WorldWideScience

Sample records for all weather landing systems

  1. 14 CFR 121.652 - Landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate holders. 121.652 Section 121.652 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Rules § 121.652 Landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders. (a) If the pilot in command of... airplane he is operating, the MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums in the certificate...

  2. 14 CFR 121.651 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: All certificate holders. 121.651 Section 121.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.651 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders. (a... approved by the Administrator, are less than those specified in— (1) The certificate holder's...

  3. It's All About the Data: Workflow Systems and Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plale, B.

    2009-05-01

    Digital data is fueling new advances in the computational sciences, particularly geospatial research as environmental sensing grows more practical through reduced technology costs, broader network coverage, and better instruments. e-Science research (i.e., cyberinfrastructure research) has responded to data intensive computing with tools, systems, and frameworks that support computationally oriented activities such as modeling, analysis, and data mining. Workflow systems support execution of sequences of tasks on behalf of a scientist. These systems, such as Taverna, Apache ODE, and Kepler, when built as part of a larger cyberinfrastructure framework, give the scientist tools to construct task graphs of execution sequences, often through a visual interface for connecting task boxes together with arcs representing control flow or data flow. Unlike business processing workflows, scientific workflows expose a high degree of detail and control during configuration and execution. Data-driven science imposes unique needs on workflow frameworks. Our research is focused on two issues. The first is the support for workflow-driven analysis over all kinds of data sets, including real time streaming data and locally owned and hosted data. The second is the essential role metadata/provenance collection plays in data driven science, for discovery, determining quality, for science reproducibility, and for long-term preservation. The research has been conducted over the last 6 years in the context of cyberinfrastructure for mesoscale weather research carried out as part of the Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) project. LEAD has pioneered new approaches for integrating complex weather data, assimilation, modeling, mining, and cyberinfrastructure systems. Workflow systems have the potential to generate huge volumes of data. Without some form of automated metadata capture, either metadata description becomes largely a manual task that is difficult if not impossible

  4. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  5. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  6. Weather service in the Dronning Maud Land and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    König-Langlo, Gert; Loose, Bernd; Schmithüsen, Holger; Schmidt, Thomas; Klöwer, Milan; Heupel Santos, Simone

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade meteorologists at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer (70°S, 008°W) offer detailed and individual summer weather forecasts for all activities in the Dronning Maud Land. Especially the intercontinental air link with Cape Town made the establishment of this service mandatory. The work is performed in close cooperation between the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the German Weather Service (DWD). The forecasts base mainly on i...

  7. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  8. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems: Providing Secure Tenure for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased....... This paper discusses the building of the FFP approach at country level. Implementation is strongly related to the recognition of the continuum of land rights. Implementation of the FFP approach means to recognise, record and review land rights:  ’Recognise’ involves a procedure for recognition....... A complete overview is required of the tenure systems and land rights related to the areas affected. All formal and informal tenure categories and sub-categories should be identified and related to space. It is recommended that a National Tenure Atlas will be developed in order to get overview of the spatial...

  9. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  10. Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Operations Under NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in Synthetic/Enhanced Vision technology is analyzed with respect to existing Category II/III performance and certification guidance. The goal is to start the development of performance-based vision systems technology requirements to support future all-weather operations and the NextGen goal of Equivalent Visual Operations. This work shows that existing criteria to operate in Category III weather and visibility are not directly applicable since, unlike today, the primary reference for maneuvering the airplane is based on what the pilot sees visually through the "vision system." New criteria are consequently needed. Several possible criteria are discussed, but more importantly, the factors associated with landing system performance using automatic and manual landings are delineated.

  11. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA / National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL (Jedlovec 2013; Ralph et al. 2013; Merceret et al. 2013) is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The SPoRT-LIS is currently run over a domain covering the southeastern half of the Continental United States (CONUS), with an additional experimental real-time run over the entire CONUS and surrounding portions of southern Canada and northern Mexico. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) product (Zhang et al. 2011, 2014), which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014. This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations. Section 2 gives background information on the NASA LIS and describes the realtime SPoRT-LIS configurations being compared. Section 3 presents recent work done to develop a training module on situational awareness applications of real-time SPoRT-LIS output. Comparisons between output from the two SPoRT-LIS runs are shown in Section 4, including a documentation of issues encountered in using the MRMS precipitation dataset. A summary and future work in given in Section 5, followed by acknowledgements and references.

  12. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"

    OpenAIRE

    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo

    2004-01-01

    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  13. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  14. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  15. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  16. Study on A New Type of the All-weather Wind Power System%新型的全天候风力发电系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红莺

    2015-01-01

    As the wind power generation is one of the renewable energy ,many countries have started the re‐search on the technology and development of it .On the basis of introducing the domestic and foreign research situation ,the article proposes a new type of the all-weather wind power system .The new system can make use of a certain area's prevailing wind and use a special flared wind collector to produce the high pressure gas that can generate electricity through the steam turbine generator unit .In addition ,the article analyzes the principle and the technical scheme of the system ,w hich aims to ensure the all -w eather long -term and sta‐ble output of high-power electric energy .%介绍了国内风电外研究现状,提出了一种新型的全天候风能发电系统,该系统可以利用某地区的盛行风,利用特殊的喇叭形风能收集器产生高压气,通过汽轮发电机组进行发电,并分析了该系统的原理和技术方案,确保全天候长期稳定的输出大功率的电能。

  17. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  18. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  19. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  20. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  1. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  2. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Complete files of all parcels located in Haywood County. Includes private and government owned land., Published in 1982, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Haywood County Land Records/Geographic Information Systems.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1982. It...

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  5. Indication of insensitivity of planetary weathering behavior and habitable zone to surface land fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Abbot, Dorian S; Ciesla, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. F...

  6. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  7. Exploring the Terrestrial Ecosystem Response to Extreme Weather Events using Multiple Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Schlosser, C. A.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Felzer, B. S.; Monier, E.; Paw U, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the complex terrestrial ecosystems response to extreme weather events using three different land surface models. Previous studies have showed that extreme weather events can have serious and damaging impacts on human and natural systems and they are most evident on regional and local scales. Under climate change, extreme weather events are likely to increase in both magnitude and frequency, making realistic simulation of ecosystems response to extreme events more essential than ever in assessing the potential damaging impacts. Three different land surface models are used to explore the impacts of extreme events on regional to continental ecosystem responses. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils, vegetation and water availability to make monthly estimates of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pool sizes. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) is a multi-layered land surface model based on eddy-covariance theory to calculate the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water, and momentums. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a community-based model widely used in global-scale land data assimilation research. The study focuses on the complex interactions and feedbacks between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere such as water cycle, carbon and nitrogen budgets, and environmental conditions. The model simulations and performances are evaluated using the biogeophysical and micrometeorological observation data from the AmeriFlux sites across the continental US. This study compares and evaluates the ability of different models and their key components to capture terrestrial response to extreme weather events.

  8. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local....... Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...

  9. Seawater and Chromium Isotopes - a Link to Atmospheric Weathering on Land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; Poire, D.; Gaucher, C.

    2013-12-01

    The chromium (Cr) isotope system is currently being developed as a sensitive tracer to record redox fluctuations in seawater, via assessing, in first instance, the record contained in marine chemical sediments (carbonates, banded iron formations). Understanding of the cycling of Cr is vital in this respect, if the ultimate goal is to somehow establish a link between seawater signatures and processes which mobilize Cr from the continents into riverine systems, and finally into seawater. We have investigated the transport pathway of Cr in Misiones (Argentina), a subtropical region, where weathering of Cretaceous flood basalts of the Paraná province is extensive, leading to deep laterite weathering profiles, and where respective riverine catchments can be sampled and followed into the Paraná River and onwards until its delta in the Atlantic Ocean. The Rio Paraná with its tributaries creates a massive watershed that spreads throughout much of the south central part of the South American continent. The studied weathering profiles in the province of Misiones show up to 30% loss of chromium, accompanied by negatively fractionated (average (δ53Cr ~-0.35 ‰) weathering products (bulk soils), and this is compatible with the expected atmospheric oxidation of trivalent Cr(III) and mobilization of portions of the respective hexavalent Cr(VI) pool into the riverine systems. The isotopic composition of total Cr in the different catchments varies (δ53Cr = -0.23 to +0.31 ‰). Lowering of the isotope compositions is attributed to the extremely finely suspended load (isotopic composition of surface seawater potentially reflects the presence of oxidative weathering conditions on land. To which degree the isotopic composition can be related to the intensity of such weathering, and ultimately to atmospheric oxygen levels, is unclear and awaits further more detailed investigations. Our study emphasizes a great potential in the analyses of chemically precipitated sediments in the

  10. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  11. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  12. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  13. Watch the Weather: Activities for All Kinds of Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Offers activities to expand children's knowledge and thinking about weather. Includes basic weather vocabulary. Arranges activities by type of weather (bright and clear, windy, or harsh and cold) and by type of involvement (intellectual, movement and health, social, or art and creativity). Activities are matched to age levels. (DLH)

  14. Functions Of Land Administration System

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Sakal

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.

  15. CLIMATE AND WEATHER INFLUENCE OVER THE TOURIST SECTOR IN THE LAND OF DORNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHALCA IZABELA AMALIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Land of Dorna represents a region with a climate specific to intermountain depressions and mountain areas by its geographic position, the characteristics of active subjacent surfaces and of dominant air-masses,. Climatic factors and phenomena play an important part in outlining the whole features of the territorial system and development of some particular tourist activities in this geographic region. The Land of Dorna has a lot of natural and anthropic resources that have taken many different shapes under the influence of some internal and external elements over the time. Therefore, our main goal is to identify and analyze the way in which climate and weather work on tourist activities in this part of the country.

  16. Experimental geobiology links evolutionary intensification of rooting systems and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David; Leake, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of mycorrhizal fungi in partnership with early land plants over 440 million years ago led to the greening of the continents by plants of increasing biomass, rooting depth, nutrient demand and capacity to alter soil minerals, culminating in modern forested ecosystems. The later co-evolution of trees and rooting systems with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, together driving the biogeochemical cycling of elements and weathering of minerals in soil to meet subsequent increased phosphorus demands is thought to constitute one the most important biotic feedbacks on the geochemical carbon cycle to emerge during the Phanerozoic, and fundamentally rests on the intensifying effect of trees and their root-associating mycorrhizal fungal partners on mineral weathering. Here I present experimental and field evidence linking these evolutionary events to a mechanistic framework whereby: (1) as plants evolved in stature, biomass, and rooting depth, their mycorrhizal fungal partnerships received increasing amounts of plant photosynthate; (2) this enabled intensification of plant-driven fungal weathering of rocks to release growth-limiting nutrients; (3) in turn, this increased land-to-ocean export of Ca and P and enhanced ocean carbonate precipitation impacting the global carbon cycle and biosphere-geosphere-ocean-atmosphere interactions over the past 410 Ma. Our findings support an over-arching hypothesis that evolution has selected plant and mycorrhizal partnerships that have intensified mineral weathering and altered global biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  18. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  19. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  20. Weather conditions and weather forecast on the planets of the solar system based on the behavior of Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilov Milivoj B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all atmospheric processes on the planets of the Solar System, special attention will be devoted here to leading circulation of planetary or global scales, known as Rossby waves. These waves occur in all rotating fluids that have relative movement to the rotation system. Rossby waves exert dominant influence on so-called global weather. Based on the knowledge of some properties of Rossby waves are made approximate analysis of weather conditions on the planets of the Solar System. Also, these considerations can serve as an introduction to weather forecasting on the planet. .

  1. Improvement of land information system of agricultural lands in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Bordyuzha

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature of the state land cadastre, aspects of the land cadastral system functioning. Role of the land cadastre to create an effective agricultural land management system has been presented. Value of a land information system of the agricultural land in the management sphere and sustainable agricultural land use has been described.

  2. AIS-assisted All Weather Monitoring System for Submarine Cable Safety%一种AIS辅助的全天候海底电缆安全监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞龙; 李星蓉; 李永倩; 郑小莉

    2013-01-01

    It is an effective means to avoid anchor harm that the passing ships above the submarine cable are monitored all-weather and real-time.In order to realize the safety monitoring of the 3.5 km-long 110 kV power-optical fiber composite submarine cable in Pingtan Electric Power Bureau in FuJian Province,a long-distance and all-weather video surveillance system composed of an infrared thermal imager and a visible light camera with a telephoto lens is designed in this paper.A grid division method is proposed in which the surveillance area is divided into grids and a shipborne AIS transmitter is used to get the longitude and latitude of different grid areas on the sea for camera PTZ preset position setting.The collaborative work of the system is realized which is based on the data fusion processing of video information and AIS information by the server software.The site test results show that the system performances meet the requirements of all-weather and real-time monitoring of the 3.5 km-long power-optical fiber composite submarine cable.%对海底电缆上方过往船舶的全天候实时监测是避免锚害的有效手段,根据福建平潭跨海电网110 kV光电复合海底电缆安全监控的迫切需要,设计了一种红外热成像仪与加长焦大镜头的可见光摄像机相结合的长距离、全天候视频监控系统;提出了一种通过用AIS作为辅助对所监视海域进行网格划分来设置摄像机云台预置位的方法;通过服务器后台软件对视频信号、AIS信息进行数据融合处理,实现了系统的联动工作.现场运行实验结果表明,系统性能满足对3.5 km光电复合海缆全天候监测的要求.

  3. How much does weather-driven vegetation dynamics matter in land surface modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are an essential part of weather and climate models as they provide the lower boundary condition for the atmospheric models. In state-of-the-art LSMs the seasonal vegetation dynamics is "frozen". The seasonal variation of vegetation state variables, such as leaf area index or green vegetation fraction, are prescribed in lookup tables. Hence, a year-by-year variation in the development of vegetation due to changing weather conditions cannot be considered. For climate simulations, this is obviously a severe drawback. The objective of the present study was to quantify the potential error in the simulation of land surface exchange processes resulting from "frozen" vegetation dynamics. For this purpose we simulated energy and water fluxes from a winter wheat stand and a maize stand in Southwest Germany. In a first set of simulations, six years (2010 to 2015) were simulated considering weather-driven vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we coupled the generic crop growth model GECROS with the NOAH-MP model (NOAHMP-GECROS). In a second set of simulations all vegetation-related state variables of the 2010 simulation were written to an external file and were used to overwrite the vegetation-related state variables of the simulations of the years 2011-2015. The difference between both sets was taken as a measure for the potential error introduced to the LSM due to the assumption of a "frozen" vegetation dynamics. We will present first results and discuss the impact of "frozen" vegetation dynamics on climate change simulations.

  4. Watch the Weather - More Activities for All Kinds of Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores summer seasonal weather activities for inside and outside the classroom. Offers instructions for hot days, cloudy and wet days, and rainy days, and include lists of supplies, age appropriateness, and instructions. Activities address the following learning areas: (1) intellectual; (2) physical/health/movement; (3) social; and (4) art and…

  5. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  6. System Design of Cold Weather Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkam Kasturiya

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available System design of cold weather protective clothing is a critical process, as it involvesconsideration of the effects of a number of external and internal parameters like environmental factors and physical, physico-mechanical and psychological parameters. The bulk and weightof the textile materials used in protective clothing should be as low as possible, so thatclothing does not create physical stress and discomfort to the soldier and does not affecthis combat duties adversely. This paper discusses the essential factors involved in thedesigning of cold weather protective clothing and different insulating materials availablein the market for developing better protective clothing. Different stores'developed at theDefence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment, Kanpur, the order ofarrangement of various insulating materials in those stores and the protection level achievedare discussed.

  7. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  8. Formation of land administration system and land use as an economic function of the land ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with manifestation forms of land management and land use as an economic function of the property rights to land. The need to form an integrated system of land management and land use in Ukraine as an economic function of land ownership has been grounded. A model of comprehensive multifunctional system of land management and land use has been suggested

  9. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Pravas R; Zrnic, Dusan S

    1991-01-01

    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  10. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  11. System Science approach to Space Weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, Michael A.

    There are many dynamical systems in nature that are so complex that mathematical models of their behaviour can not be deduced from first principles with the present level of our knowledge. Obvious examples are organic cell, human brain, etc often attract system scientists. A example that is closer to space physics is the terrestrial magnetosphere. The system approach has been developed to understand such complex objects from the observation of their dynamics. The systems approach employs advanced data analysis methodologies to identify patterns in the overall system behaviour and provides information regarding the linear and nonlinear processes involved in the dynamics of the system. This, in combination with the knowledge deduced from the first principles, creates the opportunity to find mathematical relationships that govern the evolution of a particular physical system. Advances and problems of systems science applications to provide a reliable forecasts of space weather phenomena such as geomagnetic storms, substorms and radiation belts particle fluxes are reviewed and compared with the physics based models.

  12. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.

  13. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.

    1991-01-01

    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  15. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  16. The effect of land plants on weathering rates of silicate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drever, James I.

    1994-05-01

    Land plants and their associated microbiota directly affect silicate mineral weathering in several ways: by generation of chelating ligands, by modifying pH through production of CO 2 or organic acids, and by altering the physical properties of a soil, particularly the exposed surface areas of minerals and the residence time of water. In laboratory experiments far from equilibrium, 1 mM oxalate (a strong chelator of Al) has a negligible effect on the dissolution rate of alkali feldspars, but some effect on calcic feldspars and olivine. By analogy to oxalate, the overall effect of organic ligands on the weathering rate of silicate minerals in nature is likely to be small, except perhaps in microenvironments adjacent to roots and fungal hyphae. The effect of pH on silicate mineral dissolution rate depends on pH: below pH 4-5, the rate increases with decreasing pH, in the circumneutral region the rate is pH-independent, and at pH values above around 8 the rate increases with increasing pH. Vegetation should thus cause an increase in weathering rate through the pH effect only where the pH is below 4-5. As an overall generalization, the effect of plants on weathering rate through changes in soil-solution chemistry is probably small for granitic rocks; it may be greater for more mafic rocks. It is the release of Ca and Mg from mafic rocks that has the greatest influence on the global CO 2 budget. The effect of changes in soil physical properties on weathering rate can be major. By binding fine particles, plants can greatly increase weathering rates in areas of high physical erosion. Where erosion rates are lower, the effect of plants is less clear. On long timescales plants may decrease chemical weathering by binding secondary products and isolating unweathered minerals from meteoric water. A major unknown in estimating the effect of the advent of land plants on weathering rates is the nature (thickness, particle size distribution, permeability) of the regolith on the

  17. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing

    OpenAIRE

    Yulin Huang; Yuebo Zha; Yue Wang; Jianyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft la...

  18. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  19. Modern state of land information system Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2013-01-01

    The article described the role of cadastral information in land management. The land cadastre information system is the basis for the analysis of the modern state of land use. Land information system in Ukraine has been explored and analyzed. The displaying factors that influence the formation of a land information system. It is proposed to improve the information land system for the sustainable development of agricultural land.

  20. Accumulative Landings System Code Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Code Tables Used In Landings System. These tables assign meanings to the codes that appear in the data tables. Code tables exist for species, gear, state, county,...

  1. Space Weathering in the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    "Space weathering" is the term given to the cumulative effects incurred by surfaces which are exposed to the harsh environment of space. Lunar sample studies over the last decade or so have produced a clear picture of space weathering processes in the lunar environment. By combining laboratory and remote spectra with microanalytical methods (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), we have begun to unravel the various processes (irradiation, micrometeorite bombardment, etc) that contribute to space weathering and the physical and optical consequences of those processes on the Moon. Using the understanding gleaned from lunar samples, it is possible to extrapolate weathering processes to other airless bodies from which we have not yet returned samples (i.e. Mercury, asteroids). Through experiments which simulate various components of weathering, the expected differences in environment (impact rate, distance from Sun, presence of a magnetic field, reduced or enhanced gravity, etc) and composition (particularly iron content) can be explored to understand how space weathering will manifest on a given body.

  2. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Prasad; Saji Mohandas; Surya Kanti Dutta; M Das Gupta; G R Iyengar; E N Rajagopal; Swati Basu

    2014-03-01

    Medium range weather forecasts are being generated in real time using Global Data Assimilation Forecasting System (GDAFS) at NCMRWF since 1994. The system has been continuously upgraded in terms of data usage, assimilation and forecasting system. Recently this system was upgraded to a horizontal resolution of T574 (about 22 km) with 64 levels in vertical. The assimilation scheme of this upgraded system is based on the latest Grid Statistical Interpolation (GSI) scheme and it has the provision to use most of available meteorological and oceanographic satellite datasets besides conventional meteorological observations. The new system has an improved procedure for relocating tropical cyclone to its observed position with the correct intensity. All these modifications have resulted in improvement of skill of medium range forecasts by about 1 day.

  3. Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge-information used in a weather forecasting model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Nielsen, N.,W.; Jensen, N.O.;

    2003-01-01

    In numerical weather prediction, climate and hydrological modelling, the grid cell size is typically larger than the horizontal length scales of variations in aerodynamic roughness, surface temperature and surface humidity. These local land cover variations give rise to sub-grid scale surface flux...... Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) weather forecasting model and the weather prediction results are compared for a number of cases to synoptic and other observations with improved agreement above the predictions based on current standard input. Typical seasonal springtime bias on forecasted winds over land of +0...

  4. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  5. COSMIC Payload in NCAR-NASPO GPS Satellite System for Severe Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Chen, C.

    Severe weather, such as cyclones, heavy rainfall, outburst of cold air, etc., results in great disaster all the world. It is the mission for the scientists to design a warning system, to predict the severe weather systems and to reduce the damage of the society. In Taiwan, National Satellite Project Office (NSPO) initiated ROCSAT-3 program at 1997. She scheduled the Phase I conceptual design to determine the mission for observation weather system. Cooperating with National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NSPO involved an international cooperation research and operation program to build a 32 GPS satellites system. NCAR will offer 24 GPS satellites. The total expanse will be US 100 millions. NSPO also provide US 80 millions for launching and system engineering operation. And NCAR will be responsible for Payload Control Center and Fiducial Network. The cooperative program contract has been signed by Taiwan National Science Council, Taipei Economic Cultural Office of United States and American Institute in Taiwan. One of the payload is COSMIC, Constellation Observation System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate. It is a GPS meteorology instrument system. The system will observe the weather information, e. g. electron density profiles, horizontal and vertical TEC and CFT scintillation and communication outage maps. The mission is to obtain the weather data such as vertical temperature profiles, water vapor distribution and pressure distribution over the world for global weather forecasting, especially during the severe weather period. The COSMIC Conference held on November, 1998. The export license was also issued by Department of Commerce of Unites States at November, 1998. Recently, NSPO begun to train their scientists to investigate the system. Scientists simulate the observation data to combine the existing routine satellite infrared cloud maps, radar echo and synoptic weather analysis for severe weather forecasting. It is hopeful to provide more accurate

  6. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling

  7. Crop Production Risk in the Pampas: A Bayesian Weather Generator for Climate Change and Land Use Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Podesta, G. P.; Bert, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a space-time stochastic weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature, developed within a Bayesian hierarchical framework (hereafter BayGEN). This framework offers a unique advantage: it provides robust estimation of uncertainty that is typically under-represented in traditional weather generators. Realistic estimates of uncertainty are of utmost importance for studying climate variability and change, impacts on land use, and crop production. BayGEN is applied to a network of weather stations in the Salado basin of the Argentine Pampas, a region that saw immense agricultural expansion towards climatically marginal (i.e., semi-arid) regions, in part due to significant trends in annual precipitation from 1970-2000. Since the turn of the century, observed conditions suggest a decrease in precipitation, which begs the question: "Are the existing agricultural production systems viable in a drier future?" The use of process based (i.e., hydrologic, crop simulation) models in conjunction with BayGEN will allow for complete analysis of the system's response to an ensemble of plausible future scenarios. Precipitation occurrence at each site is modeled at the first level of hierarchy using probit regression with covariates for seasonality, where the latent process is Gaussian -- positivity in the latent process implies occurrence. The precipitation amounts are modeled using a transformed gamma regression (i.e., gamma generalized linear model), similarly with seasonality covariates. Minimum and maximum temperatures are conditional on precipitation occurrence and are decomposed into two processes: (i) climate -- linear regressions on seasonality covariates, and (ii) weather -- realizations from mean-zero Gaussian random fields. The use of seasonality covariates allows the generation of daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal forecasts or projected multi-annual trends, an increasingly important practice for risk assessment in climatically marginal

  8. Surface characterization of weathered wood using a laser scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the existing methods to assess the effect of weathering on wood surfaces have some drawbacks that limit their use to specific tasks. The amount of surface erosion is often used as a measure for the weathering action. The application of a laser scanning system to reproduce surface profiles and to measure weathering erosion was tested on various samples and was found to be a very useful and superior alternative to existing methods. Further improvements of the system used can be made by refinements of the calibration procedures and by more comprehensive profile analyses. (author)

  9. Development of land cadastral system in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2012-01-01

    The article gives reasonable prospects for usage of land cadastre information, it’s place and role in land management. Foreign experience in the land cadastre has been explored and analyzed. It is proposed to improve the information system of land resources to ensure effective environmentally-save land use.

  10. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  11. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  12. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage

  13. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  14. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  15. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  16. Increasing chemical weathering in the Himalayan system since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Maarten; France-Lanord, Christian; Galy, Valier; Lavé, Jérôme; Kudrass, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Continental chemical weathering is central in Earth's surface biogeochemical cycles as it redistributes elements across reservoirs such as the crust and the oceans. However the evolution of weathering through time and its response to external forcing such as changes in climate remain poorly constrained. In this work, we use the sedimentary record from the Bay of Bengal (BoB) to document the evolution of the weathering intensity in the Himalayan system from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present. Sediment cores from the BoB record the products of Himalayan erosion after their transport through the Indo-Gangetic floodplain by the Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers. The physical setting of the G&B basin remained essentially unchanged over the Quaternary so that the effects of changes in climatic forcing can be isolated. The degree of weathering of the sediments is documented using mobile to immobile ratios such as K/Si and H2O+/Si as well as detrital calcite. Robust weathering proxies are derived by correcting the chemical composition of sediment for sorting effects that occur during transport and deposition. The BoB record is also further compared to the chemical composition of modern river sediments from the Ganga and Brahmaputra (G&B) basin. Weathering proxies all indicate that the sediments exported by the G&B Rivers became increasingly weathered over the past ~21 kyr. Additionally, Sr, Nd and major elements suggest a constant sediment provenance in the system over the last 21 kyr. These changes in the degree of weathering of the sediments show that the weathering flux exported by the system to the Indian Ocean during the LGM was significantly lower than at present and demonstrate that chemical weathering in continental scale basins such as the G&B, responds to Late Quaternary climate changes.

  17. Verification of Forecast Weather Surface Variables over Vietnam Using the National Numerical Weather Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Du Duc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The national numerical weather prediction system of Vietnam is presented and evaluated. The system is based on three main models, namely, the Japanese Global Spectral Model, the US Global Forecast System, and the US Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The global forecast products have been received at 0.25- and 0.5-degree horizontal resolution, respectively, and the WRF model has been run locally with 16 km horizontal resolution at the National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting using lateral conditions from GSM and GFS. The model performance is evaluated by comparing model output against observations of precipitation, wind speed, and temperature at 168 weather stations, with daily data from 2010 to 2014. In general, the global models provide more accurate forecasts than the regional models, probably due to the low horizontal resolution in the regional model. Also, the model performance is poorer for stations with altitudes greater than 500 meters above sea level (masl. For tropical cyclone performance validations, the maximum wind surface forecast from global and regional models is also verified against the best track of Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Finally, the model forecast skill during a recent extreme rain event in northeast Vietnam is evaluated.

