two faults are presented when pre-evacuation time is considered as an explicit value. The theory of congestion and queue is presented to analyze the calculation results. Moreover, this paper also presents probability distribution of the total evacuation time when the pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution. The results show that the evacuation time is dominated by pre-evacuation time and hardly dependent on occupant density when the mean pre- evacuation time is long. For long mean pre-evacua- tion time, low occupant density or wide exit, when pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution, the total evacuation time also follows normal distribution.

  5. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  6. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  7. Pedestrian, Crowd, and Evacuation Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes efforts to model the behavior of individual pedestrians and their interactions in crowds, which generate certain kinds of self-organized patterns of motion. Moreover, this article focusses on the dynamics of crowds in panic or evacuation situations, methods to optimize building designs for egress, and factors potentially causing the breakdown of orderly motion.

  8. Transportation Modelling for Regional Evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Regional evacuation planning is complex and timely. These planning studies can be assisted by a transportation model. In this thesis, we investigate the requirements for such a model, and develop, implement, and test a new model, called EVAQ, which meets these requirements. Two case studies show how

  9. Stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Two types of systems are available for evacuating the surgical smoke created by electrosurgery and laser surgery: portable and stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems. While portable systems dominate the market today, stationary systems are an alternative worth considering--even though they are still in their infancy, with fewer than 90 systems installed to date. Stationary systems represent a major commitment on the part of the healthcare facility. Several system components must be installed as part of the physical plant (for instance, within the walls), making the system a permanent fixture in the surgical suite. Installation of these systems is often carried out during building construction or major renovation--although the systems can be cost-effective even if no renovations are planned. For this Evaluation, we tested three stationary systems. All three are adequate to capture surgical smoke and evacuate it from the operating room. These systems are easy to use, are quietter than their portable counterparts, and require minimal user maintenance. They represent an excellent option for most hospitals actively evacuating surgical smoke. In this article, we discuss the factors to consider when selecting from among these systems. We also offer guidance on choosing between stationary systems and portable ones. PMID:11321758

  10. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Nero C; Örtenwall P; Khorram-Manesh A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals´ complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for planning, performance and evaluation of such evacuation. Methods: A risk and vulnerability analysis at two county hospitals along with a systematic online literature search based on the following keywords; “evacuation/closure”, “hospitals/medical facilities” and“disaster/hazards” alone or with “planning”, was conducted. Results: We found that although all hospitals have a disaster plan, there is a lack of knowledge and appropriate instruments to plan, perform and evaluate a hospital evacuation. Risk and vulnerability analysis can be used to reveal threats leading to an evacuation (e.g. on-going climate changes and terror actions). These key points can later be used to plan, perform and evaluate such evacuation. Conclusion: There is a need for an elaborated evacuation planning for hospitals. An evacuation plan should continuously be drilled based on a risk and vulnerability analysis. A general guide can be used as foundation to plan, perform and evaluate such plan.

  11. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  12. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  13. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography (CT) is now effective not only for definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematomas but also for coordination of the center of a hematoma. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma was performed in 51 cases: 34 of basal ganglionic hematoma with or without ventricular perforation, 11 of subcortical hematoma, 3 of thalamic hematoma and 3 of cerebellar hematoma. Three dimensional CT images or biplane CT images were taken to determine the coordinates of the target point, which was the center of the hematoma. Then, a silicon tube (O.D. 3.5 phi, I.D. 2.1 phi) was inserted into the center of the hematoma through a burr-hole under local anesthesia, and the liquid or solid hematoma was aspirated as completely as possible with a syringe. Urokinase (6,000 I.U./5 ml saline) was administered through this silicon tube every 6 or 12 hours for several days until the hematoma had drained out competely. The silicon tube was taken out when repeated CT scanning revealed no hematoma. The results of clinical follow-ups indicated that this procedure is as good as, or rather better than conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. Moreover this CT-guided stereotactic approach for evacuation of the hematoma has the following advantages: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation can be performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma is drained out completely with the aid of urokinase. This surgery seems indicated as an emergency treatment for high-age or high risk patients and also as a routine surgery for intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herination signs. (author)

  14. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Alternative evacuation strategies for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the U.S., current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced, allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping using geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the size of the population evacuated. - Highlights: • Developed framework to compare nuclear power accident evacuation strategies. • Evacuation strategies were compared on basis of radiological and evacuation risk. • Current strategies are adequate for smaller scale nuclear power accidents. • New strategies reduced radiation exposure and evacuation size for larger accidents

  16. A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yue (Larry Peng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, and can immediately begin to run when a liquid enters its inlet channel. It is also more reliable than conventional micro pumps for practical use due to its ability to restart after the formation of a blocking bubble, which can serve as a valuable troubleshooting procedure. Its volumetric pump output was 0.5–0.7 nL·s−1 under a pump head pressure of 300 Pa.

  17. Analysis of near-optimal evacuation instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse, O.L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, approximations of optimal evacuation instructions are analyzed. The instructions, consisting of a departure time, a destination, and a route, are for the evacuation by car of a population of a region threatened by a hazard. An optimization method presented in earlier research is appli

  18. Modelling Traveller Behaviour under Emergency Evacuation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This paper focuses on limitations in the modelling of travellers’ behaviour with respect to traffic information and compliance to evacuation instructions. More specifically, we propose a model fra

  19. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  20. [Air medical evacuation on modern stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Bochenkov, A A; Iamenskov, V V; Grebeniuk, S A; Peshkov, V V

    2010-01-01

    There was effectuated an analyze of using of aircrafts for medical air evacuation of ill and wounded persons, was shown it's place in system of treatment-evacuation measures during the war and peaceful time in course of liquidation of consequences of natural disasters. The article presents main clinical-physiological aspects of medical air evacuation, peculiarities of organization of delivery of health care aboard aircraft, state of medical air evacuation for now-days. The article presents characteristics of purposes and supply of created sanitary planes and helicopters: Mi-8MB "Bisectrix", An-26M "Saver", Il-76MD "Bistoury". There elaborated recommendations upon organization of medical air evacuation during war and peaceful time. PMID:20536037

  1. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Rohrbaugh; Kelsey Bogue; Hunt, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done ...

  2. Experimental study of a novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater%CPC热管真空管式热水器实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静娟; 朱跃钊; 陈海军; 王银峰; 郭丹丹; 蒋金柱; 廖传华

    2012-01-01

    研制了一种CPC(复合抛物面聚焦)热管真空管式太阳能热水器.该热水器在普通玻璃真空管热水器的基础上耦合热管技术,并增加了CPC聚光板.对该热水器与全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器进行了热性能对比实验研究.结果表明,在300 W/m2~800 W/m2日照条件下,该新型热水器单位面积集热功率最高可达610 W/m2;平均集热效率约为80%,比全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器的瞬时效率高10%~20%;导热介质的最高温度达到103℃.证明增加CPC聚光板及运用导热油可有效提高集热品位,利用热管技术可解决严寒地区的抗冻问题,所以,CPC热管真空管式太阳能热水器将具有较广阔的市场前景.%A novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater was developed combined with heat pipe and CPC light gathering tabula on the basis of all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Comparative thermal performance tests on two different types of solar water heaters were carried out. A CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater and an all -glass evacuated tube solar water heater were installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions. The results show that, the maximum heat collecting power of this solar water heater can reach 610 W/m2 during solar radiation ranging from 300W/m2~800W/m2. Average heat collecting efficiency of this solar water heater can be improved effectively by using CPC, to 80%, which is 10%-20% higher than the all-glass vacuum solar water heater. The highest temperature of heat conducting oil in the vacuum tube can reach 1031. It proved that CPC light gathering tabula and the heat conducting oil is beneficial to improve the collector grade, and heat pipes can overcome the problem of the tube broken during working at subzero temperature. Therefore, the CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater will have a bright prospect of application.

  3. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  4. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  5. Athermal distributed Brillouin sensors utilizing all-glass optical fibers fabricated from rare earth garnets: LuAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragic, P. D.; Pamato, M. G.; Iordache, V.; Bass, J. D.; Kucera, C. J.; Jones, M.; Hawkins, T. W.; Ballato, J.

    2016-01-01

    An all-glass optical fiber derived from single-crystal LuAG is investigated for its potential use in athermal Brillouin distributed strain sensors. Such sensor systems are comprised of fiber whose Brillouin frequency shift is independent of temperature, but not independent of strain. Bulk Brillouin spectroscopy measurements on the precursor LuAG crystal are performed to gain insight into the crystal-to-glass transition. Results suggest that both the mass density and acoustic velocity are reduced relative to the crystal phase, in common with the other rare earth aluminosilicates. Advantages of the LuAG derived fiber over other rare earth garnet-derived fibers for the sensing application are a stronger strain response and larger Brilloun gain with narrower Brillouin spectral width.

  6. Simulation of people's evacuation in tunnel fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The simulation model Tunev(tunnel evacuation) was developed for people's evacuation in tunnel fire. It contains simple database of the people's behavioral reaction and structure characteristic parameters of tunnel fireproofing. The model can be used to calculate the total evacuation time in various scenes when fire occurs in the different locations of the tunnel. Combined with fire simulation soft ware CFD- POENICS3.5, Tunev model can be used to calculate the fire danger coming time; by comparing with these two kinds of time, it can be used to assess the safety of the evacuation, and the evacuation process also have a dynamic demo. The simulation results show that the Tunev model can be used to predict the reliability of safe evacuation for people in tunnel fire and provide references for people's safe escape scheme. Some relevant concepts of the model were described and an evacuation simulation of a typical tunnel case, i.e. Xuefeng Mountain Tunnel was performed by using this model. And the model's validation and actual application were also described.

  7. Emergency evacuation system for mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qing-yi; BUDIMAN Jeff; SHEN Jay

    2011-01-01

    There are many potential hazards in the underground mining these include fire,explosion,inundation,roof collapse,toxic gases,chemical pollution,etc.Over past centuries,in US alone,more than 100 000 miners lost their life in different accidents.The primary safety methods used in underground mines concentrate on the monitoring of the hazardous gases,fire detection and ventilation.Using advanced instruments and monitoring techniques have significantly reduced the accidents in the modem mines.However despite the advancement of these monitoring facilities,accidents still occur in underground mining annually in the world,and many miners were killed because they were trapped and unable to escape due to blocked of exit access.Described a new development for the emergency evacuation system in underground mines and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the system.It is expected that the new system will greatly improve the emergency exit methods and save more lives in the future.

  8. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... EU project a promising method was proposed, so the time for evacuation could be reduced from several hours to a few minutes.The aim of this project was to design and build an apparatus for evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings up to 60 cm x 60 cm based on the proposed method.The key element...... of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast...

  9. Room evacuation through two contiguous exits

    CERN Document Server

    Sticco, I M; Dorso, C O

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations demand that at least two exits should be available for a safe evacuation during a panic situation. Although the "faster is slower" effect is expected to take place near the exits, the evacuation time will improve because of the additional exits. However, rooms having contiguous doors not always reduce the leaving time as expected. We investigated the relation between the doors separation and the evacuation performance. We found that there exists a separation distance range that does not really improve the evacuation time, or it can even worsen the process performance. To our knowledge, no attention has been given to this issue in the literature. This work reports how the pedestrians dynamics differ when the separation distance between two exit doors changes and how this affects the overall performance.

  10. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from any projections of the vessel's structure or equipment. (4) The marine evacuation system's passage... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation...

  11. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Jennings; Jordan Johnston; Gary P. Moynihan; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a d...

  12. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  13. Managed traffic evacuation using distributed sensor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Biswas, Subir

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an integrated sensor network and distributed event processing architecture for managed in-building traffic evacuation during natural and human-caused disasters, including earthquakes, fire and biological/chemical terrorist attacks. The proposed wireless sensor network protocols and distributed event processing mechanisms offer a new distributed paradigm for improving reliability in building evacuation and disaster management. The networking component of the system is constructed using distributed wireless sensors for measuring environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and detecting unusual events such as smoke, structural failures, vibration, biological/chemical or nuclear agents. Distributed event processing algorithms will be executed by these sensor nodes to detect the propagation pattern of the disaster and to measure the concentration and activity of human traffic in different parts of the building. Based on this information, dynamic evacuation decisions are taken for maximizing the evacuation speed and minimizing unwanted incidents such as human exposure to harmful agents and stampedes near exits. A set of audio-visual indicators and actuators are used for aiding the automated evacuation process. In this paper we develop integrated protocols, algorithms and their simulation models for the proposed sensor networking and the distributed event processing framework. Also, efficient harnessing of the individually low, but collectively massive, processing abilities of the sensor nodes is a powerful concept behind our proposed distributed event processing algorithms. Results obtained through simulation in this paper are used for a detailed characterization of the proposed evacuation management system and its associated algorithmic components.

  14. Evacuation of institutionalized and specialized populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the needs of organizations caring for institutional and specialized populations when faced with a threat or hazard requiring an evacuation. Individuals within specialized populations are unlike other victims of disaster because of their inherent dependency on organizational care givers and require different management strategies on the part of organizations and agencies in an evacuation. The research sought to identify those aspects of coping strategies that have been used successfully to manage an emergency evacuation. To identify special populations that have evacuated from institutions and similar facilities over a four-year period, a computerized search was conducted of media accounts describing such events. The search yielded a total of 1024 accounts from which four major subgroups were identified: nursing homes and related care facilities, hospitals, educational institutions, and correctional facilities. A miscellaneous group including housing for the elderly, apartments and other building complexes, workplaces and factories, public facilities, and places occupied by transient populations, such as transportation units and recreational facilities, could be used for future study. Among the factors found to affect evacuations were the extent of organizational resources (such as the number of staff or other individuals available at the time of the event), the type and number of clientele, and such community characteristics as population density. The study focuses on selected organizational characteristics of health care facilities (nursing homes and related care facilities and hospitals) which have recently experienced either a partial or complete evacuation of their facilities. 165 refs., 13 tabs.

  15. Fire incidents during construction work of tunnels - evacuation aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzich, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    The report focuses on evacuation aspects at tunnel construction sites. An introduction provides a framework on what determines the outcome of an evacuation, i.e. the physical environment and management aspects. Analyses of the evacuation conditions for several fire scenarios are performed using a combined smoke spread and evacuation model developed as a part of the project. Finally, general recommendations on how to analyse the evacuation safety in a specific tunnel is provided.

  16. Choose all-glass vacuum-tube water heaters%全玻璃真空太阳热水器的选购

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛培杰

    2001-01-01

    @@对于消费者来说,全玻璃真空管太阳热水器的选购存在一定难度。因为它既不同于冰箱、洗衣机等早已进入千家万户、性能已被人们熟知的家电产品,也不同于家具、衣物等质量优劣较易判定的消费品。真空管太阳热水器的各项技术指标、性能及影响使用寿命的原材料质量等关键因素在初次购买时很难判别,往往在使用过程中才能慢慢体会。现在,市场上的真空管太阳热水器外观相似,但内在品质差别极大。选购一台优质高效、性能价格比合理的放心产品,可以从 8个方面进行对比: 一得热量 太阳热水器一年的得热量多少兆焦 (MJ)是热性能的一项主要指标。通常在日太阳总辐照度大于 17MJ/ m2条件下测定太阳热水器的得热量,再按运用地区换算成一年的得热量。得热量的多少主要取决于以下几个因素: 1 全玻璃真空集热管优劣 全玻璃真空集热管是真空管太阳热水器的核心集热部件,它的生产有三大关键技术:内、外管之间夹层高真空的获得和长久保持;具有高的太阳吸收比和低的热发射比的选择性吸收涂层;透光比高、强度大、热膨胀系数小 (即耐热冲击性能优良 )的优质硼硅玻璃 3 3材料。 全玻璃真空集热管的生产工艺复杂、技术难度大,各项性能指标在线检测困难。消费者凭肉眼几乎无法鉴别真空管的优劣,应注意选择名牌产品,例如清华阳光公司生产的北京名牌——“晒乐”牌全玻璃真空太阳集热管。 2 漫反射板材料和结构的合理性 全玻璃真空太阳集热管具有圆柱面的吸热体,往往在组装成太阳热水器时全玻璃真空集热管相隔一定距离,其背部装有反射器,以提高真空管太阳热水器的性能价格比。反射器有两种: (1)复合抛物面聚光器 (CPC)是较理想的镜面反射器,但镜面材料昂贵,以及运用过程中灰尘与树叶的覆盖,使镜反射比下降约一半,失去了优势。目前市场上有不少是用漫反射材料制成曲面反射器,费用增加而性能并未提高。 (2)平板漫反射器,具有好的性能价格比。

  17. Technology for Simulating Crowd Evacuation Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hu Qin; Guo-Hui Su; Xiao-Na Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for simulating crowd evacuation and investigates three widely recognized problems. For the space continuity problem, this paper presents two computation algorithms: one uses grid space to evaluate the coordinates of the obstacle's bounding box and the other employs the geometry rule to establish individual evacuation routes. For the problem of collision, avoidance, and excess among the individuals, this paper computes the generalized force and friction force and then modifies the direction of march to obtain a speed model based on the crowd density and real time speed. For the exit selection problem, this paper establishes a method of selecting the exits by combining the exit's crowd state with the individuals. Finally, a particle system is used to simulate the behavior of crowd evacuation and produces useful test results.

  18. Simulation of Emergency Evacuation in Virtual Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Aizhu; CHEN Chi; LUO Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A virtual reality system was developed to simulate emergency evacuations during fires.The spreading of the flame and smoke in the virtual fire was modeled based on numerical fire simulations,so that the conditions are similar to real life.A multi-grid,multi-base-state database model was used to overcome the disadvantages of traditional smoke spreading simulations.Textured images and particle systems provide visualization of the flame and smoke.The system immerses the user in a virtual environment with detailed interactions between the users and the virtual environment.The system can show which evacuation methods are effective for building safety evaluations.

  19. A comparison of two sodium citrate concentrations in two evacuated blood collection systems for prothrombin time and ISI determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

    2000-10-01

    The prothrombin time is usually measured in citrated plasma. The W.H.O. recommended concentration of sodium citrate for blood collection for laboratory control of oral anticoagulant therapy is 0.109 M. Some evacuated blood collection systems include 0.105 M sodium citrate. The purpose of the present study was to establish the difference in ISI calibration between 0.109 and 0.105 M citrate, using 7 types of thromboplastin and various types of instrumentation. The two citrate concentrations were provided in both evacuated siliconised glass tubes and in evacuated polyethylene terephtalate (PET) tubes. The ISI difference between the two citrate concentrations was 5.4% for one system but not greater than 3% for all other systems when blood samples were collected with either siliconized glass or PET tubes. Most of the ISI differences between the two citrate concentrations were not significant at the 5% level. It is concluded that the ISI differences between 0.105 M and 0.109 M citrate are not of practical importance. In contrast, ISI differences between siliconised glass and PET tubes, using either 0.105 or 0.109 M citrate, were significant (p <0.05) for most thromboplastin systems and amounted to 7%. ISI interchange between these glass and PET tubes could induce INR differences amounting to 14%, which could affect clinical dosage of oral anticoagulants. PMID:11057867

  20. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  1. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  2. Evacuation from ships : account for ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Bles, W.

    1999-01-01

    A transnational BriteEuram programme on evacuation of passengers from ships is presented. Recent disasters on ferries of the roll-on/roll-off type have led to higher requirements for safety. These requirements are formulated in terms of overall performance rather than performance of a number of isol

  3. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  4. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  6. Service level-oriented route guidance during evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, R.L.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of evacuation management puts a strong focus on the development of optimal evacuation and control strategies. However, in operational evacuation management the means to monitor, manage, evaluate and control are limited. The authorities nevertheless have a strong need to underst

  7. Model-based Optimal Evacuation Planning anticipating Traveler Compliance Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Huibregtse, O.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Instructing evacuees on their departure time, destination, and route can lead to more efficient evacuation traffic operations. While current evacuation plan optimization techniques are limited to assessing mandatory evacuation where travelers strictly follow the instructions, in reality a share of t

  8. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  9. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  10. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 400 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  11. Evacuation plan of the city of almere: simulating the impact of driving behavior on evacuation clearance time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Tamminga, G.F.; De Wit, J.; Van der Berg, W.

    2010-01-01

    The evacuation clearance time is one of the key indicators in an evacuation plan and is determined by the expected behavior of the endangered residents and roadway network characteristics. The city of Almere has developed an evacuation plan in case of the emergency of a flooding, but assumes a norma

  12. A cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG WenGuo; YUAN HongYong; FAN WeiCheng

    2007-01-01

    The research of evacuation in some emergencies, e.g. fire, is of great benefit to reducing the injuries of persons. In this paper, a cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors is presented. Each person is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas, including move-to-goal, avoid-obstacle, swirl-obstacle and nervous-motion, drive persons to interact with their environment. The motor schemas are combined with cellular automaton theory, and an evacuation model is built. Evacuation simulation of persons with different move velocities shows that the presented model can predict accurately the evacuation phenomena in some emergencies.

  13. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Evacuation Process in Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chang-Qun; ZHENG Rong-Sen; GAO Chun-Yuan; QIU Bing; DENG Min-Yi; KONC Ling-Jiang; LIU Mu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations on the evacuation process in a story are launched with cellular automaton in this article. The story is composed of five rooms and one corridor. Influence of various parameters on the evacuation process is investigated. It shows that the width of the door of rooms has little influence but the width of the corridor and themaximum velocity of the pedestrian have great influence on the time for evacuation. The relation between evacuation time and the width of corridor is found as tc ∝ W-.0.84. It is also found that appropriate shape of the room is helpful to evacuation.

  14. Modelling large-scale evacuation of music festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ronchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of multi-agent continuous evacuation modelling for representing large-scale evacuation scenarios at music festivals. A 65,000 people capacity music festival area was simulated using the model Pathfinder. Three evacuation scenarios were developed in order to explore the capabilities of evacuation modelling during such incidents, namely (1 a preventive evacuation of a section of the festival area containing approximately 15,000 people due to a fire breaking out on a ship, (2 an escalating scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people due to a bomb threat, and (3 a cascading scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people due to the threat of an explosion caused by a ship engine overheating. This study suggests that the analysis of the people-evacuation time curves produced by evacuation models, coupled with a visual analysis of the simulated evacuation scenarios, allows for the identification of the main factors affecting the evacuation process (e.g., delay times, overcrowding at exits in relation to exit widths, etc. and potential measures that could improve safety.

