WorldWideScience

Sample records for all weather landing systems

  1. 14 CFR 121.652 - Landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate holders. 121.652 Section 121.652 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Rules § 121.652 Landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders. (a) If the pilot in command of... airplane he is operating, the MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums in the certificate...

  2. 14 CFR 121.651 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: All certificate holders. 121.651 Section 121.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.651 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR: All certificate holders. (a... approved by the Administrator, are less than those specified in— (1) The certificate holder's...

  3. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  4. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems: Providing Secure Tenure for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased....... This paper discusses the building of the FFP approach at country level. Implementation is strongly related to the recognition of the continuum of land rights. Implementation of the FFP approach means to recognise, record and review land rights:  ’Recognise’ involves a procedure for recognition....... A complete overview is required of the tenure systems and land rights related to the areas affected. All formal and informal tenure categories and sub-categories should be identified and related to space. It is recommended that a National Tenure Atlas will be developed in order to get overview of the spatial...

  5. PRESIDENT MUSHARRAF: All Weather Friendship Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tangible Suggestions on Promoting All Weather Bilateral Trade I would first of all like to extend warm greetings from the people of Pakistan to the people of China on the 55th year of all weather friendship between our two countries and this all weather friendship will keep rising. Succeeding generations in both countries have ever since carefully nurtured this friendship which has blossomed into beautiful and all comprehensive partnership for peace and development. Pakistan China friendship is rooted in the ethos of our peoples.It evokes spontaneous love, respect, admiration and touches a receptive cord in every heart that resonates and energizes this unique relationship.

  6. Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Operations Under NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in Synthetic/Enhanced Vision technology is analyzed with respect to existing Category II/III performance and certification guidance. The goal is to start the development of performance-based vision systems technology requirements to support future all-weather operations and the NextGen goal of Equivalent Visual Operations. This work shows that existing criteria to operate in Category III weather and visibility are not directly applicable since, unlike today, the primary reference for maneuvering the airplane is based on what the pilot sees visually through the "vision system." New criteria are consequently needed. Several possible criteria are discussed, but more importantly, the factors associated with landing system performance using automatic and manual landings are delineated.

  7. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  8. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"

    OpenAIRE

    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo

    2004-01-01

    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  9. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA / National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL (Jedlovec 2013; Ralph et al. 2013; Merceret et al. 2013) is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The SPoRT-LIS is currently run over a domain covering the southeastern half of the Continental United States (CONUS), with an additional experimental real-time run over the entire CONUS and surrounding portions of southern Canada and northern Mexico. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) product (Zhang et al. 2011, 2014), which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014. This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations. Section 2 gives background information on the NASA LIS and describes the realtime SPoRT-LIS configurations being compared. Section 3 presents recent work done to develop a training module on situational awareness applications of real-time SPoRT-LIS output. Comparisons between output from the two SPoRT-LIS runs are shown in Section 4, including a documentation of issues encountered in using the MRMS precipitation dataset. A summary and future work in given in Section 5, followed by acknowledgements and references.

  10. Cockpit weather information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  11. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  12. Study on A New Type of the All-weather Wind Power System%新型的全天候风力发电系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红莺

    2015-01-01

    As the wind power generation is one of the renewable energy ,many countries have started the re‐search on the technology and development of it .On the basis of introducing the domestic and foreign research situation ,the article proposes a new type of the all-weather wind power system .The new system can make use of a certain area's prevailing wind and use a special flared wind collector to produce the high pressure gas that can generate electricity through the steam turbine generator unit .In addition ,the article analyzes the principle and the technical scheme of the system ,w hich aims to ensure the all -w eather long -term and sta‐ble output of high-power electric energy .%介绍了国内风电外研究现状,提出了一种新型的全天候风能发电系统,该系统可以利用某地区的盛行风,利用特殊的喇叭形风能收集器产生高压气,通过汽轮发电机组进行发电,并分析了该系统的原理和技术方案,确保全天候长期稳定的输出大功率的电能。

  13. Seawater and Chromium Isotopes - a Link to Atmospheric Weathering on Land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; Poire, D.; Gaucher, C.

    2013-12-01

    The chromium (Cr) isotope system is currently being developed as a sensitive tracer to record redox fluctuations in seawater, via assessing, in first instance, the record contained in marine chemical sediments (carbonates, banded iron formations). Understanding of the cycling of Cr is vital in this respect, if the ultimate goal is to somehow establish a link between seawater signatures and processes which mobilize Cr from the continents into riverine systems, and finally into seawater. We have investigated the transport pathway of Cr in Misiones (Argentina), a subtropical region, where weathering of Cretaceous flood basalts of the Paraná province is extensive, leading to deep laterite weathering profiles, and where respective riverine catchments can be sampled and followed into the Paraná River and onwards until its delta in the Atlantic Ocean. The Rio Paraná with its tributaries creates a massive watershed that spreads throughout much of the south central part of the South American continent. The studied weathering profiles in the province of Misiones show up to 30% loss of chromium, accompanied by negatively fractionated (average (δ53Cr ~-0.35 ‰) weathering products (bulk soils), and this is compatible with the expected atmospheric oxidation of trivalent Cr(III) and mobilization of portions of the respective hexavalent Cr(VI) pool into the riverine systems. The isotopic composition of total Cr in the different catchments varies (δ53Cr = -0.23 to +0.31 ‰). Lowering of the isotope compositions is attributed to the extremely finely suspended load (<0.23 μm) of the heavily suspend-loaded creeks and rivers with likely negatively fractionated (δ53Cr values reflecting the weathered soils. Samples from along the Paraná River, including a sample from the estuary, are all positively fractionated (δ53Cr 0 +0.12 - +0.45 ‰) and closely approach the first values measured by us for contemporaneous seawater (δ53Cr = +0.2 - +0.5 ‰). Our results indicate that

  14. Design of all-weather control system for sun tracking%全天候太阳方位跟踪控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左云波; 徐小力; 白廷柱; 乔道鄂

    2011-01-01

    采用光感跟踪与时间跟踪相结合的方法,设计了全天候太阳方位跟踪控制系统.该系统包括监测装置、跟踪方式转换控制模块和双跟踪方式控制模块.监测装置监测天气状态为跟踪方式转换控制模块提供判断依据,跟踪方式转换控制模块发出指令启动相关跟踪方式,控制传动及支撑装置的运动,以改变太阳能电池板采光面的位置.系统的跟踪精度高,跟踪能耗低.%The efficiency of photovoltaie generation system can be improved by using solar tracking device. But at present, sun tracking methods cannot adapt the change of climate and the energy of the system was wasted. In order to solve this problem, a new tracking method which combined the photovoltaic tracking method and time tracking method was presented and an all-weather control system for sun tracking was designed. The system includes the monitoring device, the switching control module and two-tracking control modules. The monitoring device is used to monitor the status of climate and send the information to the switching control module. The switching control module makes a judge and sends instructions. The two-tracking control modules start the right tracking style and controis the transmission-bracing device to change the position of solar battery unit. The new system can monitor the change of the climate in time and choose the reasonable tracking method according to the status of the climate. It can improve the tracking precision and reduce the energy consumption of sun tracking system.