  18. The urban land use system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhenghui; ZHENG Wenjun

    2003-01-01

    The obstacles to urban land development caused by Chinese immature land use system are explored. Key features of the dual land use system are analyzed on base of the constructing model of the dual land market in Chinese cities, in which market-based allocation including negotiation, tender and auction conveyance and non-market administrative allocation coexist.Some suggestions for solving the problems are brought forward after illustrating by facts problems existing in Chongqing's land market that the administratively allocated land is difficult to be collocated optimally and the black market is harmful to urban land development, In conclusion the land use system reformation is a complicated systems engineering involving interactions among various factors. Government to institute and execute corresponding policies is important to establish a uniform land market system.

  19. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  20. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft landing. Then, we convert the forward looking radar imaging task into a corresponding deconvolution problem, which is solved in the framework of algebraic theory using truncated singular decomposition method. The key issue regarding the selecting of the truncated parameter is addressed using generalized cross validation approach. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in achieving angular resolution enhancement with suppressing the noise amplification in forward looking radar imaging.

  1. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulin; Zha, Yuebo; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft landing. Then, we convert the forward looking radar imaging task into a corresponding deconvolution problem, which is solved in the framework of algebraic theory using truncated singular decomposition method. The key issue regarding the selecting of the truncated parameter is addressed using generalized cross validation approach. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in achieving angular resolution enhancement with suppressing the noise amplification in forward looking radar imaging. PMID:26094627

  2. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  3. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  4. CHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF CERIUM ELEMENT IN ROCK WEATHERING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A study on existing valence state and chemical behavior of cerium element in two categories of rock weathering system in China has been carried out. In the granitoid weathering crust of Southern China,cerium as tetravalent hydroxide absorbed on clay minerals occupies 62.58 % of total amount of cerium and the cerium partitioning in the phase is 69.58 %. The depositing cerium stops its mobility downward, resulting in rare earth partitioning variation, the light rare earth partitioning is high at upper layer of weathering crust, the heavy rare earth partitioning is high at bottom layer of weathering crust, and the extracted product exists cerium lose effect. For Mn2+ as reducing agent existing in black weathering earth of Maoniuping rare earth ore,cerium is trivalent and absorbed on Mn-Fe oxide as colloid phase sediment. Colloid sediment phase can be divided into Mn-Fe combined phase and hydroxide sediment phase with cerium contents of 19.77% and 48.30%, and their cerium partitionings are 80.72% and 37.38% respectively. The Mn-Fe combined phase can selectively absorb cerium.

  5. Land system reform should protect farmers’ interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守英

    2009-01-01

    |Editorial Note|Land has become an issue of increasing social concern as demand continues to surge in the midst of economic development,urbanization and industrialization.The crux of the issue is the land regime. China has a unique dualistic land regime under which the land market has not been well developed.Based on a review and commentary of the existing land polices,this article elaborates on the deficiencies inherent in China’s dualistic land rights system and land market and offers policy recommendations for promoting land system reform and market development.This study will help us gain an in-depth understanding of the problems in China’s land regime.

  6. Space weather and cardiovascular system. New findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yury; Breus, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Researches of last two decades have shown that the cardiovascular system represents the most probable target for influence of helio - and geomagnetic activity. Both cardiovascular system and system of blood are connected very closely: one system cannot exist without another. For the same reason the effects perceived by one system, are easily transferred to another. Laboratory tests such as blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and capillary blood velocity (CBV) performed in Scientific Clinical Center JSC "Russian Railways in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) revealed a high dependence with a level of geomagnetic activity. Results of these and other findings allow to assume that blood itself can be a sensor of geomagnetic fields variations because erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes bearing electric charge on membranes, and in a comparable magnetic field can change as own properties and properties of blood flow. It is interesting that not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also the periods of very quiet geomagnetic conditions affect a capillary blood velocity, slowing down it. It was shown during long-term experiment with isolation named 'MARS-500' in spatial facility of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow as imitation of an extended space mission to Mars. Using digital capillaroscope 'Russia', two crewmembers - medical doctors made records of microcirculation parameters at themselves and other four participants of 'Martian' team. Capillary records were performed before, during, and after period of isolation in medical module of MARS-500 facility. At the period of experiment nobody of crewmembers knew about real geomagnetic conditions. In days of active geomagnetic conditions average CBV has registered as 389 ± 167 μm/s, that statistically significant (p

  7. Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics Land Surface Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, N. B.; Belair, S.; Tong, L.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Mailhot, J.

    2009-04-01

    Environment Canada's land surface forecast system developed for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is presented together with an evaluation of its performance for winters 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The motivation for this work is threefold: it is i) application driven for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, ii) a testbed for the panCanadian operational land surface forecast model being developed, and iii) the precursor to the fully coupled land-surface model to come. The new high resolution (100m grid size), 2D, and novel imbedded point-based land surface forecast model used to predict hourly snow and surface temperature conditions at Olympic and Paralympic Competition Sites are described. The surface systems are driven by atmospheric forcing provided by the center's operational regional forecast model for the first 48 hours and by the operational global forecast model for hours 49 to 96. The forcing fields are corrected for elevation discrepancies over the rapidly changing and complex mountainous settings of the Vancouver Olympics that arise from resolution differences. Daily 96h land surface forecasts for 2 winters and snow depth and surface air temperature observations collected at several specially deployed competition sites are used to validate the land surface model. We show that the newly implemented surface forecast model refines and improves snow depth and surface temperature forecast issued by the operational weather forecast system throughout the forecast period.

  8. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  9. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP): A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiantie Zeng; Lili Xia; Yaolong Zhao; Yingchun Fu; Xueyu Lu

    2013-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC) changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during th...

  10. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-Hua Ma; Yu-Hsiang Wang; Chia-Yen Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of t...

  11. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. Rasshofer; Spies, M.; H. Spies

    2011-01-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investi...

  12. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  13. “It Was Raining All the Time!”: Ex Post Tourist Weather Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gössling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of weather for tourism is now widely recognized. However, no research has so far addressed weather events from retrospective viewpoints, and, in particular, the role of “extreme” events in longer-term holiday memories. To better understand the character of ex post weather experiences and their importance in destination image perceptions and future travel planning behavior, this exploratory study addressed a sample of 50 tourists from three globally important source markets: Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results indicate that weather events do not dominate long-term memories of tourist experiences. Yet, weather events are important in shaping destination image, with “rain” being the single most important weather variable negatively influencing perceptions. Results also suggest that weather events perceived as extreme can involve considerable emotions. The study of ex post traveler memories consequently makes a valuable contribution to the understanding of the complexity of “extreme weather” events for tourist demand responses.

  14. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Paul Stuart

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover datasets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dewpoint temperatures, rainfall, the individual components of the surface energy budget, horizontal and vertical winds, and the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6°C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0°C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions in the present-day landscape, however, showed a slight cooling. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. Reduced evapotranspiration from much of the present-day land surface led to dewpoint temperature decreases of 0.3-0.6°C. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. These land cover changes have modified boundary-layer dynamics by increasing low-level convergence and upper-level divergence in the interior of NJ, especially

  15. Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan

    2011-06-01

    The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

  16. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  17. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  18. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  19. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  20. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  1. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.

    2011-07-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  2. Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.

  3. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  4. BioLandMani sünd kontrolli all

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu haridusprogrammide Socrates, Leonardo ja Youth keskuse ekspertide külaskäigust Eesti Põllumajandusülikooli, et kontrollida Baltimaade ühise magistriprogrammi BioLandMan ettevalmistamist

  5. Flight test evaluation of the E-systems Differential GPS category 3 automatic landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Mcnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) III precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT III precision approach and landing applications. An IAI Westwind 1124 aircraft (N24RH) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by E-Systems. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and landings. The navigation sensor error accuracy requirements were based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and landings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and landings shows that the E-Systems DGPS system met the navigation sensor error requirements for a successful approach and landing 98 out of 100 approaches and landings, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan. In addition, the E-Systems DGPS system met the integrity requirements for a successful approach and landing or stationary trial for all 100 approaches and landings and all ten stationary trials, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  6. Spectral efficiency of cellular land mobile radio systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hammuda, H; McGeehan, JP; Bateman, A.

    1988-01-01

    A rigorous and comprehensive approach to the definition and evaluation of spectral efficiency of cellular land mobile radio systems is presented. The method accounts for all pertinent system parameters within a cellular land mobile radio network. Subjective tests to evaluate the protection ratio for various systems is thought to be imperative to the evaluation of spectral efficiency. A comparison is made of a number of current and proposed mobile radio schemes based on the spectral efficiency...

  7. Development of inexpensive all-weather solar tracking control system for amendable tracking precision%可修正跟踪精度的低成本全天候太阳跟踪控制系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学刚; 谢永春; 谭兴强

    2015-01-01

    为了降低太阳跟踪系统的成本和复杂程度,以模拟电路及光电转换原理为基础,研制了一种跟踪精度可调整的全天候太阳跟踪控制系统和 T-L 型太阳方位探测器,并通过光斑检测试验,对该系统的跟踪性能进行了分析,试验方法是将底部带小孔的一次性纸杯粘贴在带无数同心圆的纸上,将纸固定在双轴跟踪支架上,进而观察光斑在同心圆上的位置随时间的变化。研究结果表明:该系统的跟踪精度与太阳辐射强度有关,太阳辐射强度越大跟踪精度越高,太阳辐射强度越小跟踪精度越差,一天中的最小跟踪精度可达0.14°。该系统适合于对跟踪精度要求不是特别苛刻,并且对跟踪控制系统有廉价要求的场合,为太阳跟踪控制系统的普及奠定基础。%To reduce costs and complexity of solar tracking system, a simple solar tracking control system and T-L type sun origination detector are developed by analog circuit and photoelectric conversion principle. The tracking system is composed of bridge circuits and amplification circuits; it has functions of manually adjusted tracking accuracy and manually working. It is used to drive 12V DC gear motor, and it can be used for single-axis tracking, can also be used for dual-axis tracking. The tracking system only requires six common types of electronic components, which costs no more than 10 RMB. In order to reduce external environment impact on tracking performance of the system, a T-L-type orientation detector was designed for the tracking system. The L-type shading plate of the orientation detector was fixed to the L-type clapboard, therefore, the cross-section the shading plate and the clapboard showed a T-shape. Then, the clapboard was fixed to the substrate, and two sides of the clapboard were installed respectively with four photoresistors. Two were used to control movement of east-west direction; the other two were used to

  8. All weather IASI single field-of-view retrievals: case study – validation with JAIVEx data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Zhou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, cloud optical/microphysical properties, and surface properties are basic meteorological variables for weather forecasting. In addition, they are critical parameters in tropospheric chemistry studies. A physical, geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiances observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed to determine simultaneously surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A one-dimensional variational (1-D Var. multivariable inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation is used to iteratively improve a background state defined by eigenvector regression. This algorithm has been applied to data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on the EUMETSAT Metop-A satellite. The IASI retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx. JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS systems, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed – Interferometer (NAST-I, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  9. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather... of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the... Active or Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

  10. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  11. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  12. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  13. Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health

  14. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  15. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation

    CERN Document Server

    Paulescu, Marius; Gravila, Paul; Badescu, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a substantial increase of grid-feeding photovoltaic applications, thus raising the importance of solar electricity in the energy mix. This trend is expected to continue and may even increase. Apart from the high initial investment cost, the fluctuating nature of the solar resource raises particular insertion problems in electrical networks. Proper grid managing demands short- and long-time forecasting of solar power plant output. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation is focused on this issue. Models for predicting the state of the sky, nowc

  16. Evaluation of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM with All Weather Gauge Observations over CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Qi, Y.; Hu, B.; Hu, J.; Hong, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is composed of an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) is the state-of-art precipitation products with high spatio-temporal resolution of 0.1°/30min. IMERG unifies precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites with the core sensors dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and microwave imager (GMI) on board a "Core" satellite. Additionally, IMERG blends the advantages of currently most popular satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) algorithms, i.e. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). The real-time and post real-time IMERG products are now available online at https://stormpps.gsfc.nasa.gov/storm. In this study, the final run post real-time IMERG is evaluated with all-weather manual gauge observations over CONUS from June 2014 through May 2015. Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), and Critical Success Index (CSI) are used to quantify the performance of IMERG. The performance of IMERG in estimating snowfall precipitation is highlighted in the study. This timely evaluation with all-weather gauge observations is expected to offer insights into performance of IMERG and thus provide useful feedback to the algorithm developers as well as the GPM data users.

  17. Improvement of the institutional support for the agricultural land protection system

    OpenAIRE

    V. Lyushyn

    2014-01-01

    Necessity of improvement the institutional environment of the agricultural land protection has been proved. This paper deals with directions over improvement of the institutional support system of the agricultural lands protection system, providing the ordering of interests of all participants in the land management process. Interconnection between elements within the land conservation system in agriculture at every level of the land resources management has been grounded.

  18. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    multiple features such as platform-independence, remote configuration and control of the weather stations, data base queries, graphical displays and multi-media presentation capability. The weather information is presented in user-selectable formats...

  19. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  20. The role of the land information system in the land resources management

    OpenAIRE

    M. Myrhorod

    2014-01-01

    The basic elements of management of land resources, chief among which is information provision have been given. This paper deals with role and nature of the land information system as the basis for the implementation of land resources management for sustainable land use. The scheme of land information system has been submitted

  1. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Fumihiko [Communications Research Laboratory, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  2. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  3. A Weather Analysis and Forecasting System for Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, L. M.

    2006-05-01

    The weather of the Baja California Peninsula, part of northwestern Mexico, is mild and dry most of the year. However, during the summer, humid air masses associated with tropical cyclones move northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Added features that create a unique meteorological situation include mountain ranges along the spine of the peninsula, warm water in the Gulf of California, and the cold California Current in the Pacific. These features interact with the environmental flow to induce conditions that play a role in the occurrence of localized, convective systems during the approach of tropical cyclones. Most of these events occur late in the summer, generating heavy precipitation, strong winds, lightning, and are associated with significant property damage to the local populations. Our goal is to provide information on the characteristics of these weather systems by performing an analysis of observations derived from a regional network. This includes imagery from radar and geostationary satellite, and data from surface stations. A set of real-time products are generated in our research center and are made available to a broad audience (researchers, students, and business employees) by using an internet site. Graphical products are updated anywhere from one to 24 hours and includes predictions from numerical models. Forecasts are derived from an operational model (GFS) and locally generated simulations based on a mesoscale model (MM5). Our analysis and forecasting system has been in operation since the summer of 2005 and was used as a reference for a set of discussions during the development of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. This basin had 15 named storms and none of them made landfall on the west coast of Mexico; however, four systems were within 800 km from the area of interest, resulting in some convective activity. During the whole season, a group of 30 users from our institution, government offices, and local businesses received daily information

  4. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  5. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  6. Holocene Landscape Dynamics in the Ammer Rv. Catchment (Bavarian Alps) - Influence of extreme weather events and land use on soil erosion using peat bogs as geoarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Manthe, Pierre; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation and the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by erosion events significantly influence soils and fertility as parts of the ecosystem services and play an important role with regard to global carbon dynamics. Soil erosion is strongly correlated with anthropogenic land use since the Neolithic Revolution around 8.000 BP. Likewise the effect of extreme weather events on soil erosion is of great interest with regard to the recent climate change debate, predicting a strong increase of extreme weather events. Aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene landscape dynamic as influenced by land use and climate conditions. In this study peat bogs containing layers of colluvial sediments directly correlated to soil erosion were used as geoarchives for landscape dynamics. A temporal classification of extreme erosion events was established by dating organic material via 14C within both, colluvial layers as well as their direct peat surroundings. Detection and characterization of peat bogs containing colluvial sediments was based on geomorphological mapping, the application of geophysical methods (ERT - electrical resistivity tomography, GPR - ground penetrating radar) and core soundings. Laboratory analysis included the analysis of particle sizes and the content of organic material. We investigated 16 peat bogs following the altitudinal gradient of the Ammer River from alpine and subalpine towards lowland environments. A deposition of colluvial material could be detected in 4 peat bogs, all situated in the lower parts of the catchment. The minerogenic entry into peat bogs occurred throughout the Holocene as revealed by radiocarbon dating. A distinct cluster of erosional events e.g. during the little ice age could not be detected. Therefore, soil erosion dynamics and the appearance of colluvial sediments within peat bogs must rather be regarded as an effect of land use, actually farming and crop cultivation, or small-scale morphodynamic like

  7. Research on urban land information system based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang-bao; ZOU Zhi-chong

    2006-01-01

    Urban land utilization plays an important role in city development. We establish the "Urban Land Information System based on GIS" in order to inspect urban land structure and utilize a model automatically. A series of codes abstracted from urban land sustainable utilization significance are used as measures in land inspection. GIS tools combined with "Urban Land Information System" make visible codes calculations and statistical results possible. Useful mathematic methods are cited to analyze the degree urban land sustainable and optimize land structure. By scientific system analysis, relationships among modules and system structure are illustrated clearly. As a result this study has drawn out the "Urban Land Information System" model.

  8. Future Landing Capabilities of the Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, K. A.; Hines, E. K.; Chen, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines landing site elevation capability as a function of landing season, for a future mission using the heritage MSL/Mars 2020 EDL system. Results are presented for a 1200kg landed mass with different parachute technology assumptions.

  9. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.;

    2015-01-01

    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system as a ...... be seen as the largest geo-engineering project in which mankind has engaged, land system science can act as a platform for integration of insights from different disciplines and for translation of knowledge into action....

  10. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  11. Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were not adversely impacted by the display concepts although the addition of Enhanced Vision did not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection.

  12. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or DARE Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. Advantages of both file types will be listed.

  13. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or Denver AWIPS Risk Reduction and Requirements Evaluation (DARE) Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Florida. The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, Texas and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at CCAFS to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. The presentation will list the advantages and disadvantages of both file types for creating interactive graphical overlays in future AWIPS applications. Shapefiles are a popular format used extensively in Geographical Information Systems. They are usually used in AWIPS to depict static map backgrounds. A shapefile stores the geometry and attribute information of spatial features in a dataset (ESRI 1998). Shapefiles can contain point, line, and polygon features. Each shapefile contains a main file, index file, and a dBASE table. The main file contains a record for each spatial feature, which describes the feature with a list of its vertices. The index file contains the offset of each record from the beginning of the main file. The dBASE table contains records for each

  14. All-weather volume imaging of the boundary layer and troposphere using the MU radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first volume-imaging radar that can run in any weather, revealing the turbulent three-dimensional structure and airflow of convective cells, rain clouds, breaking waves and deep convection as they evolve and move. Precipitation and clear air can be volume-imaged independently. Birds are detected as small high-power echoes moving near horizontal, at different speeds and directions from background wind. The volume-imaging method could be used to create a real-time virtual-reality view of the atmosphere, in effect making the invisible atmosphere visible in any weather.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective processes, turbulence – Radio science (instruments and techniques

  15. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest.

  16. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest. PMID:23895551

  17. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  18. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  19. THE BENCHMARK LAND PRICE SYSTEM AND URBAN LAND USE EFFICIENCY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China began to introduce market principles and establish price mechanism to better manage land and improve land use efficiency in the late 1980s. Since then, land m.arkets begin to emerge. A benchmark land price system,providing guidelines for land use rights selling and transferring, was established in order to overcome lack of market data and experiences in land transaction. The benchmark prices of land use rights are determined by land use, land use density (floor-land ratio), land grades, land improvement, and tenant resettlement costs. This paper first conducts a formal analysis based on modern urban economic theory. The formal model provides a theoretical foundation in which the bench mark land price system is assessed and evaluated in terms of land use and urban development. The paper then concludes thatthe benchmark price system has two theoretical problens. One is associated with the fact that floor-land ratio plays an important role in land price determination whereas the theory suggests the other way around. That is, floor-land ratio depends on land prices. The other problem is that the benchmark land price system does not provide adequate room for the substitution between land and capital inputs. The substitution is a key in achieving land use efficiency in land markets and urban development process. It is concluded that the practice of the benchmark land price system is at odd with reforms that aim to introduce market principles and mechanism to guide resource uses. Therefore, it is recommended that further land policy reform should be taken.

  20. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Steve J.; Alexander Paz; Victor Molano; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Pankaj Maheshwari; Haroon Stephen; Hanns de la Fuente-Mella

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation ...

  1. Effects of land registration on validity of juridical acts (Emphasis on Functions of land registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin tabatabai hesari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaranty of security of juridical act about lands is a more important difficulties in every country. Disregarding the independence of land registration system from the system of civil law and disregarding bases and functions of land registration system has resulted in making mistakes by judicial doctrine and precedent in order to propose proper suggestions for solving the problems related to land registration system and to sanction for juridical acts about lands. Whiles presentation every solution in this scope must be proper regarding to protective bases of owner and third parties and two functional characters of the land registration system including “informing” and “protective” features. land registration systems can be divided in constitutive registration system and confirmative one. This classification means land registration in any case, has a very effective role in credit of judicial act about of land although the degree of this effect is different depending on the system.

  2. Teale Public Land Survey System

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  3. Land Administration Systems in Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mađer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of land administration systems in transition countries on the example of South Eastern European countries. An analysis of regulation on registration of real estate registration and rights was done in addition to the comparison of institutions and jurisdictions. Also an analysis of registers of real estates and real estate rights has been done and their main features listed. The paper provides insight into some of the technological achievements in the field of improvement and modernization of land administration systems.

  4. Building Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Bell, Keith; Lemmen, Christiaan;

    2014-01-01

    of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time. The paper addresses some of the key technological, economic, legal, and social issues related to building fit-for purpose land administration systems in support of sustainable and transparent land governance especially in developing countries......Arguably sound land governance is the key to achieve sustainable development and to support the global agenda set by adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The operational component of land governance is the country specific land administration systems dealing with the four key...... functions of land tenure, land value, land, and land development. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a land parcel framework to operate. Building such a land parcel framework – showing the way land is divided into parcels and plots for specific use and possession...

  5. Customary land tenure dynamics at peri-urban Ghana: implications for land administration system modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arko-Adjei, A.; de Jong, J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Tuladhar, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Customary land tenure is criticized as dynamic with the institutional framework unable to provide enough tenure security at all times. It is also criticized as ineffective to cope with the trends in land tenure delivery at peri-urban areas where individualization of land and demand for land is high.

  6. NLCD Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This tabular dataset includes land cover classes and acres and percentages of land cover for the National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Land Cover Database...

  7. Development of a WEB system for local weather information equipped with a monitoring functional capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Weather forecasting system for local weather information equipped with a monitoring functional capability is developed. This system can provide visualized weather information obtained by local weather predictions and these data can be displayed both with color shading on a map and with a table of numerical values at a particular point specified by user's clicking on the map. The application can also collect and display some meteorological data and environmental radioactivity level data observed by Japanese governmental agencies in real time. (author)

  8. Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.

  9. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  10. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, Paul R. [CREW Services LLC, Ellicott City, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  11. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests. D

  12. Design of the Urban Land Grading Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban land grading system based on the selfdeveloped GIS software.The system establishes the system template,the relevant data structure and the empirical formulas of the affecting factor and economic data of land use.Besides,the system can calculate the service radius,sum and land grade automatically.Furthermore,it can do statistics and query on various land information and show the result of land grading with spatial and attribute data.This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the commercial land grading of the urban area of Wuhan City by the urban land grading system.

  13. A land mobile satellite data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, John D. B.

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  14. Toward a Concept of Operations for Aviation Weather Information Implementation in the Evolving National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.

    2002-01-01

    The capacity of the National Airspace System is being stressed due to the limits of current technologies. Because of this, the FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies to increase the system's capacity which enhancing safety. Adverse weather has been determined to be a major factor in aircraft accidents and fatalities and the FAA and NASA have developed programs to improve aviation weather information technologies and communications for system users The Aviation Weather Information Element of the Weather Accident Prevention Project of NASA's Aviation Safety Program is currently working to develop these technologies in coordination with the FAA and industry. This paper sets forth a theoretical approach to implement these new technologies while addressing the National Airspace System (NAS) as an evolving system with Weather Information as one of its subSystems. With this approach in place, system users will be able to acquire the type of weather information that is needed based upon the type of decision-making situation and condition that is encountered. The theoretical approach addressed in this paper takes the form of a model for weather information implementation. This model addresses the use of weather information in three decision-making situations, based upon the system user's operational perspective. The model also addresses two decision-making conditions, which are based upon the need for collaboration due to the level of support offered by the weather information provided by each new product or technology. The model is proposed for use in weather information implementation in order to provide a systems approach to the NAS. Enhancements to the NAS collaborative decision-making capabilities are also suggested.

  15. Wireless remote weather monitoring system based on MEMS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10(-4) (°C(-1)). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10(-2) (Ω/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10(-2), 9.2 × 10(-2), 9.7 × 10(-2) (Ω/ms(-1)) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction. PMID:22163762

  16. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless sensor network (WSN technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC. Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance value of 8.2 × 10−4 (°C−1. The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10−2 (Ω/kPa. The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10−2, 9.2 × 10−2, 9.7 × 10−2 (Ω/ms−1 with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction.

  17. The importance of terrestrial weathering for climate system modelling on extended timescales: a study with the UVic ESCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marc-Olivier; Matthews, Damon; Mysak, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The chemical erosion of carbonate and silicate rocks is a key process in the global carbon cycle and, through its coupling with calcium carbonate deposition in the ocean, is the primary sink of carbon on geologic timescales. The dynamic interdependence of terrestrial weathering rates with atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations is crucial to the regulation of Earth's climate over multi-millennial timescales. However any attempts to develop a modeling context for terrestrial weathering as part of a dynamic climate system are limited, mostly because of the difficulty in adapting the multi-millennial timescales of the implied negative feedback mechanism with those of the atmosphere and ocean. Much of the earlier work on this topic is therefore based on box-model approaches, abandoning spatial variability for the sake of computational efficiency and the possibility to investigate the impact of weathering on climate change over time frames much longer than those allowed by traditional climate system models. As a result we still have but a rudimentary understanding of the chemical weathering feedback mechanism and its effects on ocean biogeochemistry and atmospheric CO2. Here, we introduce a spatially-explicit, rock weathering model into the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We use a land map which takes into account a number of different rock lithologies, changes in sea level, as well as an empirical model of the temperature and NPP dependency of weathering rates for the different rock types. We apply this new model to the last deglacial period (c. 21000BP to 13000BP) as well as a future climate change scenario (c. 1800AD to 6000AD+), comparing the results of our 2-D version of the weathering feedback mechanism to simulations using only the box-model parameterizations of Meissner et al. [2012]. These simulations reveal the importance of two-dimensional factors (i.e., changes in sea level and rock type distribution) in the

  18. Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, H.K.; Burgan, R.E.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Klaver, Jacqueline M.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a statistical model for assessing the skill of fire danger indices and for forecasting the distribution of the expected numbers of large fires over a given region and for the upcoming week. The procedure permits development of daily maps that forecast, for the forthcoming week and within federal lands, percentiles of the distributions of (i) number of ignitions; (ii) number of fires above a given size; (iii) conditional probabilities of fires greater than a specified size, given ignition. As an illustration, we used the methods to study the skill of the Fire Potential Index an index that incorporates satellite and surface observations to map fire potential at a national scale in forecasting distributions of large fires. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  19. New Land Valuation System for an Economy without a Land Market

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Aladar

    1989-01-01

    A new land valuation system was developed, consisting of two elements: the ecological valuation of land, based on the fact that the natural dactors (soil, climate, land relief, and hydrological factors) can be separately valued and the result expressed by a single value, and the economic valuation of land, based on the principle of returns to land as a factor of production. The basis for the economic valuation of land is the earning of rent-like income on farms with better than marginal land....