  15. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  16. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  17. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  18. A disaster evacuation planning tool (ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry; Ferguson, James; Hosch, Rebecca

    2010-04-01

    Natural disasters take hundreds of thousands of lives each year. They generate billions of dollars in financial losses annually. Some of these losses are inevitable due to the high population densities in areas at risk for earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and other powerful forces in nature. However with improvements in weather forecasting, the emergence of better modeling and simulation tools, and the application of these tools to disaster preparation and recovery planning these losses in human life and infrastructure can be greatly mitigated. ADEPT is an application developed by Rite-Solutions that joins storm surge modeling with evacuation route planning. It can be used to train citizens and first responders in best disaster evacuation practices.

  19. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    that participant generally behave altruistic and assisted fellow participants to evacuate. There are examples of elderly people guiding and assisting children to evacuate, deaf people assisting mobility impaired people, and able-bodied individuals who lend a helping hand to a blind participant and guide him......Fire have always been a threat to human beings and claim lives every year. A lot is done to ensure fire safety in our buildings an structures, but fires still occur and lives are lost. In the past decades there has been a trend towards more and more complex buildings, which challenge fire safety...... engineers and the prescriptive fire safety codes. Consquently, performance based fire codes is developed and implemented in countires around the world. Performance based codes allow for use of engineering tools and calculations. Meanwhile, accessibility to the building environment have likewise gained...

  20. Evacuation exercise at the CERN Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector. The fire brigade checked that the buil...

  1. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  2. Thermal performance of an open thermosyphon using nanofluid for evacuated tubular high temperature air solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar air collector with simplified CPC and open thermosyphon is designed and tested. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • Nanofluid effectively improves thermal performance of the above solar air collector. • Solar air collector with open thermosyphon is better than that with concentric tube. - Abstract: A novel evacuated tubular solar air collector integrated with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and special open thermosyphon using water based CuO nanofluid as the working fluid is designed to provide air with high and moderate temperature. The experimental system has two linked panels and each panel includes an evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and an open thermosyphon. Outdoor experimental study has been carried out to investigate the actual solar collecting performance of the designed system. Experimental results show that air outlet temperature and system collecting efficiency of the solar air collector using nanofluid as the open thermosyphon’s working fluid are both higher than that using water. Its maximum air outlet temperature exceeds 170 °C at the air volume rate of 7.6 m3/h in winter, even though the experimental system consists of only two collecting panels. The solar collecting performance of the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon is also compared with that integrated with common concentric tube. Experimental results show that the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon has a much better collecting performance

  3. Are the dynamics of gastric evacuation of natural prey in a piscivorous flatfish different from what is going on in a gadoid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, C.; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that the stomach of turbot Psetta maxima is a curved tube that forms a half circle, it was demonstrated that gastric evacuation in this predatory flatfish fed natural prey closely followed the surface-dependent cylinder model developed from studies on gadoids with a straight...

  4. CT guided stereotactic evacuation for hypertensive intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-one cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma were evacuated by CT guided stereotactic method. The operation was performed in the CT room under general anesthesia using the KOMAI-NAKAJIMA STEREOTACTIC DEVICE. This instrument has a micromanipulater that can be used for various kinds of stereotactic procedures. Three dimensional position of the target point (aspiration point of the hematoma) was determined on the film obtained from CT scanning of the patient in the stereotactic system. If the hematoma was small, the target point was enough to be one point at the center of the hematoma, but in case of the large hematoma, several target points were given according to the shape of hematoma. The probe, ordinarily a steel tube 4 mm in outer diameter, was inserted through brain to the target point and the hematoma was aspirated through a silicon tube connected to a vacuum system. Among 61 cases examined, 30 cases of thalamic hemorrhage were operated upon and 36 cases were not operated. They were classified according to the volume of hematoma into 3 groups as follows: A=less than 10 ml, B=11-25 ml, C=more than 25 ml. The operated cases were compared with the non operated cases on the improvement of consciousness in each group. In the A group, the operated patients in the level I recovered more slowly than the non operated patients, but in the level II patients, this was reversed. In the B group, the operated patients improved more quickly except the level I patients. In the C group, almost all of non operated patients died. Thus, this operation was very useful in improving consciousness of level II or III patients independent of hematoma volume. It accelerated the recovery of motor function in the level I. This non inversive technique is considered effective for the removal of deep intracerebral hematoma. (author)

  5. Can cooperation slow down emergency evacuations?

    CERN Document Server

    Cirillo, Emilio N M

    2012-01-01

    We study the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility hides the precise position of the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of cooperation on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no--exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd. In some cases, we note that if the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters.

  6. Public Evacuation Process Modeling and Simulatiaon Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering attraction of the nearest exit, repulsive force of the fire, barrier and its display style, effect of fire exit location on escape time in fire hazard, a mathematical model of evacuation process model was build based on cellular automatic theory. The program was developed by JavaScript. The influencing factors of evacuation were obtained through the simulation model by inputting crew size, creating initial positions of crew and fire seat stochastically. The experimental results show that the evacuation simulation model with authenticity and validity, which has guiding significance for people evacuation and public escape system design.  

  7. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  8. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  9. A look at tubes; Keiner guckt in die Roehre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2001-08-01

    Evacuated tubes, with or without mirrors, are in fashion. They have a much higher energy yield than flat plate collectors at almost identical cost. Producers are satisfied with the market trends. [German] Mit oder ohne Spiegel: Vakuumroehren sind trendy. Sie erzielen im Vergleich zu Flachkollektoren hohe Waermeertraege und kosten mittlerweile nur noch wenig mehr. Hersteller sind mit der Marktentwicklung zufrieden. (orig.)

  10. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  11. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a)...

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  13. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  14. Simulation of City Evacuation Coupled to Flood Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Mordvintsev; V.V. Krzhizhanovskaya; M.H. Lees; P.M.A. Sloot

    2012-01-01

    Crowd modeling is one of the key components of risk analysis and evacuation planning in emergency situations. This paper presents a simulation environment for experimenting with different city evacuation scenarios. The simulation couples a flood model with a crowd escape model. The developed agent-b

  15. Evacuation modeling including traveler information and compliance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic simulation models are often used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. Scenario analyses based on these models then typically focus on traffic dynamics and the effect of traffic control measures in order to locate possible bottlenecks and predict evacuation times. A clear approac

  16. WILLEM : a Wireless InteLLigent Evacuation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W.H. van; Neef, R.M.; Lieburg, A. van; Schut, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present WILLEM, a system for dynamic evacuation routing in buildings, using a wireless sensor network. Dynamic evacuation routing is the process of dynamically determining the fastest routes to the exits. The routes may be changed in case a fire occurs somewhere. We also present an

  17. Modeling Evacuation of a Hospital without Electric Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Hospital evacuations that occur during, or as a result of, infrastructure outages are complicated and demanding. Loss of infrastructure services can initiate a chain of events with corresponding management challenges. This report describes a modeling case study of the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas (USA). The study uses a model designed to track such cascading events following loss of infrastructure services and to identify the staff, resources, and operational adaptations required to sustain patient care and/or conduct an evacuation. The model is based on the assumption that a hospital's primary mission is to provide necessary medical care to all of its patients, even when critical infrastructure services to the hospital and surrounding areas are disrupted. Model logic evaluates the hospital's ability to provide an adequate level of care for all of its patients throughout a period of disruption. If hospital resources are insufficient to provide such care, the model recommends an evacuation. Model features also provide information to support evacuation and resource allocation decisions for optimizing care over the entire population of patients. This report documents the application of the model to a scenario designed to resemble the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital, demonstrating the model's ability to recreate the timeline of an actual evacuation. The model is also applied to scenarios demonstrating how its output can inform evacuation planning activities and timing.

  18. Application of Mathematical Model of Evacuation for Large Stadium Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sports arena accidents show that the main reasons which leading to crowd stampede are the exports blockage and the poor surrounding transportations. In the process of evacuation, the most common problem is that there are a large number of people are stranded and also they are the main carrier which leading to crowded stampede. With large amounts of data and reasonable evaluations on staffs and transportation instruments. We propose inflow model in the crowding state, principle of maximum flow on channel design, optimal model of vehicle parking, evacuation model of subways and buses, according to sections of evacuation in stadiums. We analyze their usage area, marginal conditions and real data. Finally, we get some valuable results, which are curves of density and flow, evacuation time, formula for channel design, optimal parking design and formulas for evacuation time of subways and buses. Such data suits the real data from varied references. With the help of models and results, we get the total time of evacuation, simulation of progress and give parts of real situations of evacuation. According to such results, 100000 people’s evacuation can be finished in about 45 min. On such basis, we propose some optimal plans for stadium and its surroundings building.

  19. Escaping in couples facilitates evacuation: Experimental study and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Hu, Mao-Bin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Ding, Zhong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of escaping in couples on the evacuation dynamics has been investigated via experiments and modeling. Two sets of experiments have been implemented, in which pedestrians are asked to escape either in individual or in couples. The experiments show that escaping in couples can decrease the average evacuation time. Moreover, it is found that the average evacuation time gap is essentially constant, which means that the evacuation speed essentially does not depend on the number of pedestrians that have not yet escaped. To model the evacuation dynamics, an improved social force model has been proposed, in which it is assumed that the driving force of a pedestrian cannot be fulfilled when the composition of physical forces exceeds a threshold because the pedestrian cannot keep his/her body balance under this circumstance. To model the effect of escaping in couples, attraction force has been introduced between the partners. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  20. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on the evacuation characteristics of children. Current literature on evacuation is based mostly on studies on adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the movement of children during evacuation, focusing on flow, densities and walking. Ten Danish daycare centers participated...... in full scale evacuation experiments where two age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. It was found that flow through doors, walking speeds and densities were age-dependent and differed strongly from the data in existing literature. The results showed higher walking speeds in spiral...... stairs when the children were familiar with the evacuation path. Higher person densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in the current literature on adults. Children in the younger age group were generally slower than the older children. The children walked...

  1. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  2. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...... speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed...

  3. Evacuation time estimate for a total pedestrian evacuation using queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    CERN Document Server

    Kunwar, Bharat; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a non-trivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, number of evacuees and resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). We divide $50$ medium sized UK cities into a total of $697$ catchment areas which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. In these catchment areas, 90% of agents are within $5.4$ km of their designated exit node. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based `queuing network' model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETE. This relationship could enable e...

  4. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  5. Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students, evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building׳s layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two different types of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order. The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students׳ evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

  6. An analysis of evacuation options for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of release of a hazardous substance into the atmosphere will sometimes require that the population at risk be evacuated. If the substance is particularly hazardous or the release is exceptionally large, then an extensive area may have to be evacuated at substantial cost. In this report we consider the threat posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant. The report's objective is to establish relationships between radiation dose and the cost of evacuation under a wide variety of conditions. The dose can almost always be reduced by evacuating the population from a larger area. However, extending the evacuation zone outward will cause evacuation costs to increase. The purpose of this analysis was to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a data base for evaluating whether implementation costs and risks averted could be used to justify evacuation at lower doses than would be required based on acceptable risk of health effects alone. The procedures used and results of these analyses are being made available as background information for use by others. In this report we develop cost/dose relationships for 54 scenarios that are based upon the severity of the reactor accident, meteorological conditions during the release of radionuclides into the environment, and the angular width of the evacuation zone. The 54 scenarios are derived from combinations of three accident severity levels, six meteorological conditions and evacuation zone widths of 70 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg. Appendix tables are provided to allow acceptable evaluation of the cost/dose relationships for a wide variety of scenarios. Guidance and examples are provided in the text to show how these tables can be used

  7. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM: a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant. Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM. The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc. and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  8. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  9. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  10. A microcosmic discrete occupant evacuation model based on individual characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; LI Jian; ZHAO Daoliang; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    The research of occupant evacuation in an emergency is of great benefit to building design and evacuation guidance. In this paper a microcosmic discrete evacuation model based on Cellular Automata (CA) is presented, in which the occupants' individual characteristics are considered. Thus, our model has given a description of evacuation route choice with influencing factors, including: individual knowledge of the building,individual realization of the emergency development, and the attractive and repulsive force between occupants. This model differs somewhat from other models in the attention to the associative and separate effect of influencing factors, based on occupant's behaviors. In addition, the model could reveal the phenomenon of escape in fire, as those simulations involving a fire condition have shown.

  11. A Time-Aware Routing Map for Indoor Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of dynamic environments expires over time. Thus, using static maps of the environment for decision making is problematic, especially in emergency situations, such as evacuations. This paper suggests a fading memory model for mapping dynamic environments: a mechanism to put less trust on older knowledge in decision making. The model has been assessed by simulating indoor evacuations, adopting and comparing various strategies in decision making. Results suggest that fading memory generally improves this decision making.

  12. Dynamic Evacuation Routes for Personnel on a Naval Ship (DRAFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Peréz‐VillaLonga, F.; J. Salmerón; Wood, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Naval Research Logistics, 55, pp. 785‐799. Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) Paper. We propose a “dynamic escape route system” for emergency evacuation of a naval ship. The system employs signals that adapt to the causative contingency and the crew’s physical distribution about the ship. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, with underlying network structure, optimizes the evacuation process. The network’s nodes represent compartments, closures (e.g., doors, hatches) and in...

  13. Passengers’ Evacuation in Ships Based on Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gan-Nan Yuan; Li-Na Zhang; Li-Qiang Liu; Kan Wang

    2014-01-01

    A new intelligent model to simulate evacuation behavior in ships called neighborhood particle swarm optimization is proposed. This model determines the rules of behavior and velocity updating formulas to solve staff conflicts. The individuals in evacuation are taken as particles in PSO and update their behaviors by individual attributes, neighborhood attributes, and social attributes. Putting the degree of freedom movement of ships into environment factor and using the real Ro-Ro ship informa...

  14. All-glass extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer thermo-optic coefficient sensor based on a capillary bridged two fiber ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhitao; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Da; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-03-20

    An all-glass extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) is demonstrated for thermal-optic coefficient (TOC) of water, glycerol, and their mixture (volume ratio of 1:1). The compensation for the thermal expansion of Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is realized by assembling a glass capillary and optical fibers through a CO2 laser welding. The thermal responses of EFPIs are tested in air at different cavity lengths of 578.6 μm, 911.7 μm, and 1520.3 μm, respectively. The corresponding refractive index errors induced by thermal expansion of FP cavity are negligible, which are demonstrated to be 4.33×10-6  RIU/°C, 4.13×10-6  RIU/°C, and 3.45×10-6  RIU/°C when temperature increases from 20.03°C to 60.78°C. The thermal-optic coefficients of water, glycerol, and their mixture are measured to be -1.5×10-4  RIU/°C, -2.3×10-4  RIU/°C, and -2.0×10-4  RIU/°C, respectively. Our study suggests a potential use of this sensor for TOC measurements of liquids with the advantages of low costs and robustness.

  15. Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.; Soewono, E. [Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Civil Engineering Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-05-22

    Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

  16. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  17. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  18. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  19. Forecasting pedestrian evacuation times by using swarm intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, J.; Montalvo, I.; Pérez, R.; Fuertes, V. S.

    2009-04-01

    Many models have been developed to provide designers with methods for forecasting the time required for evacuation from various places under a variety of conditions. Particularly for high traffic buildings or buildings of cultural, governmental, or industrial importance, it is of paramount importance to properly evaluate and plan for the necessary evacuation time. To address this need, a number of models for pedestrian simulation, either considering the system as a whole or studying the behavior and decisions of individual pedestrians and their interactions with other pedestrians, have been developed over the years. In this work, a model for evacuation simulation and for estimating evacuation times is proposed. It is inspired by the so-called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The multi-agent-based simulation characteristics of PSO and the way this technique combines individual and collective intelligence make it suitable for this problem. The PSO-based model presented here allows for assessment of the behavioral patterns followed by individuals during a rapid evacuation event. Evaluation of these behaviors can address a variety of public safety concerns, such as architectural design, evacuation protocol definition, and regulation of public space.

  20. Optimization-based Logistics Planning and Performance Measurement for Hospital Evacuation and Emergency Management

    OpenAIRE

    Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the development of optimization models for hospital evacuation logistics, as well as the analyses of various resource management strategies in terms of the equity of evacuation plans generated. We first formulate the evacuation transportation problem of a hospital as an integer programming model that minimizes the total evacuation risk consisting of the threat risk necessitating evacuation and the transportation risk experienced en route. Patients, categorized base...

  1. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  2. Social influence on evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kinateder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a promising tool to study evacuation behavior as it allows experimentally controlled, safe simulation of otherwise dangerous situations. However, validation studies comparing evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments are still scarce. We compare the decision to evacuate in response to a fire alarm in matched physical and virtual environments. 150 participants were tested individually in a one-trial experiment in one of three conditions. In the Control condition, the fire alarm sounded while the participant performed a bogus perceptual matching task. In the Passive bystander condition, the participant performed the task together with a confederate who ignored the fire alarm. In the Active bystander condition, the confederate left the room when the fire alarm went off. Half of the participants in each condition experienced the scenario in the real laboratory, and the other half in a matched virtual environment with a virtual bystander, presented in a head-mounted display. The active bystander group was more likely to evacuate, and the passive bystander group less likely to evacuate, than the control group. This pattern of social influence was observed in both the real and virtual environments, although the overall response to the virtual alarm was reduced; positive influence was comparable, whereas negative influence was weaker in VR. We found no reliable gender effects for the participant or the bystander. These findings extend the bystander effect to the decision to evacuate, revealing a positive as well as the previous negative social influence. The results support the ecological validity of VR as a research tool to study evacuation behavior in emergency situations, with the caveat that effect sizes may be smaller in VR.

  3. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and light at the tip) inserted through the ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  4. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  5. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP, in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in

  6. Evacuation of pedestrians from a hall by game strategy update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model considering game strategy update is proposed to study the pedestrian evacuation in a hall. Pedestrians are classified into two categories, i.e., cooperators and defectors, and they walk to an exit according to their own strategy change. The conflicts that two or three pedestrians try to occupy the same site at the same time are investigated in the Game theory model. Based on it, the relationship between the pedestrian flow rate and the evacuation time as well as the variation of cooperative proportion against evacuation time is investigated from the different initial cooperative proportions under the influence of noise. The critical value of the noise is found when there is a small number of defectors in the initial time. Moreover, the influences of the initial cooperative proportion and strength of noise on evacuation are discussed. The results show that the lower the initial cooperative proportion as well as the bigger the strength of noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation. (general)

  7. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  8. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  9. Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.

  10. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of human evacuation dynamics and performance are important when designing complex buildings such as bridges and when applying performance-based codes in order to reduce the risk of exposing occupants to critical conditions in case of fire. The majority of previous studies deal...... with the evacuation behavior of abled bodied homogeneous groups. Hence, a significant part of the population is poorly described such as are people with impairments which are about 10%-21% of the world's population, furthermore elderly people, giving an additional 10% and 20% of the population are aged below 15 years....... The discussion of "equal access" is only followed slowly by the demand on "equal egress". However, the passengers on trains on bridges are rarely homogeneous mixture. At the same time equal egress is far from assured today. In this paper the evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges are considered...

  11. Simple technique for evacuation of traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatley Edward

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic subcutaneous haematomas are common cases in the accident and emergency department. Occasionally, urgent evacuation is required to prevent skin necrosis. Methods We present a simple and safe technique, based on a principle similar to liposuction to evacuate traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension. Instruments readily available in the accident and emergency department are used without the need of general anaesthesia. Results The technique was performed in six cases without complication such as infection or re-collection of the haematoma under tension. We present two typical scenarios where urgent evacuation was indicated and the technique performed. Conclusion The technique is useful as an urgent and safe procedure in the accident and emergency department setting.

  12. An evacuation model accounting for elementary students' individual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Guo, Ren-Yong; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a cellular automata model for pedestrian flow to investigate the effects of elementary students' individual properties on the evacuation process in a classroom with two exits. In this model, each student's route choice behavior is determined by the capacity of his current route to each exit, the distance between his current position and the corresponding exit, the repulsive interactions between his adjacent students and him, and the congestion degree near each exit; the elementary students are sorted into rational and irrational students. The simulation results show that the irrational students' proportion has significant impacts on the evacuation process and efficiency, and that all students simultaneously evacuating may be inefficient.

  13. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A generic transportation network model for the calculation of evacuation time estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuation times for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies. (author)

  14. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  15. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. PMID:27170110

  16. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  17. Simulation of evacuation behaviors in fire using spacial grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; ZHAO Daoliang; LI Jian; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (CA) model to demonstrate the special phenomena of occupants evacuating from fire room is presented. A set of simple but effective models is proposed to investigate the effect of fire smoke on route choice. The concept of danger grade is introduced, and occupants select the target cell according to the value of danger grade at each time step. Some technique is introduced to substitute the human intelligence, such as premeditation. The simulation results show that human evacuation is influenced greatly by both human visual field and building exit.

  18. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.;

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp...... of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially...... the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore...

  19. A review on travel behaviour modelling in dynamic traffic simulation models for evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This contribution reviews the different (mathematical) model formulations underlying these traffic simulation models used in evacuation studies and the behavioural assumptions that are made. The a

  20. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  1. Straightening tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal wrapper tubes, especially for nuclear reactor core sub-assemblies, may suffer from unacceptable bow as a result of welding wear pads to the wrapper and heat treatment. Straightening of the bow is effected by a method wherein at each of a series of axially spaced locations the faces or vertices of the tube are measured relative to a reference to determine the direction of bow at the locations. From these measurements, the appropriate axial locations for the application of corrective loading can be determined, whereby by application of the loading at a selected face or vertex for such measurements the bow is reduced. Such loading, by an actuator, can be repeated at the locations until the bow is reduced to within tolerances. (author)

  2. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  3. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger;

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...

  4. Disaster warning and evacuation responses by private business employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, T E

    2001-03-01

    When people are advised that their place of employment is threatened with disaster, how do they respond? Interviews with employees (n = 406) of 118 businesses affected by one of seven recent disasters provide the first answers to this question. Multivariate analyses document the key variables that best predict variation are: 1) emergent perceptions of risk; 2) time of evacuation from work; 3) time of evacuation from home; 4) multiple evacuations; and 5) tension between work and family commitments. When warned of impending disaster, most employees initially responded with denial. Gradually, however, emergent perceptions of risk intensified especially among those living in communities in which the least amount of disaster planning had occurred or who resided in a mobile home or apartment. Highest levels of work and family tensions during these evacuations were reported by racial minority employees who had children living at home. Policy implications for these and other findings are discussed so as to pin-point changes business managers should make that will enable them to provide the leadership and compassion expected by employees. PMID:11244647

  5. A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping

    2005-01-01

    There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.