  15. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    are the rights inherent to all human beings without discrimination. The “constitution” of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) stating the universal rights of human beings based on the principle of respect for the individual – rights that can be enjoyed by everyone simple because...... and that every country and jurisdiction needs to ensure that efficient and effective land administration mechanisms are in place to pursue this interaction. Land administration systems should embed a human rights perspective when managing rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. This, in turn, imposes...

  16. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  17. All-Weather Solar Cells. A Rising Photovoltaic Revolutionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-03-01

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells are mainly focusing on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze and night etc dark-light conditions. The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for upcoming photovoltaic revolutions. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics.

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Complete files of all parcels located in Haywood County. Includes private and government owned land., Published in 1982, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Haywood County Land Records/Geographic Information Systems.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1982. It...

  19. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  20. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  1. Indication of insensitivity of planetary weathering behavior and habitable zone to surface land fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Abbot, Dorian S; Ciesla, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. F...

  2. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  3. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...

  4. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  5. All-Weather Sounding of Moisture and Temperature From Microwave Sensors Using a Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Inversion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukabara, S. A.; Garrett, K.

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional variational retrieval system has been developed, capable of producing temperature and water vapor profiles in clear, cloudy and precipitating conditions. The algorithm, known as the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS), is currently running operationally at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS), and is applied to a variety of data from the AMSU-A/MHS sensors on board the NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A/B polar satellite platforms, as well as SSMI/S on board both DMSP F-16 and F18, and from the NPP ATMS sensor. MiRS inverts microwave brightness temperatures into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, along with hydrometeors and surface parameters, simultaneously. This atmosphere/surface coupled inversion allows for more accurate retrievals in the lower tropospheric layers by accounting for the surface emissivity impact on the measurements. It also allows the inversion of the soundings in all-weather conditions thanks to the incorporation of the hydrometeors parameters in the inverted state vector as well as to the inclusion of the emissivity in the same state vector, which is accounted for dynamically for the highly variable surface conditions found under precipitating atmospheres. The inversion is constrained in precipitating conditions by the inclusion of covariances for hydrometeors, to take advantage of the natural correlations that exist between temperature and water vapor with liquid and ice cloud along with rain water. In this study, we present a full assessment of temperature and water vapor retrieval performances in all-weather conditions and over all surface types (ocean, sea-ice, land, and snow) using matchups with radiosonde as well as Numerical Weather Prediction and other satellite retrieval algorithms as references. An emphasis is placed on retrievals in cloudy and precipitating atmospheres, including extreme weather events

  6. Space Weather Concerns for All-Electric Propulsion Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Richard B.; Pitchford, David

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of all-electric propulsion satellites is a game changer in the quest for low-cost access to space. It also raises new questions for satellite manufacturers, operators, and the insurance industry regarding the general risks and specifically the threat of adverse space weather. The issues surrounding this new concept were discussed by research scientists and up to 30 representatives from the space industry at a special meeting at the European Space Weather Week held in November 2014. Here we report on the discussions at that meeting. We show that for a satellite undergoing electric orbit raising for 200 days the radiation dose due to electrons is equivalent to approximately 6.7 year operation at geostationary orbit or approximately half the typical design life. We also show that electrons can be injected into the slot region (8000 km) where they pose a risk of satellite internal charging. The results highlight the importance of additional radiation protection. We also discuss the benefits, the operational considerations, the other risks from the Van Allen radiation belts, the new business opportunities for space insurance, and the need for space situation awareness in medium Earth orbit where electric orbit raising takes place.

  7. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  8. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  9. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  10. The contribution of changes in P release and CO2 consumption by chemical weathering to the historical trend in land carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, D. S.; Moosdorf, N.; Brovkin, V.; Hartmann, J.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased to a level unprecedented in the last 2 million years, and the concentration is projected to increase further with a rate unseen in geological past. The increase in CO2 cause a rise in surface temperatures and changes in the hydrological cycle through the redistribution of rainfall patterns. All of these changes will impact the weathering of rocks, which in turn affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations via two different pathways. On the one hand, CO2 is consumed by the dissolution reaction of the exposed minerals. And on the other hand, biological CO2 fixation is affected due to changes in phosphorus release from minerals, as biological activity is constrained by phosphorus availability at large scales. The traditional view is that both effects are negligible on a centennial time scale, but recent work on catchment scale challenge this view in favor of a potential high sensitivity of weathering to ongoing climate and land use changes. To globally quantify the contribution of CO2 fixation associated with weathering on the historical trend in terrestrial CO2 uptake, we applied a model of chemical weathering and phosphorus release under climate reconstructions from four Earth System Models. The simulations indicate that changes in weathering could have contributed considerably to the trend in terrestrial CO2 uptake since the pre-industrial revolution, with warming being the main driver of change. The increase in biological CO2 fixation is of comparable magnitude as the increase in CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Our simulations support the previous findings on catchment scale that weathering can change significantly on a centennial time scale. This finding has implications for 21st century climate projections, which ignore changes in weathering, as well as for long-term airborne fraction of CO2 emissions, whose calculation usually neglects changes in phosphorus availability.

  11. Experimental geobiology links evolutionary intensification of rooting systems and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David; Leake, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of mycorrhizal fungi in partnership with early land plants over 440 million years ago led to the greening of the continents by plants of increasing biomass, rooting depth, nutrient demand and capacity to alter soil minerals, culminating in modern forested ecosystems. The later co-evolution of trees and rooting systems with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, together driving the biogeochemical cycling of elements and weathering of minerals in soil to meet subsequent increased phosphorus demands is thought to constitute one the most important biotic feedbacks on the geochemical carbon cycle to emerge during the Phanerozoic, and fundamentally rests on the intensifying effect of trees and their root-associating mycorrhizal fungal partners on mineral weathering. Here I present experimental and field evidence linking these evolutionary events to a mechanistic framework whereby: (1) as plants evolved in stature, biomass, and rooting depth, their mycorrhizal fungal partnerships received increasing amounts of plant photosynthate; (2) this enabled intensification of plant-driven fungal weathering of rocks to release growth-limiting nutrients; (3) in turn, this increased land-to-ocean export of Ca and P and enhanced ocean carbonate precipitation impacting the global carbon cycle and biosphere-geosphere-ocean-atmosphere interactions over the past 410 Ma. Our findings support an over-arching hypothesis that evolution has selected plant and mycorrhizal partnerships that have intensified mineral weathering and altered global biogeochemical cycles.