  20. Digital Cadastral Maps in Land Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Cichocinski

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of cadastral maps. The hitherto existing cadastre, consisting of paper maps and land registers, is now becoming insufficient. Its shortcomings force developments leading to its improvement. One of the ways is the creation of a Land Information System. A digital cadastral map is the main component of this system. The structure and information content of the map is presented, its differences from analogue maps are shown, and the process of map creation is described. A digital cadastral map can be the basis for additional thematic layers, successively converting it into a complex system for management of administrative units. Some examples of such layers and their usage are presented here.

  1. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems: Guiding Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key principles for building sustainable and Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) Land Administration Systems especially in developing countries where often less the 10 per cent of the land and population is included in the formal systems. New solutions are required that can deliver...... security of tenure for all, are affordable and can be quickly developed and incrementally improved over time. The Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) approach to land administration has emerged to meet these simple, but challenging requirements. It is argued that the FFP approach is the only viable solution to solving...... Administration in collaboration with key partners. This paper presents the conceptual outcome of this project. The resulting GLTN publication will be launched at the FIG Working Week, Christchurch, New Zealand, May 2016. The FFP approach has three fundamental characteristics. Firstly there is a focus...

  2. The Sand Land Soil System and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoory, R. A.

    Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated

  3. A Vision For A Land Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we argue that the exploitation of EO land surface data for modelling and monitoring would be greatly facilitated by the routine generation of inter- operable low-level surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) products. We consider evidence from a range of ESA, NASA and other products and studies as well as underlying research to outline the features such a processing system might have, and to define initial research priorities.

  4. Land Administration Systems in Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Mađer; Miodrag Roić

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of land administration systems in transition countries on the example of South Eastern European countries. An analysis of regulation on registration of real estate registration and rights was done in addition to the comparison of institutions and jurisdictions. Also an analysis of registers of real estates and real estate rights has been done and their main features listed. The paper provides insight into some of the technological achievements in the field of im...

  5. A Two-Dimensional Gridded Solar Forecasting System using Situation-Dependent Blending of Multiple Weather Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S.; Hwang, Y.; Shao, X.; Hamann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we reported the application of a "weather situation" dependent multi-model blending approach to improve the forecast accuracy of solar irradiance and other atmospheric parameters. The approach uses machine-learning techniques to classify "weather situations" by a set of atmospheric parameters. The "weather situation" classification is location-dependent and each "weather situation" has characteristic forecast errors from a set of individual input numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The input models are thus corrected or combined differently for different "weather situations" to minimize the overall forecast error. While the original implementation of the model-blending is applicable to only point-like locations having historical data of both measurements and forecasts, here we extend the approach to provide two-dimensional (2D) gridded forecasts. An experimental 2D forecasting system has been set up to provide gridded forecasts of solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance), temperature, wind speed, and humidity for the contiguous United States (CONUS). Validation results show around 30% enhancement of 0 to 48 hour ahead solar irradiance forecast accuracy compared to the best input NWP model. The forecasting system may be leveraged by other site- or region-specific solar energy forecast products. To enable the 2D forecasting system, historical solar irradiance measurements from around 1,600 selected sites of the remote automated weather stations (RAWS) network have been employed. The CONUS was divided into smaller sub-regions, each containing a group of 10 to 20 RAWS sites. A group of sites, as classified by statistical analysis, have similar "weather patterns", i.e. the NWPs have similar "weather situation" dependent forecast errors for all sites in a group. The model-blending trained by the historical data from a group of sites is then applied for all locations in the corresponding sub-region. We discuss some key techniques developed for

  6. Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) of Land Cover Using All Available Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    A new algorithm for Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) of land cover using all available Landsat data is developed. This new algorithm is capable of detecting many kinds of land cover change as new images are collected and at the same time provide land cover maps for any given time. To better identify land cover change, a two step cloud, cloud shadow, and snow masking algorithm is used for eliminating "noisy" observations. Next, a time series model that has components of seasonality, trend, and break estimates the surface reflectance and temperature. The time series model is updated continuously with newly acquired observations. Due to the high variability in spectral response for different kinds of land cover change, the CCDC algorithm uses a data-driven threshold derived from all seven Landsat bands. When the difference between observed and predicted exceeds the thresholds three consecutive times, a pixel is identified as land cover change. Land cover classification is done after change detection. Coefficients from the time series models and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) from model fitting are used as classification inputs for the Random Forest Classifier (RFC). We applied this new algorithm for one Landsat scene (Path 12 Row 31) that includes all of Rhode Island as well as much of Eastern Massachusetts and parts of Connecticut. A total of 532 Landsat images acquired between 1982 and 2011 were processed. During this period, 619,924 pixels were detected to change once (91% of total changed pixels) and 60,199 pixels were detected to change twice (8% of total changed pixels). The most frequent land cover change category is from mixed forest to low density residential which occupies more than 8% of total land cover change pixels.

  7. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  8. Improvement of the agricultural land use information system structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordiuzha

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with most informative land and cadastral indicators reflecting the state of the land plot for agricultural purposes, and the systematization is held. Ranking of leading indicators in the management of land resources and the costs of their preparation has been performed. Organizational arrangements on improving the structure of the information system of agricultural land use are justified.

  9. Improvement system of land management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    O. Atamaniuk

    2012-01-01

    The article proved the importance of improving the land management through the implementation of specific, research-based projects land management for agricultural land, which are owned or used by agricultural enterprises

  10. The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar combi systems, solar domestic hot water systems and solar heating plants is investigated. The investigation is based on weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY and weather data measured for a period from 1990 until 2002...... show that the thermal performance of the investigated systems varies due to the weather variation. The variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar heating plant is about 40 % while the variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system is about 30....... The investigation is based on calculations with validated models. Solar heating systems with different solar collector types, heat storage volumes and solar fractions are included in the investigation. The yearly solar radiation varies with approximately 20 % in the period from 1990 until 2002. The calculations...

  11. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  12. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: A look at integrating unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; DeFelice, Tom P.

    2016-09-01

    Present-day weather modification technologies are scientifically based and have made controlled technological advances since the late 1990s, early 2000s. The technological advances directly related to weather modification have primarily been in the decision support and evaluation based software and modeling areas. However, there have been some technological advances in other fields that might now be advanced enough to start considering their usefulness for improving weather modification operational efficiency and evaluation accuracy. We consider the programmatic aspects underlying the development of new technologies for use in weather modification activities, identifying their potential benefits and limitations. We provide context and initial guidance for operators that might integrate unmanned aircraft systems technology in future weather modification operations.

  13. An integrated user-oriented weather forecast system for air traffic using real-time observations and model data

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Caroline; Tafferner, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Weather Forecast User-oriented System Including Object Nowcasting (WxFUSION), an integrated weather forecast system for air traffic. The system is currently under development within a new project named “Weather and Flying” under the leadership of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). WxFUSION aims at combining data from various sources, as there are weather observations, remote sensing, nowcasting and numerical model forecast ...

  14. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012..., Subpart A--National Forest System Land Management Planning (36 CFR part 219, subpart A). One...

  15. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  16. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  17. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Paul S.; Steyaert, Louis T.; Walko, Robert L.; Weaver, Christopher P.

    2008-05-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6°C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0°C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6°C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation.

  18. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the

  19. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  20. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  1. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark C.; Wooster, Martin J.; Kitchen, Karl; Manley, Cathy; Gazzard, Rob; McCall, Frank F.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires in the United Kingdom (UK) pose a threat to people, infrastructure and the natural environment. During periods of particularly fire-prone weather, wildfires can occur simultaneously across large areas, placing considerable stress upon the resources of fire and rescue services. Fire danger rating systems (FDRSs) attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning and preparedness purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI), is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. The MOFSI currently provides daily operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian FWI System. However, it is known that the system has scope for improvement. Here we explore a climatology of the six FWI System components across the UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland), calculated from daily 2km × 2km gridded numerical weather prediction data and supplemented by long-term meteorological station observations. We used this climatology to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System, optimised for UK conditions. We find this approach to be well justified, as the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile) fire danger situation vary by more than an order of magnitude across the country. Therefore, a simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied in the MOFSI) may incur large errors of omission and commission with respect to the identification of periods of significantly elevated fire danger. We evaluate our approach to enhancing UK fire danger rating using records of wildfire occurrence and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), Initial Spread Index (ISI) and FWI components of the FWI System generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fire activity across Great

  2. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive aerosol–cloud–precipitation interaction (ACI scheme has been developed under CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN is fed online interactively into a two-moment cloud scheme (WDM6 and a convective parameterization to drive the cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred. The results show that interactive aerosols with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentrations while decrease the mean diameter of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive micro-physical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48% enhancements of TS scoring for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The interactive aerosols with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  3. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they

  4. The effects of land surface process perturbations in a global ensemble forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guo; Zhu, Yuejian; Gong, Jiandong; Chen, Dehui; Wobus, Richard; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric variability is driven not only by internal dynamics, but also by external forcing, such as soil states, SST, snow, sea-ice cover, and so on. To investigate the forecast uncertainties and effects of land surface processes on numerical weather prediction, we added modules to perturb soil moisture and soil temperature into NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), and compared the results of a set of experiments involving different configurations of land surface and atmospheric perturbation. It was found that uncertainties in different soil layers varied due to the multiple timescales of interactions between land surface and atmospheric processes. Perturbations of the soil moisture and soil temperature at the land surface changed sensible and latent heat flux obviously, as compared to the less or indirect land surface perturbation experiment from the day-to-day forecasts. Soil state perturbations led to greater variation in surface heat fluxes that transferred to the upper troposphere, thus reflecting interactions and the response to atmospheric external forcing. Various verification scores were calculated in this study. The results indicated that taking the uncertainties of land surface processes into account in GEFS could contribute a slight improvement in forecast skill in terms of resolution and reliability, a noticeable reduction in forecast error, as well as an increase in ensemble spread in an under-dispersive system. This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of land surface processes on predictability. Further research using more complex and suitable methods is needed to fully explore our understanding in this area.

  5. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, George W. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Procell, Lawrence R. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Sorrick, David C. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Lawson, Glenn E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Wells, Claire M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Reynolds, Charles M. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Foley, Karen L. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blanchard, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-03-11

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 °C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  6. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... CONTACT: Annie Eberhart Goode, Planning Specialist, Ecosystem Management Coordination Staff,...

  7. North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to construct quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, land-surface model...

  8. Retrievals of All-Weather Daily Air Temperature Using MODIS and AMSR-E Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunchang Jang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite optical-infrared remote sensing from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides effective air temperature (Ta retrieval at a spatial resolution of 5 km. However, frequent cloud cover can result in substantial signal loss and remote sensing retrieval error in MODIS Ta. We presented a simple pixel-wise empirical regression method combining synergistic information from MODIS Ta and 37 GHz frequency brightness temperature (Tb retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for estimating surface level Ta under both clear and cloudy sky conditions in the United States for 2006. The instantaneous Ta retrievals showed favorable agreement with in situ air temperature records from 40 AmeriFlux tower sites; mean R2 correspondence was 86.5 and 82.7 percent, while root mean square errors (RMSE for the Ta retrievals were 4.58 K and 4.99 K for clear and cloudy sky conditions, respectively. Daily mean Ta was estimated using the instantaneous Ta retrievals from day/night overpasses, and showed favorable agreement with local tower measurements (R2 = 0.88; RMSE = 3.48 K. The results of this study indicate that the combination of MODIS and AMSR-E sensor data can produce Ta retrievals with reasonable accuracy and relatively fine spatial resolution (~5 km for clear and cloudy sky conditions.

  9. Space weather disturbances in the ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics system at middle and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Robert

    2012-07-01

    It has been clearly established that the ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics system can vary significantly from hour to hour and from day to day. The hour-to-hour variations are associated with weather disturbances, which can produce mesoscale (100-1000 km) structures and plasma irregularities. For the ionosphere, these weather disturbances include Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs), sporadic E layers, He ^{+} layers in the topside ionosphere, descending intermediate layers, ridges of enhanced ionization (Storm Enhanced Densities), a 4-wave signature, spread-F, and equatorial plasma bubbles. For the thermosphere, the weather disturbances include upward propagating waves from the lower atmosphere (planetary, tidal and gravity waves), Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) generated at high latitudes, storm-time O/N _{2} depletions, and neutral gas perturbations both at the terminator and in the regions containing equatorial plasma bubbles. The current state of our knowledge of weather disturbances in the middle and low latitude ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics system will be reviewed.

  10. Operational communication systems and relationships to the ionosphere and space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John M.

    There are a variety of operational communication systems that are dependent upon the ionosphere, and there are others that are influenced by the ionosphere. In the dependent category, we have short-wave (i.e., MF and HF systems) and long-wave systems (i.e., VLF and LF systems). In the influenced category we have some VHF systems such as meteor-burst systems, and higher frequency SATCOM systems in the UHF and SHF bands. The paper will address various resource management issues for specified operational systems, and the relationship with aspects of space-weather will be discussed. Some examples where space-weather information is used in existing systems are presented. We also identify how space-weather information could be used in those situations where it is currently unused. We conclude with challenges facing advocates of a viable space-weather program [Goodman, J.M. Space Weather and Telecommunications. Kluwer international series of Engineering and Computer Science, Springer Science + Buisness Media Inc., New York, 2005].

  11. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  12. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-1 will provide continuity for applications already developed by using ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT ASAR data, although now with improved capabilities and more regular and systematic data availability. The all-weather capability of radar data provides time series of land surface properties even in areas with persistent cloud coverage. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities, but with enhanced performances by means of the new OLCI and SLST instruments. The results already derived from MERIS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications, providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. A key element in the exploitation of the Sentinel series will be the adequate use of data synergy. The synergistic use of the data is recognised as a convenient way of extracting the maximum potential of the combined time series, but in practice the synergy among the different types of data will require new developments due to the different spatial / temporal / spectral sampling of the different Sentinels. Such synergistic exploitation of data coming from the different Sentinels systems will open new possibilities for improved Land Models within the context of Earth System Science, beyond operational services. The Land community has suffered in the past a large dispersion of objectives due to the intrinsic complicate processes to be addressed involving different approaches and the diversity of scientific topics and applications. The GMES / Sentinel programme can serve as an incentive to put together activities in a coordinated way, making possible a Land Data Assimilation

  13. Forest cover change in the upper Midwestern United States results from both climate and land use change following European settlement: Historical survey and weather records provide robust support for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dawson, A.; Dietze, M.; Paciorek, C. J.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Record, S.; Cogbill, C. V.; Hooten, M.; Ruid, M.; Jackson, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Since European settlement, both climate and human land use have acted on forests in the upper Midwestern United States resulting in changes in forest structure and composition. The extent of these changes has been examined locally and at the state level by examining forest records from the Public Lands Survey System (PLSS), but here we bring together records of changing forest composition with weather records from the mid to late 19th century from the 19th Century Forts and Observer's Database. We are able to assign attribution for taxon range and composition shifts in the region to either land use, climate or both. We see that much of the range contraction in the region seen when comparing Forest Inventory and Analysis data with Public Land Survey System data occurs along the prairie margin, with northern forests showing greater stability in both range and composition suggesting a dominant role for land use in structuring regional vegetation. Modern forests are often less diverse than PLSS forests and the mean minimum dissimilarity between modern and PLSS-era forests is significantly higher than the minimum dissimilarity within either the PLSS-era forests or the modern (FIA) forests, indicating the possiblity that our modern forests have already become 'no-analogue' ecosystems.

  14. Study of One Rainstorm Being Affected by Two Weather Systems in Jinzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study one rainstorm process being affected by two weather system. [Method] Influenced by high trough and Mongolia cold front, high latitude trough and subtropical high shear, rainstorm occurred in Jinzhou from October 19 to 22 in 2010. In order to make the analysis clear, there were two precipitation stages. Considering precipitation, weather situation, satellite image and numerical forecast, the rainstorm process was discussed. [Result] There were two raining stages during this p...

  15. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204, the SMS must meet the following requirements: (a) The NPS shall have an SMS for all transportation...

  16. Options for including all lands in a future greenhouse gas accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current framework through which greenhouse gas emissions and removals in the land use sector are accounted under the Kyoto Protocol has several problems. They include a complex structure, onerous monitoring and reporting requirements, and potential for omission of some important fluxes. One solution that may overcome some of these problems is to include all lands and associated processes within a country's jurisdiction, rather than restrict accounting to specific nominated land categories or activities. Ideally, the accounting approach should cover all significant biospheric sources and sinks, avoid biased or unbalanced accounting, avoid leakage and require no arbitrary adjustments to remedy unintended consequences. Furthermore, accounting should focus on the direct human-induced component of biospheric emissions/removals so that debits/credits can be allocated equitably and provide appropriate incentives to adopt land-use management options with beneficial outcomes for the atmosphere. This paper focuses on biospheric emissions and removals resulting from carbon stock changes. It considers four alternative accounting options that include all land areas: Gross-Net Accounting, Net-Net Accounting, Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines and the Average Carbon Stocks approach. Each option is described, and assessed with respect to defined criteria for effectiveness. Gross-Net Accounting and Net-Net Accounting do not adequately distinguish the anthropogenic component of carbon-stock changes from indirect and natural effects, so large undeserved credits or debits could be created. Under Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines, countries' projected emissions and removals during the commitment period would be taken into account in the negotiation of emissions targets. In the commitment period, countries would then gain credits/debits for biospheric removals/emissions. Difficulties with this approach would lie in reaching agreed baselines for emissions and removals

  17. Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levers, Christian; Müller, Daniel; Erb, Karlheinz;

    2016-01-01

    -system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as characteristic patterns of land-use extent and...... intensity, and (2) archetypical change trajectories, defined as characteristic changes in these indicators between 1990 and 2006. Our analysis identified 15 land-system archetypes, with low-intensity archetypes dominating (ca. 55 % coverage) followed by high-intensity archetypes (ca. 26 %). In terms of...... change, we identified 17 archetypical change trajectories, clustered in four broad categories. Stable land systems were most widespread (ca. 40 % of the EU27), followed by land systems characterised by land-use conversions (ca. 26 %), de-intensification trends (ca. 18 %), and intensification trends (ca...

  18. Strontium isotopic signatures of the streams and lakes of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Chemical weathering in a polar climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W.B.; Nezat, C.A.; Benson, L.V.; Bullen, T.D.; Graham, E.Y.; Kidd, J.; Welch, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed a series of water samples from three closed-basin lakes (Lakes Bonney, Fryxell, and Hoare) in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, and the streams that flow into them. In all three lakes, the hypolimnetic waters have different 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the surface waters, with the deep water of Lakes Fryxell and Hoare being less radiogenic than the surface waters. The opposite occurs in Lake Bonney. The Lake Fryxell isotopic ratios are lower than modern-day ocean water and most of the whole-rock ratios of the surrounding geologic materials. A conceivable source of Sr to the system could be either the Cenozoic volcanic rocks that make up a small portion of the till deposited in the valley during the Last Glacial Maximum or from marble derived from the local basement rocks. The more radiogenic ratios from Lake Bonney originate from ancient salt deposits that flow into the lake from Taylor Glacier and the weathering of minerals with more radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios within the tills. The Sr isotopic data from the streams and lakes of Taylor Valley strongly support the notion documented by previous investigators that chemical weathering has been, and is currently, a major process in determining the overall aquatic chemistry of these lakes in this polar desert environment.

  19. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  20. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  1. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  2. Multivariate Climate-Weather Forecasting System: An Integrated Approach for Mitigating Agricultural Risks in Punjab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2015-12-01

    While India has a long history of prediction of the All India Monsoon, work on spatially specific attributes of the monsoon, as well as monsoon break periods has only recently emerged. However, from a risk management context, prognostic information of a single variable such as total precipitation or average temperature will be of less utility especially for specific operational purposes. An integrated regional climate-weather forecast system covering precipitation, temperature and humidity etc. over the year will benefit the farmers in the context of a specific decision time table for irrigation scheduling as well as for pre-season crop choices. Hence, contrary to the existing forecasting methods that develop multi time scale information of a single variable at a time, in this paper, we introduce an integrated regional multivariate climate-weather forecasting system that directly relates to agricultural decision making and risk mitigation. These multi-scale risk attributes include mutually dependent, spatially disaggregated statistics such as total rainfall, average temperature, growing degree days, relative humidity, total number of rainfall days/dry spell length, and cumulative water deficits that inform the potential irrigation water requirements for crops. Given that these attributes exhibit mutual dependence across space and time, we propose to explore common ocean-atmospheric conditions from the observations and the state of the art Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that can be utilized as the predictor variables for the forecasting system. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are be used to develop the integrated forecast system. The developed multivariate forecasts will be adapted and disseminated as decision tools for the farmers under the extension projects in Punjab region of India.

  3. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Land Management Planning; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 68 / Monday, April 9, 2012... National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule and record... land management planning rule (planning rule). The new planning rule guides the development,...

  4. The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

  5. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  6. Risk assessment and risk-cost optimization of distributed power generation systems considering extreme weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Security and reliability are major concerns for future power systems with distributed generation. A comprehensive evaluation of the risk associated with these systems must consider contingencies under normal environmental conditions and also extreme ones. Environmental conditions can strongly influence the operation and performance of distributed generation systems, not only due to the growing shares of renewable-energy generators installed but also for the environment-related contingencies that can damage or deeply degrade the components of the power grid. In this context, the main novelty of this paper is the development of probabilistic risk assessment and risk-cost optimization framework for distributed power generation systems, that take the effects of extreme weather conditions into account. A Monte Carlo non-sequential algorithm is used for generating both normal and severe weather. The probabilistic risk assessment is embedded within a risk-based, bi-objective optimization to find the optimal size of generators distributed on the power grid that minimize both risks and cost associated with severe weather. An application is shown on a case study adapted from the IEEE 13 nodes test system. By comparing the results considering normal environmental conditions and the results considering the effects of extreme weather, the relevance of the latter clearly emerges. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk assessed for distributed generation systems. • Extreme weather conditions are included in simulation and effects are quantified. • Risk based optimization to find optimal distributed generation sizes. • Distributed generation systems are confirmed less risky than the radial system. • Optimized DGs are less risky, especially considering extreme weather conditions

  7. Access To Land And The System Of Land Ownership In Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul AHIDJO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern Cameroon is a vast geographical region made up of a population with diverse customs, religion and migration process. The entire population is made up of paleo-nigritics, neo-Sudanese and pastoral nomads who practice activities such as agriculture, livestock and fisheries. This ethnic heterogeneity, complex historical events and cultural diversity has made the customary systemof land tenure to vary both in their ancient aspects as well as contemporary manifestations. Therefore, based on verbal assertion and written data, this article examines the methods of land access as well as the traditional and modern land tenure system. For the population of Northern Cameroon and elsewhere, land represents a natural resource of prime importance. Access to land and its control constitutes a major economic challenge and it is equally a source ofdiverse conflicts. The system of land ownership has been influenced by external unforeseen events. From the pre-colonial period to the so called post colonial period, access to land and land ownership vary between the conservation of a traditional system which land owners are trying to preserve and the weight of modernity which has economic implications.

  8. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  10. Design of an aircraft landing system using dual-frequency GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyuki

    There is a strong demand for new all-weather navigation aids to support aircraft precision approach and landing. The Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is one such navigation aid that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate aircraft location. LAAS is required to provide very high levels of accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability, and the integrity requirement of one undetected navigation failure in a billion approaches has been a critical challenge in the design of this system. Tremendous efforts have developed methods to guarantee integrity for various potential anomalies that might threaten LAAS-aided landing. Currently, almost all these risks are mitigated by existing methods. One issue that remains is the risk due to ionosphere anomalies. This dissertation introduces novel integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies that take advantage of GPS modernization---undergoing changes in the GPS system that enhance civil user capabilities. This modernization includes adding new GPS civil signals, and these signals make possible multiple-frequency techniques. This research focuses on two types of dual-frequency carrier-smoothing methods---Divergence-Free Smoothing and Ionosphere-Free Smoothing---and develops integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies using these methods. Simulations show that the first algorithm, using Ionosphere-Free Smoothing, can achieve 96% to 99.9% availability at best over a broad region of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This level of availability is unacceptably low for practical use. However, a benefit is that the resulting availability is not a function of the ionosphere condition. The second algorithm, based on Divergence-Free Smoothing, is shown by simulations to achieve more than 99.9% availability over more than 70% of CONUS under nominal ionosphere conditions. However, it has the potential to completely lose availability under severe ionosphere conditions. Taking

  11. a Study on the Improvement of Cadastral System in Mongolia - Focused on National Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhbaatar, B.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    National land information system (NLIS) is an essential part of the Mongolian land reform. NLIS is a web based and centralized system which covers administration of cadastral database all over the country among land departments. Current ongoing NLIS implementation is vital to improve the cadastral system in Mongolia. This study is intended to define existing problems in current Mongolian cadastral system and propose administrative institutional and systematic implementation through NLIS. Once NLIS launches with proposed model of comprehensive cadastral system it will lead to not only economic and sustainable development but also contribute to citizens' satisfaction and lessen the burdensomeness of bureaucracy. Moreover, prevention of land conflicts, especially in metropolitan area as well as gathering land tax and fees. Furthermore after establishment of NLIS, it is advisable that connecting NLIS to other relevant state administrational organizations or institutions that have relevant database system. Connections with other relevant organizations will facilitate not only smooth and productive workflow but also offer reliable and more valuable information by its systemic integration with NLIS.

  12. Analysis on Land Ticket Transaction System of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; WANG; Xiaoyan; LIU; Chunxin; ZENG

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing essence of land ticket system of Chongqing Municipality and its transaction process,this paper studies the relationship between government and farmers and between city and countryside,and discusses the drawbacks of land ticket system in Chongqing Municipality. Results show that inherent drawbacks of land ticket system and wrong guidance of policies lead to suspicion of land ticket system occupying rural resources. Interregional exploitation and intergenerational exploitation are inherent mechanism of city exploiting countryside. Finally,it proposes increasing construction land index to satisfy demand of new socialist countryside construction primarily,to ensure rural social stability; Later,use land ticket index to fill the gap of construction land in economically developed areas,so as to alleviate conflict of urban land use and maximize circulation value of rural construction land. It is expected to provide theoretical reference for relevant departments to regulate land ticket transaction system and realize the harmonious development,between urban and rural areas.

  13. Puerto Rico Commercial Landings Statistics 1983 and more recent in Accumulated Landings System (ALS) Compatible Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains multi-trip and single trip level quantities and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and...