  6. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  7. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    ) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among...

  8. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  9. CT guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive and traumatic intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancement of CT system provides not only definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematoma but also coordinates of the center of the hematoma. Trials of stereotactic evacuation of the hematoma have been reported by some authors in the cases of subacute or chronic stages of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. In this series, similar surgery has been performed in 33 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma including 22 cases in acute stage, and 2 cases of traumatic hematoma. Clinical outcomes were investigated and the results were considered to be equivalent or rather better in the conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. However, there still remained controversial problems in the cases of threatened herniation signs, because in these cases regular surgery with total evacuation of the hematoma at one time might have been preferable. The benefits of this CT guided stereotactic approach for the evacuation of the hematoma were thought to be as follow: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation is readily performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma was drained out totally by means of urokinase activity. It is our impression that this surgery not only is indicated as emergency treatment for the patients of high-age or in high risk, but also can institute as a routine surgery for the intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herniation sign. (J.P.N.)

  10. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The con

  11. Development of Cladding Materials for Evacuated Panel Superinsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Weaver, F.J.; Cumberbatch, G.M.; Begnoche, B.; Brodie, V.; Lamb, W.; Reitz, R.; Caldwell, P.; Meyer, C.

    1999-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, VacuPanel, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Evacuated panel superinsulations have thermal resistivities (R) substantially above that of conventional existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as foam insulations blown with Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  12. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of human evacuation dynamics and performance are important when designing complex buildings such as bridges and when applying performance-based codes in order to reduce the risk of exposing occupants to critical conditions in case of fire. The majority of previous studies deal wi...

  13. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Morales; Ramon Alcarria; Diego Martin; Tomas Robles

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carr...

  14. The effects of meal size, body size and temperature on gastric evacuation in pikeperch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koed, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Prey size had no effect on the gastric evacuation rate of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca. The gastric evacuation was adequately described applying an exponent of 0.5 in the power model. Applying length instead of weight of pikeperch in the gastric evacuation model resulted in a change...

  15. EA-based evacuation planning using agent-based crowd simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zhong; W. Cai; L. Luo; M. Lees

    2014-01-01

    Safety planning for crowd evacuation is an important and active research topic nowadays. One important issue is to devise the evacuation plans of individuals in emergency situations so as to reduce the total evacuation time. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based methodology,

  16. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... 24-consecutive hour period of a HEMES assignment, unless an emergency medical evacuation operation...

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR THERMAL EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR USING DIFFERENT NANOFLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima A. *, P. Sreekala, Bobin K. Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Energy use and energy security are greatly interrelated and corresponds to a major concern in the Indian energy sector. Renewable energy sector occupies an inevitable role in the sustainable development technologies in which the needs of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. Drastically increasing energy demand and environmental issues have motivated many international researchers for searching an alternative option t...

  18. Indoor test for thermal performance of the Sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used to obtain the thermal performance data for a solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. Tests included a stagnation test, a time constant test, a thermal efficiency test, an incident angle modifier test, and a hot fill test. All tests were performed at ambient conditions and the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector were determined. The solar collector is a water working fluid type.

  19. Evacuation plan evaluation: Assessment of mandatory and voluntary vehicular evacuation schemes by means of an analytical dynamic travel model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an evacuation simulation model is proposed, combining a dynamic travel demand component, an adaptive travel choice behavior component, and a dynamic network loading component. The travel demand component considers the primary choice facing the endangered residents, whether to participa

  20. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  1. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  2. Tube furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  3. Intelligent Exit-Selection Behaviors during a Room Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zarita Zainuddin; Lim Eng Aik

    2012-01-01

    A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles. Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions, it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models. To resolve these issues, we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation. Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model. From the simulation results, it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low, but if the density is high they will go to an aiternative exit so as to avoid a long wait. This reflects the fact that occupants may not fully utilize multiple exits during evacuation. The improvement in our proposed model is valuable for further study and for upgrading the safety aspects of building designs.%A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles.Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions,it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models.To resolve these issues,we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians,and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation.Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model.From the simulation results,it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low,but if the density is high they will go to an alternative exit so as to avoid a long wait.This reflects the fact

  4. Problems Associated with Evacuation from the Ship in Case of an Emergency Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorota H. (L)ozowicka

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with evacuation of people from the ship in an emergency situation are analyzed,especially passenger ships are taken under consideration. The most dangerous accidents requiring evacuation are described.Marine accidents often occur as eliminating all of the hazards to human health and life is still impossible. In every case,the evacuation process from the ship must be taken under consideration. Evacuation route arrangement should provide the possibility of safe departure from danger areas for passengers and crew members. Evacuation routes designed for human interaction within the evacuation process and other important factors are reviewed. Additionally, the method for seeking evacuation time as a function of initial distribution of passengers and evacuation routes choosing is suggested. A genetic algorithm will be used, whilst the calculated evacuation time is connected with a fitness function. Parameters of evacuation routes topology are coded as non-binary chromosomes. Genetic operators are fitted for such types of problems to avoid receiving infeasible solutions. The objective of the proposed method is to find the evacuation time in worse case scenarios.

  5. Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Roger; Bish, Douglas R; Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital's emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios.

  6. Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    von Sivers, I; Künzner, F; Köster, G; Drury, J; Philippides, A; Neckel, T; Bungartz, H -J

    2016-01-01

    Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd psychology. ...

  7. Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

  8. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...... gastric evacuation was evaluated and compared with a power model expanded as a function of meal size. The model parameters were estimated by means of nonlinear least squares. When all meal sizes were included the estimates of the power (curvature) parameter in the expanded model were within the range 0.......36-0.77 for the different prey. The power estimates in the simple model were generally close to 0.5. The exception was crustacean prey, which gave a higher value. In the simple model the power estimate represents a compromise between the curvatures of the curves fitted to the observations for each meal size...

  9. Variable Message Signs for road tunnel emergency evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel; Modig, Henric; Walter, Anders Lindgren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of Variable Message Signs (VMS) as a way-finding aid for road tunnel emergency evacuations. The use of the Theory of Affordances is suggested to provide recommendations on the design of VMS. A preliminary evaluation of 11 selected VMS systems was performed and 6 of them were further evaluated using an affordance-based within subject stated-preference questionnaire administered to a sample of 62 participants. Results are used to provide recommendations on the characteristics of the VMS systems, such as (1) size of the sign (large or small); (2) use of flashing lights; (3) colour scheme; (4) message coding (i.e., text, pictograms or a combination of them). The best performing VMS features for road tunnel emergency evacuation included the use of larger signs, flashing lights, the combination of emergency exit pictorial symbol in green in one panel and text in amber in the other panel.

  10. Should evacuation standards be reviewed after a nuclear accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments the current practices of post-accident management of nuclear disasters. He outlines the peculiarities of nuclear evacuations with respect to other disasters. After referring to the use of life expectancy or of the reduction of life expectancy, for example for smokers, he suggests that irradiation could be expressed this way and then provide some intuitive information. He discusses the notion of linear no-threshold relationship which has been introduced by the ICRP after analysis of cancers noticed on survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He addresses the case of Fukushima, the issue of low doses applied to large populations. He discusses the limitations of the linear no-threshold relationship. He discusses possible improvements of evacuation procedures

  11. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alaeddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.. The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1 a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2 an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37 which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45 which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster. Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  12. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Shashi; George, Betsy; Lu, Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    Efficient tools are needed to identify routes and schedules to evacuate affected populations to safety in face of natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Challenges arise due to violation of key assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of alternative routes, Wardrop equilibrium) behind popular shortest path algorithms (e.g. Dijktra's, A*) and microscopic traffic simulators (e.g. DYNASMART). Time-expanded graphs (TEG) based mathematical programming paradigm does not scale up to large urban scenari...

  13. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  14. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  15. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  16. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  17. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy

  19. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  20. Certainty of uncertainty in evacuation for threat driven response. Principles of adaptive evacuation management for flood risk planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Evacuation is a measure taken to potentially reduce the loss of life and damage to movable goods. This thesis focuses on the Netherlands as a representative urbanized delta and flood risk management. The central element of this thesis is uncertainty. Evacuation has benefits but can be costly. Theref

  1. Why Don't People Evacuate When Nature Threatens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Broad, K.; Meyer, R.; Orlove, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Why do so many Southern Californians fail to evacuate when warned that winter storms have critically raised the risk of a debris flow in their neighborhoods? Have they perhaps not seen or heeded news coverage of past debris flow events? Are they unaware that recent fires made the hillsides above them more prone to gravity-driven processes? Do they think they can wait to start their cars until they can actually see the flow coming? Or have they merely experienced too many "false alarms" in past years, and no longer put much stock in the judgment of public officials or the ability of scientists to judge debris flow risk? In preparation for a simulation study that will place decision makers in a virtual house in the California foothills during a winter storm event, we explore the reasons that people do and do not evacuate in the face of potential debris flows. Working in collaboration with the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project for Southern California, we are surveying hundreds of local residents, from debris-flow prone areas and from elsewhere in the state, to establish their baseline knowledge (and misconceptions) about, attitudes toward, information use regarding, and experience with debris flows. Initial interviews with residents of recently hit neighborhoods give qualitative data suggesting that false-alarm effects and underestimation of risk are driving factors; these surveys will provide quantitative evidence to extend those findings. We will discuss the results of this survey in the context of a comprehensive body of psychology research that seeks to explain why people frequently appear to ignore or discount hazard warnings: neglecting to insure their homes and crops (Kunreuther, 1984), failing to evacuate in the face of storms and fires (Baker, 1991; Packham, 1995), and (barring a recent, vivid event) showing little support for measures that would manage or mitigate future hazards (Kunreuther, 2006a, 2006b; Weber, 2006). We will also consider the

  2. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  3. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  4. Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. [CSU Solar House 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loef, G.O.G.; Duff, W.S.

    1979-09-01

    Solar House I, the first residential solar system test facility at the Colorado State University, is described. Provision was made for the removal and replacement of the various subsystems so that the facility could be utilized to evaluate other residential size solar components and systems. Two evacuated tube collectors and one flat plate collector were evaluated. The operations history, system performance, performance assessment, and comparison with model are included. (MHR)

  5. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  6. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  7. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  8. Incorporating emergency evacuation planning, through human reliability analysis, in the risk management of industrial installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: luquetti@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation presents many risks in the form of the process hazards, such as fire, explosion, gas and radiation release. In these situations, workers may need to evacuate from the work environment as soon as possible. In this case, the emergency evacuation planning is a key element that involves an iterative process to identify the best evacuation routes and to estimate the time required to evacuate the area at risk. The mean aspects for a successful emergency evacuation are influenced by the type of human error and the severity of the initiator event. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework for the identification of the performance shaping factors and prediction of human error probabilities of the responsible by the emergency evacuation of the workers in an industrial installation, providing a proactive approach for the allocation of the human factors in the risk assessment of the industrial installation. (author)

  9. Agent-Based Model for Pedestrians’ Evacuation after a Blast Integrated with a Human Behavior Model

    OpenAIRE

    PLUCHINO Salvatore; TRIBOLATO Chiara; CAVERZAN ALESSIO; MC QUILLAN Alexandro; Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; MAHIN Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a powerful tool for model complex and heterogeneous systems as pedestrian evacuation after extreme events. Several studies on Emergency Management exist in literature, but the majority of them do not consider how human behavior impacts the evacuation plan. Indeed, these can change drastically a critical scenario because are driven by emotions, knowledge and perception which are unpredictable. The aim of this study is to develop an ABM of an evacuation scenario du...

  10. Evacuation studies for nuclear power plant sites: a new challenge for transportation engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only one evacuation time component is discussed: travel time through the transportation network or clearance time. A methodology is suggested for conducting a clearance-time study given the evacuating population's spatial and temporal distribution. A special-purpose traffic simulation model, NETVACI, is included which describes the traffic pattern in a transportation network during an emergency evacuation. Some applications of the model are described. 9 refs

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF AN EVACUATION FROM A TSUNAMI AT PARANGTRITIS BEACH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radianta Triatmadja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami disaster in Calang (Aceh, Indonesia in December 2004 caused traffic jam at a bottleneck on an evacuation road that was fatal, killing most of the evacuees. This tragedy provides an invaluable lesson for evacuation planning in several other locations that are prone to tsunami events. Parangtritis is a local tourism destination that is also prone to tsunami hazard. Although the evacuation routes have been prepared and evacuation direction sign boards have been provided, a study on their capacity and suitability were required. One of the methods was employing mathematical simulations. This paper addresses the development of a mathematical model based on the Dijkstra algorithm and its application to evacuation during a tsunami at Parangtritis Beach, Indonesia. The running speeds of evacuees were derived from world athletes’ running records but with significantly lower coefficients to model ordinary people. Trial runs were also carried out to calibrate the value of f that represented the ratio between running speed on the certain route and on well paved, horizontal and obstacle free road. The results suggested that the existing evacuation routes were not sufficient and that the direction of evacuation need adjustment. It was found that relatively slower runners that were in front of faster runners would potentially decrease the average evacuation speed. Vertical evacuation routes, such as along steep hills or high buildings, must be wide enough (to ensure a low crowd density and easily accessible (to ensure a higher evacuation route speed to avoid traffic jams. The number of people to be evacuated and road condition are vital factors to determine the evacuation routes to the selected shelters.

  12. The need for a verification and validation protocol for evacuation models

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no standard Verification and Validation (V&V) protocol for the evaluation of evacuation model predictions. This paper is intended to open a discussion on the main issues associated with the definition of a standard procedure for the V&V of building fire evacuation models. Examples of such issues are discussed, namely 1) the definition of tests able to investigate the capability of evacuation models of representing emergent behaviours, 2) a discussion on the methods e...

  13. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

  14. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  15. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  16. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger;

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...... of an emergency exit on the flux through the exit, and second, the influence of other pedestrians on the route choice of an individual. The first investigation demonstrates the possibility of improving substantially the flow through an exit by placing an obstacle in a suitable way in front of it. The latter shows...

  17. Disaster evacuation: an exploratory study of older men and women in Georgia and North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Bunting, Sheila; Cobb, Brenda K; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    This article describes an exploratory study designed to compare the characteristics, evacuation beliefs, risk factors, and health problems of older adults living in two Georgia counties and three North Carolina counties regarding willingness to evacuate in the event of a natural disaster. More than 75% of men and women in this study listened to news about Hurricane Katrina, yet one third of the men said that they may or would not evacuate. In this study, being influenced by the outcomes of Hurricane Katrina and belief in following the advice of county officials were the only two statistically significant predictors of evacuation tendency. PMID:18183747

  18. Experiment and modeling of paired effect on evacuation from a three-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel three-dimensional cellular automata evacuation model was proposed based on stairs factor for paired effect and variety velocities in pedestrian evacuation. In the model pedestrians' moving probability of target position at the next moment was defined based on distance profit and repulsive force profit, and evacuation strategy was elaborated in detail through analyzing variety velocities and repulsive phenomenon in moving process. At last, experiments with the simulation platform were conducted to study the relationships of evacuation time, average velocity and pedestrian velocity. The results showed that when the ratio of single pedestrian was higher in the system, the shortest route strategy was good for improving evacuation efficiency; in turn, if ratio of paired pedestrians was higher, it is good for improving evacuation efficiency to adopt strategy that avoided conflicts, and priority should be given to scattered evacuation. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional evacuation model was presented with stair factor. • The paired effect and variety velocities were considered in evacuation model. • The cellular automata model is improved by repulsive force

  19. Numerical Simulation of Evacuation Process in Malaysia By Using Distinct-Element-Method Based Multi-Agent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustan, M. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Gotoh, H.; Harada, E.; Talib, S. H. A.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, not many researches on crowd evacuation simulation had been reported. Hence, the development of numerical crowd evacuation process by taking into account people behavioral patterns and psychological characteristics is crucial in Malaysia. On the other hand, tsunami disaster began to gain attention of Malaysian citizens after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that need quick evacuation process. In relation to the above circumstances, we have conducted simulations of tsunami evacuation process at the Miami Beach of Penang Island by using Distinct Element Method (DEM)-based crowd behavior simulator. The main objectives are to investigate and reproduce current conditions of evacuation process at the said locations under different hypothetical scenarios for the efficiency study of the evacuation. The sim-1 is initial condition of evacuation planning while sim-2 as improvement of evacuation planning by adding new evacuation area. From the simulation result, sim-2 have a shorter time of evacuation process compared to the sim-1. The evacuation time recuded 53 second. The effect of the additional evacuation place is confirmed from decreasing of the evacuation completion time. Simultaneously, the numerical simulation may be promoted as an effective tool in studying crowd evacuation process.

  20. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  1. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. Conducting adequate tsunami risk assessments is essential, as the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment results allow the identification of adequate, site-specific and vulnerability-oriented risk management options, with the formulation of a tsunami evacuation plan being one of the main expected results. An evacuation plan requires the analysis of the territory and an evaluation of the relevant elements (hazard, population, evacuation routes, and shelters), the modelling of the evacuation, and the proposal of alternatives for those communities located in areas with limited opportunities for evacuation. Evacuation plans, which are developed by the responsible authorities and decision makers, would benefit from a clear and straightforward connection between the scientific and technical information from tsunami risk assessments and the subsequent risk reduction options. Scientifically-based evacuation plans would translate into benefits for the society in terms of mortality reduction. This work presents a comprehensive framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process, such as the potential location for vertical evacuation shelters and alternative routes. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge the gap between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as

  2. Using a GIS to Model Tsunami Evacuation Times for the Community of Fairhaven, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graehl, N.; Dengler, L.

    2008-12-01

    The community of Fairhaven (pop. 200) is located at the southern end of the Samoa Peninsula in Humboldt County, California. Fairhaven experienced minor flooding from the 1964 Alaska teletsunami and lies within the inundation zone of numerical models for tsunamis generated by the Cascadia s¬ubduction zone. The highest elevations in the community are about 8 meters which potentially exposes the community to high velocity waves and tsunami inundation. This study modeled the evacuation times to reach the nearest designated evacuation area in the adjacent community of Samoa by foot, to determine if this time frame is realistic in the event of a tsunami evacuation. We used a GIS to generate a Cost Weighted Surface that takes into account distance, physical objects such as buildings, lakes, rivers and other obstructions, and elevation. The Spatial Analyst extension in ArcGIS along with 1 meter resolution NAIP imagery was used to construct a land-use polygon shapefile for the Samoa Peninsula. Slope values were imported into the Cost Weighted Surface with 5 meter resolution DEM's of the Humboldt Bay area. Land-use and slope were reclassified to contain speed values based on the type of surface or slope a pedestrian would walk over. Land-use was reclassified based on walking speed values attained in the field while slope values were reclassified based on Laghi and Cavalletti's criteria. Land-use and slope were then combined to create the final Cost Weighted Surface. Two evacuation time maps were created: one modeled pedestrian evacuation time to Samoa's official evacuation site and the other to a proposed evacuation site located within Fairhaven. The generated evacuation time maps show that evacuation times generally increase radially as the distance from the evacuation sites increases. However, this is untrue where slope and land use characteristics have more of an influence on evacuation time than distance. Maximum pedestrian evacuation times decreased from nearly two

  3. A new way to estimate the evacuation time for people involved in a building fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2004-01-01

    A survey about evacuation models is given. The current available evacuation models based on hand calculations are tested during the survey. The objectives have been to analyze the existing hand calculating methods and thereby validate or may be, disqualify a model. The survey is based on comparison...

  4. An accessibility graph-based model to optimize tsunami evacuation sites and routes in Martinique, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péroche, M.; Leone, F.; Gutton, R.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tsunami threatens the whole Caribbean coastline especially the Lesser Antilles. The first available models of tsunami propagation estimate that the travel time from the closest seismic sources would only take few minutes to impact the Martinique Island. Considering this threat, the most effective measure is a planned and organized evacuation of the coastal population. This requires an efficient regional warning system, estimation of the maximum expected tsunami flood height, preparation of the population to evacuate, and drawing up of local and regional emergency plans. In order to produce an efficient evacuation plan, we have to assess the number of people at risk, the potential evacuation routes, the safe areas and the available time to evacuate. However, this essential information is still lacking in the French West Indies emergency plans. This paper proposes a model of tsunami evacuation sites accessibility for Martinique directly addressed to decision makers. It is based on a population database at a local scale, the development of connected graphs of roads, the identification of potential safe areas and the velocity setting for pedestrians. Evacuation routes are calculated using the Dijkstra's algorithm which gives the shortest path between areas at risk and designated evacuation sites. The first results allow us to map the theoretical times and routes to keep the exposed population safe and to compare these results with a tsunami travel time scenario.

  5. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  6. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  7. The simulation and analysis of small group effect in crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Hu, Jun; Gu, Musong; Fan, Wenjie; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    A crowd usually tends to move in small groups during evacuation. Small group has a large proportion in crowd evacuation, and small group effect affects crowd evacuation significantly. In this work, we propose a novel methodology for calculating movement profit based on cellular automaton model. Specifically, this methodology calculates the movement profit for a target at the next moment by comprehensively combining distance profit, density profit, and average velocity profit. In particular, this paper defines three types of small-group formation with totally six different forms of small group in terms of the size, and sets the corresponding movement velocity. At last, we simulate the evacuation process of small groups, and discuss the relationship among evacuation time, average movement velocity, and pedestrian density, and analyze the efficiency of small group evacuation in terms of evacuation strategies. As the simulation results demonstrated, the evacuation efficiency of different types of small groups is greatly different, and the same type of small groups with different forms is also different.

  8. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  9. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION... consist of questionnaires that will be handed out to occupants who have evacuated previously- identified high-rise buildings as a part of a scheduled evacuation drill. The purpose of these questionnaires...

  10. Precision of ingestion time and evacuation predictors for individual prey in stomachs of predatory fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    .10 of the coefficients of variation sigma(m) and sigma(e) were obtained for the square root of initial prey mass and the evacuation rate parameter, respectively. They were estimated from length-mass data on a variety of fresh prey fishes and from data on gastric evacuation in the predatory gadoids whiting (Merlangius...