  12. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  13. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  14. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  15. How much does weather-driven vegetation dynamics matter in land surface modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are an essential part of weather and climate models as they provide the lower boundary condition for the atmospheric models. In state-of-the-art LSMs the seasonal vegetation dynamics is "frozen". The seasonal variation of vegetation state variables, such as leaf area index or green vegetation fraction, are prescribed in lookup tables. Hence, a year-by-year variation in the development of vegetation due to changing weather conditions cannot be considered. For climate simulations, this is obviously a severe drawback. The objective of the present study was to quantify the potential error in the simulation of land surface exchange processes resulting from "frozen" vegetation dynamics. For this purpose we simulated energy and water fluxes from a winter wheat stand and a maize stand in Southwest Germany. In a first set of simulations, six years (2010 to 2015) were simulated considering weather-driven vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we coupled the generic crop growth model GECROS with the NOAH-MP model (NOAHMP-GECROS). In a second set of simulations all vegetation-related state variables of the 2010 simulation were written to an external file and were used to overwrite the vegetation-related state variables of the simulations of the years 2011-2015. The difference between both sets was taken as a measure for the potential error introduced to the LSM due to the assumption of a "frozen" vegetation dynamics. We will present first results and discuss the impact of "frozen" vegetation dynamics on climate change simulations.

  16. General-aviation's view of progress in the aviation weather system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Douglas J.

    1988-01-01

    For all its activity statistics, general-aviation is the most vulnerable to hazardous weather. Of concern to the general aviation industry are: (1) the slow pace of getting units of the Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) to the field; (2) the efforts of the National Weather Service to withdraw from both the observation and dissemination roles of the aviation weather system; (3) the need for more observation points to improve the accuracy of terminal and area forecasts; (4) the need for improvements in all area forecasts, terminal forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts; (5) slow progress in cockpit weather displays; (6) the erosion of transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) and other deficiencies in weather information dissemination; (7) the need to push to make the Direct User Access Terminal (DUAT) a reality; and (7) the need to improve severe weather (thunderstorm) warning systems.

  17. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  18. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  19. System Design of Cold Weather Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkam Kasturiya

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available System design of cold weather protective clothing is a critical process, as it involvesconsideration of the effects of a number of external and internal parameters like environmental factors and physical, physico-mechanical and psychological parameters. The bulk and weightof the textile materials used in protective clothing should be as low as possible, so thatclothing does not create physical stress and discomfort to the soldier and does not affecthis combat duties adversely. This paper discusses the essential factors involved in thedesigning of cold weather protective clothing and different insulating materials availablein the market for developing better protective clothing. Different stores'developed at theDefence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment, Kanpur, the order ofarrangement of various insulating materials in those stores and the protection level achievedare discussed.

  20. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.

  1. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  2. Potential impacts on Colorado Rocky Mountain weather due to land use changes on the adjacent Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence from both meteorological stations and vegetational successional studies suggests that summer temperatures are decreasing in the mountain-plain system in northeast Colorado, particularly since the early 1980s. These trends are coincident with large changes in regional land cover. Trends in global, Northern Hemisphere and continental surface temperatures over the same period are insignificant. These observations suggest that changes in the climate of this mountain-plain system may be, in some part, a result of localized forcing mechanisms. In this study the effects of land use change on the northern Colorado plains, where large regions of grasslands have been transformed into both dry and irrigated agricultural lands, on regional weather is examined in an effort to understand this local deviation from larger-scale trends. We find with high-resolution numerical simulations of a 3-day summer period using a regional atmospheric-land surface model that replacing grasslands with irrigated and dry farmland can have impacts on regional weather and therefore climate which are not limited to regions of direct forcing. Higher elevations remote from regions of land use change are affected as well. Specifically, cases with altered landcover had cooler, moister boundary layers, and diminished low-level upslope winds over portions of the plains. At higher elevations, temperatures also were lower as was low-level convergence. Precipitation and cloud cover were substantially affected in mountain regions. We advance the hypothesis that observed land use changes may have already had a role in explaining part of the observed climate record in the northern Colorado mountain-plain system. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  4. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  5. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...... on the land management paradigm. Some challenges and barriers are identified and the key initiatives for improvement are described. It is concluded that the system works well in the sense that it supports sustainable development through an efficient land market and effective land-use management. The property...... layer (the cadastre) is well integrated as the basis for a land information infrastructure in support of all four land administration functions. Furthermore, the LAS is well tailored for a decentralised approach to land-use management placing the decisionmaking power at regional and especially local...

  6. System Science approach to Space Weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, Michael A.

    There are many dynamical systems in nature that are so complex that mathematical models of their behaviour can not be deduced from first principles with the present level of our knowledge. Obvious examples are organic cell, human brain, etc often attract system scientists. A example that is closer to space physics is the terrestrial magnetosphere. The system approach has been developed to understand such complex objects from the observation of their dynamics. The systems approach employs advanced data analysis methodologies to identify patterns in the overall system behaviour and provides information regarding the linear and nonlinear processes involved in the dynamics of the system. This, in combination with the knowledge deduced from the first principles, creates the opportunity to find mathematical relationships that govern the evolution of a particular physical system. Advances and problems of systems science applications to provide a reliable forecasts of space weather phenomena such as geomagnetic storms, substorms and radiation belts particle fluxes are reviewed and compared with the physics based models.

  7. 14 CFR 23.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Fuel System § 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each fuel system must be free from vapor...

  8. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.

    1991-01-01

    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  10. Water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of some tills in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintinen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of tills were studied on three nunataks with differing bedrock characteristics in the Vestfjella and Heimefrontfjella areas of the Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The chemical analyses were performed using ion chromatography and ICP-AES. The relative weathering characteristics of the till surface boulders was assessed in study locations. No colour differences were observed in test pits dug in Basen and Utpostane nunataks at Vestfjella, whereas the till in Mygehenget nunatak at Heimefrontfjella has a pronounced soil profile in which the surface part has a banded rusty brown and light-coloured accumulations. The highest concentrations of readily soluble ions were recorded in the Mygehenget samples characterized by high (SO42- (5800-39000 ppm and Mg concentrations (540-6000 ppm, while the Basen samples had the highest concentrations of Fe2+(23-390 ppm, Al3+ (60-1000 ppm and Si4+ (23-1700 ppm and the Utpostane samples the lowest ones. The SO4/Na+, Na+/CI- and Mg2+/Na+ ratios for the samples differ markedly from those typically encountered in sea water. The presence of the highest concentrations of many of the analysed ions in the Mygehenget soil samples is in line with the advanced weathering of the surface boulders. The high Fe2+ , Si4+ and Al3+ concentrations in the Basen samples may be attributable to the weathering of olivine alteration products.