  14. Large-Scale, Synoptic-Period Weather Systems in Mars' Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, M.

    2013-10-01

    During late autumn through early spring, extratropical regions on Mars exhibit profound mean zonal equator-to-pole thermal contrasts associated with its waxing and waning seasonal polar ice caps. The imposition of this strong meridional temperature gradient supports intense eastward-traveling, synoptic-period weather systems (i.e., transient baroclinic/barotropic waves) within Mars' extratropical atmosphere. These disturbances grow, mature and decay within the east-west varying seasonal-mean middle and high-latitude westerly jet stream (i.e., the polar vortex) on the planet. Near the surface, such weather disturbances indicated distinctive, spiraling "comma"-shaped dust cloud structures of large scale, and scimitar-shaped dust fronts, indicative of processes associated with cyclo- and fronto-genesis. The weather systems are most intense during specific seasons on Mars, and in both hemispheres. The northern hemisphere (NH) disturbances appear to be significantly more vigorous than their counterparts in the southern hemisphere (SH). Further, the NH weather systems and accompanying frontal waves appear to have significant impacts on the transport of tracer fields (e.g., particularly dust and to some extent water species (vapor/ice) as well). Regarding dust, frontal waves appear to be key agents in the lifting, lofting, organization and transport of this atmospheric aerosol. A brief background and supporting observations of Mars' extratropical weather systems is presented. This is followed by various modeling studies (i.e., ranging from highly simplified, mechanistic and fully complex global circulation modeling investigations) that we are pursuing. In particular, transport of scalar quantities (e.g., tracers and high-order dynamically revealing diagnostic fields) are investigated. A discussion of outstanding issues and future modeling pursuits is offered related to Mars' extratropical traveling weather systems.

  15. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  16. Do Increasingly Globalized Land Systems Promote or Undermine Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Scholars are now studying land systems in a global context using such concepts as "telecoupling." Research to date has recognized that local land systems may be undermined by globalization, and local people displaced. The land change community emphasizes the ways in which local people make decisions about natural resources given the opportunities and constraints that globalization presents. This talk will present a summary of current land systems science research in agribusiness, global trade and financial institutions, highlighting key ways in which sustainability measures can capture the effects of these actors and activities.

  17. Sustainable Land Management System and Interaction of its Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Auziņš, A; Vanags, J.; Mote, G; Jirgena, H

    2011-01-01

    The topicality of the study on land management system and its sustainability dimension is determined by the globalisation tendencies of the global economy and the reduction of the reproductive capacity of renewable natural resources. The land management system must be sufficiently flexible so that it could constantly adapt to the changeable internal and external environment. In comparison with other economic resources, land is characterised by several unique features, quantitative and qualita...

  18. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  19. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  20. Fun with Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Rana

    2007-01-01

    This three-part weather-themed lesson for young learners connects weather, clothing, and feelings vocabulary. The target structures covered are: asking about the weather; comparing weather; using the modal auxiliary, should; and the question word, when. The lessons utilize all four skills and include such activities as going outside, singing,…

  1. Information System for Land-Use Planning and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao; MIAO Fang

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain the overall social interest in land use and improve the level of land administration, an information system for land-use planning and management (ISLUPM) was established, which is composed of presentation layer, business logic layer and data layer in the general structure. The application support platform of the ISLUPM, built based on COM, COM+ and .NET standard components, includes data engine, data management, assemblies, components management, operation management, and interface. Then, an elaboration was made on major functions of the ISLUPM, such as planning revision scheme, planning operation flow, digital processing, thematic analysis and inquiry, and preparation of the chart of reserved land resources. The developed system has been successfully applied to the land-use planning and management work of Longquanyi District, Chengdu, China. It may provide a reference for development of geographic information system (GIS) for land and resources.

  2. Improved All-Terrain Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Redesigned suspension system for all-terrain vehicle exhibits enhanced ability to negotiate sand and rocks. Improved six-wheel suspension system includes only two links on each side. Bogie tends to pull rear wheels with it as it climbs. Designed for rover vehicle for exploration of Mars, also has potential application in off-road vehicles, military scout vehicles, robotic emergency vehicles, and toys. Predecessors of suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354), "Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System" (NPO-17407), and "High-Clearance Six-Wheel Suspension" (NPO-17821).

  3. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  4. Regime shifts limit the predictability of land-system change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Daniel; Sun, Zhanli; Vongvisouk, Thoumthone;

    2014-01-01

    (China, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia). The results show how sudden events and gradual changes in underlying drivers caused rapid, surprising and widespread land-system changes, including shifts to different regimes in China, Vietnam and Indonesia, whereas land systems in Laos remained stable in the study...

  5. Parametric study on the advantages of weather-predicted control algorithm of free cooling ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicted climate changes and the increased intensity of urban heat islands, as well as population aging, will increase the energy demand for the cooling of buildings in the future. However, the energy demand for cooling can be efficiently reduced by low-exergy free-cooling systems, which use natural processes, like evaporative cooling or the environmental cold of ambient air during night-time ventilation for the cooling of buildings. Unlike mechanical cooling systems, the energy for the operation of free-cooling system is needed only for the transport of the cold from the environment into the building. Because the natural cold potential is time dependent, the efficiency of free-cooling systems could be improved by introducing a weather forecast into the algorithm for the controlling. In the article, a numerical algorithm for the optimization of the operation of free-cooling systems with night-time ventilation is presented and validated on a test cell with different thermal storage capacities and during different ambient conditions. As a case study, the advantage of weather-predicted controlling is presented for a summer week for typical office room. The results show the necessity of the weather-predicted controlling of free-cooling ventilation systems for achieving the highest overall energy efficiency of such systems in comparison to mechanical cooling, better indoor comfort conditions and a decrease in the primary energy needed for cooling of the buildings. - Highlights: • Energy demand for cooling will increase due to climate changes and urban heat island • Free cooling could significantly reduce energy demand for cooling of the buildings. • Free cooling is more effective if weather prediction is included in operation control. • Weather predicted free cooling operation algorithm was validated on test cell. • Advantages of free-cooling on mechanical cooling is shown with different indicators

  6. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne (Madison, CT); Kowalski, Michael Thomas (Seymour, CT); Porter, Stephen Charles (Burlington, CT); Chow, Oscar Ken (Simsbury, CT); Borland, Nicholas Paul (Montpelier, VT); Goyette, Stephen Arthur (New Hartford, CT)

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  7. Design development of aggregates cooling systems for hot weather concreting

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Khaled I. E.; A. M.S. Hamouda; Gadala, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Using hot aggregates, in concrete production, results in a drop in compressive strength of the produced concrete. Various methods have been proposed for cooling concrete aggregates. This paper proposes new two designs for aggregates cooling systems for various production rate demands. Conveyor system for small to moderate production rates and rotating drum for high production rates. Simulation of the heat flow during the cooling process over the conveyor and through the drum are analyzed with...

  8. Lightning and precipitation produced by severe weather systems over Belém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Maria do Nascimento Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CG Lightning flashes events monitored by a LDN of the Amazon Protection System, which included 12 LPATS IV VAISALA sensors distributed over eastern Amazonia, were analyzed during four severe rainstorm occurrences in Belem-PA-Brazil, in the 2006-2007 period. These selected case studies referred to rainfall events, which produced more than 25 mm/hour, or more than 40 mm/ 2 hours of precipitation rate totals, registered by a tipping bucket automatic high-resolution rain gauge, located at 1º 47' 53" S and 48º 30' 16" W. Centered at this location, a 30 ,10 and 5 km radius circles were drawn by means of a geographic information system, and the data from lightning occurrences within this larger area, were set apart for analysis. During these severe storms the CG lightning events, occurred almost randomly over the surrounding defined circle, previously covered by mesoscale convective systems, for all cases studied. This work also showed that the interaction between large-scale and mesoscale weather conditions have a major influence on the intensity of the storms studied cases. In addition to the enhancement of the lightning and precipitation rates, the electric activity within the larger circles can precede the rainfall at central point of the areas

  9. Traffic Management Coordinator Evaluation of the Dynamic Weather Routes Concept and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a weather-avoidance system for airline dispatchers and FAA traffic managers that continually searches for and advises the user of more efficient routes around convective weather. NASA and American Airlines (AA) have been conducting an operational trial of DWR since July 17, 2012. The objective of this evaluation is to assess DWR from a traffic management coordinator (TMC) perspective, using recently retired TMCs and actual DWR reroutes advisories that were rated acceptable by AA during the operational trial. Results from the evaluation showed that the primary reasons for a TMC to modify or reject airline reroute requests were related to airspace configuration. Approximately 80 percent of the reroutes evaluated required some coordination before implementation. Analysis showed TMCs approved 62 percent of the requested DWR reroutes, resulting in 57 percent of the total requested DWR time savings.

  10. Sensor performance and weather effects modeling for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jeffrey H.; Kopala, Edward W.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Pomerleau, Dean A.

    1995-01-01

    Optical sensors are used for several ITS applications, including lateral control of vehicles, traffic sign recognition, car following, autonomous vehicle navigation, and obstacle detection. This paper treats the performance assessment of a sensor/image processor used as part of an on-board countermeasure system to prevent single vehicle roadway departure crashes. Sufficient image contrast between objects of interest and backgrounds is an essential factor influencing overall system performance. Contrast is determined by material properties affecting reflected/radiated intensities, as well as weather and visibility conditions. This paper discusses the modeling of these parameters and characterizes the contrast performance effects due to reduced visibility. The analysis process first involves generation of inherent road/off- road contrasts, followed by weather effects as a contrast modification. The sensor is modeled as a charge coupled device (CCD), with variable parameters. The results of the sensor/weather modeling are used to predict the performance on an in-vehicle warning system under various levels of adverse weather. Software employed in this effort was previously developed for the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory to determine target/background detection and recognition ranges for different sensor systems operating under various mission scenarios.

  11. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  12. A Reusable Design for Precision Lunar Landing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Linda; Brand, Timothy; Fill, Tom; Norris, Lee; Paschall, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The top-level architecture to accomplish NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to use Lunar missions and systems not just as an end in themselves, but also as testbeds for the more ambitious goals of Human Mars Exploration (HME). This approach means that Lunar missions and systems are most likely going to be targeted for (Lunar) polar missions, and also for long-duration (months) surface stays. This overacting theme creates basic top-level requirements for any next-generation lander system: 1) Long duration stays: a) Multiple landers in close proximity; b) Pinpoint landings for "surface rendezvous"; c) Autonomous landing of pre-positioned assets; and d) Autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance. 2) Polar and deep-crater landings (dark); 3) Common/extensible systems for Moon and Mars, crew and cargo. These requirements pose challenging technology and capability needs. Compare and contrast: 4) Apollo: a) 1 km landing accuracy; b) Lunar near-side (well imaged and direct-to-Earth com. possible); c) Lunar equatorial (landing trajectories offer best navigation support from Earth); d) Limited lighting conditions; e) Significant ground-in-the-loop operations; 5) Lunar Access: a) 10-100m landing precision; b) "Anywhere" access includes polar (potentially poor nav. support from Earth) and far side (poor gravity and imaging; no direct-to-Earth com); c) "Anytime" access includes any lighting condition (including dark); d) Full autonomous landing capability; e) Extensible design for tele-operation or operator-in-the-loop; and f) Minimal ground support to reduce operations costs. The Lunar Access program objectives, therefore, are to: a) Develop a baseline Lunar Precision Landing System (PLS) design to enable pinpoint "anywhere, anytime" landings; b) landing precision 10m-100m; c) Any LAT, LON; and d) Any lighting condition; This paper will characterize basic features of the next generation Lunar landing system, including trajectory types, sensor suite options and a reference

  13. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development:the Danish way

    OpenAIRE

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds on the land management paradigm. Some challenges and barriers are identified and the key initiatives for improvement are described. It is concluded that the system works well in the sense that it s...

  14. All-Embracing Manufacturing Roadmap System

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    All-embracing manufacturing is a system that aims to dissolve the complexity of the manufacturing process and restore the inherent simplicity. It claims that production is very simple and flexible by nature. However, the complexity is a result of the production system approach which makes it rigid and therefore complex. All-embracing manufacturing introduces flexibility to production planning, it eliminates constraints, bottlenecks, and disruptions automatically while it restores the simplicity. No decision is made ahead of time, but only at the time of execution. It introduces technology as dominant part of manufacturing. It is a computer oriented system that imitates human behavior i.e. practically as any of us behave in daily personal life.

  15. Complex airborne system with combined action on the conditions of risk weather phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the weather phenomena is one of the main concerns of scientists. Initially, theresearches in this area were intended to provide military structures new ways of fighting in wars suchas the wars in Korea or Vietnam and then continued with the development of technologies to combatthe phenomena that affect the normal conditions of agriculture, the environment, etc. -extremephenomena- hail, low precipitation regime, etc. Since the last decade of last century also in Romaniathere were a number of initiatives supported through a national program of research in the fightagainst hail and stimulation of precipitation. In this context, INCAS proposed in 2008 a researchproject to implement a complex airborne system, which carry out actions to limit the effects of extremeweather events on crops and objectives of national and strategic interest, on the basis of informationreceived from a system of sensors located on the air platform and intended for measuring the physicalcharacteristics of the atmosphere. Also, as a long-term effect, the action of the complex airbornesystem may lead to the rainfall regulation and control, with all the implications arising from this(avoiding flooding, providing protection from frost of autumn crop, etc.The aerial platform chosen for this research approach is the aircraft for school and training IAR99SOIM, INCAS being the author of its structural design and also holding the patent for IndustrialDesign nr.00081 registered with OSIM. Project acronym : COMAEROPREC.

  16. Verification of a Real Time Weather Forecasting System in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tiriolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the performance of an operational forecasting system, based on the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS, at 3 km horizontal resolution over southern Italy. The model is initialized from the 12 UTC operational analysis/forecasting cycle of the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The forecast is issued for the following three days. The performance is evaluated for a whole year for the surface parameters: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The verification has been performed against SYNOP stations over southern Italy. A dense non-GTS network over Calabria is used for precipitation. Results show that RMSE is about 2-3 K for temperature, 12–16% for relative humidity, 2.0–2.8 m/s for wind speed, and 55–75° for wind direction, the performance varying with the season and with the forecasting time. The error increases between the first and third forecast days. The verification of the rainfall forecast shows that the model underestimates the area of the precipitation. The model output statistics (MOS is applied to all parameters but precipitation. Results show that the MOS reduces the RMSE by 0–30%, depending on the forecasting time, on the season and on the meteorological parameter.

  17. A Novel Landing System to Increase Payload Capacity and Operational Availability of High Altitude Long Endurance UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Muskardin, Tin; Balmer, Georg; Persson, Linnea; Wlach, Sven; Laiacker, Maximilian; Ollero, Anibal; Kondak, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned stratospheric aircraft capable of staying aloft for long periods of time have become a topic of interest in the past years. Several problems are still to be solved to allow for a profitable commercial use of such aircraft. The inherent lightweight design leads to fragile structures with low payload capacities and a high wind sensitivity. The weather dependence significantly reduces the system’s operational availability. To address these drawbacks a novel landing system is proposed in...

  18. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    road weather sensors on their maintenance fleet vehicles to collect vehicular and meteorological data. Data from all three states is sent to a processing system called the Pikalert® Vehicle Data Translator (VDT) that quality checks and uses the data to infer current and forecasted weather conditions.

  19. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.

  20. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  1. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2014-01-01

    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish......, is provided by the hour-ahead power balancing model, i.e. Simulation power Balancing model (SimBa. The regulating power plan is prepared from day-ahead power production plan and hour-ahead wind power forecast. The wind power (forecasts and available) are provided by the Correlated Wind power fluctuations (Cor...

  2. Vision Analysis System for Autonomous Landing of Micro Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a concept of an autonomous landing system of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This type of device is equipped with the functionality of FPV observation (First Person View and radio broadcasting of video or image data. The problem is performance of a system of autonomous drone landing in an area with dimensions of 1m × 1m, based on CCD camera coupled with an image transmission system connected to a base station. Captured images are scanned and landing marker is detected. For this purpose, image features detectors (such as SIFT, SURF or BRISK are utilized to create a database of keypoints of the landing marker and in a new image keypoints are found using the same feature detector. In this paper results of a framework that allows detection of defined marker for the purpose of drone landing field positioning will be presented.

  3. HHEBBES! All sky camera system: status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, F.

    2015-01-01

    A status update is given of the HHEBBES! All sky camera system. HHEBBES!, an automatic camera for capturing bright meteor trails, is based on a DSLR camera and a Liquid Crystal chopper for measuring the angular velocity. Purpose of the system is to a) recover meteorites; b) identify origin/parental bodies. In 2015, two new cameras were rolled out: BINGO! -alike HHEBBES! also in The Netherlands-, and POgLED, in Serbia. BINGO! is a first camera equipped with a longer focal length fisheye lens, to further increase the accuracy. Several minor improvements have been done and the data reduction pipeline was used for processing two prominent Dutch fireballs.

  4. Verification of operational weather forecasts from the POSEIDON system across the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papadopoulos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The POSEIDON weather forecasting system became operational at the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR in October 1999. The system with its nesting capability provided 72-h forecasts in two different model domains, i.e. 25- and 10-km grid spacing. The lower-resolution domain covered an extended area that included most of Europe, Mediterranean Sea and N. Africa, while the higher resolution domain focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. A major upgrade of the system was recently implemented in the framework of the POSEIDON-II project (2005–2008. The aim was to enhance the forecasting skill of the system through improved model parameterization schemes and advanced numerical techniques for assimilating available observations to produce high resolution analysis fields. The configuration of the new system is applied on a horizontal resolution of 1/20°×1/20° (~5 km covering the Mediterranean basin, Black Sea and part of North Atlantic providing up to 5-day forecasts. This paper reviews and compares the current with the previous weather forecasting systems at HCMR presenting quantitative verification statistics from the pre-operational period (from mid-November 2007 to October 2008. The statistics are based on verification against surface observations from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO network across the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate that the use of the new system can significantly improve the weather forecasts.

  5. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  6. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear. PMID:27573973

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Environments on Launch and Landing Availability for NASA's Exploration Systems Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Leahy, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. Natural environments information is an important asset for NASA's development of the next generation space transportation system as part of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs, which includes the Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Programs. Natural terrestrial environment conditions - such as wind, lightning and sea states - can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Space vehicles are particularly sensitive to these environments during the launch/ascent and the entry/landing phases of mission operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch provides engineering design support for NASA space vehicle projects and programs by providing design engineers and mission planners with natural environments definitions as well as performing custom analyses to help characterize the impacts the natural environment may have on vehicle performance. One such analysis involves assessing the impact of natural environments to operational availability. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of meeting/exceeding various sets of hypothetical vehicle-specific parametric constraint thresholds. Outputs are tabulated by month and hour of day to show both seasonal and diurnal variation. This paper will discuss how climate analyses are performed by the MSFC Natural Environments Branch to support the ESD Launch Availability (LA) Technical Performance Measure (TPM), the SLS Launch Availability due to Natural Environments TPM, and several MPCV (Orion) launch and landing availability analyses - including the 2014 Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission.

  8. Weathering Pathways and Limitations in Biogeochemical Models: Application to Earth System Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Current biogeochemical box models for Phanerozoic climate are reviewed and reduced to a robust, modular system, allowing application to the Precambrian. It is shown that stabilisation of climate following a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth should take more than 10(7) years, due to long-term geological limitation of global weathering rates. The timescale matches the observed gaps between extreme glaciations at this time, suggesting that the late Neoproterozoic system was oscillating around a s...

  9. Space Weathering Perspectives on Europa Amidst the Tempest of the Jupiter Magnetospheric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Ip. W.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Europa resides within a "perfect storm" tempest of extreme external field, plasma, and energetic particle interactions with the magnetospheric system of Jupiter. Missions to Europa must survive, functionally operate, make useful measurements, and return critical science data, while also providing full context on this ocean moon's response to the extreme environment. Related general perspectives on space weathering in the solar system are applied to mission and instrument science requirements for Europa.

  10. Proceedings of the COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems; Beitraege des Instituts zum COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Flender, F.; Hagen, M.; Hoeller, H.; Keil, C.; Meischner, P.

    1998-07-01

    Across Europe more than 110 weather radars are in operation. More than 60 of them are Doppler radars and this number is increasing steadily. Doppler systems are becoming an operational standard. Most systems operate in C-band, with the exception of the Spanish radar network which is composed of S-band Doppler radars. Radar product composites are available for Scandinavia and Central Europe. National networks exist for the UK, France and Spain. Europe further is fortunate to have 8 polarimetric Doppler radars used mainly for research. In Italy some of those systems are used also for operational nowcasting applications for dedicated customers. The Chilbolton multiparameter Doppler radar operates at S-band. (orig.)

  11. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.

  12. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  13. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. De Jong

    2015-11-01

    can periodically place considerable stress upon the resources of Fire and Rescue Services. "Fire danger" rating systems (FDRS attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. MOFSI currently provides operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian System. Here we explore a climatology of the full set of FWI System components across the entire UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland, calculated from daily 2 km gridded numerical weather prediction data, supplemented by meteorological station observations. We used this to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System optimised for UK conditions. We find the calibration to be well justified, since for example the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile fire danger situation can vary by up to an order of magnitude across UK regions. Therefore, simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied may be prone to large errors of omission and commission with respect to identifying periods of significantly elevated fire danger compared to "routine" variability. We evaluate our calibrated approach to UK fire danger rating against records of wildfire occurrence, and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC, Initial Spread Index (ISI and final FWI component of the FWI system generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fires in Great Britain, with performance varying seasonally and by land cover type. At the height of the most recent severe wildfire period in the UK (2 May 2011, 50 % of all wildfires occurred in areas where the FWI component exceeded the 99th percentile, and for each of the ten most serious wildfire events

  14. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  15. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  16. ANALYSIS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM WITH INSPECTION SUBJECT TO DEGRADATION AND DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROMILA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model for a single-unit system operating under different weather conditions is developed in which unit fails completely via partial failure. There is a single server who plays the dual role of inspection and repair. The repair of the unit at its partial failure is perfect while the unit becomes degraded after repair at complete failure. Server inspects the unit at its complete failure and at the failure of the degraded unit to see the feasibility of repair. If repair of the unit is not feasible, it is replaced by new one. Repair and inspection activities are stopped in abnormal weather but system remain operative. The failure time of the unit and time to change of weather conditions follow negative exponential whereas the inspection and repair times are arbitrarily distributed with different probability density functions. The expressions for some measures of system effectiveness in steady are derived using regenerative point technique. The numerical results for particular values of various parameters are obtained to analyze the behavior of MTSF, availability and profit of the system model.

  17. Memo to the Mayor : Improving Access to Urban Land for All Residents - Fulfilling the Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Barbara; Rajack, Robin

    2011-01-01

    As the world is urbanizing, many cities are grappling with a population that is growing rapidly, thereby increasing demand for land and housing. This pressure on land and housing markets often is exacerbated by inappropriate or inadequate policies. The result is a supply of well-located land and housing that falls well short of demand and the proliferation of poorly serviced informal settl...

  18. SPARX: a modelling system for Solar Energetic Particle Radiation Space Weather forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, M S; Dierckxsens, M; Laitinen, T; Crosby, N B

    2014-01-01

    The capability to predict the parameters of an SEP event such as its onset, peak flux, and duration is critical to assessing any potential space weather impact. We present a new operational modelling system simulating the propagation of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) from locations near the Sun to any given location in the heliosphere. The model is based on the test particle approach and is spatially 3D, thus allowing for the possibility of transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The model naturally includes the effects of perpendicular propagation due to drifts and drift-induced deceleration. The modelling framework and the way in which parameters of relevance for Space Weather are obtained within a forecasting context are described. The first results from the modelling system are presented. These results demonstrate that corotation and drift of SEP streams play an essential role in shaping SEP flux profiles.

  19. Land System Adjustment in Process of Developing Modern Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jiwen

    2008-01-01

    Under the premise of unchanging the collective ownership and the mode of family business, China should choose land shares pack system as the goal pattern of farmland system innovation.It is hoped that the pattern is accepted and supported by both sides of the government and the farmers,and then it constructs the land reasonable circulation and the effective centralism mechanism, thus realizing smooth transition from the traditional agriculture to the modern agriculture.

  20. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.

  1. Probabilistic Weather Information Tailored to the Needs of Transmission System Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, I.; Stauch, V.; Lee, D.; Hagedorn, R.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable and accurate forecasts for wind and photovoltaic (PV) power production are essential for stable transmission systems. A high potential for improving the wind and PV power forecasts lies in optimizing the weather forecasts, since these energy sources are highly weather dependent. For this reason the main objective of the German research project EWeLiNE is to improve the quality the underlying numerical weather predictions towards energy operations. In this project, the German Meteorological Service (DWD), the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, and three of the German transmission system operators (TSOs) are working together to improve the weather and power forecasts. Probabilistic predictions are of particular interest, as the quantification of uncertainties provides an important tool for risk management. Theoretical considerations suggest that it can be advantageous to use probabilistic information to represent and respond to the remaining uncertainties in the forecasts. However, it remains a challenge to integrate this information into the decision making processes related to market participation and power systems operations. The project is planned and carried out in close cooperation with the involved TSOs in order to ensure the usability of the products developed. It will conclude with a demonstration phase, in which the improved models and newly developed products are combined into a process chain and used to provide information to TSOs in a real-time decision support tool. The use of a web-based development platform enables short development cycles and agile adaptation to evolving user needs. This contribution will present the EWeLiNE project and discuss ideas on how to incorporate probabilistic information into the users' current decision making processes.

  2. Retrieval of land parameters by multi-sensor information using the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes

  3. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives: 1 To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2 to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3 to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design: A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results: The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of

  4. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-01-01

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  5. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  6. Updated global soil map for the Weather Research and Forecasting model and soil moisture initialization for the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DY, C. Y.; Fung, J. C. H.

    2016-08-01

    A meteorological model requires accurate initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain realistic numerical weather predictions. The land surface controls the surface heat and moisture exchanges, which can be determined by the physical properties of the soil and soil state variables, subsequently exerting an effect on the boundary layer meteorology. The initial and boundary conditions of soil moisture are currently obtained via National Centers for Environmental Prediction FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis data, which are collected operationally in 1° by 1° resolutions every 6 h. Another input to the model is the soil map generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (FAO-UNESCO) soil database, which combines several soil surveys from around the world. Both soil moisture from the FNL analysis data and the default soil map lack accuracy and feature coarse resolutions, particularly for certain areas of China. In this study, we update the global soil map with data from Beijing Normal University in 1 km by 1 km grids and propose an alternative method of soil moisture initialization. Simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that spinning-up the soil moisture improves near-surface temperature and relative humidity prediction using different types of soil moisture initialization. Explanations of that improvement and improvement of the planetary boundary layer height in performing process analysis are provided.

  7. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  8. Using Weather Radar to Optimise Operation of an Urban Drainage System with Distributed Rainwater Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby;

    2012-01-01

    The perspective of controlling the local rain water storage tanks for a small catchment is investigated to evaluate if a predictive control reduces the CSO from the storm drainage system. A weather radar based nowcast system is used to predict the actual precipitation two hours ahead. In case...... and with passive local rainwater storage tanks are used as a reference. The results show that local rain water storage tanks reduce the CSO’s by 50% and lower the maximal water levels in the storm drainage system. The active control clearly outperforms the passive storage strategy....