  11. Effects of Data Resolution and Human Behavior on Large Scale Evacuation Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) based macroscopic simulation studies are mostly applied in evacuation planning and operation areas. The large size in TAZ and aggregated information of macroscopic simulation underestimate the real evacuation performance. To take advantage of the high resolution demographic data LandScan USA (the zone size is much smaller than TAZ) and agent-based microscopic traffic simulation models, many new problems appeared and novel solutions are needed. A series of studies are conducted using LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) data for evacuation assignments with different network configurations, travel demand models, and travelers compliance behavior. First, a new Multiple Source Nearest Destination Shortest Path (MSNDSP) problem is defined for generating Origin Destination matrix in evacuation assignments when using LandScan dataset. Second, a new agent-based traffic assignment framework using LandScan and TRANSIMS modules is proposed for evacuation planning and operation study. Impact a...

  12. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  13. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with flat fins and one model is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with curved fins. The models are characterized by detailed calculations of the heat transfer processes in the fins, by detailed shadow modeling and by fins with selective...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  14. Emergency evacuation models in subway service systems: An application on Izmir (Turkey subway system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Baysal Türkölmez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population in crowded cities causes transportation problems. Public transportation is an effective solution for the crowded traffic. Subway is a fast and productive alternative for public transportation so it is a highly preferable choice in others. It is hard to evacuate people in subway station during a disaster in carriages, on subway line or in subway stations because subway systems are often located underground, a lot people use it at the same time and enter-exit gates are controlled by turnstiles. It is crucially important to know the evacuation time of people from subway. In this paper, Konak station, one of the most crowded stations of Izmir Subway System is analyzed by emergency evacuation models. The evacuation process is simulated by Simulex software. The emergency evacuation problem is modeled in three different scenarios. Solution offers are developed for them.

  15. Application of Spatial and Network Analysis to Evaluate Shelter Plan for Tsunami Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for evaluating shelter plan for emergency evacuation prior to a tsunami based on service area analysis. The evacuation service areas are generated using both spatial and network analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS. A case study in Pacitan city, East Java Province, Indonesia which is located in the South coastal area of Java Island, is picked as study area. The field has a possibility of suffering tsunami disaster because of the movement of Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. The simulation result shows that the current evacuation shelters arranged by local government are not easy to access if tsunami occurs. About 50% of the residents do not have enough time to evacuate to the shelters because many shelters are located far from residential area. Utilizing public buildings around residential area for temporary shelters proposed in this study, about 96% residents in inundation area have sufficient time to evacuate to the shelters.

  16. Beat-the-wave evacuation mapping for tsunami hazards in Seaside, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, George R.; Stimely, Laura; Wood, Nathan J.; Madin, Ian; Watzig, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    Previous pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunamis has not considered variable wave arrival times or critical junctures (e.g., bridges), nor does it effectively communicate multiple evacuee travel speeds. We summarize an approach that identifies evacuation corridors, recognizes variable wave arrival times, and produces a map of minimum pedestrian travel speeds to reach safety, termed a “beat-the-wave” (BTW) evacuation analysis. We demonstrate the improved approach by evaluating difficulty of pedestrian evacuation of Seaside, Oregon, for a local tsunami generated by a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. We establish evacuation paths by calculating the least cost distance (LCD) to safety for every grid cell in a tsunami-hazard zone using geospatial, anisotropic path distance algorithms. Minimum BTW speed to safety on LCD paths is calculated for every grid cell by dividing surface distance from that cell to safety by the tsunami arrival time at safety. We evaluated three scenarios of evacuation difficulty: (1) all bridges are intact with a 5-minute evacuation delay from the start of earthquake, (2) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 5-minute delay, and (3) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 10-minute delay. BTW maps also take into account critical evacuation points along complex shorelines (e.g., peninsulas, bridges over shore-parallel estuaries) where evacuees could be caught by tsunami waves. The BTW map is able to communicate multiple pedestrian travel speeds, which are typically visualized by multiple maps with current LCD-based mapping practices. Results demonstrate that evacuation of Seaside is problematic seaward of the shore-parallel waterways for those with any limitations on mobility. Tsunami vertical-evacuation refuges or additional pedestrian bridges may be effective ways of reducing loss of life seaward of these waterways.

  17. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  18. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  19. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  20. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  1. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  2. Suction and Evacuation for Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Makhija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the authors' experience in Suction and Evacuation with cannula followed by maintenance of negative pressure in the uterine cavity by keeping the cannula inside for 20-30minutes, which was performed for controlling intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study carried out from July 2011 to December 2012 at our institute. Nine patients who delivered either vaginally or via caesarian section and developed primary PPH refractory to conventional medical treatment, were included in the study. Suction and evacuation of the uterine cavity was done and then the cannula was kept inside the uterine cavity for 20-30 minutes thereby maintaining negative pressure (400-600mmHg in the cavity. Data were retrieved from patients' hospital records. Results: Intractable primary hemorrhage was encountered in 9 patients of whom 6 had bleeding after caesarian section and 3 after vaginal deliveries. Uterine atony due to prolonged labour was the commonest cause. Hemorrhage was effectively controlled in 8 out of 9 cases (88.9% and hysterectomy was avoided. In one patient (11.1 % the procedure failed and life saving hysterectomy was done to control the bleeding. This approach not only controls PPH but also preserves the woman´s reproductive functions and avoids hysterectomy and its related complications and consequences. Conclusion: This is a simple conservative surgical method to treat PPH in low resource settings. It requires minimal training, conserves the uterus, and is technically less challenging and associated with less blood loss than hysterectomy.

  3. [NASO-OROGASTRIC TUBE IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS. REVIEW OF METHODS OF CONFIRMATION OF PLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Márquez, Gloria; Martínez-Serrano, Ana; Míguez-Navarro, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a frequent procedure in the paediatric population. Nasogastric and orogastric tubes are commonly used in hospitalized children, in the paediatric emergency departments and in critical care departments. They have diagnostic, therapeutic, descompression or evacuation of gastric aspirates objectives. Making a blind placement of nasogastric tubes, involve that nasogastric tube could be misplaced in 4.7 % to 69 % of cases. An accurate method for confirmation of nasogastric tube positioning is therefore needed. Chest X-ray remains the only hundred per cent reliable method (gold standard), but it only confirms tube positioning at the exact time of the X-ray. Non-radiologic verification methods provide an accurate alternative and contribute to decrease radiation exposure for pediatric patients. Non-radiologic methods to verify appropiate placement of tubes are many and are supported by different degrees of evidence in the literature: measurement of tube length from point of entry; auscultation; placing the tube in water to assess bubbling; aspiration of stomach or intestinal contents for visual inspection; pH testing; use of CO2 monitoring devices, or combinations of these methods. In this article we thoroughly review the reliability and safety of these non radiologic methods for the verification of nasogastric tube placement.

  4. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  5. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  6. Analysis of Tsunami Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based Modeling. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Yuriage, Natori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, tsunami awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, tsunami evacuation simulation can be applied to tsunami mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 tsunami, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the tsunami warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the model. The case study shows the contribution of tsunami evacuation models as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of tsunami evacuation models.

  7. Transit-Based Emergency Evacuation with Transit Signal Priority in Sudden-Onset Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents methods of transit signal priority without transit-only lanes for a transit-based emergency evacuation in a sudden-onset disaster. Arterial priority signal coordination is optimized when a traffic signal control system provides priority signals for transit vehicles along an evacuation route. Transit signal priority is determined by “transit vehicle arrival time estimation,” “queuing vehicle dissipation time estimation,” “traffic signal status estimation,” “transit signal optimization,” and “arterial traffic signal coordination for transit vehicle in evacuation route.” It takes advantage of the large capacities of transit vehicles, reduces the evacuation time, and evacuates as many evacuees as possible. The proposed methods were tested on a simulation platform with Paramics V6.0. To evaluate and compare the performance of transit signal priority, three scenarios were simulated in the simulator. The results indicate that the methods of this study can reduce the travel times of transit vehicles along an evacuation route by 13% and 10%, improve the standard deviation of travel time by 16% and 46%, and decrease the average person delay at a signalized intersection by 22% and 17% when the traffic flow saturation along an evacuation route is 0.81.0, respectively.

  8. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  10. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia – implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  11. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-08-24

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.

  12. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  16. Robot-assisted intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation: an experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel robotic approach for the rapid, minimally invasive treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), in which a hematoma or blood clot arises in the brain parenchyma. We present a custom image-guided robot system that delivers a steerable cannula into the lesion and aspirates it from the inside. The steerable cannula consists of an initial straight tube delivered in a manner similar to image-guided biopsy (and which uses a commercial image guidance system), followed by the sequential deployment of multiple individual precurved elastic tubes. Rather than deploying the tubes simultaneously, as has been done in nearly all prior studies, we deploy the tubes one at a time, using a compilation of their individual workspaces to reach desired points inside the lesion. This represents a new paradigm in active cannula research, defining a novel procedure-planning problem. A design that solves this problem can potentially save many lives by enabling brain decompression both more rapidly and less invasively than is possible through the traditional open surgery approach. Experimental results include a comparison of the simulated and actual workspaces of the prototype robot, and an accuracy evaluation of the system.

  17. Laryngeal Cuff Force Application Modeling During Air Medical Evacuation Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, David; Eisenbrey, Arthur B; Pettengill, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal tubes are intended to protect the airway and assist with mechanical ventilation in sedated patients. The blood vessels of the tracheal mucosa can be compressed by high tracheal tube cuff pressures (> 30 cm H2O), leading to reduced mucosal blood flow with resulting ischemia and morbidity. Previous research showed a direct correlation between aircraft pressure altitude and the pressure reading from the tracheal cuff, with resulting pressures > 80 cm H2O at 10,000 ft. Standard practice is to periodically remove air from the cuff during ascent based on assumed increased pressure on the adjacent tracheal mucosa. Using a vacuum chamber and a direct reading micropressure sensor in a 22-mm-diameter semirigid tube, we assessed the direct force applied by the tracheal cuff against the laryngeal tube analog. Standard tracheal cuffs showed direct force/pressure relationships when properly inflated to 20 cm H2O but much less than reported in the literature. Current literature reports values of 55 to 150 cm H2O at 5,000 ft, whereas we report 23 to 25 cm H2O. Our data indicate that a properly inflated cuff does not exceed the critical pressure of 30 cm H2O until the altitude exceeds 8,000 ft. Thus, the standard practice of deflating the laryngeal cuff on ascent should be reconsidered because it may be counterproductive to patient safety. PMID:27637439

  18. Influences of potential predictor variables on gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. feeding on fish prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2012-01-01

    The parameter values of a generic model of gastric evacuation were estimated from evacuation data on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua fed meals of four fish prey: herring Clupea harengus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, lesser sandeel Ammodytes tobianus and dab Limanda limanda. The effects on evacuation...... of photoperiod and pre-experimental treatment of prey were also tested. Freshly killed A. tobianus were evacuated from the stomach of G. morhua at a rate similar to the value estimated from conspecifics kept deep-frozen and subsequently thawed prior to the evacuation experiment. The evacuation rate in G. morhua...... exposed to continuous light did not differ from the rate obtained from fish maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod. The evacuation rates estimated from the latter fish in the dark and light periods, respectively, were likewise similar. These results indicate that the resistance of prey to the digestive...

  19. Recent Advances in Agent-Based Tsunami Evacuation Simulations: Case Studies in Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Erick; Koshimura, Shunichi; Imamura, Fumihiko; Suppasri, Anawat; Muhari, Abdul; Adriano, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    As confirmed by the extreme tsunami events over the last decade (the 2004 Indian Ocean, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunami events), mitigation measures and effective evacuation planning are needed to reduce disaster risks. Modeling tsunami evacuations is an alternative means to analyze evacuation plans and possible scenarios of evacuees' behaviors. In this paper, practical applications of an agent-based tsunami evacuation model are presented to demonstrate the contributions that agent-based modeling has added to tsunami evacuation simulations and tsunami mitigation efforts. A brief review of previous agent-based evacuation models in the literature is given to highlight recent progress in agent-based methods. Finally, challenges are noted for bridging gaps between geoscience and social science within the agent-based approach for modeling tsunami evacuations.

  20. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk management: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This methodology considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami risk management situation (time needed by the responsible authorities to warn the local communities), (iv) the time needed for evacuation of the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation. The proposed methodological framework aims to fill the gap between risk assessment and management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan.

  1. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent building emergency management research has highlighted the need for the effective utilization of dynamically changing building information. BIM (building information modelling can play a significant role in this process due to its comprehensive and standardized data format and integrated process. This paper introduces a BIM based virtual environment supported by virtual reality (VR and a serious game engine to address several key issues for building emergency management, for example, timely two-way information updating and better emergency awareness training. The focus of this paper lies on how to utilize BIM as a comprehensive building information provider to work with virtual reality technologies to build an adaptable immersive serious game environment to provide real-time fire evacuation guidance. The innovation lies on the seamless integration between BIM and a serious game based virtual reality (VR environment aiming at practical problem solving by leveraging state-of-the-art computing technologies. The system has been tested for its robustness and functionality against the development requirements, and the results showed promising potential to support more effective emergency management.

  2. Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd. is backed by Tsinghua University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. Tsinghua Solar invented "graded Al-N/Al selective coating," which is the key technology of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes. The company owns the independent intellectual property rights over the key technology of all-glass vacuum solar water heaters. The registered capital of the company is 153.5 mil-

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of organic/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cells by solution-evacuated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Zou, Xian-Shao; Zhang, Bin; Dong, Jun; Niu, Qiao-Li; Yin, Yi-An; Zhang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on n-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid structures by evacuating the PEDOT:PSS solution with dip-dropping on the top of SiNWs before spin-coating (solution-evacuating). The coverage and contact interface between PEDOT:PSS and SiNW arrays can be dramatically enhanced by optimizing the solution-evacuated time. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 9.22% for a solution-evacuated time of 2 min compared with 5.17% for the untreated pristine device. The improvement photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to better organic coverage and contact with an n-type SiNW surface.

  4. Model of skyscraper evacuation with the use of space symmetry and fluid dynamic approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, W; Kupczak, A

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of evacuation of pedestrians from skyscraper is a situation where the symmetry analysis method and equations of fluid dynamics finds to be very useful. When applied, they strongly reduce the number of free parameters used in simulations and in such a way speed up the calculations and make them easier to manage by the programmer and what is even more important, they can give a fresh insight into a problem of evacuation and help with incorporation of "Ambient Intelligent Devices" into future real buildings. We have analyzed various, simplified, cases of evacuation from skyscraper by employing improved "Social Force Model". For each of them we obtained the average force acting on the pedestrian as a function of the evacuation time. The results clearly show that both methods mentioned above, can be successfully implemented in the simulation process and return with satisfactory conclusions.

  5. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined....... Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is...

  6. Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas, Evacuation Zones, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Evacuation Zones'. Data...

  7. Empirical study of the influence of social groups in evacuation scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Svachiy, Anton; Wohak, Oliver; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social groups on pedestrian dynamics, especially in evacuation scenarios, have attracted some interest recently. However, due to the lack of reliable empirical data, most of the studies focussed on modelling aspects. It was shown that social groups can have a considerable effect, e.g. on evacuation times. In order to test the model predictions we have performed laboratory experiments of evacuations with different types and sizes of the social groups. The experiments have been performed with pupils of different ages. Parameters that have been considered are (1) group size, (2) strength of intra-group interactions, and (3) composition of the groups (young adults, children, and mixtures). For all the experiments high-quality trajectories for all participants have been obtained using the PeTrack software. This allows for a detailed analysis of the group effects. One surprising observation is a decrease of the evacuation time with increasing group size.

  8. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  9. A methodology for evacuation route planning inside buildings using geospatial technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Morte, Alfredo; Rodríguez Hidalgo, A.B.; Navarro Carrión, José Tomás; Zaragozí Zaragozí, Benito Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Evacuation route planning is a fundamental task for building engineering projects. Safety regulations are established so that all occupants are driven on time out of a building to a secure place when faced with an emergency situation. As an example, Spanish building code requires the planning of evacuation routes on large and, usually, public buildings. Engineers often plan these routes on single building projects, repeatedly assigning clusters of rooms to each emergency exit in a trial-and-e...

  10. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi An; Ze Wang; Jianxun Cui

    2015-01-01

    Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences ...

  11. [The principles of aviation support for rescue-evacuation operations in eliminating the consequences of disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnov, E S; Golovchits, V N

    1993-01-01

    Analysing practical results of an Air Force participation in liquidation of the earthquake consequences in Armenia, 1988, and after technological catastrophe in Bashkiria, 1989, the authors substantiate the role and significance of air transportation in the system of rescue and evacuation measures, define main tasks for aviation, propose methods for calculation of required number of aircraft and its types. The data cited in this article have formed a basis for the principles of air support during rescue and evacuation procedures. PMID:8484227

  12. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Yingyan Lou; Gary P. Moynihan; Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2013-01-01

    Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carrie...

  13. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami-evacuation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Jones, J. M.; Schmidtlein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis potentially arriving in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. We developed a geospatial-modeling method for characterizing pedestrian-evacuation flow paths and evacuation basins to support evacuation and relief planning efforts for coastal communities in this region. We demonstrate this approach using the coastal communities of Aberdeen, Hoquiam, and Cosmopolis in southwestern Grays Harbor County, Washington (USA), where previous research suggests approximately 20,500 people (99% of the residents in tsunami-hazard zones) will likely have enough time to evacuate before tsunami-wave arrival. Geospatial, anisotropic, path distance models were developed to map the most efficient pedestrian paths to higher ground from locations within the tsunami-hazard zone. This information was then used to identify evacuation basins, outlining neighborhoods sharing a common evacuation pathway to safety. We then estimated the number of people traveling along designated evacuation pathways and arriving at pre-determined safe assembly areas, helping determine shelter demand and relief support (e.g., for elderly individuals or tourists). Finally, we assessed which paths may become inaccessible due to earthquake-induced ground failures, a factor which may impact an individual's success in reaching safe ground. The presentation will include a discussion of the implications of our analysis for developing more comprehensive coastal community tsunami-evacuation planning strategies worldwide.

  14. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  15. Tubing weld cracking test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  16. An indoor augmented reality mobile application for simulation of building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Jerripothula, Shanmukha

    2015-03-01

    Augmented Reality enables people to remain connected with the physical environment they are in, and invites them to look at the world from new and alternative perspectives. There has been an increasing interest in emergency evacuation applications for mobile devices. Nearly all the smart phones these days are Wi-Fi and GPS enabled. In this paper, we propose a novel emergency evacuation system that will help people to safely evacuate a building in case of an emergency situation. It will further enhance knowledge and understanding of where the exits are in the building and safety evacuation procedures. We have applied mobile augmented reality (mobile AR) to create an application with Unity 3D gaming engine. We show how the mobile AR application is able to display a 3D model of the building and animation of people evacuation using markers and web camera. The system gives a visual representation of a building in 3D space, allowing people to see where exits are in the building through the use of a smart phone or tablets. Pilot studies were conducted with the system showing its partial success and demonstrated the effectiveness of the application in emergency evacuation. Our computer vision methods give good results when the markers are closer to the camera, but accuracy decreases when the markers are far away from the camera.

  17. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Lin, H.; Hu, M.; Che, W.

    2014-02-01

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results.

  18. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  19. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  20. Prediction of evacuation time for emergency planning zone of Uljin nuclear site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The time for evacuation of residents in Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of Uljin nuclear site in case of a radiological emergency was estimated with traffic analysis. Evacuees were classified into 4 groups by considering population density, local jurisdictions, and whether they are residents or transients. The survey to investigate the behavioral characteristics of the residents was made for 200 households and included a hypothetical scenario explaining the accident situation and questions such as dwelling place, time demand for evacuation preparation, transportation means for evacuation, sheltering place, and evacuation direction. The microscopic traffic simulation model, CORSIM, was used to simulate the behavior of evacuating vehicles on networks. The results showed that the evacuation time required for total vehicles to move out from EPZ took longer in the daytime than at night in spite that the delay times at intersections were longer at night than in the daytime. This was analyzed due to the differences of the trip generation time distribution. To validate whether the CORSIM model can appropriately simulate the congested traffic phenomena assumable in case of emergency, a benchmark study was conducted at an intersection without an actuated traffic signal near Uljin site during the traffic peak-time in the morning. This study indicated that the predicted output by the CORSIM model was in good agreement with the observed data, satisfying the purpose of this study.

  1. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results

  2. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  3. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  4. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  5. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  6. Hologram recording tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  7. Welding Tubes In Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, R.

    1984-01-01

    Special welding equipment joins metal tubes that carry pressurized cyrogenic fluids. Equipment small enough to be used in confined spaces in which such tubes often mounted. Welded joints lighter in weight and more leak-proof than joints made with mechanical fittings.

  8. Modelisation, conception et simulation des performances d'un collecteur solaire aeraulique a tubes sous vide en milieu nordique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Pierre-Luc

    The global energy consumption is still increasing year after year even if different initiatives are set up to decrease fossil fuel dependency. In Canada 80% of the energy is used for space heating and domestic hot water heating in residential sector. This heat could be provided by solar thermal technologies despite few difficulties originating from the cold climate. The aim of this project is to design a solar evacuated tube thermal collector using air as the working fluid. Firstly, needs and specifications of the product are established in a clear way. Then, three concepts of collector are presented. The first one relies on the standard evacuated tube. The second one uses a new technology of tubes; both sides are open. The third one uses heat pipe to extract the heat from the tubes. Based on the needs and specification as criteria, the concept involving tubes with both sides open has been selected as the best idea. In order to simulate the performances of the collector, a model of the heat exchanges in an evacuated tube was developed in 4 steps. The first step is a model in steady state intended to calculate the stagnation temperature of the tube for a fixed solar radiation, outside temperature and wind speed. As a second step, the model is generalised to transient condition in order to validate it with an experimental setup. A root mean square error of 2% is then calculated. The two remainder steps are intended to calculate the temperature of airflow leaving the tube. In the same way, a first model in steady state is developed and then generalised to the transient mode. Then, the validation with an experimental setup gave a difference of 0.2% for the root mean square error. Finally, a preindustrial prototype intended to work in open loop for preheating of fresh air is presented. During the project, explosion of the both sides open evacuated tube in overheating condition blocked the construction of a real prototype for the test. Different path for further work are

  9. Performance enhancement of filled-type solar collector with U-tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 张吉礼; 赵亮; 马良栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar collector, a methodology is proposed based on the analysis of its influencing factors, such as thermal conductivity of filled layer, structure forms of filled layer and heat loss coefficient. The results of analysis show that the heat transfer between pipes in evacuated tube is one of the most important factors, which can lead to the decrease of the outlet temperature of working fluid. In order to eliminate the negative influence of the heat transfer between pipes, the hollow filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube (HUFET) was developed, and the heat transfer characteristics of HUFET were analyzed by theoretical and experimental studies. The results show that the thermal resistances decrease with the increase of the thermal conductivity of filled layer. When the thermal conductivity is over 10 W/(m·K), the change of thermal resistances is very little. Furthermore, the larger the thermal conductivity of filled layer, the less the rate of the energy transfer between the two pipes to the total energy transfer, which is between the absorber tube and the working fluid. There is a little difference between the efficiencies of HUFET and UFET, with the efficiency of HUFET 2.4%higher than that of UFET. Meanwhile, the validation of the model developed was confirmed by the experiment.