  11. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  12. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  13. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Prasad; Saji Mohandas; Surya Kanti Dutta; M Das Gupta; G R Iyengar; E N Rajagopal; Swati Basu

    2014-03-01

    Medium range weather forecasts are being generated in real time using Global Data Assimilation Forecasting System (GDAFS) at NCMRWF since 1994. The system has been continuously upgraded in terms of data usage, assimilation and forecasting system. Recently this system was upgraded to a horizontal resolution of T574 (about 22 km) with 64 levels in vertical. The assimilation scheme of this upgraded system is based on the latest Grid Statistical Interpolation (GSI) scheme and it has the provision to use most of available meteorological and oceanographic satellite datasets besides conventional meteorological observations. The new system has an improved procedure for relocating tropical cyclone to its observed position with the correct intensity. All these modifications have resulted in improvement of skill of medium range forecasts by about 1 day.

  14. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling

  15. Crop Production Risk in the Pampas: A Bayesian Weather Generator for Climate Change and Land Use Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Podesta, G. P.; Bert, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a space-time stochastic weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature, developed within a Bayesian hierarchical framework (hereafter BayGEN). This framework offers a unique advantage: it provides robust estimation of uncertainty that is typically under-represented in traditional weather generators. Realistic estimates of uncertainty are of utmost importance for studying climate variability and change, impacts on land use, and crop production. BayGEN is applied to a network of weather stations in the Salado basin of the Argentine Pampas, a region that saw immense agricultural expansion towards climatically marginal (i.e., semi-arid) regions, in part due to significant trends in annual precipitation from 1970-2000. Since the turn of the century, observed conditions suggest a decrease in precipitation, which begs the question: "Are the existing agricultural production systems viable in a drier future?" The use of process based (i.e., hydrologic, crop simulation) models in conjunction with BayGEN will allow for complete analysis of the system's response to an ensemble of plausible future scenarios. Precipitation occurrence at each site is modeled at the first level of hierarchy using probit regression with covariates for seasonality, where the latent process is Gaussian -- positivity in the latent process implies occurrence. The precipitation amounts are modeled using a transformed gamma regression (i.e., gamma generalized linear model), similarly with seasonality covariates. Minimum and maximum temperatures are conditional on precipitation occurrence and are decomposed into two processes: (i) climate -- linear regressions on seasonality covariates, and (ii) weather -- realizations from mean-zero Gaussian random fields. The use of seasonality covariates allows the generation of daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal forecasts or projected multi-annual trends, an increasingly important practice for risk assessment in climatically marginal

  16. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  17. Effect of land fraction on weathering and tenure in the habitable zone of terrestrial planets around main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.; Ciesla, F. J.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Archer, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    According to current models of volatile delivery, the water fraction of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of main-sequence stars is likely to be highly variable. This will affect the continental land fraction, and consequently the functioning of weathering and the carbon cycle. We construct a low-order analytical model of climate, continental silicate weathering, and seafloor weathering to investigate, in a general sense, the effect of land fraction on the long-term carbon cycle. This model is useful for gaining physical insight, rather than for making specific predictions. Using our model, we reach the following conclusions: (1) The surface temperature increases with decreasing land fraction, with waterworlds 10's of K warmer than planets with 50% continental coverage. (2) There can be no weathering feedback on a waterworld. The tenure of a waterworld in the habitable zone is therefore likely to be much shorter than the tenure of a planet with some continent in the habitable zone. (3) The silicate weathering feedback is effective even at very low land fractions. The rate of change of a planet's surface temperature as the star it orbits evolves on the main sequence is similar if the land fraction is 0.3 or 0.01.

  18. Systems and methods for supplemental weather information presentation on a display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An embodiment of the supplemental weather display system presents supplemental weather information on a display in a craft. An exemplary embodiment receives the supplemental weather information from a remote source, determines a location of the supplemental weather information relative to the craft, receives weather information from an on-board radar system, and integrates the supplemental weather information with the weather information received from the on-board radar system.

  19. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  20. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  1. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  2. The urban land use system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhenghui; ZHENG Wenjun

    2003-01-01

    The obstacles to urban land development caused by Chinese immature land use system are explored. Key features of the dual land use system are analyzed on base of the constructing model of the dual land market in Chinese cities, in which market-based allocation including negotiation, tender and auction conveyance and non-market administrative allocation coexist.Some suggestions for solving the problems are brought forward after illustrating by facts problems existing in Chongqing's land market that the administratively allocated land is difficult to be collocated optimally and the black market is harmful to urban land development, In conclusion the land use system reformation is a complicated systems engineering involving interactions among various factors. Government to institute and execute corresponding policies is important to establish a uniform land market system.

  3. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  4. Platinum Alloy Tailored All-Weather Solar Cells for Energy Harvesting from Sun and Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei; Duan, Yanyan; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-11-07

    Solar cells that can harvest energy in all weathers are promising in solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. The power outputs are nearly zero under dark conditions for state-of-the-art solar cells. To address this issue, we present herein a class of platinum alloy (PtMx , M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo) tailored all-weather solar cells that can harvest energy from rain and realize photoelectric conversion under sun illumination. By tuning the stoichiometric Pt/M ratio and M species, the optimized solar cell yields a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.38 % under simulated sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) ) as well as current of 3.90 μA and voltage of 115.52 μV under simulated raindrops. Moreover, the electric signals are highly dependent on the dripping velocity and the concentration of simulated raindrops along with concentrations of cation and anion.

  5. Verification of Forecast Weather Surface Variables over Vietnam Using the National Numerical Weather Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Du Duc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The national numerical weather prediction system of Vietnam is presented and evaluated. The system is based on three main models, namely, the Japanese Global Spectral Model, the US Global Forecast System, and the US Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The global forecast products have been received at 0.25- and 0.5-degree horizontal resolution, respectively, and the WRF model has been run locally with 16 km horizontal resolution at the National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting using lateral conditions from GSM and GFS. The model performance is evaluated by comparing model output against observations of precipitation, wind speed, and temperature at 168 weather stations, with daily data from 2010 to 2014. In general, the global models provide more accurate forecasts than the regional models, probably due to the low horizontal resolution in the regional model. Also, the model performance is poorer for stations with altitudes greater than 500 meters above sea level (masl. For tropical cyclone performance validations, the maximum wind surface forecast from global and regional models is also verified against the best track of Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Finally, the model forecast skill during a recent extreme rain event in northeast Vietnam is evaluated.