  9. Evaluation of medium-range weather forecasts about Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model System (KIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Seol, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is a government funded non-profit research and development institute located in Seoul, South Korea. KIAPS was established in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration, KIAPS' primary sponsor. KIAPS is developing the KIAPS Integrated Model System (KIM), a backbone for the next-generation operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. The KIM will be a unified model that can be used for global modeling as well as local areas, particularly optimized to topographic and meteorological features of the Korean Peninsula. We have been completed developing major model components based on KIAPS own research and release the KIAPS beta version model on September 2014. We evaluated the results of KIM by using verification system developed KIAPS, it is composed of standard verification score based on WMO report. The system consists of four parts: verification against analysis, observations, vertical verification and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The results of verification against analysis, we found that increase of error for temperature under 700 hPa. In case of MSLP, poor performance except for tropical region is represented, and the increase of error for geopotential height is shown in tropical region. For verification against observations, positive bias is represented for upper level geopotential height, for low level wind speed in tropical region in summer, for all level wind speed in Northern Hemisphere in winter, and for specific humidity in Northern Hemisphere in summer. As previously stated about the result against analysis, cold bias for low level temperature is shown in Northern Hemisphere in summer. In case of verification for rain about KIM, the model value is underestimated in heavy rain category in summer, on the contrary, that is overestimated in heavy rain category in winter. Overall, there is overestimation in ocean for all models. Our findings indicate that continuing

  10. Weather disturbances in the ionosphere-thermosphere system at middle and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Robert

    It has been clearly established that the ionosphere-thermosphere system exhibits both a back-ground state (climatology) and a disturbed state (weather). At mid-latitudes, the background ionospheric state is characterized by an electron density distribution that tends to be uniform, with a gradual transition from high electron densities on the dayside to low electron densities on the nightside. At low latitudes, the main characteristic feature is the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which corresponds to ionization peaks that are located on both sides of the magnetic equator. The background thermospheric state at mid-and low-latitudes tends to be uniform, with gentle winds blowing around the globe from the sub-solar point. However, su-perimposed on these background states are storm-time disturbances, mesoscale (100-1000 km) structures, and plasma irregularities. For the ionosphere, these include traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), sporadic E layers, He+ layers in the topside ionosphere, descending inter-mediate layers, ridges of enhanced ionization (Storm Enhanced Densities), a 4-wave signature, spread-F, and equatorial plasma bubbles. For the thermosphere, the weather disturbances include upward propagating waves from the lower atmosphere (planetary, tidal and gravity waves), Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) generated at high latitudes, storm-time O/N2 depletions, and neutral gas perturbations at the terminator and in the regions contain-ing equatorial plasma bubbles. These and other weather disturbances in the middle and low latitude ionosphere-thermosphere system will be discussed.

  11. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Laurie G.; Witt, Arthur; Smith, Steven D.; Klingle-Wilson, Diana; Morris, Dale; Stumpf, Gregory J.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system was primarily designed to address the operational needs of pilots in the avoidance of low-altitude wind shears upon takeoff and landing at airports. One of the primary methods of wind-shear detection for the TDWR system is the gust-front detection algorithm. The algorithm is designed to detect gust fronts that produce a wind-shear hazard and/or sustained wind shifts. It serves the hazard warning function by providing an estimate of the wind-speed gain for aircraft penetrating the gust front. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms together serve a planning function by providing forecasted gust-front locations and estimates of the horizontal wind vector behind the front, respectively. This information is used by air traffic managers to determine arrival and departure runway configurations and aircraft movements to minimize the impact of wind shifts on airport capacity. This paper describes the gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms to be fielded in the initial TDWR systems. Results of a quantitative performance evaluation using Doppler radar data collected during TDWR operational demonstrations at the Denver, Kansas City, and Orlando airports are presented. The algorithms were found to be operationally useful by the FAA airport controllers and supervisors.

  12. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  14. Expert Systems and Weather Forecasting in the 4th and 5th Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, James J.; Gimblett, Randy H.

    1992-01-01

    Fourth and fifth graders built weather measuring instruments, entered data into a computer program that forecasted weather, and compared the resultant forecast with actual weather. As a result of their activities, students took a greater interest in weather phenomena, understood the computer program, and learned to think more logically. (LB)

  15. Toward seamless weather-climate and environmental prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Gilbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade or so, predicting the weather, climate and atmospheric composition has emerged as one of the most important areas of scientific endeavor. This is partly because the remarkable increase in skill of current weather forecasts has made society more and more dependent on them day to day for a whole range of decision making. And it is partly because climate change is now widely accepted and the realization is growing rapidly that it will affect every person in the world profoundly, either directly or indirectly. One of the important endeavors of our societies is to remain at the cutting-edge of modelling and predicting the evolution of the fully coupled environmental system: atmosphere (weather and composition), oceans, land surface (physical and biological), and cryosphere. This effort will provide an increasingly accurate and reliable service across all the socio-economic sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of adverse weather and climatic conditions, whether now or in the future. This emerging challenge was at the center of the World Weather Open Science Conference (Montreal, 2014).The outcomes of the conference are described in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G. Brunet, S. Jones, P. Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, 2015). It is freely available on line at the WMO website. We will discuss some of the outcomes of the conference for the WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) long term goals and provide examples of seamless modelling and prediction across a range of timescales at convective and sub-kilometer scales for regional coupled forecasting applications at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).

  16. Study on Ecological Compensation System and Land Desertification Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhixiang; Gao, Bingtao

    2009-01-01

    The problems of desertification control in China are analyzed from the perspective of ecological compensation. Firstly, there is no guarantee of ecological compensation system in desertification control. On the basis of knowing land desertification connotation, the western region is taken as an example to analyze the serious consequence brought by land desertification, besides, the connotation and importance of ecological compensation are summarized, as well as the views related to resolve th...

  17. Assessment of soil fertility change and sustainability of agroecological management in different land use systems of the southern Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was conducted to investigate soil fertility changes and assess the sustainability of agroecological management in different land-use systems of the southern Ecuadorian Andes using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ecuador still holds the highest deforestation rate of all Latin American countries which also has a large impact in the research area by forest conversion into agricultural land. Agricultural land-use systems in the research area are multifaceted due to heterogeneous ...

  18. Moving towards pro-poor systems of land administration: Challenges for land and asset distribution in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    There are three reasons why land policies in Africa are attracting greater amounts of attention. First, it is recognized that enhancing smallholder productivity is critical for sustainable and broad-based growth as well as poverty reduction (World Bank 2007). However, land-related investment, technology adoption, establishment of processing, markets, and value chains, all are unlikely to come about unless land tenure is secure. Moreover, increased productivity will be capitalized in land valu...

  19. Defining agricultural and forestry systems in econometric land use models: Some critical reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Munchhausen, Susanne von

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the way pastoral and forestry systems are defined in econometric land use modelling on a national level. It briefly reviews the relevant data bases and modelling tools. Above all, it reflects on the questions asked and information needed in the work of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Policy. The paper presents the first results of a working group about the key policy questions related to land use and land use change and the adequacy of the related analyses a...

  20. Design of remote weather monitor system based on embedded web database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote weather monitoring system is designed by employing the embedded Web database technology and the S3C2410 microprocessor as the core. The monitoring system can simultaneously monitor the multi-channel sensor signals, and can give a dynamic Web pages display of various types of meteorological information on the remote computer. It gives a elaborated introduction of the construction and application of the Web database under the embedded Linux. Test results show that the client access the Web page via the GPRS or the Internet, acquires data and uses an intuitive graphical way to display the value of various types of meteorological information. (authors)

  1. NEURAL NETWORK BP MODEL APPROXIMATION AND PREDICTION OF COMPLICATED WEATHER SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧; 余志豪; 蒋全荣

    2001-01-01

    An artificial neural network BP model and its revised algorithm are used to approximate quite successfully a Lorenz chaotic dynamic system and the mapping relation is established between the indices of Southern Oscillation and equatorial zonal wind and lagged equatorial eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) in the context of NCEP/NCAR data, and thereby a model is prepared.The constructed net model shows fairly high fit precision and feasible prediction accuracy, thus making itself of some usefulness to the prognosis of intricate weather systems.

  2. Neural Fuzzy Inference System-Based Weather Prediction Model and Its Precipitation Predicting Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a weather prediction model in this article based on neural network and fuzzy inference system (NFIS-WPM, and then apply it to predict daily fuzzy precipitation given meteorological premises for testing. The model consists of two parts: the first part is the “fuzzy rule-based neural network”, which simulates sequential relations among fuzzy sets using artificial neural network; and the second part is the “neural fuzzy inference system”, which is based on the first part, but could learn new fuzzy rules from the previous ones according to the algorithm we proposed. NFIS-WPM (High Pro and NFIS-WPM (Ave are improved versions of this model. It is well known that the need for accurate weather prediction is apparent when considering the benefits. However, the excessive pursuit of accuracy in weather prediction makes some of the “accurate” prediction results meaningless and the numerical prediction model is often complex and time-consuming. By adapting this novel model to a precipitation prediction problem, we make the predicted outcomes of precipitation more accurate and the prediction methods simpler than by using the complex numerical forecasting model that would occupy large computation resources, be time-consuming and which has a low predictive accuracy rate. Accordingly, we achieve more accurate predictive precipitation results than by using traditional artificial neural networks that have low predictive accuracy.

  3. About to Lose all the Soil in Zaka’s Ward 5, Zimbabwe: Rewards of Unsustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Makwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion which manifests itself in the form of gullies, rills and sheet wash is animmensely complicated process involving the interaction of many biological, social,economic, environmental and political factors. It varies in its occurrence bothspatially and temporally. The ultimate result of soil erosion is that it reduces cropyields and ruins agriculture, though the exact extent of soil erosion and landdegradation is not known.The study was carried out in Masvingo Province, ZakaDistrict, Ward 5 with 4502 households using the questionnaire survey, interviewand field observations as research methods. The study established that populationpressure ( people and livestock, as evidenced by, cultivation of steep slopes,stream bank cultivation, deforestation and overstocking are major problems .Fromthe results, it emerged that people continue to compound the problem by settlingand extending farmlands on steep slopes, stream banks, grazing land and dambos/veils. Therefore, there is need to educate people on conservation, proper tillage,proper or correct stocking rates, develop a proper land tenure system and avoidingland degradation. There are patches of abandoned land on account of failure tosupport crops or grazing. This means that there is need for soil conservationmeasures to be instituted so as to save the soil from further deterioration. This isnot to say nothing has been done before, rather it is the enormity of the problemthat dictates that form and decisive action needs be taken sooner rather than latter.Measures which have been implemented are fragmented and seem to have metwith very limited, if at all any, success so there might be need to revisit both theapproach ,methods, techniques and strategies which have been tried hitherto witha view to blend them with the yet untried and untested methods.

  4. Major ion chemistry of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, M.M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Dilli, K.; Somayajulu, B.L.K. (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)); Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the worlds's largest river systems, is first in terms of sediment transport and fourth in terms of water discharge. A detailed and systematic study of the major ion chemistry of these rivers and their tributaries, as well as the clay mineral composition of the bed sediments has been conducted. The chemistry of the highland rivers are all dominated by carbonate weathering; (Ca + Mg) and HCO{sub 3} account for about 80% of the cations and anions. In the lowland rivers, HCO{sub 3} excess over (Ca + Mg) and a relatively high contribution of (Na + K) to the total cations indicate that silicate weathering and/or contributions from alkaline/saline soils and ground waters could be important sources of major ions to these waters. The chemistry of the Ganga and the Yamuna in the lower reaches is by and large dictated by the chemistry of their tributaries and their mixing proportions. The highland rivers weather acidic rocks, whereas the others flow initially through basic effusives. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system transports about 130 million tons of dissolved salts to the Bay of Bengal, which is nearly 3% of the global river flux to the oceans. The chemical denudation rates for the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins are about 72 and 105 tons{center dot}km{sup {minus}2}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}, respectively, which are factors of 2 to 3 higher than the global average. The high denudation rate, particularly in the Brahmaputra, is attributable to high relief and heavy rainfall.

  5. The auto-tuned land data assimilation system (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...

  6. Weathering performance of industrial atmospheric coating systems in the Arabian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A.; Riad, W.T. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.; Othman, M. [Shuaiba Area Authority, Safat (Kuwait); Islam, M. [Cortest Columbus Technologies Inc., OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The performance and durability of a number of industrial coating systems have been studied for two and a half years at five weathering sites in the industrial belt of Shuaiba Area, Kuwait, in the Arabian Gulf. The outdoor weathering performance of eleven coating systems was related to the prevailing industrial atmospheric conditions, and comparison made to their behavior under laboratory accelerated conditions. The coating systems studied included acrylic enamel, micaceous iron oxide epoxy, alkyd enamel, alkyd gloss, chlorinated rubber, polyurethane, and water-based acrylic. Experience in Kuwait has shown that with the longer hours of strong sunshine and ambient temperatures, as well as the chemical content of the atmosphere (e.g. O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, Cl), dust retention and sandstorm, degrading of coatings has tended to be faster than in Western countries which most of these generic coating system were developed. Two accelerated test methods were used to evaluate the protective properties of the above mentioned coatings when applied to steel panels.

  7. Systems chemistry: All in a spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lucy; Lightfoot, Philip

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in systems chemistry is to engineer the emergence of complex behaviour. The collective structures of metal cyanide chains have now been interpreted in the same manner as the myriad of magnetic phases displayed by frustrated spin systems, highlighting a symbiotic approach between systems chemistry and magnetism.

  8. Climate and weather of the Sun-Earth system (CAWSES) highlights from a priority program

    CERN Document Server

    Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some impor

  9. A 10 cm dual frequency Doppler weather radar. Part 1: The radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A. W.; Armstrong, G. M.

    1982-10-01

    Design concepts and test results are summarized for a Doppler weather radar system suitable for precipitation measurements over a wide span of radial velocities and slant ranges, even in the presence of ground clutter. The radar transmits two uniform pulse trains at 2.710 and 2.760 GHz. Uniformly spaced pulses permit ground clutter cancellation of up to 50 dB to be achieved with a three-pole elliptic filter. Pulse spacing at one frequency is consistent with long-range coverage in reflectivity, while spacing of the second is consistent with a wide unambiguous velocity measurement span.

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... development towards the capacity to design, build, and manage Land Administration Systems that incorporate sustainable land policies and efficient spatial data infrastructures.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  11. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  12. Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, M.M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Somayajulu, B.L.K. (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)); Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering processes that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Consequently, a detailed and systematic study of the major ion composition and radionuclide abundances in the dissolved and suspended phases of the Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers was undertaken during 1982-83. We present here data on the dissolved uranium and radium isotopes in these river waters and on some of the U-Th decay series nuclides in the suspended sediments. Prior to this work, Bhat and Krishnaswami (1969) have reported the downstream and seasonal variations in the concentration of dissolved uranium and radium isotopes in the Ganga main stream. The primary objective of our study is to identify the parameters controlling the supply of uranium and radium isotopes to these river waters during weathering, and to determine their fluxes to the estuaries. The results presented in this paper represent the most comprehensive data set on uranium and radium isotopes yet published for a major river system.

  13. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  14. Using Geo-informational System for determining land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangul, I.; Mangul, S.

    The largest part of agricultural lands of the Republic of Moldova is concentrated in the arid zone Frequent droughts once in 2-4 years inflict vital causalities to agriculture of the Republic of Moldova However droughts influence doesn t only limit itself to forming production Drought after-effect is highly ruinous for water reserves industrial enterprises functioning rhythm and human health Droughts make for the drying up and crumbling of soil which is subject to excessive human influence and result in land degradation desertification Term desertification means land degradation in the droughty zones It is necessary to mention that the droughty ecosystems are extremely fragile and sensitive overexploitation Nowadays in the Republic of Moldova 33-37 of agricultural lands is eroded Republic of Moldova joined the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on December 24 1998 The Government of the Republic of Moldova ratified the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification in 2000 Within the framework of executing the National Action Plan by National Committee to Combat Desertification Geo-informational System on arid questions was organized In addition a lot of indexes corresponding to international standards were used for the evaluation of drought of the territory and land degradation processes Mostly this information is presented in maps erosion landslides aridity water resources A rich experience of using satellite information for determining land degradation demonstrates high effectiveness of this method Satellite

  15. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... grasslands. Land management plans provide a framework for integrated resource management on NFS units, and... integrated resource management so that all the relevant interdependent elements of sustainability are... these alternatives include different approaches to rule text on management of water resources...

  16. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  17. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  18. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  19. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  20. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  1. Mass-balance Approach to Interpreting Weathering Reactions in Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, O. P.; Jones, B. F.; Bowser, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The mass-balance approach is conceptually simple and has found widespread applications in many fields over the years. For example, chemists use mass balance (Stumm and Morgan, 1996) to sum the various species containing an element in order to determine the total amount of that element in the system (free ion, complexes). Glaciologists use mass balance to determine the changes in mass of glaciers ( Mayo et al., 1972 and references therein). Groundwater hydrologists use this method to interpret changes in water balance in groundwater systems ( Rasmussen and Andreasen, 1959; Bredehoeft et al., 1982; Heath, 1983; Konikow and Mercer, 1988; Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Ingebritsen and Sanford, 1998). This method has also been used to determine changes in chemistry along a flow path ( Plummer et al., 1983; Bowser and Jones, 1990) and to quantify lake hydrologic budgets using stable isotopes ( Krabbenhoft et al., 1994). Blum and Erel (see Chapter 5.12) discuss the use of strontium isotopes, Chapelle (see Chapter 5.14) treats carbon isotopes in groundwater, and Kendall and Doctor (see Chapter 5.11) and Kendall and McDonnell (1998) discuss the use of stable isotopes in mass balance. Although the method is conceptually simple, the parameters that define a mass balance are not always easy to measure. Watershed investigators use mass balance to determine physical and chemical changes in watersheds ( Garrels and Mackenzie, 1967; Plummer et al., 1991; O'Brien et al., 1997; Drever, 1997). Here we focus on describing the mass-balance approach to interpret weathering reactions in watershed systems including shallow groundwater.Because mass balance is simply an accounting of the flux of material into a system minus the flux of material out of the system, the geochemical mass-balance approach is well suited to interpreting weathering reactions in watersheds (catchments) and in other environmental settings (Drever, 1997). It is, perhaps, the most accurate and reliable way of defining

  2. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  3. Urbanization, Rural Land System and Social Security in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhigangXu; RanTao

    2004-01-01

    In China's transition and economic development, temporary migration, lack of basic social security arrangements for migrants, and frequent administrative land reallocation in rural areas and abusive rural land requisition in the urbanization process are all important policy issues that have been studied intensively with lots of policy recommendations. However, these issues are closely related and need to be explored under an integrated framework that takes into account China's large size and characteristics in economic development and transition. The paper aims to establish such an analytical framework and proposes a policy package to systematically address these issues. Implications from such proposed policy package are also discussed and compared to other policy recommendations.

  4. The CEOS-Land Surface Imaging Constellation Portal for GEOSS: A resource for land surface imaging system information and data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Gallo, Kevin P.; Bailey, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites is an international group that coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth, and provides the space component of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The CEOS Virtual Constellations concept was implemented in an effort to engage and coordinate disparate Earth observing programs of CEOS member agencies and ultimately facilitate their contribution in supplying the space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements of the GEOSS. The CEOS initially established Study Teams for four prototype constellations that included precipitation, land surface imaging, ocean surface topography, and atmospheric composition. The basic mission of the Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation [1] is to promote the efficient, effective, and comprehensive collection, distribution, and application of space-acquired image data of the global land surface, especially to meet societal needs of the global population, such as those addressed by the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of agriculture, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water, and weather. The LSI Constellation Portal is the result of an effort to address important goals within the LSI Constellation mission and provide resources to assist in planning for future space missions that might further contribute to meeting those goals.

  5. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We often look "through a glass, darkly" at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers are radiation crusts on cometary nuclei and iogenic components of sulfate hydrate deposits on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. Weathering processes include plasma ion implantation into surfaces, sputtering by charged particles and solar ultraviolet photons, photolytic chemistry driven by UV irradiation, and radiolytic chemistry evolving from products of charged particle irradiation. Regolith structure from impacts, and underlying deeper structures from internal evolution, affects efficacy of certain surface interactions, e.g. sputtering as affected by porosity and surface irradiation dosage as partly attenuated by local topographic shielding. These processes should be regarded for mission science planning as potentially enabling, e.g. since direct surface sputtering, and resultant surface-bound exospheres, can provide in-situ samples of surface composition to ion and neutral mass spectrometers on orbital spacecraft. Sample return for highest sensitivity compOSitional and structural analyses at Earth will usually be precluded by limited range of surface sampling, long times for return, and high cost. Targeted advancements in instrument technology would be more cost efficient for local remote and in-situ sample analysis. More realistic laboratory simulations, e.g. for bulk samples, are needed to interpret mission science observations of weathered surfaces. Space environment effects on mission spacecraft and science operations must also be specified and mitigated from the hourly to monthly changes in space weather and from longer

  6. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth System and Integrated Assessment Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbard, K.; Janetos, A.; Vuuren, van, T.; Pongratz, J; Rose, S.; Betts, R.; Herold, M; Feddema, J.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-...

  7. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  8. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  9. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...-1104. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ecosystem Management Coordination staff's Planning Specialist... management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) at 16 U.S.C....

  10. Foreign experience in the forestry lands management system

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kasyuhnich

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with experience in reforming forestry as well as forming a land management system of the forest fund in the United States, Canada and European Union countries. Basic principles of state policy in the sphere of management of the forestry sector around the world have been analyzed

  11. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  12. Gregorian all-reflective optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An optical heterodyne receiver comprises a system of reflectors forming a folded Gregorian configuration for collecting a signal beam, and an optical detector located at the focus of the system. A paraboloidal primary reflector and an elipsoidal secondary reflector face each other on an optical axis with the focus of the secondary reflector coinciding with the focus of the primary reflector. An auxiliary laser generates a local oscillator beam that is combined with the signal beam after the signal beam emerges from the exit pupil (which is also the aperture stop) of the system, and the resultant is impinged on the detector. A pair of image motion compensators is located as close to the exit pupil as possible for aligning off-axis inputs to the detector.

  13. Stochastic Analysis of Land Degradation on Edo State Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Edo state, like many other states in Niger-Delta and Nigeria as a nation has resultant land and water degradation problems such as persistent oil spillage, erosion of arable land, sedimentation of dam and reservoirs. This research study investigates the effects of land degradation in all the local government areas in Edo state. The results of the findings indicated that 28% corresponding to 634,416.3 ha of arable land had totally been affected by soil erosion. Highest erodibility index of 0.75 was obtained at Estako west (Auchi, while least value of 0.1 was found at Akoko-Edo local government area respectively. Between 1976 and 1997, 1,820,410.50 barrels of crude oil spilled with maximum spill value 600,511.02 barrels in 1984 and minimum spill of 5,956 barrels in 1989. Reduction of cassava production was estimated and analyzed. The result showed that the reduction is highly significant at 95% confidence interval. Etasko -west had the highest reduction from 7.26 MT/HA in 1993 to 1.1 MT/HA in 2002. In addition, analysis of erosion and land degradation control expenditures showed that little attention has been paid to controlling land degradation in the state. Erosion control expenditure was increased from 4.1% in 1990 to 10% in 2002. This increase is not significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. All these constraints affect agricultural production, human well-being, social and economic growth of the people in Edo state.

  14. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS TM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

  15. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  16. Linking lithology and land use to sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter in headwaters of a temperate, passive-margin river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, B. E.; Petsch, S. T.; Raymond, P. A.; Bauer, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    A number of rivers have been found to transport highly aged organic matter [OM]; however, the sources of this aged material remain a matter of debate. One potential source may be erosion and weathering of headwater lithologies rich in ancient sedimentary OM. In this study, waters, suspended particulates, streambed sediments, rocks and soils from fourteen small headwater watersheds of a mid-size, temperate, passive margin river were sampled and characterized by Δ 14C, δ 13C, and POC/TPN ratios to identify sources of particulate and dissolved OM delivered to the river mainstem. These headwater sites encompass a range in lithology (OM-rich shales, OM-lean carbonate/mudstone facies, and OM-free crystalline rocks) and land use types (forested and agricultural), and allow investigation of the influence of agriculture and bedrock types on stream OM characteristics. Streams draining large areas of both agricultural land use and OM-rich lithology contain particulate OM [POM] that is more 14C-depleted than streams draining forested, shale-free watersheds. However, this is not sufficient to account for the significantly lower Δ 14C-POC measured in the river mainstem. Dissolved OM [DOM] Δ 14C are in all cases enriched compared to POM from the same stream, but are otherwise highly variable and unrelated to either land use or lithology. POC/TPN ratios were likewise highly variable. POC and DOC δ 13C signatures were similar across all watersheds. Based on isotope mass balance, 14C-free fossil OM sources contribute 0-12% of total stream POM. Although these results do not unequivocally separate the influences of land use and lithology, watershed coverage by shale and agriculture are both important controls on stream Δ 14C-POC. Thus export of aged, particle-associated OM may be a feature of river systems along both passive and active continental margins.

  17. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O' Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  18. Study on the Modernization of Collective Land Expropriation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天

    2014-01-01

    Through the discussion of the compensation standard,the use of the expropriation right and the supervision and remedy approaches as three outstanding aspects in China’s col ective land expropriation system,the author discovered the main defects of the system embodied on an institutional level are:low compensation standard,abuse of the expropriation right in the absence of effective supervision power,and the scarcity and inadaptability of remedy approaches.In order to prevent group events from frequently taking place in col ective land expropriation and improve the modernization level of governance capability of the country,the thesis has put forward some related suggestions for the system based on the comparison and learning of relevant foreign systems.

  19. A System for Monitoring and Forecasting Land Surface Phenology Using Time Series of JPSS VIIRS Observations and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Yu, Y.; Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface phenology quantifies seasonal dynamics of vegetation properties including the timing and magnitude of vegetation greenness from satellite observations. Over the last decade, historical time series of AVHRR and MODIS data has been used to characterize the seasonal and interannual variation in terrestrial ecosystems and their responses to a changing and variable climate. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the operational JPSS satellites provides land surface observations in a timely fashion, which has the capability to monitor phenological development in near real time. This capability is particularly important for assisting agriculture, natural resource management, and land modeling for weather prediction systems. Here we introduce a system to monitor in real time and forecast in the short term phenological development based on daily VIIRS observations available with a one-day latency. The system integrates a climatological land surface phenology from long-term MODIS data and available VIIRS observations to simulate a set of potential temporal trajectories of greenness development at a given time and pixel. The greenness trajectories, which are qualified using daily two-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2), are applied to identify spring green leaf development and autumn color foliage status in real time and to predict the occurrence of future phenological events. This system currently monitors vegetation development across the North America every three days and makes prediction to 10 days ahead. We further introduce the applications of near real time spring green leaf and fall color foliage. Specifically, this system is used for tracing the crop progress across the United States, guiding the field observations in US National Phenology Network, servicing tourists for the observation of color fall foliage, and parameterizing seasonal surface physical conditions for numerical weather prediction models.

  20. A space weather forecasting system with multiple satellites based on a self-recognizing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV). The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  1. A Space Weather Forecasting System with Multiple Satellites Based on a Self-Recognizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokumitsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV. The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  2. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  3. Overcoming adverse weather conditions with a common optical path, multiple sensors, and intelligent image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joseph; Piacentino, Michael; Caldwell, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Mission success is highly dependent on the ability to accomplish Surveillance, Situation Awareness, Target Detection and Classification, but is challenging under adverse weather conditions. This paper introduces an engineering prototype to address the image collection challenges using a Common Optical Path, Multiple Sensors and an Intelligent Image Fusion System, and provides illustrations and sample fusion images. Panavision's advanced wide spectrum optical design has permitted a suite of imagers to perform observations through a common optical path with a common field of view, thereby aligning images and facilitating optimized downstream image processing. The adaptable design also supports continuous zoom or Galilean lenses for multiple field of views. The Multiple Sensors include: (1) High-definition imaging sensors that are small, have low power consumption and a wide dynamic range; (2) EMCCD sensors that transition from daylight to starlight, even under poor weather conditions, with sensitivity down to 0.00025 Lux; and (3) SWIR sensors that, with the advancement in InGaAs, are able to generate ultra-high sensitivity images from 1-1.7μm reflective light and can achieve imaging through haze and some types of camouflage. The intelligent fusion of multiple sensors provides high-resolution color information with previously impossible sensitivity and contrast. With the integration of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), real-time Image Processing and Fusion Algorithms can facilitate mission success in a small, low power package.