  10. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  11. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  12. The evacuation of schools and school facilities for children, pupils and students with special educational needs in South Bohemia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of schools and educational institutions in the South Bohemian Region in terms of their preparedness to evacuate children and students with special educational needs. This thesis assesses the preparedness and awareness of individual schools. The work is divided into two parts, a theoretical part and a research part. The theoretical part deals mainly with evacuations as a reaction on an emergence of an incident or crisis. Evacuation applies to people of all a...

  13. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Michio Murakami; Kyoko Ono; Masaharu Tsubokura; Shuhei Nomura; Tomoyoshi Oikawa; Tosihiro Oka; Masahiro Kami; Taikan Oki

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "r...

  14. Indoor test for the thermal performance evaluation of the DEC 8A large manifold sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Sunmaster DEC 8A Large Manifold solar collector using simulated conditions was evaluated. The collector provided 17.17 square feet of gross collector area. Test conditions, test requirements, an analysis of results, and tables of test data are reported.

  15. Performance assessment of three concentrating solar thermal units designed with XCPC reflectors and evacuated tubes, using an analytical thermal model

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a part of an ongoing applied research project at the Solar Energy Laboratory at UC Merced, with the objective of developing a solar thermal system able to increase the temperature of a heat transfer fluid to output temperatures around 200°C(∼400°F). The goal of this project is to design and implement a modular, low profile, scalable and solar-powered system to offer an on-site heat source. Operating temperatures on the target range of this project create the possibility of pro...

  16. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  17. The Study of Evacuation Route Algorithm in Flooding by Localized Heavy Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhang; Eunmi Kim; Yun Sung Go; Chang Soo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the worst hazards of natural disaster. One of the adverse effect of flooding is that it disrupts the traffic system of a city or nation. Therefore, finding the safe path to the destination to drivers is required to implement an efficient evacuation system during a heavy rain. How to efficiently evacuate people in a road is required as well. In this study, we compared the A* algorithm and Dijkstra algorithm to find an optimal and efficient path between departure point to destination point if there is a hazard area. The result indicates A* algorithm can find the shorter optimal path better Dijkstra algorithm. We develop the evacuation route algorithm using A* algorithm when this algorithm was used in evacuation route, the road network was graded according to the flooding history and flooding danger area which is defined by lowland area information. We simulate the suggested algorithm for the test experiments demonstrate that this algorithm can enhance the efficiency of evacuation route in Busan.

  18. A fuzzy Bayesian network approach to quantify the human behaviour during an evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian Network (BN) has been regarded as a successful representation of inter-relationship of factors affecting human behavior during an emergency. This paper is an extension of earlier work of quantifying the variables involved in the BN model of human behavior during an evacuation using a well-known direct probability elicitation technique. To overcome judgment bias and reduce the expert's burden in providing precise probability values, a new approach for the elicitation technique is required. This study proposes a new fuzzy BN approach for quantifying human behavior during an evacuation. Three major phases of methodology are involved, namely 1) development of qualitative model representing human factors during an evacuation, 2) quantification of BN model using fuzzy probability and 3) inferencing and interpreting the BN result. A case study of three inter-dependencies of human evacuation factors such as danger assessment ability, information about the threat and stressful conditions are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. This approach will serve as an alternative to the conventional probability elicitation technique in understanding the human behavior during an evacuation.

  19. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  20. High-performance solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  1. Kinking of medical tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  2. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  3. Gut evacuation rate and grazing impact of the krill Thysanoessa raschii and T. inermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Arendt, Kristine Engel;

    2015-01-01

    Gut evacuation rates and ingestion rates were measured for the krill Thysanoessa raschii and T. inermis in Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland. Combined with biomass of the krill community, the grazing potential on phytoplankton along the fjord was estimated. Gut evacuation rates were 3.9 and 2.3 h−1 for T....... raschii and T. inermis, respectively. Ingestion rates were 12.2 ± 7.5 μg C mg C−1 day−1 (n = 4) for T. inermis and 4.9 ± 3.2 μg C mg C−1 day−1 (n = 4) for T. raschii, corresponding to daily rations of 1.2 and 0.5 % body carbon day−1. Clearance experiments conducted in parallel to the gut evacuation...

  4. Study on Evacuation Evaluation in Subway Fire Based on Pedestrian Simulation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the ability to evacuate from subway fire in subway’s planning, design, operation, and maintenance stages, a simulation model of pedestrians’ evacuation process in subway fire was established based on Legion and FDS software. It can truly reflect the dynamic effects of the fire environment on subway station evacuation. Then dynamic evaluation indicators systems were established from the point of survival index, security risk index, effectiveness index, and orderliness index. In order to help decision makers to identify the most appropriate plan, matter-element analysis (MEA was used to rate different plans. At last a case study of Songjiazhuang (SJZ station was provided to test the effectiveness and practicability of the evaluation method.

  5. Pollinators and Other Flying Insects inside and outside the Fukushima Evacuation Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Mishima, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants in 2011, a large evacuation zone was imposed in an area where residents had historically managed forests and farmlands. Thus, the human activities that had maintained biodiversity and ecosystem services in the zone were discontinued. Such change can affect insects, a biodiversity component that is relatively tolerant to radiation exposure. In this study, we investigated flying insects, including pollinators, important ecosystem providers inside and outside the zone, using Malaise traps. The results showed that the number of individuals of Xylocopa appendiculata, the largest Apidae species in the region, was significantly lower inside the evacuation zone than outside it, whereas those of other insects were not lower significantly. Although we suggest that flying insects and their ecosystem services (i.e., benefits from them such as pollination) 3 years after the disaster were not critically impacted, it is important to monitor the long-term effects of the evacuation in the future.

  6. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event. PMID:24909363

  7. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  8. Agent-Based Evacuation Model Incorporating Fire Scene and Building Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the key factors affecting evacuations at fire scones is necessary for accurate simulations.An agent-based simulation model which incorporates the fire scene and the building geometry is developed using a fire dynamics simulator (FDS) based on the computational fluid dynamics and geographic information system (GIS) data to model the occupant response.The building entities are generated for FDS simulation while the spatial analysis on GIS data represents the occupant's knowledge of the building.The influence of the fire is based on a hazard assessment of the combustion products.The agent behavior and decisions are affected by environmental features and the fire field.A case study demonstrates that the evacuation model effectively simulates the coexistence and interactions of the major factors including occupants,building geometry,and fire disaster during the evacuation.The results can be used for the assessments of building designs regarding fire safety.

  9. How to evacuate a psychiatric hospital: a Hurricane Katrina success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joan; Lackey, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the successful evacuation of an entire psychiatric hospital from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Memphis, Tennessee, on a weekend night. The destination site was 400 miles away and buses were used for transport. The evacuation occurred shortly before Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans and included 73 adult, adolescent, and child acute psychiatric patients. Thirty-five staff members also participated in the evacuation with their families and pets. This report is significant because little is known about how to implement a disaster plan that involves the transport of an entire psychiatric hospital-patients, nurses, physicians, staff, and family members--to another city. The knowledge gained can also benefit psychiatric nurses and their organizations when establishing or modifying their disaster plans. PMID:18251350

  10. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  11. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  12. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  13. A gas laser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo, F.; Tokhikhide, N.

    1984-04-19

    A gas laser tube is described in which contamination of the laser gas mixture by the coolant is avoided, resulting in a longer service life of the mirrors. The holder contains two tubes, one inside the other. The laser gas mixture flows through the internal tube. An electrode is fastened to the holder. The coolant is pumped through the slot between the two tubes, for which a hole is cut into the holder. The external tube has a ring which serves to seal the cavity containing the coolant from the atmosphere. The internal tube has two rings, one to seal the laser gas mixture and the other to seal the coolant. A slot is located between these two rings, which leads to the atmosphere (the atmosphere layer). With this configuration, the degradation of the sealing properties of the internal ring caused by interaction with the atmospheric layer is not reflected in the purity of the laser gas mixture. Moreover, pollution of the mirrors caused by the penetration of the coolant into the cavity is eliminated.

  14. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami evacuation and disaster relief planning in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Schmidtlein, Mathew; Schelling, John; Frazier, T.

    2016-01-01

    Successful evacuations are critical to saving lives from future tsunamis. Pedestrian-evacuation modeling related to tsunami hazards primarily has focused on identifying areas and the number of people in these areas where successful evacuations are unlikely. Less attention has been paid to identifying evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas for at-risk individuals that may have sufficient time to evacuate. We use the neighboring coastal communities of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, least-cost-distance evacuation modeling for supporting evacuation outreach, response, and relief planning. We demonstrate an approach that uses geospatial evacuation modeling to (a) map the minimum pedestrian travel speeds to safety, the most efficient paths, and collective evacuation basins, (b) estimate the total number and demographic description of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas, and (c) determine which paths may be compromised due to earthquake-induced ground failure. Results suggest a wide range in the magnitude and type of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas and highlight parts of the communities with no readily accessible assembly area. Earthquake-induced ground failures could obstruct access to some assembly areas, cause evacuees to reroute to get to other assembly areas, and isolate some evacuees from relief personnel. Evacuation-modeling methods and results discussed here have implications and application to tsunami-evacuation outreach, training, response procedures, mitigation, and long-term land use planning to increase community resilience.

  15. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  16. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  18. [Military history of evacuation hospital No 3457 and the head of this hospital -- Porfirii Ivanovich Zabolotnyi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to publication of an archive document "History of evacuation hospital AN 3457". This archive document was found in one of the deserted country house in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. 32 pages of text is bright and eloquent testimony of the period of the Great Patriotic War. Hospital was founded in 1941 in Sumy Oblast and then was deployed in Siberia, in the region of the Far North, again in Ukraine and in Hungary. Army medical officer Porfirii Zabolotnyi was the chef of evacuation hospital during this period.

  19. Pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition: The impact of communication and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shan, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition based on the social force approach. It is assumed that there are two types of pedestrians: Informed individuals know the exit location whereas uninformed individuals do not. The uninformed individuals can communicate with the informed ones within their perceptual fields, thus learning to know and memorize the exit location. We consider cases with and without communication/memory. The simulations show communication and memory are able to enhance the evacuation efficiency. We also investigate the impact of communication on the efficiency of an emergency exit.

  20. Optimization of non-evacuated receiver of solar collector having non-uniform temperature distribution for minimum heat loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non-uniform flux and temperature distribution on receiver pipe. • CFD model of heat losses from air filled receivers with different diameter of pipe and radius ratio. • Comparison with uniform temperature case. • Critical radius ratio (RR). - Abstract: The present paper contains a numerical study of heat loss from a non-evacuated receiver typically used in parabolic trough collectors. To calculate temperature distributions on the receiver pipe (TP), an energy balance has been established over the entire cross-section of the receiver pipe at different fluid temperatures. In the energy balance, the flux distribution has been estimated by assuming normal incidence of solar insolation considering the sun as a point source. The temperature distributions of the receiver pipe are found, as per expectation, to be non-uniform. These temperature distributions have been fitted by sinusoidal and step functions and are used as temperature boundary conditions in a CFD study to optimize the size of the receiver. The mechanisms of heat loss that have been considered in this study are heat loss from (1) pipe to glass tube by conduction, convection and radiation and (2) glass tube to surrounding by convection (natural and forced) and radiation. The values of diameters of receiver pipe taken in this study are 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm. The radius ratio (RR) varied from 1.2 to 3 by changing diameter of glass tube. It is observed that, the critical value of RR for minimum heat loss is dependent upon receiver pipe diameter (DPo). The critical values of RR for pipe diameter (DPo) 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm are 1.5, 1.4, 1.375, 1.35, 1.3 and 1.25 respectively. The value of critical RR is lower for higher values of pipe diameter. The value of critical RR for a particular diameter of receiver is independent of receiver temperature and external wind velocity. Comparison of heat losses in non-uniform and uniform temperature cases

  1. CST receiver tube qualification, Phase 1, Investigation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, I.; Rossy, J.-P.

    2010-05-15

    In this report the different application possibilities for concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems are studied. Further, the possible measuring methods for characterising and qualifying the receivers with their embedded absorber tubes are investigated. The investigations show that CST systems can be used as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels in many applications. The best known one is the generation of electrical power, but concentrated solar energy can also be used for desalination, industrial process heat, and for cooling of buildings. Industrial process heat is a large potential area with temperature in the range of 120 {sup o}C to over 400 {sup o}C. Heat below 400 {sup o}C can be provided by various parabolic trough and Fresnel systems, which are optimised for the temperature required. In order to further increase the usage of CST systems, it is of great importance to provide standards for the qualification and characterisation of the different components of the CST systems. Huge efforts are currently made to define a standard for evacuated receiver tubes. For the characterisation of the black absorber tubes the development is still at the beginning, although the need here is also given. (authors)

  2. Results of psychosomatic screening of people having suffered from the Chernobyl accident and evacuated from the alienation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A psychosomatic screening of 105 persons evacuated from the alienation area was fulfilled. The received data were compared with those of migrants from areas from which people were evacuated later. Sociometric, psychometric, adaptive characteristics evidence of close relations between conditions of living and worsening of psychosomatic health. The tendency to a higher frequency of psychoorganic syndrome in that group was revealed

  3. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  4. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  5. Usability and Visual Communication for Southern California Tsunami Evacuation Information: The importance of information design in disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, C.; Schandler, S.; Wells, M.; Danielsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation behavior, including participation and response, is rarely an individual and isolated process and the outcomes are usually systemic. Ineffective evacuation information can easily attribute to delayed evacuation response. Delays increase demands on already extended emergency personal, increase the likelihood of traffic congestion, and can cause harm to self and property. From an information design perspective, addressing issues in cognitive recall and emergency psychology, this case study examines evacuation messaging including written, audio, and visual presentation of information, and describes the application of design principles and role of visual communication for Southern California tsunami evacuation outreach. The niche of this project is the inclusion of cognitive processing as the driving influence when making formal design decisions and measurable data from a 4-year cognitive recall study to support the solution. Image included shows a tsunami evacaution map before and after the redesign.

  6. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  7. The Reality Check: Evacuation Planning done by Mixed Reality and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, D.; Veldhoven, E.R. van; Heemskerck Pillis, F. van; Brink, T. van den; Laar, J. van

    2011-01-01

    Severe natural or man-made disasters that occur in urban areas often require evacuation measures to protect or rescue the population. In crisis situations, different kinds of knowledge are necessary to get insight in the consequences of the proposed set of measures. In addition, there are typically

  8. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the...

  9. Development of Simulation System for the Disaster Evacuation Based on Multi-Agent Model Using GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keisuke Uno; Kazuo Kashitama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation system for the disaster evacuation based on multi-agent model considering geographical information. This system consists of three parts, the modeling for the land and buildings using GIS data, the analysis of disaster evacuation using multi-agent model, and the visualization for the numerical results using the virtual reality technique. By introducing the numerical solver of the natural disaster to the present system, it is possible to evaluate not only the damage of structure but also the dam- age of human being. Furthermore, it is possible to investigate the appropriate evacuation route by the simu- lation. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to obtain shortest route to the refuge. In addition, the visualization us- ing virtual reality technique is curried out to understand the feeling of refugee. The present system is applied to the evacuation analysis by the flood flow in urban area and is shown to be a useful tool to investigate the damage by natural disasters.

  10. Exitus: An Agent-Based Evacuation Simulation Model for Heterogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation planning for private-sector organizations is an important consideration given the continuing occurrence of both natural and human-caused disasters that inordinately affect them. Unfortunately, the traditional management approach that is focused on fire drills presents several practical challenges at the scale required for many…

  11. Modeling and simulation of evacuation behavior using fuzzy logic in a goal finding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Ogunlana, Kola; Sree, Swetha

    2016-05-01

    Modeling and simulation has been widely used as a training and educational tool for depicting different evacuation strategies and damage control decisions during evacuation. However, there are few simulation environments that can include human behavior with low to high levels of fidelity. It is well known that crowd stampede induced by panic leads to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Our proposed goal finding application can be used to model situations that are difficult to test in real-life due to safety considerations. It is able to include agent characteristics and behaviors. Findings of this model are very encouraging as agents are able to assume various roles to utilize fuzzy logic on the way to reaching their goals. Fuzzy logic is used to model stress, panic and the uncertainty of emotions. The fuzzy rules link these parts together while feeding into behavioral rules. The contributions of this paper lies in our approach of utilizing fuzzy logic to show learning and adaptive behavior of agents in a goal finding application. The proposed application will aid in running multiple evacuation drills for what-if scenarios by incorporating human behavioral characteristics that can scale from a room to building. Our results show that the inclusion of fuzzy attributes made the evacuation time of the agents closer to the real time drills.

  12. 78 FR 28170 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation; Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Evacuation; Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  13. Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We compared four different methods for estimating predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, based on gastric evacuation rates, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics model. The bioenergetics model was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation rate models produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics model predicted food consumption rates intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation models. Using the standard ICES model and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation rate models produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics model estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between models were due to consumption rate estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  14. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carried out contraflow operations several times in past hurricane evacuations. The timing for the deployment of equipment and personnel and the initiation and termination of actual contraflow affects the effectiveness, safety, and cost of the operation. Researchers from the University of Alabama were tasked with the design of a decision support system for contraflow evacuation planning. The conceived decision support system consists of three main modules: the demand module, the network optimization module, and the incident and characterization module. This paper focuses on the design of the traffic incident generation and characterization module of the planned decision support system.

  15. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation based on an improved dynamic parameter model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Nuo; Jia Bin; Shao Chun-Fu; Yue Hao

    2012-01-01

    An improved dynamic parameter model is presented based on cellular automata.The dynamic parameters,including direction parameter,empty parameter,and cognition parameter,are formulated to simplify tactically the process of making decisions for pedestrians.The improved model reflects the judgement of pedestrians on surrounding conditions and the action of choosing or decision.According to the two-dimensional cellular automaton Moore neighborhood we establish the pedestrian moving rule,and carry out corresponding simulations of pedestrian evacuation.The improved model considers the impact of pedestrian density near exits on the evacuation process.Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the improvement makes sense due to the fact that except for the spatial distance to exits,people also choose an exit according to the pedestrian density around exits.The impact factors α,β,and γ are introduced to describe transition payoff,and their optimal values are determined through simulation.Moreover,the effects of pedestrian distribution,pedestrian density,and the width of exits on the evacuation time are discussed.The optimal exit layout,i.e.,the optimal position and width,is offered.The comparison between the simulated results obtained with the improved model and that from a previous model and experiments indicates that the improved model can reproduce experimental results well.Thus,it has great significance for further study,and important instructional meaning for pedestrian evacuation so as to reduce the number of casualties.

  16. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  17. State of the art in evacuation time estimate studies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a major accident at a commercial nuclear power station, exposure of the public to airborne radioactive materials can be prevented or greatly reduced by evacuating the area immediately surrounding the reactor site. Reactor licensees are required to conduct studies to estimate the time needed to evacuate the public from the area surrounding each nuclear power station. The results of such studies are used by regulatory personnel and emergency planners to assess the potential effectiveness of protective responses for the public. The time required to evacuate the public from a 10-mile emergency planning radius is estimated by analyzing the available transportation facilities and other relevant conditions within this radius. To support the analysis, data must be collected and assumptions must be made regarding the transportation facilities, the size and characteristics of the population and other conditions in the planning zone. This report describes standard approaches and provides recommendations regarding the relevant information, assumptions and methods to be used in performing evacuation time estimate studies

  18. Kajian Efektifitas Sistem Struktur Tube Dengan Sistem Struktur Tube In Tube Di Bawah Beban Gempa

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Dian Frisca

    2010-01-01

    Berkembangnya teknologi telah melahirkan berbagai sistem struktur bangunan tahan gempa, seperti penggunaan sistem tube.Tube adalah merupakan frame penahan gaya yang menahan gaya gaya lateral dengan struktur kantilever kotak yang memiliki jarak kolom yang berdekatan yang dipasang pada sekeliling gedung, sehingga penampilan wajah depan gedung seperti lubang jendela jendela yang terbuka. Rancangan tube ini kemudian dimodifikasi lagi dengan menambah pengaku pada bagian dalam ( konsep tube in tube...

  19. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  20. Evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhages by neuroendoscopy with transparent sheath. Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Otero-Rodriguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH has been developed in order to reduce the tissue injury that conventional craniotomy could generate. Experimental studies are important to assess the effectiveness of the technique and its modifications. The objectives of this study are to develop in pig an experimental model of endoscopic evacuation of ICHs, to assess effectiveness of surgical evacuation, and to evaluate a new transparent sheath as complement to the endoscopy. Methods: Autologous blood was infused into the frontal lobe white matter in 16 pigs. In the problem group, endoscopic evacuation was performed with the aid of a new transparent sheath, which has outer and inner sheaths with blunt and closed finals. Pigs were sacrificed at 4 h, 24 h and 5 days. The volumes of hematoma and histopathological features were determined. Results: Residual volume of the problem group was significantly 70.09% lower than in control group, without significant differences in injected volumes, in percentage of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in time interval from hematoma induction to pig´s death. The vital reaction after hemorrhage was similar in both groups. Conclusions: The experimental model developed is useful to assess endoscopic evacuation of ICHs. The endoscopy is an effective technique in the treatment of ICHs, without increasing the vital reaction secondary to hematoma. The new transparent sheath increases the visualization of surgical field and allows a continuous visual control since the beginning of the procedure. Its closed final prevents unwanted injury of the brain by the instruments used to remove the hematoma.