  6. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  7. Rapid Conversion from Carbohydrates to Large-Scale Carbon Quantum Dots for All-Weather Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei; Zhu, Wanlu; He, Benlin; Yang, Peizhi

    2017-02-28

    A great challenge for state-of-the-art solar cells is to generate electricity in all weather. We present here the rapid conversion of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from carbohydrates (including glucose, maltol, sucrose) for an all-weather solar cell, which comprises a CQD-sensitized mesoscopic titanium dioxide/long-persistence phosphor (m-TiO2/LPP) photoanode, a I(-)/I3(-) redox electrolyte, and a platinum counter electrode. In virtue of the light storing and luminescent behaviors of LPP phosphors, the generated all-weather solar cells can not only convert sunlight into electricity on sunny days but persistently realize electricity output in all dark-light conditions. The maximized photoelectric conversion efficiency is as high as 15.1% for so-called all-weather CQD solar cells in dark conditions.

  8. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  9. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-10-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production.

  10. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  11. “It Was Raining All the Time!”: Ex Post Tourist Weather Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gössling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of weather for tourism is now widely recognized. However, no research has so far addressed weather events from retrospective viewpoints, and, in particular, the role of “extreme” events in longer-term holiday memories. To better understand the character of ex post weather experiences and their importance in destination image perceptions and future travel planning behavior, this exploratory study addressed a sample of 50 tourists from three globally important source markets: Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results indicate that weather events do not dominate long-term memories of tourist experiences. Yet, weather events are important in shaping destination image, with “rain” being the single most important weather variable negatively influencing perceptions. Results also suggest that weather events perceived as extreme can involve considerable emotions. The study of ex post traveler memories consequently makes a valuable contribution to the understanding of the complexity of “extreme weather” events for tourist demand responses.

  12. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  13. Contributions of different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province to the material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyan; TIAN Yuhong; DING Deng

    2003-01-01

    Different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province are linked to a material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing based on results of field vegetation and soil survey and laboratory works. Results of grain size analysis show that dust release potential in per unit area of moving sandy land is small, while lowland meadow and meadow steppe in stony hillshave high potential of releasing dusts in per unit area during sand stormy weather occurrence. Further considering the effects of vegetation, it is inferred that the moving sandy land served as a material source of past dust storm and the possibility of dust release in per unit area is low in current time. Typical steppe in stony hills is undergoing desertification and its dust release possibility in per unit area is high. Farmland has strong potential of release dusts when they are ploughed in spring, but a large amount of therophytes grow and thus prevent dusts from release when cultivation was terminated. Potentials of dust release in per unit area in fixed sand dunes, stony mountain meadow steppe and lowland meadow are low due to high cover of perennials. Sand dune reactivation and desiccation of lakes and lowlands under estimated future climatic change will makethem serve as a future material source of sand stormy weather.

  14. Land system reform should protect farmers’ interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守英

    2009-01-01

    |Editorial Note|Land has become an issue of increasing social concern as demand continues to surge in the midst of economic development,urbanization and industrialization.The crux of the issue is the land regime. China has a unique dualistic land regime under which the land market has not been well developed.Based on a review and commentary of the existing land polices,this article elaborates on the deficiencies inherent in China’s dualistic land rights system and land market and offers policy recommendations for promoting land system reform and market development.This study will help us gain an in-depth understanding of the problems in China’s land regime.

  15. Space weather forecasting with a Multimodel Ensemble Prediction System (MEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Eccles, V.; Gardner, L. C.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.; Pi, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Butala, M.; Wilson, B. D.; Komjathy, A.; Wang, C.; Rosen, G.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the Multimodel Ensemble Prediction System (MEPS) program is to improve space weather specification and forecasting with ensemble modeling. Space weather can have detrimental effects on a variety of civilian and military systems and operations, and many of the applications pertain to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. Space weather can affect over-the-horizon radars, HF communications, surveying and navigation systems, surveillance, spacecraft charging, power grids, pipelines, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA's) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Because of its importance, numerous space weather forecasting approaches are being pursued, including those involving empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models. Clearly, if there are sufficient data, the data assimilation modeling approach is expected to be the most reliable, but different data assimilation models can produce different results. Therefore, like the meteorology community, we created a Multimodel Ensemble Prediction System (MEPS) for the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Electrodynamics (ITE) system that is based on different data assimilation models. The MEPS ensemble is composed of seven physics-based data assimilation models for the ionosphere, ionosphere-plasmasphere, thermosphere, high-latitude ionosphere-electrodynamics, and middle to low latitude ionosphere-electrodynamics. Hence, multiple data assimilation models can be used to describe each region. A selected storm event that was reconstructed with four different data assimilation models covering the middle and low latitude ionosphere is presented and discussed. In addition, the effect of different data types on the reconstructions is shown.

  16. BioLandMani sünd kontrolli all

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu haridusprogrammide Socrates, Leonardo ja Youth keskuse ekspertide külaskäigust Eesti Põllumajandusülikooli, et kontrollida Baltimaade ühise magistriprogrammi BioLandMan ettevalmistamist

  17. CHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF CERIUM ELEMENT IN ROCK WEATHERING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A study on existing valence state and chemical behavior of cerium element in two categories of rock weathering system in China has been carried out. In the granitoid weathering crust of Southern China,cerium as tetravalent hydroxide absorbed on clay minerals occupies 62.58 % of total amount of cerium and the cerium partitioning in the phase is 69.58 %. The depositing cerium stops its mobility downward, resulting in rare earth partitioning variation, the light rare earth partitioning is high at upper layer of weathering crust, the heavy rare earth partitioning is high at bottom layer of weathering crust, and the extracted product exists cerium lose effect. For Mn2+ as reducing agent existing in black weathering earth of Maoniuping rare earth ore,cerium is trivalent and absorbed on Mn-Fe oxide as colloid phase sediment. Colloid sediment phase can be divided into Mn-Fe combined phase and hydroxide sediment phase with cerium contents of 19.77% and 48.30%, and their cerium partitionings are 80.72% and 37.38% respectively. The Mn-Fe combined phase can selectively absorb cerium.

  18. Space weather and cardiovascular system. New findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yury; Breus, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Researches of last two decades have shown that the cardiovascular system represents the most probable target for influence of helio - and geomagnetic activity. Both cardiovascular system and system of blood are connected very closely: one system cannot exist without another. For the same reason the effects perceived by one system, are easily transferred to another. Laboratory tests such as blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and capillary blood velocity (CBV) performed in Scientific Clinical Center JSC "Russian Railways in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) revealed a high dependence with a level of geomagnetic activity. Results of these and other findings allow to assume that blood itself can be a sensor of geomagnetic fields variations because erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes bearing electric charge on membranes, and in a comparable magnetic field can change as own properties and properties of blood flow. It is interesting that not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also the periods of very quiet geomagnetic conditions affect a capillary blood velocity, slowing down it. It was shown during long-term experiment with isolation named 'MARS-500' in spatial facility of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow as imitation of an extended space mission to Mars. Using digital capillaroscope 'Russia', two crewmembers - medical doctors made records of microcirculation parameters at themselves and other four participants of 'Martian' team. Capillary records were performed before, during, and after period of isolation in medical module of MARS-500 facility. At the period of experiment nobody of crewmembers knew about real geomagnetic conditions. In days of active geomagnetic conditions average CBV has registered as 389 ± 167 μm/s, that statistically significant (p

  19. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating. In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of climb may not be less...