  4. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  5. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  6. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  7. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  8. MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Gebhardt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating forest area at a national scale within the United Nations program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD is primarily based on land cover information using remote sensing technologies. Timely delivery for a country of a size like Mexico can only be achieved in a standardized and cost-effective manner by automatic image classification. This paper describes the operational land cover monitoring system for Mexico. It utilizes national-scale cartographic reference data, all available Landsat satellite imagery, and field inventory data for validation. Seven annual national land cover maps between 1993 and 2008 were produced. The classification scheme defined 9 and 12 classes at two hierarchical levels. Overall accuracies achieved were up to 76%. Tropical and temperate forest was classified with accuracy up to 78% and 82%, respectively. Although specifically designed for the needs of Mexico, the general process is suitable for other participating countries in the REDD+ program to comply with guidelines on standardization and transparency of methods and to assure comparability. However, reporting of change is ill-advised based on the annual land cover products and a combination of annual land cover and change detection algorithms is suggested.

  9. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  10. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Atsuki Urata, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic-period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  11. A Prototype Web-based system for GOES-R Space Weather Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravel, A.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) makes use of advanced instruments and technologies to monitor the Earth's surface and provide with accurate space weather data. The first GOES-R series satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2015. The data from the satellite will be widely used by scientists for space weather modeling and predictions. This project looks into the ways of how these datasets can be made available to the scientists on the Web and to assist them on their research. We are working on to develop a prototype web-based system that allows users to browse, search and download these data. The GOES-R datasets will be archived in NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) and CSV (Comma Separated Values) format. The NetCDF is a self-describing data format that contains both the metadata information and the data. The data is stored in an array-oriented fashion. The web-based system will offer services in two ways: via a web application (portal) and via web services. Using the web application, the users can download data in NetCDF or CSV format and can also plot a graph of the data. The web page displays the various categories of data and the time intervals for which the data is available. The web application (client) sends the user query to the server, which then connects to the data sources to retrieve the data and delivers it to the users. Data access will also be provided via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and REST (Representational State Transfer) web services. These provide functions which can be used by other applications to fetch data and use the data for further processing. To build the prototype system, we are making use of proxy data from existing GOES and POES space weather datasets. Java is the programming language used in developing tools that formats data to NetCDF and CSV. For the web technology we have chosen Grails to develop both the web application and the services. Grails is an open source web application

  12. Space Weather Impact on the European Interconnected Power Transmission System at High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Roberta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    High voltage power transmission grids can suffer outages or blackouts during geomagnetic storms (GMS). More specifically, GMS can inject geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) into the power network. Transformers were identified as the most vulnerable components of the power networks: GICs cause transformers to work in saturation regions generating voltage instabilities and eventually driving the system to collapse. Since GMS are expected to cause more pronounced disturbances at high latitudes, we addressed the effects of extreme GMS on the Scandinavian 400 kV interconnected power transmission grid, including Finland, Sweden and Norway. By applying extreme 100-year-benchmark scenarios, we analyzed potential space-weather triggered voltage instabilities in the power grid considering mono-phase transformers, which are known to be more vulnerable to GIC injection, and three-phase transformers, which are more resistant. We assumed that every node of the grid included either transformers of the mono-phase type, or three-phase transformers.Our simulations indicate that the three-phase configuration of the network is significantly more robust than the mono-phase one. Our study indicates that for a system with only three-phase transformers the likelihood of grid collapse is very low, and collapse only occurs for the worst-case scenario with extremely high geoelectric field intensities. In such a case, the increase in reactive power demand caused by transformer saturation is too high for the system to continue to provide power. Our results indicate that lines that experience higher reactive power losses during normal operation are more likely to increase losses during a GMS event. According to our study, the portion of the Scandinavian interconnected power transmission grid most vulnerable to extreme space weather is the part where the highest reactive losses in transmission lines and in voltage magnitudes are observed. This corresponds to the southern parts of Sweden and

  13. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. A Novel Concept for Observing Land-Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Based on a Synergy of Scanning Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V.; Turner, D. D.; Mauder, M.; Behrendt, A.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    Improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere interaction are fundamental for improving weather forecast and climate models. This requires observations of 2D fields of surface fluxes and the 3D structure of the atmospheric boundary layer simultaneously. A novel strategy is introduced for studying land-surface exchange and entrainment processes in the convective boundary layer (CBL) over complex terrain by means of a new generation of remote sensing systems. The sensor synergy consists of scanning Doppler lidar (DL), water-vapor differential absorption lidar (WVDIAL), and temperature rotational Raman lidar (TRRL) systems supported by surface in-situ measurements. The 2D measurements of surface fluxes are realized by the operation of a DL, a WVDIAL, and a TRRL along the same line-of-sight (LOS) in a range-height-indicator (RHI) mode whereas the other DL is performing a series of cross track RHI scans along this LOS. This new setup enables us to determine the friction velocity as well as surface sensible and latent heat fluxes by closing the complete set of Monin-Obukhov similarity relationships under a variety of surface layer stability conditions and different land cover and soil properties. As this closure is performed at all DL crossing points along the LOS, this is a strategy towards a 2D mapping of surface fluxes entirely based on remote sensing systems. Further details are presented at the conference. The second configuration is the simultaneous vertical profiling of vertical wind, humidity and temperature by DL, WVDIAL and TRRL so that latent heat and sensible heat flux profiles as well as a variety of different turbulent moments can be measured in the CBL. Consequently, by alternating of RHI scanning and vertical pointing modes, entrainment fluxes and surface fluxes can be measured almost simultaneously. This novel strategy has been realized for the first time during the Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in the Kraichgau region

  15. Performance Analysis of Hybrid WDM-FSO System under Various Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S.; Jasmine, S.

    2016-09-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is being realized as an effective solution for future accessing networks, offering light passed through air. The performance of FSO system can be primarily degraded by various atmospheric attenuations such as rain, fog, haze and snow. At present, hybridization of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) with Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) becomes necessary to scale the speed and high bandwidth of the services. In this paper, primarily the attenuation values for different weather conditions are calculated. Then the hybrid WDM-FSO system is proposed, designed and the network parameters such as Bit Error Rate (BER), Quality factor (Q factor) and receiver sensitivity are analyzed with respect to link distance for various weather conditions. For investigation, four CWDM (1,510 nm, 1,530 nm, 1,570 nm and 1,570 nm) channel and eight DWDM channels (1,537.4 nm, 1,538.2 nm, 1,539 nm, 1,539.8 nm, 1,540.6 nm, 1,541.4 nm, 1,542.2 nm and 1,543 nm) are considered whose corresponding channel spacing is 20 nm and 0.8 nm, respectively. In addition, the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is inserted at the receiver end in order to enhance the link distance. The proposed hybrid WDM-FSO system is designed to handle the quality of transmission for 12 users, each at a data rate of 2.5 Gbps along an FSO link distance of about 960 km.

  16. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  17. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  18. Relationships between Urban Heat Island Effect and Land Use and Land Cover Change around Urban Weather Stations%城市台站周边热岛效应和土地利用与覆被变化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剋; 顾行发; 余涛; 高志强; 高炜; 刘朝顺

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Landsat TM remote sensing images from 1990 to 2006, the relationship between different types of underlying surfaces and Urban Heat Island (UHI) by analyzing various underlying surfaces from different radius circular buffer zones (with Hefei Weather Station as their center) and their corresponding air temperatures (annual average temperaeure, maximum temperaeure, minimum temperaeure, and fixed time data). It is found that a very strong positive correlation between construction land and UHI and a negative correlation between woodland/ grassland and UHI. There is a relatively strong positive correlation between water body and UHI at night. The influence of different types of underlying surfaces on UHI varies with different hours everyday. As far as range of influence is concerned, construction land is within 6 km; woodland/grassland is within 4 km; farmland influence reaches its peak at 4 km; influence of water body reaches 8 km slowly. At the same time, through analyzing the relationship between yearly Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) and UHI, the authors give more evidence of the vital effect laid by city development on UHL There is a relatively strong correlation between the maximum temperature and the annual variation of heat island intensity at 1400 LST and the yearly variation of LUCC. By the way, UHI decreases dramatically after the moving out of Hefei Weather Statioa At last, the possible reasons for how the correlation between different underlying surfaces and UHI can be formed are discussed.%以合肥市气象站为中心,利用1990~2006年的Landsat TM影像,获取不同半径圆形缓冲区范围内下垫面土地分类信息以及对应年份的气温年均值、极值、日定时数据资料,分析了下垫面各土地类型及其变化和站点周边热岛效应的关系.分析得出:城市热岛与建设用地有着最强正相关,与林草地和耕地有着显著负相关,与夜晚水体有着较强正相关.下垫面类型对城

  19. Developing a decision support system to identify strategically located land for land reform in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Musakwa, W.; Makoni, E. N.; M. Kangethe; Segooa, L.

    2014-01-01

    Land reform is identified as a key tool in fostering development in South Africa. With two decades after the advent of democracy in South Africa, the land question remains a critical issue for policy makers. A number of frameworks have been put in place by the government to identify land which is strategically located for land reform. However, many of these frameworks are not well aligned and have hampered the government’s land reform initiative in promoting inclusive development. St...

  20. Zn isotopes as a traccer of bedrock weathering in hydrothermal system of la Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Gaillardet, J.; Dessert, C.; Louvat, P.; Villemant, B.; Birck, J.; Crispi, O.

    2012-12-01

    The active hydro-volcanic systems are characterized by intense hydrothermal activities associated with acidic fumaroles and hot springs and play an important role in global silicate weathering. As the ultimate weathering loads are mostly transported into ocean through water, studies of hydrothermal waters can give interesting clues about the complex interactions among magmatic fluids, bed-rock, and aquifers fed by meteoritic water or seawater. Zn is a volatile element during magma degassing. However, the behavior of Zn in hydrothermal water systems is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated the interest of Zn isotopes for investigating water-rock interactions. Speciation-related fractionation as well as source-related fractionation between its isotopes (about 3‰ in δ66Zn unit) make Zn isotopes a promising tracer for studying the mobility of metals during weathering, hydrothermalism, magma degassing and ore formation. Although previous studies have focused on the processes fractionating Zn isotopes in hydrothermal solid deposits, seafloor vents and fumarolic gas, Zn isotope composition of hydrothermal waters in continental arc setting has not been investigated so far. We developed a new one-step purification method for the separation of Zn from Fe- and SO4-enriched hydrothermal solutions using anion-exchange column. The protocol was validated by multiple tests on varying eluants and Zn concentrations, and by investigating the recovery and the reproducibility of measured isotopic ratios. Using this method, water samples from 8 hydrothermal springs and 6 gas samples from two fumaroles of la Soufrière active volcano on the Guadeloupe island (French West Indies, FWI) were analyzed for Zn isotope composition. Compared to the small δ66Zn range for the fumarolic gases (from 0.21‰ to 0.35‰) and local bedrocks (from -0.14‰ to 0.42‰), all water samples displayed a relative large δ66Zn variation of 1.44‰ (from -0.43‰ to 1.01‰). This is about 70% of

  1. Method and Early Results of Applying the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in the Third Global Reanalysis of NCEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, J.; Mitchell, K.; Wei, H.; Yang, R.; Kumar, S.; Geiger, J.; Xie, P.

    2008-05-01

    Over the past several years, the Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the U.S. National Weather Service has developed a Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). For its computational infrastructure, the GLDAS applies the NASA Land Information System (LIS), developed by the Hydrological Science Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The land model utilized in the NCEP GLDAS is the NCEP Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM). This presentation will 1) describe how the GLDAS component has been included in the development of NCEP's third global reanalysis (with special attention to the input sources of global precipitation), and 2) will present results from the GLDAS component of pilot tests of the new NCEP global reanalysis. Unlike NCEP's past two global reanalysis projects, this new NCEP global reanalysis includes both a global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) and a global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS). The new global reanalysis will span 30-years (1979-2008) and will include a companion realtime operational component. The atmospheric, ocean, and land states of this global reanalysis will provide the initial conditions for NCEP's 3rd- generation global coupled Climate Forecast System (CFS). NCEP is now preparing to launch a 28-year seasonal reforecast project with its new CFS, to provide the reforecast foundation for operational NCEP seasonal climate forecasts using the new CFS. Together, the new global reanalysis and companion CFS reforecasts constitute what NCEP calls the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) project. Compared to the previous two generations of NCEP global reanalysis, the hallmark of the GLDAS component of CFSRR is GLDAS use of global analyses of observed precipitation to drive the land surface component of the reanalysis (rather than the typical reanalysis approach of using precipitation from the assimilating background atmospheric model

  2. Using ensemble weather forecast in a risk based real time optimization of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2015-01-01

    on DORA's approach, this study investigated the implementation of long forecast horizon using an ensemble forecast from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The uncertainty of the prediction is characterized by an ensemble of 25 forecast scenarios. According to the status of the UDS......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast...... and the forecasted runoff volumes, the objectives for the control strategies might vary from optimization of water volumes to reduction of CSO risk. Thus different modes are implemented in DORA-LF (Long Forecast) in order to adjust the control strategies to the situations. In order to handle the long forecast...

  3. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  4. The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Parker, Tess; Woollings, Tim; Harvey, Benjamin; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-07-01

    Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

  5. Climate mitigation comparison of woody biomass systems with the inclusion of land-use in the reference fossil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While issues of land-use have been considered in many direct analyses of biomass systems, little attention has heretofore been paid to land-use in reference fossil systems. Here we address this limitation by comparing forest biomass systems to reference fossil systems with explicit consideration of land-use in both systems. We estimate and compare the time profiles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of woody biomass systems and reference fossil systems. A life cycle perspective is used that includes all significant elements of both systems, including GHG emissions along the full material and energy chains. We consider the growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes, as well as energy and material substitution effects of harvested biomass. We determine the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system over a 240-year period, and then calculate time profiles of CRF as a proxy measurement of climate change impact. The results show greatest potential for climate change mitigation when intensive forest management is applied in the woody biomass system. This methodological framework provides a tool to help determine optimal strategies for managing forests so as to minimize climate change impacts. The inclusion of land-use in the reference system improves the accuracy of quantitative projections of climate benefits of biomass-based systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the dynamics of GHG emissions from woody biomass and fossil systems. • With a life cycle perspective, we account for forest land-use in both systems. • Replacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels gives greater climate benefit. • Increasing the intensity of forest management gives greater climate benefit. • Methodological choices in defining temporal system boundaries are important

  6. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  7. Progress on Studies of Land Use/Land Cover Classification Systems%土地利用/土地覆被分类系统研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景华; 封志明; 姜鲁光

    2011-01-01

    classification system based on land cover rapidly developed due to the development of satellite remote sensing and computer technology. This classification system emphasized the differences between land categories and was mainly applied to land cover change studies. The review shows that almost all current land use and land cover classification systems tend to be suitable only for a specific research purpose at a certain scale. The incompatibility amongst the current classification systems has resulted in numerous inconveniences and difficulties in the courses of aggregation, analysis, and sharing of land use and land cover data due to the absence of consistent standards. Therefore, a standardized classification system is extremely warranted. However, a universal classification system suitable for all kinds of research purposes is neither possible nor necessary. The reasons lie in that on the one hand, the minimum classification unit could be dependent on the mapping scale as well as the spatial resolution of remote sensing data; on the other hand, land use and land cover types of varying detailed degrees are required for different research purposes. Furthermore, it would be probable that some special land use and land cover types existed in specific regions, for example, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. At last,this review states that a standardized classification system should be hierarchically organized and could be extended. The land use and land cover types of higher hierarchy could be directly identified from remote sensing images without auxiliary information, which would make it convenient for data comparison and sharing. The land use and land cover types of lower hierarchy could be defined in terms of a specific study purpose, which could satisfy the specific study needs.

  8. A prototype informatics system integrating weather and health data to manage meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Yoksas, T.; Hayden, M.; Hopson, T.; Laing, A.; Lazo, J.; Warner, T.; Rice, J.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Hodgson, A.; Semazzi, F.; Mera, R.; Thomson, M.; Trzaska, S.; Lamptey, B.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation will describe progress in developing the informatics system that will support a newly funded project designed to integrate health and environmental data for health-related decision-making in Africa. This infromatics system supports a project in which the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and North Carolina State University in the United States, and the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana will build and implement a prototype decision-support system that integrates two- to 14-day weather forecasts and epidemiological data to provide actionable information that can be used to contain the spread of meningitis epidemics in Ghana. By applying a preliminary economic evaluation of this decision support system, we will also assess the potential benefit of using environmental data to improve public health outcomes, help prioritize continuing investment in meningitis management in Ghana and throughout the Meningitis Belt, and determine the appropriateness of extending the prototype to other diseases, nations, and continents. This effort is a small piece of an overall Google.org effort to develop an Earth-gauging System that will integrate environmental, health and development data into products that stakeholders and researchers can use to monitor variables, analyze trends and identify relationships among different variables. The Earth-gauging System will support the prediction of emerging threats, and provide the basis for an robust early-warning system that will improve health, food security, and development and conservation outcomes. For the informatics session, our presentation will focus on the projects' leveraging of current UCAR Unidata data management software to create and populate an archive of meteorological and epidemiological data. We will also describe strategies to extend the Unidata network for data distribution - which currently provides real-time access

  9. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  10. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  11. Nonlinear Predictive Control of Semi-Active Landing Gear System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Dongsu; Gu, Hongbin; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The application of model predictive control and constructive nonlinear control methodology to semi-active landing gear system is studied in this paper. A unified shock absorber mathematical model incorporates solenoid valve’s electromechanical and magnetic dynamics is built to facilitate simulation and controller design. Then we propose a hierarchical control structure to deal with the high nonlinearity. A dual mode model predictive controller as an outer loop controller is developed to gen...

  12. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  13. Surface Hydrological Load Displacements from the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO is currently developing forward displacement models from surface water stored in soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation based on the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). UNAVCO already produces hydrological models from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), estimating the elastic loading from surface water at GPS coordinates for stations and processed by the GAGE Analysis Center. GLDAS incorporates satellite and ground observations into forcing parameters to be used for climate and weather models. The GLDAS forcing parameters include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, wind, and pressure data at global 1º grid squares, excluding the oceanic surface. NLDAS uses the same set of forcing parameters but in an area restricted to the continental United States plus parts of Canada and Mexico and with a 0.125º grid. Research groups contribute Land Surface Models (LSMs) based on NLDAS or GLDAS to produce time series of modeled environmental parameters. Individual LSMs differ based on model equations and soil and vegetation properties. In this study we extract the parameters from the NLDAS LSMs to produce hydrologic displacement models at GPS station coordinates within the conterminous US. We check whether NLDAS displacement models can resolve regional variations due to topography that are smoothed in the GLDAS models. We compare the soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation mass per area directly between the GLDAS and NLDAS LSMs, to see whether the mass variations between GLDAS and NLDAS are large enough to cause significant deformation changes. By comparing the hydrologic displacement models with GPS time series, we estimate how well the surface water loading predicts observed seasonal and secular GPS signals as opposed to tectonic signals. These comparisons will help us evaluate the NLDAS-derived displacement models as part of the process of developing a new model product for use in time series analysis, tectonic or hydrologic

  14. Reform of Rural Land System from the Perspective of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue; ZHANG; Zhongxiang; YU

    2015-01-01

    In view of artificially high urbanization rate of China and possible causes,survey and data analysis methods were used to discuss reform of household registration system,and path for promoting rural land system reform. Results show that it is required to eliminate bottlenecks of land system in the advance of new urbanization process. In line with land system bottlenecks of new urbanization,it is recommended to take following measures.( i) Promoting land right confirmation centered land system reform.( ii) Weakening rural land ownership and stressing land use right.( iii) Establishing urban and rural integrated land market and putting an end to low cost urbanization road.( iv) Realizing asset value of rural construction land and tackling the problem of insufficient construction land.( v) Reforming the land expropriation system and increasing the share of gain in land value to farmers.( vi) Implementing different land policies to promote coordinated development of regional social economy.( vii) Establishing land circulation access system to ensure unchanged land use purpose and high efficient use.

  15. A STUDY ON LAND SYSTEM INNOVATIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL TOWNS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The economic development in China and the rising of the living standard need to speed up the urbanisa-tion. The development of small towns is an important way to Chinese urbanisation. Land use plays a very important rolein the development of small towns. However there are many problems in the development of small towns, esp. in landuse. The paper first discusses the land problems in the development of small towns. Such as much cultivated land liesidle, under-utilization and waste of land, increasing illegal use of land, unstable contractual relationship for land use.The relationship between the development of small towns and land use is also studied. Then the guidelines for the landsystem innovations of small towns are put forward. Namely the sustainability of social and economic development, the bal-ance between land reservation and land utilization, the provision of service to village, agriculture and farmer, the manage-ment of land resource and land assets, the parsimonious and legal use of land. The basic framework of land system innova-tions of small towns is put forward finally. It include the land replacement policy for small towns and the permanent tenan-cy of farmland, the overall plan for land uses and other plans in harmony, the establishment of a flexible system of landsupplies, using land with payments, the transfer of agricultural land and refining the land law related to the constructionof small towns.

  16. Research Project Entitled "The Dynamics and Physical Processes in The Weather and Climate System" --Part Ⅰ: A Brief Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云峰; 郑文静; 周小刚

    2004-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the Tenth Five-Year Priority Research Projects of the Earth Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) were initiated. After nearly a two-year long process to prepare, the first version of six Priority Research Projects of Earth Sciences was published in October 2001 by NSFC, viz., Local Response to Global Changes, Life Process and Environment,Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System, Continental Dynamics, Regional Sustainable Development, Solar-Terrestrial Environment and Space Weather. The process involved more than 200 renowned Chinese scientists and many departments and agencies in China. The six Priority Research Projects guide the research effort of the earth sciences for the NSFC from year 2001 to 2005.This paper provides a brief introduction to the Third Priority Research Project of the Department of Earth Sciences of NSFC-Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System (DPWOS).

  17. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  18. Ensemble forecasting of short-term system scale irrigation demands using real-time flow data and numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Kushan C.; Western, Andrew W.; Robertson, David E.; George, Biju; Nawarathna, Bandara

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation demands fluctuate in response to weather variations and a range of irrigation management decisions, which creates challenges for water supply system operators. This paper develops a method for real-time ensemble forecasting of irrigation demand and applies it to irrigation command areas of various sizes for lead times of 1 to 5 days. The ensemble forecasts are based on a deterministic time series model coupled with ensemble representations of the various inputs to that model. Forecast inputs include past flow, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration. These inputs are variously derived from flow observations from a modernized irrigation delivery system; short-term weather forecasts derived from numerical weather prediction models and observed weather data available from automatic weather stations. The predictive performance for the ensemble spread of irrigation demand was quantified using rank histograms, the mean continuous rank probability score (CRPS), the mean CRPS reliability and the temporal mean of the ensemble root mean squared error (MRMSE). The mean forecast was evaluated using root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) and bias. The NSE values for evaluation periods ranged between 0.96 (1 day lead time, whole study area) and 0.42 (5 days lead time, smallest command area). Rank histograms and comparison of MRMSE, mean CRPS, mean CRPS reliability and RMSE indicated that the ensemble spread is generally a reliable representation of the forecast uncertainty for short lead times but underestimates the uncertainty for long lead times.

  19. Integration of Multiple Data Sources to Simulate the Dynamics of Land Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyan Zhan; Hongbo Su; Xiangzheng Deng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present and develop a new model, which we have called Dynamics of Land Systems (DLS). The DLS model is capable of integrating multiple data sources to simulate the dynamics of a land system. Three main modules are incorporated in DLS: a spatial regression module, to explore the relationship between land uses and influencing factors, a scenario analysis module of the land uses of a region during the simulation period and a spatial disaggregation module, to allocate land use ch...

  20. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  1. If ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances observed before strong earthquakes may result from simultaneous impact of space weather on all geospheres including solid earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina

    2016-07-01

    It is revealed in previous decades that ionospheric disturbances precede strong earthquakes, thus, the ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes are now under developing [Pulinets and Boyarchuk, 2004]. Simultaneously, it is revealed that strong earthquakes may be preceded by geomagnetic disturbances as well, as a result, the geomagnetic variations, for example, in the ULF band, are considered now as precursory signals [Fraser-Smith, 1990, doi/10.1029/GL017i009p01465]. At the same time, there is currently no reliable theory nor for ionospheric or to magnetic precursors of earthquakes. Moreover, several researches have reexamined some of above results and concluded that observed magnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes could be generated by other sources, such as global magnetic activity [e.g. Campbell, 2009, doi/10.1029/2008JA013932], and that ionospheric anomalies can also be an effect of the increase of the global magnetic activity [e. g. Masci and Thomas, 2015, doi:10.1002/2015RS005734]. Taking into account such conclusions, one may suggest that the observed ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes might be due to simultaneous influence of a space weather on the complicated surrounding system including the solid earth. This report presents some statistical results to prove such suggestion. In particular, it is shown [Khachikyan et al., 2012, doi:10.4236/ijg.2012.35109] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude (seismic potential) can be determined, in first approximation, on the base of geomagnetic Z-component measured in the Geocentric Solar Magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system, in which the space weather impact on the earth's environment, due to reconnection of the solar wind magnetic field with the earth's magnetic field, is more ordered.

  2. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  3. Does Land Use Patterns Matter for Bt-Maize: The Case of Maize Farming System in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Lutta; Owuor, George; De Groote , Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2006-01-01

    Population pressures and the need to optimize the use of limited available land has led to increasing cropping affluence levels within the maize agro-ecologies in Kenya, and a shift from large to smallholder intensification and multiple cropping patterns. Using a geographic information system, this study relates cropping patterns, by area share, maize productivity and household incomes across maize agro-ecologies, with the purpose to establish a decision support system for optimizing land all...

  4. A systemic analysis of land markets and land institutions in West African cities : rules and practices - the case of Bamako, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maylis; Selod, Harris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is appli...

  5. Evolution of INMARSAT systems and applications: The land mobile experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.

  6. Land-surface parameter optimisation using data assimilation techniques: the adJULES system V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Nina M.; Jupp, Tim E.; Cox, Peter M.; Luke, Catherine M.

    2016-08-01

    Land-surface models (LSMs) are crucial components of the Earth system models (ESMs) that are used to make coupled climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is the land-surface model used in the climate and weather forecast models of the UK Met Office. JULES is also extensively used offline as a land-surface impacts tool, forced with climatologies into the future. In this study, JULES is automatically differentiated with respect to JULES parameters using commercial software from FastOpt, resulting in an analytical gradient, or adjoint, of the model. Using this adjoint, the adJULES parameter estimation system has been developed to search for locally optimum parameters by calibrating against observations. This paper describes adJULES in a data assimilation framework and demonstrates its ability to improve the model-data fit using eddy-covariance measurements of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat (LE) fluxes. adJULES also has the ability to calibrate over multiple sites simultaneously. This feature is used to define new optimised parameter values for the five plant functional types (PFTs) in JULES. The optimised PFT-specific parameters improve the performance of JULES at over 85 % of the sites used in the study, at both the calibration and evaluation stages. The new improved parameters for JULES are presented along with the associated uncertainties for each parameter.