  1. Disaster Evacuation from Japan's 2011 Tsunami Disaster and the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The triple disaster that hit the Tohoku region of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggered a massive human displacement: more than 400,000 people evacuated their homes as a gigantic tsunami induced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake engulfed the coastal areas, and the following nuclear accident in Fukushima released a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. This study analyses the disaster response, with a particular focus on evacuation of the population, and social consequences of this complex crisis, based on intensive fieldwork carried out one year after the catastrophe. It reveals that the responses of the Japanese authorities and population were significantly different between a natural disaster and an industrial (man-made) accident. Being prone to both earthquakes and tsunamis, Japan had been preparing itself against such risks for many years. A tsunami alert was immediately issued and the population knew how and where to evacuate. In contrast, the evacuation from the nuclear accident was organised in total chaos, as a severe accident or large-scale evacuation had never been envisaged -let alone exercised- before the disaster. The population was thus forced to flee with no information as to the gravity of the accident or radiation risk. In both cases, the risk perception prior to the catastrophe played a key role in determining the vulnerability of the population at the time of the crisis. While tsunami evacuees are struggling with a slow reconstruction process due to financial difficulties, nuclear evacuees are suffering from uncertainty as to their prospect of return. One year after the accident, the Japanese authorities began to encourage nuclear evacuees to return to the areas contaminated by radiation according to a newly established safety standard. This triggered a vivid controversy within the affected communities, creating a rift between those who trust the government's notion of safety and those who do not. The nuclear disaster has thus

  2. Functional Requirements of Personal Evacuation Supporting System in the Preparation for the Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national radiological emergency response scheme is composed of the several committees and management and advisory centers in central government and/or local government according to their responsibilities and functions. JPIC(Joint Public Information Center) has the charge of providing accurate and unified information about radiological disaster. The role of JPIC is very crucial since public announcement and communication affects the result of evacuation/sheltering and public protection directly. Therefore, Not only the alarm or notification for emergency, more active supporting measures for residents are required in order to protect them from radiological emergency safely in case of emergency and to enhance the public acceptance during an emergency exercise. Utilizing the recent It technology based on the personal data communication device which is well equipped by wireless internet and GPS modules, for example smart phone, the personalized and computerized supporting system for residents evacuation can provide the exact information about emergency and evacuation on an individual basis in real time. In this study, for the development of the support system which can be utilized in the radiological emergency, the review and investigation on the functional requirements and anticipated effects of the system are conducted. The computerized supporting system for residents evacuation will contribute to ensure a safe and efficient evacuation in case of radiological emergency. Utilizing the distribution of radioactivity concentration and geological location of individual, personalized supports can be possible. In addition to that, it will enhance the effectiveness and reliability of the national exercise of radiological emergency preparedness. It will contribute to minimize the radiation risk of the public and reduce the concern of residents for nuclear accident, ultimately enhance nuclear safety and the public acceptance

  3. A scenario-based modeling approach for emergency evacuation management and risk analysis under multiple uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming method is developed. ► It is useful for nuclear emergency management practices under uncertainties. ► It can schedule optimal routes with maximizing evacuees during a finite time. ► Scenario-based analysis enhances robustness in controlling system risk. ► The method will help to improve the capability of disaster responses. -- Abstract: Nuclear emergency evacuation is important to prevent radioactive harms by hazardous materials and to limit the accidents’ consequences; however, uncertainties are involved in the components and processes of such a management system. In the study, an interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming (IJIP) method is developed for emergency evacuation management under uncertainties. Optimization techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and joint-probabilistic constrained (JPC) programming are incorporated into an integer linear programming framework, so that the approach can deal with uncertainties expressed as joint probability and interval values. The IJIP method can schedule the optimal routes to guarantee the maximum population evacuated away from the effected zone during a finite time. Furthermore, it can also facilitate post optimization analysis to enhance robustness in controlling system violation risk imposed on the joint-probabilistic constraints. The developed method has been applied to a case study of nuclear emergency management; meanwhile, a number of scenarios under different system conditions have been analyzed. It is indicated that the solutions are useful for evacuation management practices. The result of the IJIP method can not only help to raise the capability of disaster responses in a systematic manner, but also provide an insight into complex relationships among evacuation planning, resources utilizations, policy requirements and system risks

  4. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    Data on gastric evacuation of cod from the International Data Base on Gastric Evacuation Experiments have been reanalysed. A general evacuation models was fitted to the data by means of non-linear regression techniques: dS/dt= - R × SB or integrated:| S(1 - B) t=S1)(1 - B) - R × (1 - B) × 1, where...

  5. A gastric evacuation model for three predatory gadoids and implications of using pooled field data of stomach contents to estimate food rations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2001-01-01

    evacuation rate was related by a negative power function to energy density of fish prey,) er an extended range from 3(.)4 to 11(.)5 kJ g (1) of the effector variable. Gastric evacuation of crustacean prey seemed to depend on the characteristics of their exoskeleton, Gastric evacuation of mixed meal, composed...

  6. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  7. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  8. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk reduction: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  9. The application of Firefly algorithm in an Adaptive Emergency Evacuation Centre Management (AEECM) for dynamic relocation of flood victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Hashim, Nor Laily; Yusof, Yuhanis; Hussain, Azham

    2016-08-01

    Flood evacuation centre is defined as a temporary location or area of people from disaster particularly flood as a rescue or precautionary measure. Gazetted evacuation centres are normally located at secure places which have small chances from being drowned by flood. However, due to extreme flood several evacuation centres in Kelantan were unexpectedly drowned. Currently, there is no study done on proposing a decision support aid to reallocate victims and resources of the evacuation centre when the situation getting worsens. Therefore, this study proposes a decision aid model to be utilized in realizing an adaptive emergency evacuation centre management system. This study undergoes two main phases; development of algorithm and models, and development of a web-based and mobile app. The proposed model operates using Firefly multi-objective optimization algorithm that creates an optimal schedule for the relocation of victims and resources for an evacuation centre. The proposed decision aid model and the adaptive system can be applied in supporting the National Security Council's respond mechanisms for handling disaster management level II (State level) especially in providing better management of the flood evacuating centres.

  10. Fleeing The Storm(s): An Examination of Evacuation Behavior During Florida’s 2004 Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, STANLEY K.; MCCARTY, CHRIS

    2009-01-01

    The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida’s history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, we surveyed households throughout the state and in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage. We estimate that one-quarter of Florida’s population evacuated prior to at least one hurricane; in some areas, well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacuees stayed with family or friends and were away from home for only a few days. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the strength of the hurricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally, several demographic variables had significant effects on the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacuation lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/motels). With continued population growth in coastal areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes are rising in the United States and throughout the world. We believe the present study will help government officials plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations. PMID:19348112

  11. Eustachian tube function in children after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of the insertion of ventilation tubes and the subsequent aeration of the middle ear on eustachian tube (ET) function in children. Manometric ET function tests were performed repeatedly for 3 months after the placement of ventilation tubes in 83 children

  12. Restore condition of Incore thimble tubes in guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanas, A.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aging of Nuclear Power Plant and succession of outages lead to wear and twist of the thimbles tubes but also to the fooling of Incore guide tubes. These can create friction and a high strength must be used for thimble tubes withdrawal. (Author)

  13. Laser welding of a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For sleeving PWR steam generator tubes, the welding laser work is made under protection of a primary gas going out by the crossing window of the laser and under a secondary gas flowing axially through the head and the tube

  14. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  15. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  16. Ultrasonic nondestructive tubing inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for measuring the extent of tube wall erosion in an inspection region of a heat exchanger tube of a nuclear steam generator, uses an ultrasonic means driven helically inside the eroded tube which may be filled with a fluid (e.g., water) to minimize ultrasonic wave attenuation. A control means cooperates with the ultrasonic means to produce a map of the tube wall thickness in an inspection region

  17. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  18. Sleeve puller salvages welded tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Tool removes sleeve remnants without distorting or damaging tubes, unlike pliers and other conventional handtools. Tubes can be reused, saving time, labor, and material in many applications. Sleeve-removal fixture consists of pressure screw, swing arm, locking screws, and base. It removes sleeve remnant from tubing after welded joint has been sawed through.

  19. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  20. Evacuation Routes, Evacuation Routes from Maryland Transit Admnistration's Maintenace Facilities (Bus, Light Rail, Metro & MARC), Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Evacuation Routes dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as...

  1. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  2. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average fr value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  3. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  4. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  5. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  6. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  7. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  8. Decision-making and evacuation planning for flood risk management in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Bas; Helsloot, Ira

    2014-07-01

    A traditional view of decision-making for evacuation planning is that, given an uncertain threat, there is a deterministic way of defining the best decision. In other words, there is a linear relation between threat, decision, and execution consequences. Alternatives and the impact of uncertainties are not taken into account. This study considers the 'top strategic decision-making' for mass evacuation owing to flooding in the Netherlands. It reveals that the top strategic decision-making process itself is probabilistic because of the decision-makers involved and their crisis managers (as advisers). The paper concludes that deterministic planning is not sufficient, and it recommends probabilistic planning that considers uncertainties in the decision-making process itself as well as other uncertainties, such as forecasts, citizens responses, and the capacity of infrastructure. This results in less optimistic, but more realistic, strategies and a need to pay attention to alternative strategies.

  9. Diode laser 87Rb optical pumping in an evacuated wall-coated cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The evacuated wall coated sealed cell coupled with diode laser optical pumping offers a number of attractive potential advantages for use in Rb or Cs atomic frequency standards. An investigation of systematic effects is required to explore possible limitations of the technique. The use of diode laser optical pumping of 87 Rb in an evacuated wall coated sealed cell is presented. Experimental results/discussion to be presented include the signal strength and line broadening of the 0 - 0 hyperfine resonance as a function of light intensity for the D1 optical transitions (F - F prime) - (2 1 prime) and (2 - 2 prime), shift of the 0 - 0 hyperfine frequency as a function of laser intensity and de-tuning from optical resonance, and diode laser frequency stabilization techniques.

  10. Treatment of Pediatric Diseases by the Method of Evacuating the Bowels to Remove the Internal Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Evacuating the bowels to remove internal heat is one of the major therapeutic principles in treating pediatric diseases. Since the children are incapable of controlling in take of milk or food, the accumulated foodstuffs in the body will impede the spleen and stomach in digestion and transportation. In addition, children are easy to be attacked by exopathogens, because their organs are tender and do not fully develop. Once an exopathogen gets into the interior, it will transform into heat. However, simple measures of eliminating the heat often fail in the treatment of some critical and emergent pediatric cases. We have treated such cases by the method of evacuating bowels to remove the internal heat with miracle effects and would like to share our experience with our colleagues. The following are some examples.

  11. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  12. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  13. Investigation into the interaction of people with signage systems and its implementation within evacuation models

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Signage systems are widely used in buildings in accordance with safety legislation and building standards. These aim to provide general information and safety messages to occupants, and assist them in wayfinding during both circulation and evacuation. Despite the fact that signage systems are an important component in building wayfinding systems, there is a lack of relevant data concerning how occupants perceive, interpret and use the information conveyed by emergency signage. The effectivene...

  14. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Nikolai W.F.; Jordan Miller; Rick O’Gorman; Edward A. Codling

    2015-01-01

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whet...

  15. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  16. Comparison between transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhui Wang; Hong Liang; Minhui Xu; Guangjian Shen; Lunshan Xu

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia is a potentially life-threatening cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Surgical evacuation is an important treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage. However, little is reported about the comparison on the efficacy of various approaches on the prognosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage which surgically treated via transsylvian-transinsular approach or transcortical-transtemporal approach were co...

  17. The Reality Check: Evacuation Planning done by Mixed Reality and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Keus, D.; Veldhoven, E.R. van; Heemskerck Pillis, F. van; Brink, T. van den; van Laar, J

    2011-01-01

    Severe natural or man-made disasters that occur in urban areas often require evacuation measures to protect or rescue the population. In crisis situations, different kinds of knowledge are necessary to get insight in the consequences of the proposed set of measures. In addition, there are typically many different parties involved in the decision making process. These decision makers can be supported by simulation models that assist in assessing and predicting the emergency situation and assis...

  18. SEMA4A : a knowledge base for accessible evacuation and alert notifications in emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Onorati, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    When an emergency occurs or is going to occur, the aim of organizations and agencies involved in the response phase is to restore quickly a safe situation and reduce the number of victims and damages. The notification of information about the kind of emergency, its characteristics, the location of safe places and available procedures for reaching them has a crucial role in order to facilitate the evacuation of citizens. Several organizations and agencies have been promoting ...

  19. Anal gas evacuation and colonic microbiota in patients with flatulence: effect of diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Roca, Joaquim; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterise the influence of diet on abdominal symptoms, anal gas evacuation, intestinal gas distribution and colonic microbiota in patients complaining of flatulence. Design Patients complaining of flatulence (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=20) were instructed to follow their usual diet for 3 days (basal phase) and to consume a high-flatulogenic diet for another 3 days (challenge phase). Results: During basal phase, patients recorded more abdominal symptoms than healthy subject...

  20. Identification of Evacuation Routes in Tacloban City using Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is the second most at risk to natural hazards according to the 2014 World Risk Report. On 8 November 2013, category 5 Typhoon Haiyan crossed the central region of the Philippines with maximum sustained wind reaching 315 kph. Considered as one of the strongest typhoons that made landfall in recorded history, Typhoon Haiyan caused USD 8 billion damage to properties, 6,293 deaths, 28,689 injured and 1,061 missing persons. Tacloban City, located in the north-eastern part of the island of Leyte in Eastern Visayas region, is one of the area most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. The city is susceptible to other natural hazards given its geography, topography and geology. This condition emphasizes the need for preventive measures to avoid further loss of lives and destruction to properties. Evacuation is a mitigating strategy which involves the process of moving people from dangerous places to safer locations. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), a multi-hazard map of Tacloban City was created to determine safe areas for evacuation centers. The optimal route for evacuation was identified using ArcGIS Network Analyst's routing solver based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The medium of transportation used in the analysis is by foot with an average speed of 5.0 kph. Furthermore, the study assumes that all roads are passable and fully functional during the travel period and that there are no structures, trees and other debris that may act as road blockage. The study can be used as a reference in hazard assessment for disaster risk management and evacuation planning. This can be further improved by incorporating behaviour of the affected population and other socio-economic factors, different modes of transportation and detailed analysis of topography.

  1. Analyzing evacuation versus shelter-in-place strategies after a terrorist nuclear detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Lawrence M; Choi, Youngsoo; Denuit, Sylvie

    2010-09-01

    We superimpose a radiation fallout model onto a traffic flow model to assess the evacuation versus shelter-in-place decisions after the daytime ground-level detonation of a 10-kt improvised nuclear device in Washington, DC. In our model, ≈ 80k people are killed by the prompt effects of blast, burn, and radiation. Of the ≈ 360k survivors without access to a vehicle, 42.6k would die if they immediately self-evacuated on foot. Sheltering above ground would save several thousand of these lives and sheltering in a basement (or near the middle of a large building) would save of them. Among survivors of the prompt effects with access to a vehicle, the number of deaths depends on the fraction of people who shelter in a basement rather than self-evacuate in their vehicle: 23.1k people die if 90% shelter in a basement and 54.6k die if 10% shelter. Sheltering above ground saves approximately half as many lives as sheltering in a basement. The details related to delayed (i.e., organized) evacuation, search and rescue, decontamination, and situational awareness (via, e.g., telecommunications) have very little impact on the number of casualties. Although antibiotics and transfusion support have the potential to save ≈ 10k lives (and the number of lives saved from medical care increases with the fraction of people who shelter in basements), the logistical challenge appears to be well beyond current response capabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that the government should initiate an aggressive outreach program to educate citizens and the private sector about the importance of sheltering in place in a basement for at least 12 hours after a terrorist nuclear detonation. PMID:20840487

  2. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: Techniques, indications, results and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, University Hospital and Outpatient Center, 550 N. University Blvd. UH 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu; Bartram, Clive [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Consulting Radiology, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, Harrow HA1 3UJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  3. Study on the Principle Mechanisms of Heat Transfer for Cryogenic Insulations: Especially Accounting for the Temperature-Dependent Deposition-Evacuation of the Filling Gas (Self-Evacuating Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Matthias; Vidi, Stephan; Ebert, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    This study concentrates on the principles of heat transfer within cryogenic insulation systems, especially accounting for self-evacuating systems (deposition-evacuation of the filling gas). These principles allow the extrapolation to other temperatures, gases and other materials with the input of only a few experimentally derived or carefully estimated material properties. The type of gas (e.g. air or CO2) within the porous insulation material dominates the behaviour of the effective thermal conductivity during the cooldown of the cryogenic application. This is due to the specific temperature-dependent saturation gas pressure which determines the contribution of the gas conductivity. The selected material classes include powders, fibrous insulations, foams, aerogels and multilayer insulations in the temperature range of 20 K to 300 K. Novel within this study is an analytical function for the total and the mean thermal conductivity with respect to the temperature, type of gas, external pressure and material class of the insulation. Furthermore, the integral mean value of the thermal conductivity, the so-called mean thermal conductivity, is calculated for a mechanically evacuated insulation material and an insulation material evacuated by deposition-evacuation of the filling gas, respectively. This enables a comparison of the total thermal conductivity of cryogenic insulation materials and their applicability for a self-evacuating cryogenic insulation system.

  4. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  5. TSUNAMI SCENARIO SIMULATOR: A TOOL FOR ENSURING EFFECTIVE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND COASTAL EVACUATION IN A MULTILANGUAGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Clerveaux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An emergent paradigm in disaster-risk reduction is the issue of Multilanguage societies within the context of risk information and communication. The primary mitigation measure for tsunamis is the development of effective warning systems and evacuation strategies. The scale of the earthquake, the level of maintenance of prevention structures, such as seawalls, efficiency of the information dissemination system and the residents’ willingness to evacuate, influence the impact of a tsunami disaster. Therefore, the goal of tsunami disaster reduction is concerned not only with the use of prevention infrastructures but also with encouraging residents to evacuate quickly through the provision of disaster education and the relay of disaster information in a manner comprehendible by all groups in society. The simulator combines hydrodynamic simulation of tsunamis with warning and human-response simulations for evacuation. Additionally, because of its visual 3D/GIS presentation the simulator is an effective tool for educating the public.

  6. Symmetry in behavior of complex social systems - discussion of models of crowd evacuation organized in agreement with symmetry conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, W

    2011-01-01

    The evacuation of football stadium scenarios are discussed as model realizing ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given group is. The speeds of individuals at every point in the presented model have the same quantity. As the results the times of evacuation and average forces acting on individuals during the evacuation are given. Both parameters are compared with the same parameters got without symmetry considerations. They are calculated in the simulation procedure. The new program (using modified Helbing model) has been elaborated and presented in this work for realization the simulation tasks the.

  7. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H- ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  8. Research on a Multi-grid Model for Passenger Evacuation in Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chen; Duanfeng Han; Haipeng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance the authenticity and accuracy of passenger evacuation simulation in ships,a new multi-grid model was proposed on the basis of a traditional cellular automata model.In the new model finer lattices were used,interaction of force among pedestrians or between pedestrians and constructions was considered,and static floor fields in a multi-level exit environment were simplified into cabin and exit static fioor fields.Compared with the traditional cellular automata model,the multi-grid model enhanced the continuity of the passengers' track and the precision of the boundary qualifications.The functions of the dislocation distribution of passengers as well as partial overlap of tracks due to congestion were realized.Furthermore,taking the typical cabin environment as an example,the two models were used to analyze passenger evacuation under the same conditions.It was found that the laws of passenger evacuation simulated by the two models are similar,while the simulation's authenticity and accuracy are enhanced by the multi-grid model.

  9. Emergency Evacuation Simulation for Radiological Emergency; A Case Study of Gijang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyu M.; Na, Kyoungseok; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ahn, Seokyoung; Park, Seonghee [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The recent nuclear reactor accident at Fukushima caused the residents at Gijang to be concerned about the safety of their local nuclear plants. The nuclear reactor-related accidents is very rare but may cause the serious consequences and last for significant period. Especially, Gijang is located next to Busan, at which most population is concentrated. Hence, the effective and efficient emergency evacuation plan cannot be overemphasized in addition to well-designed nuclear disaster prevention measures. The central government has studied the safety issues of nuclear plants and developed the prevention systems. However, the local government also needs their emergency evacuation plan for its residents, considering its geographical and local factors such as various modes of transportations, transportation and shelters systems. The disasters related to nuclear power plants is rare but their influence is considerable. Therefore, while maintaining the safe facilities, the disaster preparedness cannot be overemphasized. An agent-based emergency evacuation simulation tool has been developed and tested for Gijang area.

  10. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  11. Dynamic changes during evacuation of a left temporal abscess in open MRI: technical case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernays, R.L.; Yonekawa, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Kollias, S.S. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of ''near real-time'' neuro-navigation by open MRI systems for guidance of stereotactic evacuation of intracranial abscesses. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our institution with an intracranial left temporal abscess. He presented with headache, senso-motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis. The abscess (35 x 25 mm) was stereotactically evacuated under MRI guidance, and a recurrence of a daughter abscess was again evacuated on the 9th postoperative day. ''Near real-time'' imaging showed an indentation of the abscess wall of 11 mm along the trajectory. A thermosensitive MRI protocol demonstrated a higher temperature around the abscess capsule than in the brain tissue more distant to the capsule, demonstrating the inflammatory process. The patient had 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bacteria and was discharged with improved clinical symptoms 5 weeks after admission. Follow-up CT 2 months postoperatively showed a complete resolution of the abscess. Open MRI-guided interventions with ''near real-time'' imaging demonstrate the anatomical changes during an ongoing procedure and can be accommodated for enhancing the overall precision of stereotactic procedures. Thermosensitive MRI protocols are capable of revealing temperature gradients around inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  12. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences on travel mode choice, respectively. According to the data collected from the stated preference (SP survey on evacuee mode choice, the estimation results show that the regret-based model performs better than the utility model. Moreover, based on the estimates from behavioral analysis, the elasticities of evacuee mode choices are calculated, and transit strategy simulation is undertaken to investigate the influence on evacuee mode switching from private automobile to public transit. The results are expected to help emergency administrators to make a transit-oriented strategy for a sustainable evacuation plan, especially for the benefit of carless people.