  20. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  1. All weather IASI single field-of-view retrievals: case study – validation with JAIVEx data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Zhou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, cloud optical/microphysical properties, and surface properties are basic meteorological variables for weather forecasting. In addition, they are critical parameters in tropospheric chemistry studies. A physical, geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiances observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed to determine simultaneously surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A one-dimensional variational (1-D Var. multivariable inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation is used to iteratively improve a background state defined by eigenvector regression. This algorithm has been applied to data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on the EUMETSAT Metop-A satellite. The IASI retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx. JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS systems, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed – Interferometer (NAST-I, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  2. Development of inexpensive all-weather solar tracking control system for amendable tracking precision%可修正跟踪精度的低成本全天候太阳跟踪控制系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学刚; 谢永春; 谭兴强

    2015-01-01

    为了降低太阳跟踪系统的成本和复杂程度,以模拟电路及光电转换原理为基础,研制了一种跟踪精度可调整的全天候太阳跟踪控制系统和 T-L 型太阳方位探测器,并通过光斑检测试验,对该系统的跟踪性能进行了分析,试验方法是将底部带小孔的一次性纸杯粘贴在带无数同心圆的纸上,将纸固定在双轴跟踪支架上,进而观察光斑在同心圆上的位置随时间的变化。研究结果表明:该系统的跟踪精度与太阳辐射强度有关,太阳辐射强度越大跟踪精度越高,太阳辐射强度越小跟踪精度越差,一天中的最小跟踪精度可达0.14°。该系统适合于对跟踪精度要求不是特别苛刻,并且对跟踪控制系统有廉价要求的场合,为太阳跟踪控制系统的普及奠定基础。%To reduce costs and complexity of solar tracking system, a simple solar tracking control system and T-L type sun origination detector are developed by analog circuit and photoelectric conversion principle. The tracking system is composed of bridge circuits and amplification circuits; it has functions of manually adjusted tracking accuracy and manually working. It is used to drive 12V DC gear motor, and it can be used for single-axis tracking, can also be used for dual-axis tracking. The tracking system only requires six common types of electronic components, which costs no more than 10 RMB. In order to reduce external environment impact on tracking performance of the system, a T-L-type orientation detector was designed for the tracking system. The L-type shading plate of the orientation detector was fixed to the L-type clapboard, therefore, the cross-section the shading plate and the clapboard showed a T-shape. Then, the clapboard was fixed to the substrate, and two sides of the clapboard were installed respectively with four photoresistors. Two were used to control movement of east-west direction; the other two were used to

  3. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  4. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  5. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  6. System for autonomous identification and nowcasting of space weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, T.; Akioka, M.; Ishibashi, H.

    Using near-real time space environment data obtained from GOES and ACE satellites, we have developed algorithm for autonomous identification of space weather events, such as solar flares, proton events, and geomagnetic storms, and a procedure for nowcasting of these events which satisfy criteria of alert level. At first, we have introduced NOAA/SEC's definition of X-ray flare as the prototype algorithm. However, we have found that this algorithm sometimes misses the occurrence of LDE-type flare. So we tried to imporove the algorithm for detecting LDE-type flare. Nowcasting information is provided by e-mail message written in Japanese. This information can be received by a cellular phone. This system provides us an opportunity of monitoring space weather environment 24 hours a day without using human resources. This system is now in test operating phase. In this summer, we will start nowcasting of severe space weather events as a new domestic service of Regional Warning Center of Tokyo, which belongs to International Space Environment Service (ISES). Detailed descriptions of this system, algorithm of event identification, and the results of our test operation will be presented.

  7. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.

    2011-07-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  8. Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.

  9. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  10. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.;

    2015-01-01

    as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between......Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...

  11. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  12. Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health

  13. Development of a New Data Tool for Computing Launch and Landing Availability with Respect to Surface Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. Lee; Altino, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has a long history of expertise in the modeling and computation of statistical launch availabilities with respect to weather conditions. Their existing data analysis product, the Atmospheric Parametric Risk Assessment (APRA) tool, computes launch availability given an input set of vehicle hardware and/or operational weather constraints by calculating the climatological probability of exceeding the specified constraint limits, APRA has been used extensively to provide the Space Shuttle program the ability to estimate impacts that various proposed design modifications would have to overall launch availability. The model accounts for both seasonal and diurnal variability at a single geographic location and provides output probabilities for a single arbitrary launch attempt. Recently, the Shuttle program has shown interest in having additional capabilities added to the APRA model, including analysis of humidity parameters, inclusion of landing site weather to produce landing availability, and concurrent analysis of multiple sites, to assist in operational landing site selection. In addition, the Constellation program has also expressed interest in the APRA tool, and has requested several additional capabilities to address some Constellation-specific issues, both in the specification and verification of design requirements and in the development of operations concepts. The combined scope of the requested capability enhancements suggests an evolution of the model beyond a simple revision process. Development has begun for a new data analysis tool that will satisfy the requests of both programs. This new tool, Probabilities of Atmospheric Conditions and Environmental Risk (PACER), will provide greater flexibility and significantly enhanced functionality compared to the currently existing tool.

  14. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  15. Research on Decision-Making Support of Chineserural Land Tenure Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Su, Hongyou

    Since 1949, the information of land tenure has a positive effect on defining the scope of collective land and state-owned land, implementing the system of cultivated land protection and land use control, designing general land use planning, etc. But as the economic and social development, the existing land tenure information is not appropriate anymore and results in many problems. The emphasis in the near future should be placed on establishing rural land tenure information system including cadastral management system, the uniform property registration system and cadastral management information system, defining the scope and content of various collective land ownership, securing peasants' land tenure rights, shortening the gap between urban and rural areas, all of which will guarantee the effective use of information of land tenure for the government's decision-making.