  7. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  8. Land Management System among the Scheduled Caste Lois Villages in Manipur: A study of Kwatha Village, Chandel District.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh S. Khwairakpam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Land is one of the most important natural resources for living beings. It has been providing tangible and intangible benefits for human beings since time immemorial. Land management is the process of managing land for a variety of purposes such as organic, agriculture, reforestation, eco forest projects, development, etc. It is controlled either by the State or non-state institutions. In Manipur, the larger areas of land, particularly forests, are controlled by the traditional institutions. The areas where this system is in vogue are all the hills districts of Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, Tamenglong and Ukhrul. Land management is also practised among all the foothills people of the eight Scheduled Caste (SC Lois villages. The seven SC Lois villages are located in the foothills of Manipur excluding Kwatha hills villages. The paper studies the functioning of Phamdou with special reference to community forest management.

  9. Exercising in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  10. Application of Refactoring and Design Pattern in Land Information System Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Luyao; YUE Jianwei; JIANG Weiguo; LI Jing; CHEN Yunhao

    2007-01-01

    The unceasing change problem of land information systems can be resolved through the refactoring and design pattern. To promote the implementation of design pattern and refactoring methods in developing land information systems reusing software design, applying refactoring methods to the abstract factory and decorator design patterns in land information system development is discussed.

  11. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  12. Alternating Current All-electrical Gun Control System in Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Zang Kemao; Ma Xiaojun; Li Changbing

    2004-01-01

    The ac all-electrical gun control system is composed of permanent magnetic synchronous machine-drive control systems and the ball-screw by replacing the complicated electrohydraulic systems. At the same time, the variable-structure system with sliding modes makes the gun control systems to have higher performances using the only rate flexure gyroscope. Thereby, vehicle hull gyroscope and angular gyroscope are left out.The new ac all-electrical gun control systems developed are reduced by 40 p...

  13. A STUDY ON LAND SYSTEM INNOVATIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL TOWNS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGLin-ke; CHANGJiang; 等

    2002-01-01

    The economic development in China and the rising of the living standard need to speed up the urbanisa-tion.The development of small towns is an important way to Chinese urbanization.Land use plays a very important role in the development of small towns.However there are many problems in the development of small towns,esp.in land use.The paper first discusses the land problems in the development of small towns.Such as much cultivated land lies idle,under-utilization and waste of land,increasing illegal use of land,unstable contractural relationship for land use.The relationship between the development of small towns and land use is also studied.Then the guidelines for the land system innovations of small towns are put forward.Namely the sustainability of social and economic development,the bal-ance between land reservation and land utilization,the provision of service to village ,agriculture and farmer,the manage-ment of land resource and land assets,the parsimonious andlegal use of land.The basic framework of land system innova-tions of small towns is put forward finally.It include the land replacement policy for small towns and the permanent tenan-cy of farmland,the overall plan for land uses and other plans in harmony,the establishment of a flexible system of land supplies,using land with payments ,the transfer of agricultural land and refining the land law related to the construction of small towns.

  14. Determination the Appropriateness of Tokat Kazova Lands to Peach Cultivation Using Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    R. Gercekcioglu; T. Susam; T. Oztekin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the appropriate peach orchard locations among Tokat Kazova lands and to classify the lands according to the suitability for peach cultivation by means of Geographic Information System (GIS). The distances and elevation differences of possible orchard locations to/from the available water resources, soil profile depth, soil profile texture, frost risk, land aspect, and land slope were considered as criterions to classify the lands of Tokat Kazova to dete...

  15. Predictability of heavy sub-hourly precipitation amounts for a weather radar based nowcasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Berenguer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation events and subsequent flash floods are one of the most dramatic hazards in many regions such as the Mediterranean basin as recently stressed in the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) international programme. The focus of this study is to assess the quality of very short range (below 3 hour lead times) precipitation forecasts based on weather radar nowcasting system. Specific nowcasting amounts of 10 and 30 minutes generated with a nowcasting technique (Berenguer et al 2005, 2011) are compared against raingauge observations and also weather radar precipitation estimates observed over Catalonia (NE Spain) using data from the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and the Water Catalan Agency. Results allow to discuss the feasibility of issuing warnings for different precipitation amounts and lead times for a number of case studies, including very intense convective events with 30minute precipitation amounts exceeding 40 mm (Bech et al 2005, 2011). As indicated by a number of verification scores single based radar precipitation nowcasts decrease their skill quickly with increasing lead times and rainfall thresholds. This work has been done in the framework of the Hymex research programme and has been partly funded by the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892). References Bech J, N Pineda, T Rigo, M Aran, J Amaro, M Gayà, J Arús, J Montanyà, O van der Velde, 2011: A Mediterranean nocturnal heavy rainfall and tornadic event. Part I: Overview, damage survey and radar analysis. Atmospheric Research 100:621-637 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.12.024 Bech J, R Pascual, T Rigo, N Pineda, JM López, J Arús, and M Gayà, 2007: An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 7:129-139 http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/nhess-7-129-2007 Berenguer M, C Corral, R Sa0nchez-Diezma, D Sempere-Torres, 2005: Hydrological validation of a radar based nowcasting technique. Journal of

  16. The Role Played by Blocking Systems over Europe in Abnormal Weather over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the role played by blocking high systems over Europe in abnormal weather over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in summer 2010. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data of several meteorological elements such as surface air temperature, wind, sea level pressure, relative humidity, outgoing long wave radiation, precipitation rate, and geopotential height at level 500 hpa for summer seasons for the period 1948–2012 and in particular of summer 2010 have been used and analyzed through the present work. Furthermore, the corresponding daily and monthly mean values of climatic indices NAO index, SOI, and El-Nino3.4 have been analyzed. The results uncovered that air current in the upper atmosphere over Europe and NAO, SOI and El-Nino3.4 have impacts on the weather conditions over KSA through the study period 1948–2012. During the period of persistence of blocking system over Europe in summer 2010, results revealed that; weather in KSA was fully controlled by two abnormal weather regimes. The first one is the European blocking system and negative anomaly of NAO from the north. The second one is the positive anomaly of SOI and negative anomaly of El-Nino3.4.

  17. Development of an integrated chemical weather prediction system for environmental applications at meso to global scales: NMMB/BSC-CHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, O.; Pérez, C.; Karsten, K.; Janjic, Z.; Dabdub, D.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    This contribution presents the ongoing developments of a new fully on-line chemical weather prediction system for meso to global scale applications. The modeling system consists of a mineral dust module and a gas-phase chemistry module coupled on-line to a unified global-regional atmospheric driver. This approach allows solving small scale processes and their interactions at local to global scales. Its unified environment maintains the consistency of all the physico-chemical processes involved. The atmospheric driver is the NCEP/NMMB numerical weather prediction model (Janjic and Black, 2007) developed at National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). It represents an evolution of the operational WRF-NMME model extending from meso to global scales. Its unified non-hydrostatic dynamical core supports regional and global simulations. The Barcelona Supercomputing Center is currently designing and implementing a chemistry transport model coupled online with the new global/regional NMMB. The new modeling system is intended to be a powerful tool for research and to provide efficient global and regional chemical weather forecasts at sub-synoptic and mesoscale resolutions. The online coupling of the chemistry follows the approach similar to that of the mineral dust module already coupled to the atmospheric driver, NMMB/BSC-DUST (Pérez et al., 2008). Chemical species are advected and mixed at the corresponding time steps of the meteorological tracers using the same numerical scheme. Advection is eulerian, positive definite and monotone. The chemical mechanism and chemistry solver is based on the Kinetic PreProcessor KPP (Damian et al., 2002) package with the main purpose of maintaining a wide flexibility when configuring the model. Such approach will allow using a simplified chemical mechanism for global applications or a more complete mechanism for high-resolution local or regional studies. Moreover, it will permit the implementation of a specific configuration for

  18. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  19. Integrating land management into Earth system models: the importance of land use transitions at sub-grid-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions

  20. Performances of ionizing radiation detectors required as part of a space weather service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyamukungu, Mathias; Benck, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    The selection of space radiation monitoring instruments is an essential phase in the planning of a space science mission, specifically when the data are acquired for use in the frame of a space weather service. Customer requirements for space weather services have been expressed by users and collected in reference documents like the ESA's "SSA Space Weather Segment Customer Requirement Document", among others. A review of these requirements and their implications for measurements at LEO, HEO, GTO, MEO and GEO will be presented enriched with thoroughly derived priority ranks associated with each measurable parameter. Then, the authors will describe a Global Performance Index (GPI) on various orbits for more than a dozen of currently developed or existing instruments, to conclude on an optimal selection of instruments that would be suitable to acquire the highest quality data usable for space weather applications.

  1. Cantronic Systems Takes Active Night Vision to the Next Level By Breaking 800m (2600 ft) Mark in Total Darkness and Demanding Weather Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Capturing clear images in total darkness from up to 800m (2600 ft) away in demanding weather conditions and total darkness isnow possible with Cantronic Systems' CIRPS00m Active Infrared Night Vision System. Cantronic Systems, Inc.

  2. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiefang; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  3. Fast Calibration of Weather Radar Systems for Multi Polarization Radar Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Jens; Van Hagen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Polarimetric weather radars, which are now becoming operational, are using a very limited method to retrieve the polarimetric products, called the STAR mode. It uses robust and low cost hardware but cannot measure the full scattering matrix. The Germany Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany operates a research weather radar for 25 years now with can receive and transmit arbitrary polarizations for each radar pulse to gather the full scattering matrix. The latest development on t...

  4. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  5. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  6. Accurately Estimating the State of a Geophysical System with Sparse Observations: Predicting the Weather

    CERN Document Server

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the a...

  7. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  8. Assimilation of Satellite Based Soil Moisture Data in the National Weather Service's Flash Flood Guidance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D.; Lakhankar, T.; Cosgrove, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability increases the probability of frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of flood events. After rainfall, soil moisture is the most important factor dictating flash flooding, since rainfall infiltration and runoff are based on the saturation of the soil. It is difficult to conduct ground-based measurements of soil moisture consistently and regionally. As such, soil moisture is often derived from models and agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) use proxy estimates of soil moisture at the surface in order support operational flood forecasting. In particular, a daily national map of Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is produced that is based on surface soil moisture deficit and threshold runoff estimates. Flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study analyzes the accuracy and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas-Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) System using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparison of the GFFG and real-time Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Improved flash flood forecasting requires accurate and high resolution soil surface information. The remote sensing observations of soil moisture can improve the flood forecasting accuracy. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are two

  9. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  10. Geodemography: Land cover, geographical information systems and population distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Goerlich Gisbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the recent application of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to the analysis of population distribution. We mention the efforts of the National Statistical Institutes in this direction boosted by the last census 2011.The stating point is a growing need to have available population figures for areas not related to administrative boundaries, either user defined zones or in grid format.This allows a convenient zonal system to combine demographic characteristics with environmental and pure geographic data, so the relation between the man and the environment can be analyzed in a unified way.Eventually, we offer a practical illustration of the interactions between GIS techniques and administrative population data in the study of spatial population distribution: We build a density grid for Spain by dasymetric methods from census tracts population data and Land Cover and Use Information System of Spain (SIOSE.The analysis is done within the spatial reference framework of the European Union.

  11. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  12. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  13. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko OKA; Junji KOIDE; Mostafa, Harby; Satoshi SAKATA; Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Naoya FUJIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems an...

  16. Model-Checking Real-Time Properties of an Aircraft Landing Gear System Using Fiacre

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomieu, Bernard; Dal Zilio, Silvano; Fronc, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    International audience We describe our experience with modeling the landing gear system of an aircraft using the formal specification language Fiacre. Our model takes into account the behavior and timing properties of both the physical parts and the control software of this system. We use this formal model to check safety and real-time properties on the system but also to find a safe bound on the maximal time needed for all gears to be down and locked (assuming the absence of failures). Ou...

  17. Space Weather Influence on Power Systems: Prediction, Risk Analysis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy

    2016-04-01

    This report concentrates on dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of optical elements for complex characterization of damages using physical model of solid state lasers and predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. The following main subjects will be covered by our report: (a) solid-state laser model; (b) mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment; and (c) software for modeling and prediction of ionizing radiation. A probabilistic risk assessment method for solid-state lasers is presented with consideration of some deterministic and stochastic factors. Probabilistic risk assessment is a comprehensive, structured, and logical analysis method aimed at identifying and assessing risks in solid-state lasers for the purpose of cost-e®ectively improving their safety and performance. This method based on the Conditional Value-at-Risk measure (CVaR) and the expected loss exceeding Value-at-Risk (VaR). We propose to use a new dynamical-information approach for radiation damage risk assessment of laser elements by cosmic radiation. Our approach includes the following steps: laser modeling, modeling of ionizing radiation in°uences on laser elements, probabilistic risk assessment methods, and risk minimization. For computer simulation of damage processes at microscopic and macroscopic levels the following methods are used: () statistical; (b) dynamical; (c) optimization; (d) acceleration modeling, and (e) mathematical modeling of laser functioning. Mathematical models of space ionizing radiation in°uence on laser elements were developed for risk assessment in laser safety analysis. This is a so-called `black box' or `input-output' models, which seeks only to reproduce the behaviour of the system's output in response to changes in its inputs. The model inputs are radiation in°uences on laser systems and output parameters are dynamical characteristics of the solid laser. Algorithms and software for optimal structure and parameters of

  18. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  19. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  20. National Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Program Center conducted a land cover analysis to determine land cover types, acres and their subsequent percentages for the National Wildlife...

  1. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  2. All-ceramic systems: laboratory and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra C; Schultheis, Stefan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A

    2011-04-01

    Several all-ceramic systems have been developed in dentistry to meet the increased expectations of patients and dentists for highly aesthetic, biocompatible, and long-lasting restorations. However, early bulk fractures or chippings have led the research community to investigate the mechanical performance of the all-ceramic systems. This overview explores the current knowledge of monolithic and bilayer dental all-ceramic systems, addressing composition and processing mechanisms, laboratory and clinical performance, and possible future trends for all-ceramic materials. PMID:21473997

  3. An Efficient Weather Forecasting System using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruvenkadam Santhanam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Accurate weather forecasting plays a vital role for planning day to day activities. Neural network has been use in numerous meteorological applications including weather forecasting. Approach: A neural network model has been developed for weather forecasting, based on various factors obtained from meteorological experts. This study evaluates the performance of Radial Basis Function (RBF with Back Propagation (BPN neural network. The back propagation neural network and radial basis function neural network were used to test the performance in order to investigate effective forecasting technique. Results: The prediction accuracy of RBF was 88.49%. Conclusion: The results indicate that proposed radial basis function neural network is better than back propagation neural network.

  4. Reliability of clinician scoring of the landing error scoring system to assess jump-landing movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markbreiter, Jessica G; Sagon, Bronson K; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Welch, Cailee E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical Scenario: An individual's movement patterns while landing from a jump can predispose him or her to lower-extremity injury, if performed improperly. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a clinical tool to assess jump-landing biomechanics as an individual jumps forward from a box. Improper movement patterns, which could predispose an individual to lower-extremity injuries, are scored as errors. However, because of the subjective nature of scoring errors during the task, the consistency and reliability of scoring the task are important. Since the LESS is a newer assessment tool, it is important to understand its reliability. Focused Clinical Question: Are clinicians reliable at scoring the LESS to assess jump-landing biomechanics of physically active individuals? PMID:25203628

  5. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land

  6. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  7. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques for identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Buma, J. T.; Klawer, C. J. M.

    2004-03-01

    This paper's objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey material. Two cores from the Boulc-Mondorès landslide (France) and one core from the Alvera landslide (Italy) were analysed. The NH 4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. The NaCl method is preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem, it is recommended to try other displacement fluids. In the Boulc-Mondorès example, the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as weathered layers (and preferential flow paths) that may develop or have already developed into slip surfaces. The major problem of the CEC analyses was to explain the origin of the differences found in the core samples. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable caution fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain-fed hydrological system and the lower, regional groundwater system. This information may be important for landslide

  8. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  9. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, climate considerations have received increasing attention from urban designers and land-use planners. Because of legal binding requirements and/or a growing awareness regarding climate change, scholars and practitioners have already started to think about urban designs and land-use patterns that may contribute to face the climate change challenge. (e.g. Bulkeley, 2006; Shaw et al., 2007; Davoudi et al., 2009) The thorough analysis of spatial planning documents - e.g. SCoT (Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale) adopted in the Île-de-France Region (i.e. Paris region) - we have made and will report on has revealed the two main ways through which climate change action is thought about and for which measures are encouraged at the territorial level: 1. via mitigation strategy, i.e. solutions to either limit atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions or to capture them (e.g. urban structures that aim at limiting transportation-related emissions by promoting compact settlements, bioclimatic principles in urban and architectural designs that aim at reducing energetic consumption). Such solutions will in fine affect the global level of CO2 in the atmosphere, and thereby contribute to limit global warming. Local/regional effects may however not be felt by citizens and decision makers as they depend on the magnitude of the changes at the global scale; 2. via adaptation strategy, i.e. solutions to cope with adverse local/regional consequences of climate change. The global climate in this case is seen as a driver of local changes. Actions will be undertaken to moderate negative impacts of global climate change, potentially at costs, by reducing the vulnerability of local human communities and biological ecosystems on the concerned area (e.g. flood prevention systems, countermeasures to urban heat islands). We can wonder whether this traditional way of approaching the climate change action, based on a double mitigation-adaptation strategy, does not restrain the

  10. Top tax system: a common taxation system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    I am suggesting new methods, and innovative and alternative policies in the areas of optimal taxation, tax collection, money supply and banking financial system to help remove corruption, tax evasion, economic recession, black money, fake currency and societal inequalities. In my opinion, the proposed TOP Tax system may usher in good governance, 100% tax compliance and corruption free environment. It suggests a single tax called “TOP Tax” (Transfer Or Purchase Tax) for both Centre and States ...

  11. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  12. Use of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances in the Weather Research and Forecasting 3DVAR assimilation system for mesoscale weather predictions over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    A set of assimilation experiments is conducted with the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system associated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The purpose of the investigation is to assess the impact on forecast skill in response to assimilation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances over the Indian region. This is the first study that makes use of cloud-cleared radiances in the WRF system. Two sets of thirty-one 72 h forecasts are performed, all initialized at 00:00 UTC each day throughout the month of July 2010, to compare the model performance consequent to assimilation of clear-sky versus cloud-cleared radiances. A rigorous validation is produced against National Centers for Environmental Prediction analyzed wind, temperature, and moisture. In addition, the precipitation forecast skill is assessed against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observations. The results show improvement in forecast skill consequent to the assimilation of cloud-cleared radiances (CCR). The implications of using CCR for operational weather forecasting appear to be significant. Since only a small fraction of AIRS channels are cloud-free, information obtained in cloudy regions, which is meteorologically very significant, is lost when assimilating only clear-sky radiances (CSR). On the contrary, assimilation of CCR allows a larger yield, which leads to improved model performance. The assimilation of CCR resulted in significantly improved rainfall prediction compared to that obtained from the use of CSR. The finding of this study clearly shows the advantage of CCR available from clear-sky as well as from partly cloudy regions as compared to CSR, which are available only in clear-sky regions.

  13. Offshore Variability in Critical Weather Conditions in Large-Scale Wind Based Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2013-01-01

    , the chances of losing several GW of wind power due to critical weather conditions in a very short time period could potentially jeopardize the whole system’s reliability and stability. Forecasting such events is not trivial and the results so far are not encouraging. When assessing the impact......Offshore wind power has a significant development potential, especially in North Europe. The geographical concentration of offshore wind power leads to increased variability and in the case of critical weather conditions it may lead to sudden and considerable loss of production. In this context...

  14. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  15. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  16. Land Use Information System for Local Government: The Case of Naga City, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Rizalino Cruz

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the context of land use planning and monitoring in local government. It reviews emerging trends in land use management and information system, and identifies issues and challenges facing Naga City local government in the Philippines. The paper then proposes a design solution for an information system to support and manage land use processes. It defines the user requirements for the information system, and formulates the System Architecture, which identifies the essential c...

  17. Optical Obstacle Avoidance System for Lunar and Mars Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The systems developed at fibertek for Obstacle-Avoidance has so far all been operated at 1560nm. Such an operation is required due to the required eye-safety...

  18. Assimilation of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrievals in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Cae, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable for weather prediction because of its influence on evaporation. It is of critical importance for drought and flood monitoring and prediction and for public health applications. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has implemented a new module in the NASA Land Information System (LIS) to assimilate observations from the ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. SMOS Level 2 retrievals from the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah LSM within LIS via an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The retrievals have a target volumetric accuracy of 4% at a resolution of 35-50 km. Parallel runs with and without SMOS assimilation are performed with precipitation forcing from intentionally degraded observations, and then validated against a model run using the best available precipitation data, as well as against selected station observations. The goal is to demonstrate how SMOS data assimilation can improve modeled soil states in the absence of dense rain gauge and radar networks.

  19. Land Management for Climate Change Mitigation and Geoengineering - Are Earth System Models up to the Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the terrestrial models included in Earth system models simulate changes to the land surface from human activities. In the Community Land Model (CLM), for example, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, soil tillage, wood harvesting, and numerous crop types are represented in addition to anthropogenic land-cover change (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, and afforestation). These land uses are included in the models because they have a strong influence on the hydrological cycle (irrigation), crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions (nitrogen fertilization, crop type), and carbon storage (wood harvesting, tillage). However, the representation of these processes in Earth system models is uncertain, as is the specification of transient changes from 1850 through the historical era and into the future. A more fundamental aspect of land surface models is the coupling of land and atmosphere through exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum. Here, too, anthropogenic activities can affect climate through land-cover change and land management. Eddy covariance flux tower analyses suggest that the land management effects are as significant as the land-cover change effects. These analyses pose a challenge to land surface models - How well do the models simulate the effects of land management (e.g., changes in leaf area index or community composition) on surface flux exchange with the atmosphere? Here I use the CLM and a new, advanced multilayer canopy flux model to illustrate challenges in model surface fluxes and the influence of land management on surface fluxes.

  20. Land use planning of paddy field using geographic information system and land evaluation in West Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning analysis to increase rice production either through intensiḀcation of existing paddy Ḁeld area or ex-tensiḀcation in potential land area was conducted in West Lombok Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Existing paddy Ḁeld was delineated using high-resolution data from IKONOS imagery of 2012. Land use and land cover outside existing paddy Ḁeld were interpreted using SPOT-5 imagery of 2012. ἀe Automated Land Evaluation System (ALES was used for land suitability analysis for paddy. ἀe results are interpreted in terms of the potential of paddy Ḁeld intensiḀcation in existing paddy Ḁeld area and the potential of extensiḀcation in land potentially used for paddy Ḁeld. ἀe result of analysis showed that in West Lombok Regency, there are still possible to do intensiḀcation and extensiḀca-tion of paddy Ḁeld to increase rice production in order to improve regional food security.

  1. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  2. Public Lands, Other, This would include all counties owned by Chippewa County that are not Forest or Park. Most lands obtained through tax deed., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Lands, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2013. It is described as...

  3. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  4. Development of a Chinese land data assimilation system: its progress and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of land data assimilation is to merge multi-source observations into the dynamics of land surface model for improving the estimation of land surface states. We have developed a land data assimilation system for China's land territory. In this system, the Common Land Model and Simple Biosphere Model 2 are used to simulate land surface processes. The radiative transfer models of thawed and frozen soil, snow, lake, and vegetation are used as observation operators to transfer model predictions into estimated brightness temperatures. A Monte-Carlo based sequential filter, the ensemble Kalman filter, is implemented as data assimilation method to integrate modeling and observation. The system is capable of assimilating passive microwave remotely sensed data such as special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I), TRMM microwave imager (TMI), and advanced microwave scanning radiometer enhanced for EOS (AMSRE) and the conventional in situ measurements of soil and snow. A spatiotemporally consistent assimilated dataset for soil moisture, soil temperature, snow and frozen soil, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree and temporal resolution of one hour, has been produced. This paper introduces the development of Chinese land data assimilation system and the progress made on data assimilation algorithms, land surface modeling, microwave remote sensing of land surface hydrological variables, and the preparation of atmospheric forcing data. The distinct characteristics and challenges of developing land data assimilation system and the perspectives for future development are also discussed .

  5. Jupiter's Spot Seen Glowing - Scientists Get First Look at Weather Inside the Solar System's Biggest Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    New ground-breaking thermal images obtained with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other powerful ground-based telescopes show swirls of warmer air and cooler regions never seen before within Jupiter's Great Red Spot, enabling scientists to make the first detailed interior weather map of the giant storm system linking its temperature, winds, pressure and composition with its colour. "This is our first detailed look inside the biggest storm of the Solar System," says Glenn Orton, who led the team of astronomers that made the study. "We once thought the Great Red Spot was a plain old oval without much structure, but these new results show that it is, in fact, extremely complicated." The observations reveal that the reddest colour of the Great Red Spot corresponds to a warm core within the otherwise cold storm system, and images show dark lanes at the edge of the storm where gases are descending into the deeper regions of the planet. The observations, detailed in a paper appearing in the journal Icarus, give scientists a sense of the circulation patterns within the solar system's best-known storm system. Sky gazers have been observing the Great Red Spot in one form or another for hundreds of years, with continuous observations of its current shape dating back to the 19th century. The spot, which is a cold region averaging about -160 degrees Celsius, is so wide that about three Earths could fit inside its boundaries. The thermal images were mostly obtained with the VISIR [1] instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, with additional data coming from the Gemini South telescope in Chile and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan's Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. The images have provided an unprecedented level of resolution and extended the coverage provided by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. Together with observations of the deep cloud structure by the 3-metre NASA Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, the level of thermal detail observed

  6. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  7. ALL INCLUSIVE SYSTEM ADOPTION WITHIN ROMANIAN TOURIST SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The all-inclusive system has greatly developed in countries with a traditional tourism branch. Regarding the degree of implementation of this system in the tourist unities from Romania, we can say that it is a very low one, found generally, exclusively in the resorts from the Black Sea coast. Throughout this paper we present a series of general aspects which characterize the all-inclusive system, both positive and negative aspects concerning its implementation, but also a series of aspects which characterize the present situation of the use of this system in Romania, respectively its perspectives, starting with the statements of the representants from the Romanian tourism domain.

  8. Distinguishing high and low flow domains in urban drainage systems 2 days ahead using numerical weather prediction ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-01-01

    prediction (NWP) model subject to three different ensemble post-processing approaches can be used to forecast flow exceedance in a combined sewer for a wide range of ratios between the probability of detection (POD) and the probability of false detection (POFD). We use a hydrological rainfall-runoff model......Precipitation constitutes a major contribution to the flow in urban storm- and wastewater systems. Forecasts of the anticipated runoff flows, created from radar extrapolation and/or numerical weather predictions, can potentially be used to optimize operation in both wet and dry weather periods...... to transform the forecasted rainfall into forecasted flow series and evaluate three different approaches to establishing the relative operating characteristics (ROC) diagram of the forecast, which is a plot of POD against POFD for each fraction of concordant ensemble members and can be used to select...

  9. Low-Order GAM Admire System in Landing Preparation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel IORGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the symbolic and numeric computations for the simplified GAM (Generic Aerodynamic Model Admire system are presented . The numeric computations were performed into the MatLab environment with the aim of presenting to the reader the details of the preparation for landing of the airplane generic model. Regarding the symbolic computations that have been made it's worth to mention here the fact that they concerned the issues of stability in the manner that the trim point for the low order non-linear system was computed and an analysis of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix associated to the system, which has been evaluated in the trim point, was performed. The case of the stable longitudinal level descending flight and the case of transition to a state appropriate for the touch-down are presented. It is shown the fact that the plane can regain stability if the real moment for touch-down is missed by reentering into the stable longitudinal level descending flight (by usage of the control e.

  10. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels for all of Walworth County, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2000. It...