  13. Regional analysis of social characteristics for evacuation resource planning: ARkStorm scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Allan Baez,; Sleeter, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Local planning is insufficient for regional catastrophes; regional exercises are needed to test emergency plans and decision-making structures. The ARkStorm scenario would trigger a mass evacuation that would be complicated by the social characteristics of populations [e.g., vehicle ownership, age, poverty, English language limitation (ELL), and shelter needs]. Land cover data and dasymetric mapping improves the allocation of residential populations and their social characteristics to the ARkStorm flood zone in 21 counties in California. Numbers and concentrations of county, urban, and rural residents exposed to flooding as well as populations in and out of the scenario flood zone are profiled. The results inform mass evacuation planning by providing a means to (1) examine the sufficiency of mutual aid agreements, (2) underscore planning for carless populations, and (3) tailor multilingual communication strategies. The various geographical distinctions emphasize different challenges throughout the region. It will be important to investigate behavioral responses to warnings, identify evacuation constraints (e.g., shelter capacity versus need), and obtain comparable data on transient populations.

  14. Reliability analysis of road network for estimation of public evacuation time around NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun-Young; Lee, Gab-Bock; Chung, Yang-Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The most strong protection method of radiation emergency preparedness is the evacuation of the public members when a great deal of radioactivity is released to environment. After the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant meltdown in the United States and Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in the U.S.S.R, many advanced countries including the United States and Japan have continued research on estimation of public evacuation time as one of emergency countermeasure technologies. Also in South Korea, 'Framework Act on Civil Defense: Radioactive Disaster Preparedness Plan' was established in 1983 and nuclear power plants set up a radiation emergency plan and have regularly carried out radiation emergency preparedness trainings. Nonetheless, there is still a need to improve technology to estimate public evacuation time by executing precise analysis of traffic flow to prepare practical and efficient ways to protect the public. In this research, road network for Wolsong and Kori NPPs was constructed by CORSIM code and Reliability analysis of this road network was performed.

  15. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  16. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  17. Statistical fluctuations in pedestrian evacuation times and the effect of social contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Bouzat, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical models of pedestrian evacuation and the associated simulation software have become essential tools for the assessment of the safety of public facilities and buildings. While a variety of models is now available, their calibration and test against empirical data are generally restricted to global averaged quantities; the statistics compiled from the time series of individual escapes ("microscopic" statistics) measured in recent experiments are thus overlooked. In the same spirit, much research has primarily focused on the average global evacuation time, whereas the whole distribution of evacuation times over some set of realizations should matter. In the present paper we propose and discuss the validity of a simple relation between this distribution and the microscopic statistics, which is theoretically valid in the absence of correlations. To this purpose, we develop a minimal cellular automaton, with features that afford a semiquantitative reproduction of the experimental microscopic statistics. We then introduce a process of social contagion of impatient behavior in the model and show that the simple relation under test may dramatically fail at high contagion strengths, the latter being responsible for the emergence of strong correlations in the system. We conclude with comments on the potential practical relevance for safety science of calculations based on microscopic statistics.

  18. Effects of individual attitudes and motion decisions in room evacuation models

    CERN Document Server

    Dossetti, Víctor; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This lead us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the {\\em faster-is-slower} effect. The proposed model enables for the introduction of Game Theory elements to solve conflicts between pedestrians which try to occupy the same space. Moreover, it allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts. In the...

  19. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  1. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  2. 候车厅内人员疏散模型的研究%On the Evacuation Model in Waiting Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锡铅

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,using cellular automata model waiting chamber evacuation simulation of the evacuation.There are a number of factors affect the evacuation time,the recount gate count not only affect the evacuation time,but also on the economic costs in the evacuation.The study found that there is an evacuation time and economic costs both to recount the number of gates.%本文用元胞自动机模型研究候车厅内人员的疏散,模拟仿真了疏散过程。人员疏散中有多个因素影响疏散时间,验票门数不仅影响疏散时间,而且也影响到经济成本。研究发现,存在着一个疏散时间与经济成本相兼顾的验票门数。

  3. 人群疏散行为建模与仿真研究%Model and stu dy of Crowd Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑美容

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation has become an important subject in the safety field .Cellular automata can be used for simulating complex phenomena .This paper sets up a crowd evacuation model based on the principle of cellular automat , and determines the cellular space and state of each cell .According to the actual situation , the pa-per improves and optimizes cellular evolution rule , and develops an evacuation program to simulate the crowed e-vacuation process , and gets the basic rule and evacuation time .Simulation results show that the reality and reasona -bly for the proposed model to simulate the case of an emergency evacuation process .%元胞自动机可以对复杂现象进行模拟,利用二维元胞自动机的理论建立人群疏散模型,确定元胞空间和元胞状态,根据实际情况改进和优化元胞演化规则,编写了疏散过程的程序对突发事件下人群疏散进行模拟,获得了人群疏散的基本规律及疏散时间。研究结果表明,该模型能更加真实、合理地模拟出紧急情况下的人群疏散过程。

  4. CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中的应用%Clinical application of CAD/CAM all glass-ceramic inlay/onlays in the restoration of the posterior teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜利英; 王春清; 王有明

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical use of CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays in the restoration of the posterior teeth. Method:Thirty patients with thirty teeth of residual crown were selected and restored with CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays after completely root canal therapy. Result:With 3 to 13 months following study,the retention, marginal adaptation and periodontal tissue of the dental prosthetic restoration of 30 teeth were satisfactory. Conclusion:The CAD∕CAM all glass-ceramic inlay∕onlays in the restoration for the posterior teeth can provide better effect of retention and esthetics.%目的:研究计算机辅助设计和计算机辅助制作( CAD∕CAM)玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中的应用。方法:30例患者后牙经完善根管治疗后,使用CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体修复。结果:随访3~13个月,30例嵌体∕高嵌体修复体的固位、边缘密合度、牙周状况均良好。结论:CAD∕CAM玻璃陶瓷嵌体∕高嵌体在后牙义齿修复中能够提供较好的固位及美学效果。

  5. Analysis, development and testing of a fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible Vee-Trough reflectors and vacuum tube receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Vee-Trough/Vacuum Tube Collector (VTVTC) aimed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of collectors assembled from evacuated tube receivers. The VTVTC was analyzed rigorously and a mathematical model was developed to calculate the optical performance of the vee-trough concentrator and the thermal performance of the evacuated tube receiver. A test bed was constructed to verify the mathematical analyses and compare reflectors made out of glass, Alzak and aluminized GEB Teflon. Tests were run at temperatures ranging from 95 to 180 C during the months of April, May, June, July and August 1977. Vee-trough collector efficiencies of 35-40 per cent were observed at an operating temperature of about 175 C. Test results compared well with the calculated values. Test data covering a complete day are presented for selected dates throughout the test season. Predicted daily useful heat collection and efficiency values are presented for a year's duration at operation temperatures ranging from 65 to 230 C. Estimated collector costs and resulting thermal energy costs are presented. Analytical and experimental results are discussed along with an economic evaluation.

  6. Review on study of evacuation in ship%船舶安全疏散研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 吕伟

    2014-01-01

    As an important approach to protect the lives of people on the ship , ship evacuation is becoming the fo-cus of the shipping industry all over the world .Three mainly research aspects such as the typical behaviors and movement characteristics , the ship evacuation model , and the ship evacuation facility were described in this paper based on a great many available published literature .Firstly, it was proposed that the behavior and movement char-acteristic of the people on ship is the research basis of the ship evacuation .Then the studies on current evacuation model, the ship evacuation software and the relationship between them were introducedwere introduced .Subse-quently , the relation between the ship evacuation facility development and the ship evacuation research was simply described.Lastly, the future of ship evacuation was proposed according to the problems of ship evacuation resear -ches.%船舶安全疏散作为保障船上人员生命安全的重要途径,已逐步成为世界航运业关注的焦点。介绍了船舶人员行为及运动特征、船舶疏散模型和船舶疏散设施等三个方面的研究现状。首先说明船舶人员行为及运动特征是船舶疏散研究的基础;然后介绍了现有的疏散模型研究、船舶疏散模型和仿真软件,以及三者之间的相互关系;进而简要介绍船舶安全疏散装置和船舶疏散研究的关系;最后针对船舶安全疏散研究存在的问题和不足,对船舶安全疏散的发展提出展望。

  7. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  8. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  9. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  10. Dermatology on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Boyers, Lindsay N.; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results inclu...

  11. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  12. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  13. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  14. 建筑智能疏散系统架构%System architecture of intelligent evacuation system of buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 陈涛; 吕显智

    2011-01-01

    This essay was based on an analysis of the traditional evacuation of lifesaving facilities, blended into the diversified high and new technology means of advanced intelligent information of monitor technique, artificial intelligent technique, computer technology and so on, mtegrated the function of building evacuation,built an intelligent evacuation system.Built a perfect combination of building, fire, crowd and intelligent evacuation, so that the personnel evacuation in real situation could be as a scientific, reasonable and complete intelligent dynamic adjustable system.The aim is to improve the evacuation efficiency,make it more safe, orderly and quickly that depends on the advanced technological means to impact people choices of exits and evacuation.%在传统疏散救生设施的基础上,融入了建筑中先进的智能信息监测技术、人工智能技术、计算机技术等高新技术手段,整合了建筑疏散功能,构建了一个智能疏散系统.该系统克服了现有智能疏散系统的不足和缺陷,利用智能疏散系统主控模块,实现对真实火场状态下人员疏散的智能动态引导,旨在结合火场动态变化真正实现智能化,使人员疏散更科学、安全、迅速.

  15. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  16. 设置疏散避难区解决疏散宽度不足的探讨%Discussion of setting evacuation shelter area to compensate the inadequate evacuation width

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 赵雅娟

    2011-01-01

    分析地下大型商场超市安全疏散存在的不利因素.针对地下大型超市疏散通道过长和疏散宽度不足的问题,结合有关消防技术规范和日常工作的实际,进行分析和初步的技术论证,并提出设置疏散避难区的对策.以某地下大型超市为例,应用该方法设置疏散避难区,并进行性能化设计论证其有效性.%The disadvantages of underground shopping mall and supermarket evacuation were analyzed. Combining the related standard and actual daily work, the problems of evacuation path being too long and evacuation width being inadequate in underground large supermarkets were analyzed and technically demonstrated , and countermeasure of setting evacuation shelter area was put forward. Taking an underground large supermarket as an example, the method was utilized to set the evacuation shelter area, and performance based design verification was carried out to prove the effectiveness.

  17. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  18. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  19. Quake Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    More than 60,000 affected by earthquake and aftershocks in China’s far west An earthquake on March 21 mea- suring 7.3 on the Richter scale forced the relocation of 144 families in a village in Yutian County,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,to safe places,according to Xinhua News Agency. The first and strongest jolt occurred at 6:33 a.m.that morning.Then four after- shocks,measuring between 5.2 and 5 on the Richter scale,followed between 7 a.m.and 8

  20. 最优应急疏散路线动态模拟的研究%Study on the Dynamic Simulation of the Optimum Emergency Evacuation Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培红; 岳丽红; 陈宝智

    2001-01-01

    Generally, the human emergency evacuation model can be summarized into two types. The first series of evacuation model refers to the evacuation behavior with predetermined plan and certain route, in which human evacuate in the same and mean evacuation velocity, whose main purpose is to study the crowd evacuation progress. The second series of evacuation model, which is discussed in this paper, studies the stochastic evacuation behav- ior rules and the optimum of the whole evacuation progress. First of all, on the base of the network model of the emergency evacuation space and the optimum theory , we should establish the optimum model of the multi-objective emergency evacuation Furthermore , according to an application study on a residential building , we should realize the timely optimum simulation of the emergency evacu- ation performance. The study achievement can pro- vide valuable references to the performance-based e- vacuation design of building.%首先对应急疏散空间进行网络模化,进而利用网络流原理和最优化理论,建立多目标应急疏散系统,疏散路线全局优化的数学模型,并通过对一民用住宅建筑物应急疏散性能的实例研究,进行关于最优应急疏散路线的动态模拟分析。其研究成果可以为建筑物性能化安全疏散设计提供非常有价值的参考依据。

  1. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  2. Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, S.; Berube, A; Deakin, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has laid bare many of the disparities that continue to separate Americans by race and class. One disparity that was immediately apparent in Katrina’s aftermath concerned the size and composition of the area’s population lacking access to an automobile. These households, largely dependent on the limited emergency public transportation available to evacuate the city in advance of the storm, were those most likely to be left behind. In New Orleans...

  3. A Simple, Safe Technique for Thorough Seroma Evacuation in the Outpatient Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Park, MD, FACS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Seroma formation, a common postoperative complication in reconstructive cases, can lead to capsular contracture and increased office visits and expenses. The authors present a safe, novel technique for ensuring the thorough removal of serous fluid in the outpatient setting. By relying on access with an angiocatheter, potential injury to permanent implants is minimized. The use of low continuous wall suction obviates the need of manual suction via multiple syringes and offers a rapid and thorough evacuation of all types of seromas.

  4. Forming tool improves quality of tubing flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Punch and die set improves the quality of tubing flares for use with standard flared-tube fittings in high-pressure systems. It forges a dimensionally accurate flare in the tubing and forces more tubing material into the high-stress areas to improve the strength and tightness of the tubing connection.

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  6. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  7. 基于GIS和AHP的疏散地域选址%Spatial Location Selection of Evacuation Area Based on GIS and AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温伯威; 魏海平; 张强; 孙国利

    2011-01-01

    人员疏散是战时减少人员伤亡的有效手段,疏散地域又是人员疏散的基础.做好疏散地域选址分析对人员疏散体系建设具有十分重要的意义.对影响疏散地域选址的因素进行了归类和分析;基于GIS和层次分析法建立了一个疏散地域选址模型,并对模型进行了实例应用.该模型的实现大大降低了人为因素对疏散地域选址的影响,增强了疏散地域选址的科学性和合理性.%The population evacuation is an effective measure to reduce casualties in wartime, and the evacuation area is the hase of evacuation, so the spatial location selection of evacuation area is quite important to the construction of evacuation system. The factors that affected the spatial location selection of evacuation area were classified and analyzed; a spatial location selection model of evacuation area based on GIS and AHP was designed and applied. Implementation of this model greatly reduced the human factor influence on the spatial location selection of evacuation area, increased the scientificalness and rationality of the spatial location selection of evacuation area.

  8. Research on large-scale evacuation for toxic gas leakage%有毒气体泄漏大规模人员疏散研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金印; 石祥

    2011-01-01

    分析影响毒气泄漏大规模人员疏散的主要因素,将毒气扩散理论和人员疏散理论联合研究,对大规模人员疏散的疏散分区和疏散方式进行探讨.由公式推导给出人员在毒气连续泄漏的情况下疏散所遭受的毒气伤害剂量的计算方法.提出紧急避难区、协助疏散区、引导疏散区和自主疏散区4种疏散分区的确定方法,提出综合考虑毒气浓度水平及不同疏散分区的8种疏散方式.%The discussion on subareas and modes of evacuation are carried out by integrating toxic gas diffusion theory and e-vacuation theory based on the analysis of key factors that influence the large-scale evacuation after leakage toxic gas. The calculation method of LC under continuous leakage is given by e-quation derivation. The evacuation subareas of emergency refuge zone, assisting evacuation zone, leading evacuation zone and independence evacuation zone and 8 modes of evacuation based on the toxic gas concentration and evacuation subareas are suggested.

  9. Analysis on people evacuation in a subway fire%某地铁火灾人员疏散分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田娟荣; 周孝清

    2011-01-01

    采用人员疏散软件,模拟火灾工况下人员安全疏散所需要的时间.采用CFD技术分别模拟计算列车中部起火和头部起火两种情况下烟气层高度、温度及浓度的变化.在此基础上,根据人员安全疏散准则,对地铁人员疏散危险性进行分析,为地铁排烟系统的合理设计和人员疏散方案的制定提供参考依据.%Using people evacuation software, required safety e-vacuation time was simulated firstly. Then CFD was used to simulate height, temperature and concentration of smoke layer in the cases of fire happened separately at head and middle of train. And according to the rule of people safety evacuation, risk of people evacuation was analyzed, giving reference for appropriate design of smoke exhaust system and people evacuation plan.

  10. A fuzzy-theory-based behavioral model for studying pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2016-08-01

    Many mass events in recent years have highlighted the importance of research on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. A number of models have been developed to analyze crowd behavior under evacuation situations. However, few focus on pedestrians' decision-making with respect to uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. In this paper, a discrete evacuation model defined on the cellular space is proposed according to the fuzzy theory which is able to describe imprecise and subjective information. Pedestrians' percept information and various characteristics are regarded as fuzzy input. Then fuzzy inference systems with rule bases, which resemble human reasoning, are established to obtain fuzzy output that decides pedestrians' movement direction. This model is tested in two scenarios, namely in a single-exit room with and without obstacles. Simulation results reproduce some classic dynamics phenomena discovered in real building evacuation situations, and are consistent with those in other models and experiments. It is hoped that this study will enrich movement rules and approaches in traditional cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics.

  11. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  12. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  13. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  14. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  15. A Study on Evacuation Performance of Siphon-Type Water Closets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Seng; Lee, Ruey-Tsung; Liu, Chia-Hung; Hsia, Cheng-Wei

    2010-06-01

    Many designs of sit-type water closets have been in the market. Different design uses different mechanism to bring down the waste. One of these many designs utilizes siphon effect to flush, therefore is called siphon type. This type of water closet has simple structure and is very widely used at home. To obtain good flush effect, water volume for each flush is crucial. However, it is limited to no more than 6 liters by government regulation in many countries. It is a common sense that the water passage in the closet affects the flush effect. This research uses 3 different passages, a commercial existed one and two others to compare how the flush effect varies at different water volume and different passages. Tests were used to examine the evacuation effect and flow velocities of water in passages were also measured by particle tracking technique. Observations indicate air is always trapped in the passage. The passage creates better evacuation effect contains fewer air trap and completes a flush process at less time span. A correlation based on non-dimensional parameters based on water volume and flush time and geometry dimensions is also constructed. A diagram established according to these non-dimensional parameters depicts different regions for good and poor flush performance.

  16. Evacuation and Risk of Hypertension After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that evacuation may have increased the risk of hypertension among residents in Fukushima. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 31 252 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from 2011 through 2013. A total of 21 989 participants (follow-up proportion, 70.4%) received follow-up examinations. Mean blood pressure significantly increased in both evacuees and nonevacuees after the disaster, with greater changes in blood pressure among the former. The changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the evacuees and nonevacuees were +5.8/3.4 versus +4.6/2.1 mm Hg (PEarthquake. Evacuation may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men in the 2 years after the disaster. PMID:27480836

  17. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation.

  18. Evacuation and Risk of Hypertension After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in Japan, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that evacuation may have increased the risk of hypertension among residents in Fukushima. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 31 252 Japanese participants aged 40 to 74 years sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from 2011 through 2013. A total of 21 989 participants (follow-up proportion, 70.4%) received follow-up examinations. Mean blood pressure significantly increased in both evacuees and nonevacuees after the disaster, with greater changes in blood pressure among the former. The changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the evacuees and nonevacuees were +5.8/3.4 versus +4.6/2.1 mm Hg (PFukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Evacuation may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men in the 2 years after the disaster.

  19. Tranexamic Acid for Recurring Subdural Hematomas Following Surgical Evacuation: A Clinical Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Joel M; Hutchins, Leslie; Vega, Rafael A

    2016-09-01

    Background Chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs) are commonly encountered in neurosurgery. Optimal management of SDHs remains a significant challenge. Current treatment options generally include supportive care or surgical intervention. A significant proportion of patients have surgery; however, the reoperation rate is considered high. There are also cases in which additional surgical procedures would carry significant morbidity, and as a result, there is a need for nonsurgical medical therapies. We describe the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a nonsurgical option for the treatment of recurrent SDHs following surgery. Methods Patients were identified as candidates for potential TXA therapy and followed prospectively. The decision to administer TXA was made on the basis of history, presentation, and prognosis after further surgical intervention. Data collected included patient imaging, treatment administered, and both radiologic and clinical outcomes. Results Three patients underwent surgical evacuation of a chronic SDH (two via burr hole washout and one via craniotomy). All patients had recurrence identified on subsequent imaging. Two patients had poorer predicted outcomes if additional surgical intervention was necessary, and one refused additional surgical intervention. TXA was administered, in the same dosing and scheduled course, to all patients. Complete resolution was observed on imaging, and in the case of the patient who was symptomatic, clinical improvement was also noted. Conclusion TXA may be considered for the treatment of recurrent SDHs following surgical evacuation in patients for whom additional surgery would add significant morbidity. PMID:27300772

  20. Comparison between transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia is a potentially life-threatening cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Surgical evacuation is an important treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage. However, little is reported about the comparison on the efficacy of various approaches on the prognosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage which surgically treated via transsylvian-transinsular approach or transcortical-transtemporal approach were collected. The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, revision surgery, the average length of hospital stay, and the six-month efficacy (defined by an ADL score rate between these two groups were compared. RESULTS: The six-month efficacy rates were 75% and 50% in patients receiving transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal surgery, respectively (p<0.05. Compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, the proportion of revision surgery was statistically significantly lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, (p<0.05. The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, the incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, and the average length of hospital stay were lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, but no statistically significant differences were noted in them between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The transsylvian-transinsular approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma demonstrates limited complications, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved long-term efficacy and prognosis. These findings suggest this operative approach has potential for wider application.

  1. Crowd Evacuation for Indoor Public Spaces Using Coulomb’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Kamkarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on designing a tool for guiding a group of people out of a public building when they are faced with dangerous situations that require immediate evacuation. Despite architectural attempts to produce safe floor plans and exit door placements, people will still commit to fatal route decisions. Since they have access to global views, we believe supervisory people in the control room can use our simulation tools to determine the best courses of action for people. Accordingly, supervisors can guide people to safety. In this paper, we combine Coulomb’s electrical law, graph theory, and convex and centroid concepts to demonstrate a computer-generated evacuation scenario that divides the environment into different safe boundaries around the locations of each exit door in order to guide people through exit doors safely and in the most expedient time frame. Our mechanism continually updates the safe boundaries at each moment based on the latest location of individuals who are present inside the environment. Guiding people toward exit doors depends on the momentary situations in the environment, which in turn rely on the specifications of each exit door. Our mechanism rapidly adapts to changes in the environment in terms of moving agents and changes in the environmental layout that might be caused by explosions or falling walls.