  16. Analysis of Correlation between Ionospheric Spatial Gradients and Space Weather Intensity under Nominal Conditions for Ground-Based Augmentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential GPS corrections to aviation users. For GBAS applications, most of ionospheric errors are removed by applying the differential corrections. However, ionospheric correction errors may exist due to ionosphere spatial decorrelation between GBAS ground facility and users. Thus, the standard deviation of ionosphere spatial decorrelation (σvig) is estimated and included in the computation of error bounds on user position solution. The σvig of 4mm/km, derived for the Conterminous United States (CONUS), bounds one-sigma ionospheric spatial gradients under nominal conditions (including active, but not stormy condition) with an adequate safety margin [1]. The conservatism residing in the current σvig by fixing it to a constant value for all non-stormy conditions could be mitigated by subdividing ionospheric conditions into several classes and using different σvig for each class. This new concept, real-time σvig adaptation, will be possible if the level of ionospheric activity can be well classified based on space weather intensity. This paper studies correlation between the statistics of nominal ionospheric spatial gradients and space weather indices. The analysis was carried out using two sets of data collected from Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) Network; 9 consecutive (nominal and ionospherically active) days in 2004 and 19 consecutive (relatively 'quiet') days in 2010. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and vertical ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known 'station pair method' [2]. The remaining biases which include carrier-phase leveling errors and Inter-frequency Bias (IFB) calibration errors are reduced by applying linear slip detection thresholds. The σvig was inflated to overbound the distribution of vertical ionospheric gradients with the required confidence

  17. Weathering on land and transport of chromium to the ocean in a subtropical region (Misiones, NW Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pathway of chromium from its mobilization on land and along its riverine transport in a subtropical region of South America (Misiones Province, Argentina), in an attempt to link Cr stable isotope compositions recently measured in seawater with signals prevailing in rivers.......4‰, balancing the negatively fractionated weathering products. The isotope composition and concentration of dissolved Cr in the ca. 1200 km long Paraná River from Misiones to its estuary and discharge area into the South Atlantic Ocean remains relatively constant with an average Cr concentration around 2.4 ppb...

  18. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  19. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  20. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  1. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation

    CERN Document Server

    Paulescu, Marius; Gravila, Paul; Badescu, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a substantial increase of grid-feeding photovoltaic applications, thus raising the importance of solar electricity in the energy mix. This trend is expected to continue and may even increase. Apart from the high initial investment cost, the fluctuating nature of the solar resource raises particular insertion problems in electrical networks. Proper grid managing demands short- and long-time forecasting of solar power plant output. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation is focused on this issue. Models for predicting the state of the sky, nowc

  2. All-weather volume imaging of the boundary layer and troposphere using the MU radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first volume-imaging radar that can run in any weather, revealing the turbulent three-dimensional structure and airflow of convective cells, rain clouds, breaking waves and deep convection as they evolve and move. Precipitation and clear air can be volume-imaged independently. Birds are detected as small high-power echoes moving near horizontal, at different speeds and directions from background wind. The volume-imaging method could be used to create a real-time virtual-reality view of the atmosphere, in effect making the invisible atmosphere visible in any weather.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective processes, turbulence – Radio science (instruments and techniques

  3. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest.

  4. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  5. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Fumihiko [Communications Research Laboratory, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  6. Research on urban land information system based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang-bao; ZOU Zhi-chong

    2006-01-01

    Urban land utilization plays an important role in city development. We establish the "Urban Land Information System based on GIS" in order to inspect urban land structure and utilize a model automatically. A series of codes abstracted from urban land sustainable utilization significance are used as measures in land inspection. GIS tools combined with "Urban Land Information System" make visible codes calculations and statistical results possible. Useful mathematic methods are cited to analyze the degree urban land sustainable and optimize land structure. By scientific system analysis, relationships among modules and system structure are illustrated clearly. As a result this study has drawn out the "Urban Land Information System" model.

  7. Holocene Landscape Dynamics in the Ammer Rv. Catchment (Bavarian Alps) - Influence of extreme weather events and land use on soil erosion using peat bogs as geoarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Manthe, Pierre; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation and the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by erosion events significantly influence soils and fertility as parts of the ecosystem services and play an important role with regard to global carbon dynamics. Soil erosion is strongly correlated with anthropogenic land use since the Neolithic Revolution around 8.000 BP. Likewise the effect of extreme weather events on soil erosion is of great interest with regard to the recent climate change debate, predicting a strong increase of extreme weather events. Aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene landscape dynamic as influenced by land use and climate conditions. In this study peat bogs containing layers of colluvial sediments directly correlated to soil erosion were used as geoarchives for landscape dynamics. A temporal classification of extreme erosion events was established by dating organic material via 14C within both, colluvial layers as well as their direct peat surroundings. Detection and characterization of peat bogs containing colluvial sediments was based on geomorphological mapping, the application of geophysical methods (ERT - electrical resistivity tomography, GPR - ground penetrating radar) and core soundings. Laboratory analysis included the analysis of particle sizes and the content of organic material. We investigated 16 peat bogs following the altitudinal gradient of the Ammer River from alpine and subalpine towards lowland environments. A deposition of colluvial material could be detected in 4 peat bogs, all situated in the lower parts of the catchment. The minerogenic entry into peat bogs occurred throughout the Holocene as revealed by radiocarbon dating. A distinct cluster of erosional events e.g. during the little ice age could not be detected. Therefore, soil erosion dynamics and the appearance of colluvial sediments within peat bogs must rather be regarded as an effect of land use, actually farming and crop cultivation, or small-scale morphodynamic like

  8. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  9. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  10. THE BENCHMARK LAND PRICE SYSTEM AND URBAN LAND USE EFFICIENCY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China began to introduce market principles and establish price mechanism to better manage land and improve land use efficiency in the late 1980s. Since then, land m.arkets begin to emerge. A benchmark land price system,providing guidelines for land use rights selling and transferring, was established in order to overcome lack of market data and experiences in land transaction. The benchmark prices of land use rights are determined by land use, land use density (floor-land ratio), land grades, land improvement, and tenant resettlement costs. This paper first conducts a formal analysis based on modern urban economic theory. The formal model provides a theoretical foundation in which the bench mark land price system is assessed and evaluated in terms of land use and urban development. The paper then concludes thatthe benchmark price system has two theoretical problens. One is associated with the fact that floor-land ratio plays an important role in land price determination whereas the theory suggests the other way around. That is, floor-land ratio depends on land prices. The other problem is that the benchmark land price system does not provide adequate room for the substitution between land and capital inputs. The substitution is a key in achieving land use efficiency in land markets and urban development process. It is concluded that the practice of the benchmark land price system is at odd with reforms that aim to introduce market principles and mechanism to guide resource uses. Therefore, it is recommended that further land policy reform should be taken.

  11. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  12. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or DARE Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. Advantages of both file types will be listed.

  13. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  14. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or Denver AWIPS Risk Reduction and Requirements Evaluation (DARE) Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Florida. The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, Texas and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at CCAFS to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. The presentation will list the advantages and disadvantages of both file types for creating interactive graphical overlays in future AWIPS applications. Shapefiles are a popular format used extensively in Geographical Information Systems. They are usually used in AWIPS to depict static map backgrounds. A shapefile stores the geometry and attribute information of spatial features in a dataset (ESRI 1998). Shapefiles can contain point, line, and polygon features. Each shapefile contains a main file, index file, and a dBASE table. The main file contains a record for each spatial feature, which describes the feature with a list of its vertices. The index file contains the offset of each record from the beginning of the main file. The dBASE table contains records for each

  15. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  16. Customary land tenure dynamics at peri-urban Ghana: implications for land administration system modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arko-Adjei, A.; de Jong, J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Tuladhar, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Customary land tenure is criticized as dynamic with the institutional framework unable to provide enough tenure security at all times. It is also criticized as ineffective to cope with the trends in land tenure delivery at peri-urban areas where individualization of land and demand for land is high.