  12. Alternating Current All-electrical Gun Control System in Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The ac all-electrical gun control system is composed of permanent magnetic synchronous machine-drive control systems and the ball-screw by replacing the complicated electrohydraulic systems. At the same time, the variable-structure system with sliding modes makes the gun control systems to have higher performances using the only rate flexure gyroscope. Thereby, vehicle hull gyroscope and angular gyroscope are left out.The new ac all-electrical gun control systems developed are reduced by 40 per cent in weight, decreased by 30 per cent in volume, increased by 35 per cent in efficiency, and enhanced by three times in service life as compared to the current gun control systems.

  13. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. The resulting system, the NCA - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS), is a NASA contribution to the NCA. The outputs of the NCA-LDAS contribute to the development and evaluation of a suite of water indicators. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and validation data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. Currently released data include NCA-LDAS outputs from the Noah Land Surface Model version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and Catchment Land Surface Model version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5) and the post- processed data sets for the routing variables. The NCA-LDAS data have temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively, of daily and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N ~ 53N; 125W ~ 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2012. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent netCDF-4 format. The data contain a set of water- and energy-related Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The NCA-LDAS data are archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/NCA_LDAS), THREDDS (http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/thredds/catalog.html), and Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation describes the main characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and data services (access, subsetting, visualization, and analysis). The major differences between the NCA-LDAS data and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data are discussed

  14. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Thomas S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking

  15. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  16. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (d) The BIA and ITGs shall utilize the SMSs to ensure... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...

  17. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is no longer acceptable due to traffic...

  18. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  19. Application and reliability analysis of DPM system in site investigation of HK weathered granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai; Zhongqi Yue; L.G.Tham; C.F.Lee

    2005-01-01

    A drilling process monitor (DPM) for ground characterization of weathered granite is presented. The monitor is portable and can be mounted on a hydraulic rotary drilling rig to record various drilling parameters in real time during normal subsurface investigation. The identification method for dominative and subsidiary interfaces has been established. The study reveals that the monitored drilling parameters are dependent on geotechnical materials and can be further applied to characterize ground interfaces.The t-test between manual logging and DPM logging has been carried out. The results show that the DPM has high accuracy in interfaces detection and well agreement with the manual logging. The findings show that the device and data analysis method are of potential application in subsurface drilling exploration in weathered granites. It also seems to have prospective uses in the determination of orebody boundary as well as in the detection of geohazards.

  20. Cockpit weather radar display demonstrator and ground-to-air sferics telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of two methods of obtaining timely and accurate severe weather presentations in the cockpit are detailed. The first method described is a course up display of uplinked weather radar data. This involves the construction of a demonstrator that will show the feasibility of producing a course up display in the cockpit of the NASA simulator at Langley. A set of software algorithms was designed that could easily be implemented, along with data tapes generated to provide the cockpit simulation. The second method described involves the uplinking of sferic data from a ground based 3M-Ryan Stormscope. The technique involves transfer of the data on the CRT of the Stormscope to a remote CRT. This sferic uplink and display could also be included in an implementation on the NASA cockpit simulator, allowing evaluation of pilot responses based on real Stormscope data.

  1. Solving All-SAT Problems by P Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; JI Jinfang; CHEN Haizhu; LIU Ran

    2015-01-01

    — The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a well known NP-complete problem. Obtaining All of the truth assignments of SAT is called All-SAT and it has numerous applications in artificial intelligence and computer theo-ries. Many algorithms about SAT have been built, but how to solve All-SAT is still diffi cult. P system is a new distributed and parallel computation model. We use mem-brane division, which is frequently investigated to obtain an exponential working space in a linear time, to design a family of P systems to solve All-SAT in polynomial time. Our work provides a new and eff ective solution to All-SAT in a distributed and parallel manner.

  2. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops, to enable the trustworthy prognostic modelling that is essential to ensure justification and optimisation of countermeasure strategies. New modelling approaches are outlined, since it was found that current ECOSYS approaches for deposition and natural weathering could lead to large prognostic errors. - Highlights: → We examined concepts and parameters in the ECOSYS ingestion dose model. → Natural weathering and deposition processes were studied. → A series of revisions were recommended to users. → Order-of-magnitude errors can be avoided by using the new values.

  3. Land Information System (LIS) as a tool for the regional sustainable development in the southern part of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Shpetim Tafaj; Ylli Piro; Fatbardh Sallaku

    2013-01-01

    Creation of the Land Information System integrated in the Geographical Information System (GIS) is the main objective of this article in assisting local Government for the sustainable management of land resources. Through this study it was made possible to provide a spatial database at communal level, was also carried out the study of soil and land suitability, data on land use, analysis on land use changes and agricultural land urbanization. The geographical space, in which LIS is set, which...

  4. Discussion on the Index System of Intensive Land Use Evaluation in Development Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of evaluation index system is the key to the evaluation of intensive land use.On the basis of expounding connotation,characteristics and the principle of establishing evaluation index system,and as for the problems existing in Evaluation Regulation(Trial)of Intensive Land Use in Development Area,regarding the evaluation index system of intensive land use in the development area,in the light of the connotation of intensive land use in development area,coupled with the practical situation of the land use in China’s development area,after referring to the research achievements of domestic and abroad scholars,some suggestions are put forward in order to improve and perfect the evaluation index system of intensive land us in development area.

  5. Updating of the hierarchical rock mass rating (HRMR) system and a new subsystem developed for weathered granite formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miranda Tiago; e Sousa L. Ribeiro; Tinoco Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    The RMR system is still very much applied in rock mechanics engineering context. It is based on the eval-uation of six weights to obtain a final rating. To obtain the final rating a considerable amount of informa-tion is needed concerning the rock mass which can be difficult to obtain in some projects or project stages at least with accuracy. In 2007 an alternative classification scheme based on the RMR, the Hierarchical Rock Mass Rating (HRMR) was presented. The main feature of this system was the adaptation to the level of knowledge existent about the rock mass to obtain the classification of the rock mass since it followed a decision tree approach. However, the HRMR was only valid for hard rock granites with low fracturing degrees. In this work, the database was enlarged with approximately 40%more cases considering other types of granite rock masses including weathered granites and based on this increased database the sys-tem was updated. Granite formations existent in the north of Portugal including Porto city are predom-inantly granites. Some years ago a light rail infrastructure was built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities which involved considerable challenges due to the high heterogeneity levels of the granite formations and the difficulties involved in their geomechanical characterization. In this work it is intended to provide also a contribution to improve the characterization of these formations with special emphasis to the weathered horizons. A specific subsystem applicable to the weathered formations was developed. The results of the validation of these systems are presented and show acceptable perfor-mances in identifying the correct class using less information than with the RMR system.

  6. Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems - Volume 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ. Develop......Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ....... Development of demo-GIS for Jurmala city. Detailed analysis of GIS infrastructure in State Land Service, HQ. Implementation of limited GIS facilities for data capture, conversion and editing. Development of first phase of a national standard for digital maps – object catalogue....

  7. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research.

  8. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  9. Minor Component Analysis-based Landing Forecast System for Ship-borne Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo,; SHI Ai-guo; WAN Lin; YANG Bao-zhang

    2005-01-01

    The general structure of ship-borne helicopter landing forecast system is presented, and a novel ship motion prediction model based on minor component analysis (MCA) is built up to improve the forecast effectiveness. To validate the feasibility of this landing forecast system, time series for the roll, pitch and heave are generated by simulation and then forecasted based on MCA. Simulation results show that ship-borne helicopters can land safely in higher sea condition while carrying on rescue or replenishment tasks at sea in terms of the landing forecast system.

  10. Massive land system changes impact water quality of the Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Mohmmad Irshad; Rashid, Irfan; Shahi, Nuzhat; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Hassan, Khalida; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Shah, Irfan Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    The pristine aquatic ecosystems in the Himalayas are facing an ever increasing threat from various anthropogenic pressures which necessitate better understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants, their sources, and possible remedies. This study demonstrates the multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the multivariate statistical techniques, data from remote sensing, lab, and field-based observations for assessing the impact of massive land system changes on water quality of the river Jhelum. Land system changes over a period of 38 years have been quantified using multi-spectral satellite data to delineate the extent of different anthropogenically driven land use types that are the main non-point sources of pollution. Fifteen water quality parameters, at 12 sampling sites distributed uniformly along the length of the Jhelum, have been assessed to identify the possible sources of pollution. Our analysis indicated that 18% of the forested area has degraded into sparse forest or scrublands from 1972 to 2010, and the areas under croplands have decreased by 24% as people shifted from irrigation-intensive agriculture to orchard farming while as settlements showed a 397% increase during the observation period. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the water quality parameters had significant spatio-temporal differences (p pesticides, and unplanned urbanization in the area. PMID:26903209

  11. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  12. Vibration Attenuation of Magnetorheological Landing Gear System with Human Simulated Intelligent Control

    OpenAIRE

    X. M. Dong; Xiong, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the short duration of impulsive impact of an aircraft during touchdown, a traditional landing gear can only achieve limited performance. In this study, a magnetorheological (MR) absorber is incorporated into a landing gear system; an intelligent control algorithm, a human simulated intelligent control (HSIC), is proposed to adaptively tune the MR absorber. First, a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) dynamic model of a landing gear system featuring an MR absorber is constructed. The control mo...

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko OKA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems and water use, as well as the relationships between them. In study areas, in addition to historical backgrounds, land tenure may be associated with the extent to which state, customary, and individual involvements affect farmers’ de facto water rights. In general, water rights are clearly established in developed countries because formal administration of land and water resources has been functional and well-established. In developing countries, further institutional arrangements may be required to enable farmers to maintain water rights and increase efficient water use and management. However, no single solution is available. This paper describes how local contexts may vary with respect to land and water tenure. When PIM is introduced into irrigation schemes, it must be carefully integrated into agricultural land systems and the regulation of water rights in target areas. First, a land management system must be developed that secures farmers’ rights to ensure rational/optimal use of irrigation water. This offers important implications for rice irrigation and other crops that requires relatively intense and long-term investments in land development and advanced water management.

  14. Construction method under severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTION METHOD, developed and applied to the actual plant by KAJIMA CORPORATION, completely changes the hitherto image of nuclear power plant construction. This is a system in which, building materials are carried in and erected efficiently by various building equipment, under bright and most favorable working conditions. The work site is as if moved into a factory, offering many merits such as expedited productivity, time saving and others. This construction method has been called ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTION METHOD from the beginning of development. Now KAJIMA is pursuing further development of this method in order to raise productivity, shorten construction period. (author)

  15. An all digital low data rate communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Fan, M.

    1973-01-01

    The advent of digital hardwares has made it feasible to implement many communication system components digitally. With the exception of frequency down conversion, the proposed low data rate communication system uses digital hardwares completely. Although the system is designed primarily for deep space communications with large frequency uncertainty and low signal-to-noise ratio, it is also suitable for other low data rate applications with time-shared operation among a number of channels. Emphasis is placed on the fast Fourier transform receiver and the automatic frequency control via digital filtering. The speed available from the digital system allows sophisticated signal processing to reduce frequency uncertainty and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The practical limitations of the system such as the finite register length are examined. It is concluded that the proposed all-digital system is not only technically feasible but also has potential cost reduction over the existing receiving systems.

  16. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  17. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  18. No evidence of general CO2 insensitivity in ferns: one stomatal control mechanism for all land plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Britton-Harper, Zoe J

    2016-08-01

    Stomatal regulation of plant carbon uptake and water loss under changing environmental conditions was a crucial evolutionary step in the colonization of land by plants. There are currently two conflicting models describing the nature of stomatal regulation across terrestrial vascular plants: the first is characterized by a fundamental mechanistic similarity across all lineages, and the second is characterized by the evolution of major differences in angiosperms compared with more ancient lineages. Specifically, the second model posits that stomata of ferns lack a response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca ) and therefore cannot regulate leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (ci ). We compared stomatal sensitivity to changes in ca in three distantly related fern species and a representative angiosperm species. Fern and angiosperm stomata responded strongly and similarly to changes in ca . As a result, ci /ca was maintained within narrow limits during ca changes. Our results challenge the model in which stomata of ferns generally lack a response to elevated ca and that angiosperms evolved new dynamic mechanisms for regulating leaf gas exchange that differ fundamentally from ferns. Instead, the results are consistent with a universal stomatal control mechanism that is fundamentally conserved across ferns and angiosperms, and therefore likely all vascular plant divisions.

  19. No evidence of general CO2 insensitivity in ferns: one stomatal control mechanism for all land plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Britton-Harper, Zoe J

    2016-08-01

    Stomatal regulation of plant carbon uptake and water loss under changing environmental conditions was a crucial evolutionary step in the colonization of land by plants. There are currently two conflicting models describing the nature of stomatal regulation across terrestrial vascular plants: the first is characterized by a fundamental mechanistic similarity across all lineages, and the second is characterized by the evolution of major differences in angiosperms compared with more ancient lineages. Specifically, the second model posits that stomata of ferns lack a response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca ) and therefore cannot regulate leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (ci ). We compared stomatal sensitivity to changes in ca in three distantly related fern species and a representative angiosperm species. Fern and angiosperm stomata responded strongly and similarly to changes in ca . As a result, ci /ca was maintained within narrow limits during ca changes. Our results challenge the model in which stomata of ferns generally lack a response to elevated ca and that angiosperms evolved new dynamic mechanisms for regulating leaf gas exchange that differ fundamentally from ferns. Instead, the results are consistent with a universal stomatal control mechanism that is fundamentally conserved across ferns and angiosperms, and therefore likely all vascular plant divisions. PMID:27214852

  20. A sun-tracking method to improve the pointing accuracy of weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    X. Muth; Schneebeli, M.; Berne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate positioning of data collected by a weather radar is of primary importance for their appropriate georeferencing, which in turn makes it possible to combine those with additional sources of information (topography, land cover maps, meteorological simulations from numerical weather models to list a few). This issue is especially acute for mobile radar systems, for which accurate and stable leveling might be difficult to ensure. The sun is a source of microwave radiatio...

  1. A sun-tracking method to improve the pointing accuracy of weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    X. Muth; Schneebeli, M.; Berne, A.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate positioning of data collected by a weather radar is of primary importance for their appropriate georeferencing, which in turn makes it possible to combine those with additional sources of information (topography, land cover maps, meteorological simulations from numerical weather models to list a few). This issue is especially acute for mobile radar systems, for which accurate and stable levelling might be difficult to ensure. The sun is a source of microwave radiation, which can be d...

  2. Reasons of Tourists’ Preferences of All-Inclusive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAYLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to identify the reasons of tourists’ preferences of all inclusive system. Scale that has developed by Wong and Kwong (2004 has been used in this study. Population of study has been consisted of tourists that have come to Antalya by purchasing all inclusive system package tours. In the study which carried out by participated 387 tourists, statements of “guaranty of tour”, “price of travel” and “items included in the tour price” that are the most important criteria of tourists while they prefer all inclusive system were ranked among first three. Moreover, according to the results of factor analysis, ten factors were determined and was seen that factors of “innovations”, “price” and “specifications of travel” were ranked among first three.

  3. The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes-Amazon system: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; West, A. Joshua; Clark, Kathryn E.; Paris, Guillaume; Bouchez, Julien; Ponton, Camilo; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between chemical weathering fluxes and denudation rates suggests that tectonic activity can force variations in atmospheric pCO2 by modulating weathering fluxes. However, the effect of weathering on pCO2 is not solely determined by the total mass flux. Instead, the effect of weathering on pCO2 also depends upon the balance between 1) alkalinity generation by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and 2) sulfuric acid generation by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In this study, we explore how the balance between acid and alkalinity generation varies with tectonic uplift to better understand the links between tectonics and the long-term carbon cycle. To trace weathering reactions across the transition from the Peruvian Andes to the Amazonian foreland basin, we measured a suite of elemental concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Si, Li, SO4, and Cl) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr and δ34S) on both dissolved and solid phase samples. Using an inverse model, we quantitatively link systematic changes in solute geochemistry with elevation to downstream declines in sulfuric acid weathering as well as the proportion of cations sourced from silicates. With a new carbonate-system framework, we show that weathering in the Andes Mountains is a CO2 source whereas foreland weathering is a CO2 sink. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectation that the ratio of sulfide oxidation to silicate weathering increases with increasing erosion. Altogether, our results suggest that the effect of tectonically-enhanced weathering on atmospheric pCO2 is strongly modulated by sulfide mineral oxidation.

  4. Efficient power supply in all weather conditions. Space satellite monitoring ensures reliable, low-cost power supply; Effiziente Stromversorgung trotz Wetterkapriolen. Dank Waechter aus dem All noch sicherere und guenstigere Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-06-11

    Weather conditions are an important influencing factor in power generation, distribution and consumption. Long-distance power suppliers like the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) therefore keep an eye on the weather. Satellites provide valuabe information that is tailored to the specific requirements of the power industry. [Deutsch] Die Witterung zaehlt noch immer zu den wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren bei der Produktion, der Verteilung und beim Verbrauch von Strom. Es liegt deshalb auf der Hand, dass grosse Ueberlandwerke, wie die Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK), ein wachsames Auge auf das Wettergeschehen richten. Seit kurzem liefern ihnen Wettersatelliten wertvolle Entscheidungshilfen, die auf die besonderen Anforderungen der Stromproduktion zugeschnitten sind. (orig.)

  5. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  6. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  7. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  8. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  9. 78 FR 68811 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is to...

  10. 78 FR 46565 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is...

  11. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is...

  12. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule... System Land Management Planning Rule (Planning Rule). The Committee is necessary and in the...

  13. 78 FR 9883 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is also open to the public. The purpose of the meeting...

  14. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (c) The FWS shall utilize the SMS to ensure that... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212....212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  15. 23 CFR 971.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available for inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (c) The tri-party partnership shall... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 971.212... lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  16. Regional Variability of the Effects of Land Use Systems on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the regional variability of the effects of land use systems on soil properties, Shouyang County in Shanxi Province and Danling County in Sichuan Province of China were selected as the study areas. Field soil samples of the four land use systems (natural forest, forest plantation, shrubland, and cropland) were collected, respectively, from the two areas. The general statistical tools were used to analyze soil data. The results showed that the influence of land use systems on soil properties was significant. In general, soils in slightly human-disturbed land use systems presented a higher fertility level than those in strongly human-disturbed land use systems in both areas. Furthermore, the impacts of the same land use systems on soil properties showed a distinct regional variability, and even in the same land use system,different farming systems and site management measures (such as irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides) could also lead to the regional heterogeneity in soil properties. The regional variability of land use effects on soil properties reveals the regional variability of the effects of human activities on environmental changes, and could explain the complex relationship between humans and the natural environment in certain ways.

  17. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “Pavement Management Guide,” AASHTO, 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208....208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  18. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...,” AASHTO, 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  19. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204, the...) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of lanes, length, width,...

  20. A Generic, Interoperable, Hydrologic Data Assimilation Framework using the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a hydrologic modeling system that integrates the use of various community land surface models, use of ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable hydrologic prediction at variou...

  1. Integration of Systems Network (SysNet) tools for regional land use scenario analysis in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetter, R.P.; Hoanh, C.T.; Laborte, A.G.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Dreiser, C.; Diepen, van C.A.; Ridder, de N.; Laar, van H.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the approach of the Systems research Network (SysNet) for land use planning in tropical Asia with a focus on its main scientific-technical output: the development of the land use planning and analysis system (LUPAS) and its component models. These include crop simulation models

  2. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebanyat, Peter; de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J; Bekunda, Mateete A; Giller, Ken E

    2010-07-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems' sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the

  3. Using Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probes to Monitor Landscape Scale Soil Water Content in Mixed Land Use Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton E. Franz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing demand for natural resources and the societal need to understand and predict natural disasters, soil water content (SWC observations remain a critical variable to monitor in order to optimally allocate resources, establish early warning systems, and improve weather forecasts. However, routine agricultural production practices of soil cultivation, planting, and harvest make the operation and maintenance of direct contact point sensors for long-term monitoring challenging. In this work, we explore the use of the newly established Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP and method to monitor landscape average SWC in a mixed agricultural land use system in northeast Austria. The calibrated CRNP landscape SWC values compare well against an independent in situ SWC probe network (MAE = 0.0286 m3/m3 given the challenge of continuous in situ monitoring from probes across a heterogeneous agricultural landscape. The ability of the CRNP to provide real-time and accurate landscape SWC measurements makes it an ideal method for establishing long-term monitoring sites in agricultural ecosystems to aid in agricultural water and nutrient management decisions at the small tract of land scale as well as aiding in management decisions at larger scales.

  4. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard;

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops...

  5. Good governance in land tenure and administration

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This guide is written for people who work in land administration and all those with an interest in land, land tenure and their governance. Good governance can help achieve economic development and the reduction of poverty. Land issues cut across society, and a well-governed land administration system can strengthen local institutions, thereby contributing to broadly to governance. This guide explains what governance is, and what constitutes good governance in land tenure and administration. I...

  6. Preliminary analysis of agriculture land for vegetable farming system

    OpenAIRE

    HAYTOVA, Dimka; STEFANOVA, Vera; ARNAUDOVA, Zhulieta; BILEVA, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable sector is one of the important components of Bulgarian agriculture where diversity in vegetable cropping brought by different agro-ecological regions of the country. The main aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the state of the sector and Bulgarian agriculture land for vegetables crop production with relevance for GIS database. The article suggests that the results in the horticulture sector are far below of biological potential of vegetables and effectively using of lands...

  7. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  8. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented ...

  9. The Determination of Feasible Control Variables for Geoengineering and Weather Modification Based on the Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.

  10. A study of the relationship between cloud-to-ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, the correlation between cloud-to-ground (CG lightning and precipitation has been studied by making use of the data from weather radar, meteorological soundings, and a lightning location system that includes three direction finders about 40 km apart from each other in the Pingliang area of east Gansu province in P. R. China. We have studied the convective systems that developed during two cold front processes passing over the observation area, and found that the CG lightning can be an important factor in the precipitation estimation. The regression equation between the average precipitation intensity (R and the number of CG lightning flashes (L in the main precipitation period is R = 1.69 ln (L - 0.27, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.86. The CG lightning flash rate can be used as an indicator of the formation and development of the convective weather system. Another more exhaustive precipitation estimation method has been developed by analyzing the temporal and spatial distributions of the precipitation relative to the location of the CG lightning flashes. Precipitation calculated from the CG lightning flashes is very useful, especially in regions with inadequate radar cover.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; lightning; precipitation

  11. Space Weathering of airless bodies in the Solar System - Combining hypervelocity dust impacts with energetic irradiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, K.; Bennett, C.; Guglielmino, M.; Orlando, T. M.; Trieloff, M.; Srama, R.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of meteorites and their parent asteroids provides us with information about the processes and conditions during the formation of the inner Solar System. However, linking meteorites to their parent bodies is problematic. Astronomical observations aim to reconstruct the surface properties of these bodies primarily by visible and infrared spectra, but space weathering severely modifies the optical, compositional and physical properties of thin surface layers and thus precludes proper identification of chemistry and mineralogy. The effects of space weathering have been experimentally studied mainly with respect to ion bombardment and sputtering. Other studies aimed to simulate the influence of micrometeoroid bombardment by using laser ablation techniques. However, there is sufficient evidence that laser ablation does not realistically lead to the same effects as produced during real micrometeorite impacts. We performed micrometeorite bombardment using a 2MV dust accelerator at the Institute for Space Systems at University of Stuttgart, Germany, capable of generating impact speeds up to 100 km s-1. These results are combined with energetic irradiation experiments at the Electron and Photon Induced Chemistry on Surfaces (EPICS) laboratory at Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. By simulating highly realistic irradiation conditions, we are able to investigate the processes of particle and solar wind irradiation on solid planetary surfaces and study the formation of e.g., nanophase iron in minerals, the effects on hydrous minerals regarding their volatile budgets, or possible OH-formation in nominally anhydrous minerals and relate these to their optical properties. Using a variety of minerals, this work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the general alteration mechanisms in space environments in dependence of weathering agent and available material. We here present the results of initial comparison analysis and

  12. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  13. Meta-All: a system for managing metabolic pathway information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Uwe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many attempts are being made to understand biological subjects at a systems level. A major resource for these approaches are biological databases, storing manifold information about DNA, RNA and protein sequences including their functional and structural motifs, molecular markers, mRNA expression levels, metabolite concentrations, protein-protein interactions, phenotypic traits or taxonomic relationships. The use of these databases is often hampered by the fact that they are designed for special application areas and thus lack universality. Databases on metabolic pathways, which provide an increasingly important foundation for many analyses of biochemical processes at a systems level, are no exception from the rule. Data stored in central databases such as KEGG, BRENDA or SABIO-RK is often limited to read-only access. If experimentalists want to store their own data, possibly still under investigation, there are two possibilities. They can either develop their own information system for managing that own data, which is very time-consuming and costly, or they can try to store their data in existing systems, which is often restricted. Hence, an out-of-the-box information system for managing metabolic pathway data is needed. Results We have designed META-ALL, an information system that allows the management of metabolic pathways, including reaction kinetics, detailed locations, environmental factors and taxonomic information. Data can be stored together with quality tags and in different parallel versions. META-ALL uses Oracle DBMS and Oracle Application Express. We provide the META-ALL information system for download and use. In this paper, we describe the database structure and give information about the tools for submitting and accessing the data. As a first application of META-ALL, we show how the information contained in a detailed kinetic model can be stored and accessed. Conclusion META-ALL is a system for managing

  14. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  15. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  16. Land Use/Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use/land cover practices in, and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as, geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25' - 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq. km. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Landsat MSS, IRS 1A LISS II and IRS 1D LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI/PACE 6.3 ver. platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to devise various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low-cost, people-participatory strategies (such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

  17. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  18. LA Megacity: An Integrated Land-Atmosphere System for Urban CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Newman, S.; Rao, P.; Patarasuk, R.; o'Keefe, D.; Huang, J.; Ahmadov, R.; Wong, C.; Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Diaz Isaac, L. I.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.; Li, Z.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    About 10% of the global population lives in the word's 20 megacities (cities with urban populations greater than 10 million people). Megacities account for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions, and their proportion of emissions increases monotonically with the world population and urbanization. Megacities range in spatial extent from ~1000 - 10,000 km2 with complex topography and variable landscapes. We present here the first attempt at building an integrated land-atmosphere modeling system for megacity environments, developed and evaluated for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Chem model was coupled to a ~1.3-km FFCO2 emission product, "Hestia-LA", to simulate the transport of CO2 across the LA magacity. We define the optimal model resolution to represent both the spatial variability of the atmospheric dynamics and the spatial patterns from the CO2 emission distribution. In parallel, we evaluate multiple configurations of WRF with various physical schemes, using meteorological observations from the CalNex-LA campaign of May-June 2010. Our results suggest that there is no remarkable difference between the medium- (4-km) and high- (1.3-km) resolution simulations in terms of atmospheric model performance. However, the high-resolution modeled CO2 mixing ratios clearly outperform the results at medium resolution for capturing both the spatial distribution and the temporal variability of the urban CO2 signals. We compare the impact of physical representation errors and emission aggregation errors on the modeled CO2 mixing ratios across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach to evaluate the design of the current surface network over the LA megacity using the modeled spatial correlations. These results reinforce the importance of using high-resolution emission products over megacities to represent correctly the large spatial gradients in

  19. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingliang

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology, analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province, the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones, thus formulating “one map†of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hu...

  20. Recreational System Optimization to Reduce Conflict on Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online ( n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system.