  2. Influence of Heat Input, Working Fluid and Evacuation Level on the Performance of Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rama Narasimha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on pulsating heat pipe (PHP is presented in this work. A closed loop PHP with a single U turn is fabricated and tested. The transient and steady state experiments are conducted and operating temperatures are measured. The experiments are carried out for different working fluids, heat input and for different evacuation levels. The derived parameters include thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient of PHP. The results of these experiments show an intermittent motion of the working fluid at lower heat input. The temperature difference between evaporator and condenser at steady state is found lower for acetone compared to water, ethanol and methanol. Lower value of thermal resistance and higher value of heat transfer coefficient are observed in case of acetone compared to water, ethanol and methanol. Lower values of temperature difference between evaporator and condenser and thermal resistance and higher value of heat transfer coefficient are observed at atmospheric conditions of operation of PHP compared to evacuation conditions. The Power Spectral Density Analysis is also carried out on the results of these experiments using FFT technique to analyse the pulsating motion of the fluid in a PHP. In the Power Spectral Density analysis, the frequency distribution of temperature variation in PHP was observed over a wider range, signifying the periodic motion in the fluid flow of the liquid slug and vapour plug. This characteristic frequency corresponded to the characteristic time for a couple of adjacent vapour plug and liquid slug passing through a specific local wall surface in a PHP.

  3. Mass medical evacuation: Hurricane Katrina and nursing experiences at the New Orleans airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelly R; Nagel, Nanci E

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, a category 4 storm, struck the U.S. Gulf states in late August, 2005, resulting in the most costly and second most deadly natural disaster in recent United States history. The storm and subsequent flooding due to levee failure necessitated the evacuation of 80% of the city of New Orleans' 484,674 residents. Most of the city's hospitals and other health care resources were destroyed or inoperable. The hurricane devastated many communities, stranding people in hospitals, shelters, homes, and nursing homes. Nurses and other health care providers deployed to New Orleans to provide medical assistance experienced substantial challenges in making triage and treatment decisions for patients whose numbers far exceeded supplies and personnel. This article describes the experiences and solutions of nurses and other personnel from 3 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams assigned to the New Orleans airport responsible for perhaps the most massive patient assessment, stabilization, and evacuation operation in U.S. history. As the frequency of disasters continues to rise, it is imperative that the nursing profession realize its value in the disaster arena and continually take leadership roles. PMID:17517364

  4. Software Evaluation for Crowd Evacuation - Case Study: Al-Masjid An-Nabawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilah Haron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster preparation and management, such as emergency evacuation, is very essential for public places. This is especially true for Al-Masjid An-Nabawi which accommodates millions of Muslims around the world during Umrah and Hajj seasons. This paper describes the evaluation process carried out to determine the most suitable software for the purpose of studying the evacuation process of Al-Masjid An-Nabawi. This process starts by identifying the project requirements such as the scope and nature of the project, information and data available (e.g. floor-plan, total occupancy of the mosque, duration of the project and the budget. This is then followed by the survey on all available crowd simulation software. Assessments were carried out in terms of degree of validation, background nature of the software, the models used and features available. These were among the main criteria used in short-listing the potential software to be purchased. Observations and identifications on congestion-prone areas, as case studies, were also performed.

  5. A GIS-Based 3D Simulation for Occupant Evacuation in a Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; ZHANG Xin

    2008-01-01

    The evacuation efficiency of building plans is of obvious importance to the public safety.The cem- plexity of building plans,however,makes it difficult for the efficiency evaluation.This paper presents a com- putational model AutoEscape,which can simulate the evacuation process for any given occupant distribu. Uon in buildings.Designed as an extensible multi-level structure, the model constructs the geometry level and occupant level and establishes the interactions between levels.The GIS-based environmental analysis is realized to automatically generate the geometric representation and formulate the cognition of agents. The multi-agent based technology is employed to simulate the crowd behaviom with autonomously acting individuals.A visualization component,which provides 3D free observations for the simulation process,is developed on the platform of OGRE and integrated into the system interface in form of ActiveX control.Fi- nally,a case study has been conducted and the results have been compared with the results of an existing model to show the reliability and capacity of AutoEscape simulation.

  6. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Miller, Jordan; O'Gorman, Rick; Codling, Edward A.

    2015-11-01

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whether to help or not. In a novel situation where it is difficult to assess the risks associated with higher costs, we reproduce the finding that increasing costs reduce helping and find that the reduction in the frequency of helping behaviour is gradual rather than a sudden transition for a threshold cost level. Interestingly, younger and male participants were more likely to help. We provide potential explanations for this result relating to the nature of our experiment. Finally, we find no evidence that participants in our experiment plan ahead over two consecutive, inter-dependent helping opportunities when conducting cost-benefit trade-offs in spontaneous decisions. We discuss potential applications of our findings to research into decision-making during evacuations.

  7. Evacuation planning for plausible worst case inundation scenarios in Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Honolulu is susceptible to coastal flooding hazards. Like other coastal cities, Honolulu&s long-term economic viability and sustainability depends on how well it can adapt to changes in the natural and built environment. While there is a disagreement over the magnitude and extent of localized impacts associated with climate change, it is widely accepted that by 2100 there will be at least a meter in sea level rise (SLR) and an increase in extreme weather events. Increased exposure and vulnerabilities associated with urbanization and location of human activities in coastal areas warrants serious consideration by planners and policy makers. This article has three objectives. First, flooding due to the combined effects of SLR and episodic hydro-meteorological and geophysical events in Honolulu are investigated and the risks to the community are quantified. Second, the risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure and the surface transportation system are described. Third, using the travel demand software, travel distances and travel times for evacuation from inundated areas are modeled. Data from three inundation models were used. The first model simulated storm surge from a category 4 hurricane similar to Hurricane Iniki which devastated the island of Kauai in 1992. The second model estimates inundation based on five tsunamis that struck Hawaii. A 1-m increase in sea level was included in both the hurricane storm surge and tsunami flooding models. The third model used in this article generated a 500-year flood event due to riverine flooding. Using a uniform grid cell structure, the three inundation maps were used to assess the worst case flooding scenario. Based on the flood depths, the ruling hazard (hurricane, tsunami, or riverine flooding) for each grid cell was determined. The hazard layer was analyzed with socioeconomic data layers to determine the impact on vulnerable populations, economic activity, and critical infrastructure. The analysis focused both

  8. Evacuation planning for plausible worst case inundation scenarios in Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Honolulu is susceptible to coastal flooding hazards. Like other coastal cities, Honolulu&s long-term economic viability and sustainability depends on how well it can adapt to changes in the natural and built environment. While there is a disagreement over the magnitude and extent of localized impacts associated with climate change, it is widely accepted that by 2100 there will be at least a meter in sea level rise (SLR) and an increase in extreme weather events. Increased exposure and vulnerabilities associated with urbanization and location of human activities in coastal areas warrants serious consideration by planners and policy makers. This article has three objectives. First, flooding due to the combined effects of SLR and episodic hydro-meteorological and geophysical events in Honolulu are investigated and the risks to the community are quantified. Second, the risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure and the surface transportation system are described. Third, using the travel demand software, travel distances and travel times for evacuation from inundated areas are modeled. Data from three inundation models were used. The first model simulated storm surge from a category 4 hurricane similar to Hurricane Iniki which devastated the island of Kauai in 1992. The second model estimates inundation based on five tsunamis that struck Hawaii. A 1-m increase in sea level was included in both the hurricane storm surge and tsunami flooding models. The third model used in this article generated a 500-year flood event due to riverine flooding. Using a uniform grid cell structure, the three inundation maps were used to assess the worst case flooding scenario. Based on the flood depths, the ruling hazard (hurricane, tsunami, or riverine flooding) for each grid cell was determined. The hazard layer was analyzed with socioeconomic data layers to determine the impact on vulnerable populations, economic activity, and critical infrastructure. The analysis focused both

  9. 火灾时人员疏散的行为规律%Behavior Rules of Human Evacuation in Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培红; 陈宝智

    2001-01-01

    基于对火灾时影响人员疏散行动的开始时间的不确定因子的分析,以及对火灾时人员疏散行动能力的主要影响因素的研究,在综合考虑建筑物空间疏散性状的排队现象和多态现象的前提下, 建立火灾时人员疏散行为的数学模型。利用网论和关系数据库技术,在Mapinfo平台上,实现人员应急疏散路线的全局最优化,实现对疏散出口群集疏散流动规律的预测和评价其研究成果,可以为建筑物性能化防火设计和应急疏散计划的制定提供科学的参考依据,防止群集事故的发生,减少群集事故的损失%On the basis of analysing the indetermination factors affecting the evacuation start time,studying the main parameters on human evacuation motive ability,and considering the queuing characteristic and multi-state phenomenon involved in evacuation performance,mathematical model on the human evacuation behavior in fire was set up.Based on net-work theory and relational data base technology. The computer simulation on the optimum of human evacuation routes was realized on Mapinfo platform. This simulation can realize the evaluation and prediction of the crowd flow pattern in building fire scenarios. The analysis of the simulation may provide valuable scientific references for the performance based fire protection design of buildings and the prescription of the emergency evacuation plan. The crow accident can be prevent or mitigated.

  10. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer Hwai Gilbert Thio

    Full Text Available A centrifugal compact disc (CD microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes.

  11. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  12. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  13. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding. PMID:26016095

  14. Stakeholder-driven geospatial modeling for assessing tsunami vertical-evacuation strategies in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Schmidtlein, M.; Schelling, J.; Jones, J.; Ng, P.

    2012-12-01

    Recent tsunami disasters, such as the 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events, demonstrate the significant life loss that can occur from tsunamis. Many coastal communities in the world are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards that may inundate low-lying areas only minutes after a tsunami begins. Geospatial integration of demographic data and hazard zones has identified potential impacts on populations in communities susceptible to near-field tsunami threats. Pedestrian-evacuation models build on these geospatial analyses to determine if individuals in tsunami-prone areas will have sufficient time to reach high ground before tsunami-wave arrival. Areas where successful evacuations are unlikely may warrant vertical-evacuation (VE) strategies, such as berms or structures designed to aid evacuation. The decision of whether and where VE strategies are warranted is complex. Such decisions require an interdisciplinary understanding of tsunami hazards, land cover conditions, demography, community vulnerability, pedestrian-evacuation models, land-use and emergency-management policy, and decision science. Engagement with the at-risk population and local emergency managers in VE planning discussions is critical because resulting strategies include permanent structures within a community and their local ownership helps ensure long-term success. We present a summary of an interdisciplinary approach to assess VE options in communities along the southwest Washington coast (U.S.A.) that are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards generated by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes. Pedestrian-evacuation models based on an anisotropic approach that uses path-distance algorithms were merged with population data to forecast the distribution of at-risk individuals within several communities as a function of travel time to safe locations. A series of community-based workshops helped identify potential VE options in these communities, collectively known as "Project Safe Haven" at the

  15. A new plastic collection tube made of polyethylene terephtalate is suitable for monitoring traditional anticoagulant therapy (oral anticoagulant, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulon, Pierre; Ajzenberg, Nadine; Smahi, Motalib; Guillin, Marie-Claude

    2007-01-01

    To improve the safety of blood collection, plastic tubes have been developed but various interactions with the coagulation system and/or antithrombotic drugs were reported with the first generation of such tubes. The aim of this multicentre study was to compare hemostasis test results measured in evacuated plastic tubes made of polyethylene terephtalate (VenoSafe, Terumo Europe) and in siliconized glass tubes containing the same citrate concentration (0.129 M). In addition, the impact of aging of the plastic tube was investigated by collecting blood samples in tubes at 8 months and at 1 month before expiry. Blood was drawn in 3 centres from untreated patients (n=269), patients on oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT, n=221), and patients treated with either unfractionated heparin (UFH, n=73) or a low molecular weight derivative (LMWH, n=48). Prothrombin time (PT) or INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-FXa activity were locally performed, when applicable. In untreated patients and in patients on OAT, PT and APTT values were found statistically shorter (p<0.05) when evaluated in plastic tubes than in glass tubes, except when PT was evaluated using a human thromboplastin. Surprisingly, significantly longer APTT and higher anti-FXa activities were obtained when blood from patients on UFH was drawn in plastic than in glass tubes. However, none of the differences had any clinical relevance (Bland-Altman analysis). In patients on anticoagulant treatment, there was no effect of aging of the plastic tubes. These results suggest that the plastic tube VenoSafe is suitable for coagulation testing both in untreated subjects and more interestingly in patients on traditional anticoagulant therapy during the whole shelf life indicated by the manufacturer. PMID:16426667

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  17. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  19. drift tube for linear accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    A drift tube from the Linac 1. This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  20. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Affairs Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  1. 浅谈智能疏散指示系统软件的设计原则%On software design principles of intelligent evacuation indication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 刘玉宝; 吴小川

    2012-01-01

    介绍智能疏散指示系统的研究意义,分析总结人员安全疏散原则,包括疏散路线、双向优化、均衡快速疏散等.通过计算两个安全出口及疏散通道宽度对疏散指示标志设置的影响,归纳总结疏散指示标志设置条件,并对在此基础上设计的智能疏散指示工程检测与辅助设计软件做简要介绍.%The research significance of intelligent evacuation indication system was introduced. The safety evacuation principles were analyzed, which include evacuation route, bidirectional optimization, balanced fast evacuation, etc. By calculating how dual fire exits and the width of evacuation path affects the arrangement of evacuation signs, the evacuation indication signs setting requirements were concluded, based on which the intelligent evacuation indication test and aided design software was designed, and introduced briefly.

  2. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  3. Duplication of the fallopian tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterosalpingography accurately delineates the uterine and tubal lumen, and hence is routinely performed for the evaluation of infertility.We observed a case of infertility where uterine cavity was normal but fallopian tubes were bifurcated at the ampullary region. Mullerian duct anomalies are reported in literature, but maldevelopment of fallopian tube in isolation is rare. This abnormality can present as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, in association with urinary tract anomalies or as failure of sterilisation method.

  4. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect

  5. Test-tube Baby Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As China’s first test tube baby celebrates her 20th birthday,the country is moving to improve IVF procedures I feel just like a normal person,despite being a little bit hi-tech,"said China’s first test-tube baby Zheng Mengzhu at her birthday party in Beijing. Zheng,born on March 10,1988 in the No.3 Hospital affiliated to the Peking University of Medical Sciences,made a trip

  6. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  7. Dermatology on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  8. A laser tube position regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyitiro, A.; Norio, K.

    1984-03-26

    An improved design is patented for a mechanism and method of regulating, with a high degree of accuracy, the position of a laser tube in a gas laser inside the optical resonator formed by external mirrors. The laser tube is held in two holders. Each holder contains an L shaped bracket which supports a semitransparent plate. The plate is positioned so that its center is over the center of the end of the tube which is in the form of a Brewster window. A narrow parallel beam is directed along the tube axis from an external auxiliary laser. The beam passes through the semitransparent mirror of the optical resonator in the adjusted laser, through the first Brewster window, the tube itself, and the second Brewster window and is reflected back in the reverse direction from a fully reflecting mirror in the optical resonator. This provides partial reflection of the beam from the external Brewster mirror surface. The tube position in the holders is regulated continuously so that the luminous spots from the beams reflected off the Brewster windows fall on the semitransparent plates in the center of the latter which is designated as the point of intersection.

  9. 空运医疗队训练内容及启示%Training of Aeromedical Evacuation Team and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金志伟; 冯卫忠; 孙玉广; 朱元元

    2015-01-01

    本文从空运医疗队的编组和任务入手,探讨我军空运医疗队的训练内容,结合我军空运后送体系现状和空运后送训练的实践,提出空运医疗队重点任务、训练内容方式等方面的思考。%Based on the group organization of aeromedical evacuation team and assignment, the training contents of aeromedical evacuation team were introduced .Combining with the status and practice of aeromedical evacuation team, the main tasks of the first evacuation and the secondary rescue in the course of the aeromedical evacuation were put forward, and some suggestions on training contents were also provided .

  10. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance.

  11. Crowd Behaviour during High-Stress Evacuations in an Immersive Virtual Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Thrash, Tyler; Sumner, Robert W; Gross, Markus; Helbing, Dirk; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the collective dynamics of crowd movements during stressful emergency situations is central to reducing the risk of deadly crowd disasters. Yet, their systematic experimental study remains a challenging open problem due to ethical and methodological constraints. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of shared 3D virtual environments as an experimental platform for conducting crowd experiments with real people. In particular, we show that crowds of real human subjects moving and interacting in an immersive 3D virtual environment exhibit typical patterns of real crowds as observed in real-life crowded situations. These include the manifestation of social conventions and the emergence of self-organized patterns during egress scenarios. High-stress evacuation experiments conducted in this virtual environment reveal movements characterized by mass herding and dangerous overcrowding as they occur in crowd disasters. We describe the behavioral mechanisms at play under such extreme conditions and ...

  12. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  13. Potential Field Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Evacuation in a Domain with a Ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Jian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a potential field cellular automata model with a pushing force field to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in a domain with a ramp. We construct a cost potential depending on the ramp angle and introduce a function to evaluate the pushing force, which is related to the cost and the desired direction of pedestrian. With increase of crowd density, there is no empty space for pedestrian moving forward; pedestrian will purposefully push another pedestrian on her or his desired location to arrive the destination quickly. We analyse the relationship between the slope of ramp and the pushing force and investigate the changing of injured situations with the changing of the slope of ramp. When the number of pedestrians and the ramp angle arrive at certain critical points, the Domino effect will be simulated by this proposed model.

  14. Optical trapping and control of nanoparticles inside evacuated hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Grass, David; Hofer, Sebastian G; Kiesel, Nikolai; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical conveyor belt for levitated nano-particles over several centimeters inside both air-filled and evacuated hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCF). Detection of the transmitted light field allows three-dimensional read-out of the particle center-of-mass motion. An additional laser enables axial radiation pressure based feedback cooling over the full fiber length. We show that the particle dynamics is a sensitive local probe for characterizing the optical intensity profile inside the fiber as well as the pressure distribution along the fiber axis. In contrast to previous indirect measurement methods we find a linear pressure dependence inside the HCPCF extending over three orders of magnitude from 0.2 mbar to 100 mbar. A targeted application is the controlled delivery of nano-particles from ambient pressure into medium vacuum.

  15. Evacuated FM08 Fuses Carry a Sustained Arc in a Bus over 75 VDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidecker, Henning; Slonaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    The FM08 style fuse is specified to interrupt an overcurrent of up to 300 A in a bus of up to 125 VDC, but this applies only when its barrel is filled with air. When placed into a space-grade vacuum, the FM08 style fuse exhausts its air within a year. Then, the probability of an enduring arc is high for all ratings when the bus is above 75 VDC, and the overcurrent is large. The arc endures until something else interrupts the current. The fuse can violently eject metal vapor or other material during the sustained arcing. The evacuated FM08 does not develop a sustained arc when interrupted in a bus of 38 VDC or less, at least when there is little inductance in the circuit. This is consistent with its successful use in many spacecraft having buses in the range 24 to 36 volts.

  16. 'Subarachnoid cyst' after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: Case report of an unusual postoperative morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Low Y Y; Wai Hoe, N G

    2016-01-01

    Burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematomas are routine operative procedures done by neurosurgical residents. Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalus, intracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction. We report an interesting post-operative complication of a 'subarachnoid cyst' after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma. The authors hypothesize that the 'cyst' is likely secondary to the splitting of the adjacent neomembrane within its arachnoid-brain interface by iatrogenic irrigation of the subdural space. Over time, this 'cyst' develops into an area of gliosis which eventually causes long-term scar epilepsy in the patient. As far as we are aware, this is the first complication of such a 'subarachnoid cyst' post burr-hole drainage reported in the literature. PMID:27366276

  17. Motivational factors that affect the retention of reserve nurses in eight aeromedical evacuation flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelli, L M; Jarmuz, P A

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the motivational factors which contribute to the retention of reserve flight nurses in aeromedical evacuation flights. Almost all units experience some difficulty in retaining nurses, and with the reserve program becoming increasingly complex, this problem is likely to become more severe. The motivation maintenance theory developed by Frederich Herzberg contends that two sets of factors can impinge on job satisfaction. Hygiene factors such as salary and working conditions can lead to job dissatisfaction. Motivators, such as job content and professional achievement are job satisfaction factors. A convenience sample of 69 reserve flight nurses from 8 flights was utilized in the survey approach. Participants filled out a Demographic Questionnaire, and a Reserve Flight Nurse Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results confirmed the proposed hypotheses in that not only were the nurses able to identify motivational factors, but that these factors had more impact on job satisfaction than did the hygiene factors.

  18. Hysteroscopy and suction evacuation of cesarean scar pregnancies: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy into the scar of a prior cesarean is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be one in 1800-2216 pregnancies. The increase in the incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be a consequence of the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. The natural history of cesarean scar pregnancy is unknown. However, if such a pregnancy is allowed to continue, uterine scar rupture with hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy seem likely. Two early diagnosed cesarean scar pregnancies were treated with hysteroscopy and suction curettage removal. One required intramuscular methotrexate to resolve a persistent cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. It would seem reasonable that simple suction evacuation would frequently leave chorionic villi imbedded within the cesarean scar, as the pregnancy is not within the endometrial cavity.

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.255 - How must occupant evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire... danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive device (not... immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive...

  20. The influence of the technologically advanced evacuation models on the risk analyses during accidents in LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evacuation of people located in different safety zones of an LNG terminal is a complex problem considering that the accidents involving LNG are very hazardous and post the biggest threat to the safety of the people located near the LNG leakage. The safety risk criteria define the parameters which one LNG terminal should meet in terms of safety. Those criteria also contain an evacuation as an evasive action with the objective to mitigate the influence of the LNG accident on the people at risk. Till date, not a lot of attention has been paid to technologically advanced evacuations intended for LNG terminals. Creating the technologically advanced evacuation influences directly on the decrease of the probability of fatalities Pf,i, thus influencing the calculation of the individual risk as well as the societal risk which results in the positioning of the F-N curve in the acceptable part of the ALARP zone. With this paper, we aim to present the difference between the safety analyses in cases when conservative data for Pf,i is being used while calculating the risk, and in cases when real data for Pf,i is been used. (Author)