  17. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the... Active or Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

  18. Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) of Land Cover Using All Available Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    A new algorithm for Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) of land cover using all available Landsat data is developed. This new algorithm is capable of detecting many kinds of land cover change as new images are collected and at the same time provide land cover maps for any given time. To better identify land cover change, a two step cloud, cloud shadow, and snow masking algorithm is used for eliminating "noisy" observations. Next, a time series model that has components of seasonality, trend, and break estimates the surface reflectance and temperature. The time series model is updated continuously with newly acquired observations. Due to the high variability in spectral response for different kinds of land cover change, the CCDC algorithm uses a data-driven threshold derived from all seven Landsat bands. When the difference between observed and predicted exceeds the thresholds three consecutive times, a pixel is identified as land cover change. Land cover classification is done after change detection. Coefficients from the time series models and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) from model fitting are used as classification inputs for the Random Forest Classifier (RFC). We applied this new algorithm for one Landsat scene (Path 12 Row 31) that includes all of Rhode Island as well as much of Eastern Massachusetts and parts of Connecticut. A total of 532 Landsat images acquired between 1982 and 2011 were processed. During this period, 619,924 pixels were detected to change once (91% of total changed pixels) and 60,199 pixels were detected to change twice (8% of total changed pixels). The most frequent land cover change category is from mixed forest to low density residential which occupies more than 8% of total land cover change pixels.

  19. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, Paul R. [CREW Services LLC, Ellicott City, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  20. Design of the Urban Land Grading Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban land grading system based on the selfdeveloped GIS software.The system establishes the system template,the relevant data structure and the empirical formulas of the affecting factor and economic data of land use.Besides,the system can calculate the service radius,sum and land grade automatically.Furthermore,it can do statistics and query on various land information and show the result of land grading with spatial and attribute data.This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the commercial land grading of the urban area of Wuhan City by the urban land grading system.

  1. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests. D

  2. Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.

  3. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  4. Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levers, Christian; Müller, Daniel; Erb, Karlheinz;

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system...

  5. Validation of the Air Force Weather Agency Ensemble Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    to deterministic models. Results from ensemble weather input into operational risk management ( ORM ) destruction of enemy air defense simulations...growth during the analysis period (Toth and Kalnay, 1993; Toth and Kalnay, 1997). From this framework the ensemble transform bred vector, ensemble...features. Each of its 10 members is run independently using different configurations in the framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF

  6. Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, H.K.; Burgan, R.E.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Klaver, Jacqueline M.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a statistical model for assessing the skill of fire danger indices and for forecasting the distribution of the expected numbers of large fires over a given region and for the upcoming week. The procedure permits development of daily maps that forecast, for the forthcoming week and within federal lands, percentiles of the distributions of (i) number of ignitions; (ii) number of fires above a given size; (iii) conditional probabilities of fires greater than a specified size, given ignition. As an illustration, we used the methods to study the skill of the Fire Potential Index an index that incorporates satellite and surface observations to map fire potential at a national scale in forecasting distributions of large fires. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  7. The importance of terrestrial weathering for climate system modelling on extended timescales: a study with the UVic ESCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marc-Olivier; Matthews, Damon; Mysak, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The chemical erosion of carbonate and silicate rocks is a key process in the global carbon cycle and, through its coupling with calcium carbonate deposition in the ocean, is the primary sink of carbon on geologic timescales. The dynamic interdependence of terrestrial weathering rates with atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations is crucial to the regulation of Earth's climate over multi-millennial timescales. However any attempts to develop a modeling context for terrestrial weathering as part of a dynamic climate system are limited, mostly because of the difficulty in adapting the multi-millennial timescales of the implied negative feedback mechanism with those of the atmosphere and ocean. Much of the earlier work on this topic is therefore based on box-model approaches, abandoning spatial variability for the sake of computational efficiency and the possibility to investigate the impact of weathering on climate change over time frames much longer than those allowed by traditional climate system models. As a result we still have but a rudimentary understanding of the chemical weathering feedback mechanism and its effects on ocean biogeochemistry and atmospheric CO2. Here, we introduce a spatially-explicit, rock weathering model into the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We use a land map which takes into account a number of different rock lithologies, changes in sea level, as well as an empirical model of the temperature and NPP dependency of weathering rates for the different rock types. We apply this new model to the last deglacial period (c. 21000BP to 13000BP) as well as a future climate change scenario (c. 1800AD to 6000AD+), comparing the results of our 2-D version of the weathering feedback mechanism to simulations using only the box-model parameterizations of Meissner et al. [2012]. These simulations reveal the importance of two-dimensional factors (i.e., changes in sea level and rock type distribution) in the

  8. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key principles for building sustainable and Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) Land Administration Systems especially in developing countries where often less the 10 per cent of the land and population is included in the formal systems. New solutions are required that can deliver...... security of tenure for all, are affordable and can be quickly developed and incrementally improved over time. The Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) approach to land administration has emerged to meet these simple, but challenging requirements. It is argued that the FFP approach is the only viable solution to solving...... Administration in collaboration with key partners. This paper presents the conceptual outcome of this project. The resulting GLTN publication will be launched at the FIG Working Week, Christchurch, New Zealand, May 2016. The FFP approach has three fundamental characteristics. Firstly there is a focus...

  9. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless sensor network (WSN technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC. Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance value of 8.2 × 10−4 (°C−1. The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10−2 (Ω/kPa. The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10−2, 9.2 × 10−2, 9.7 × 10−2 (Ω/ms−1 with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction.

  10. The Reform of China's Rural Land System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XibaoGuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the reform of China's rural land system in the past more than 20 years. It reviews the course of China's rural land system reform since 1978 and the enormous contribution that the household contract responsibility system made to China's agricultural and rural development. Then it summarizes the current situation and existing problems in China's rural land system. Finally, it offers some policy suggestions on how to perfect the rural land system.

  11. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Yimyam; Sithichai Lordkaew; Benjavan Rerkasem

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interview...

  12. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, George W. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Procell, Lawrence R. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Sorrick, David C. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Lawson, Glenn E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Wells, Claire M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Reynolds, Charles M. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Foley, Karen L. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blanchard, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-03-11

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 °C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  13. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  14. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  15. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  16. The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar combi systems, solar domestic hot water systems and solar heating plants is investigated. The investigation is based on weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY and weather data measured for a period from 1990 until 2002....... The investigation is based on calculations with validated models. Solar heating systems with different solar collector types, heat storage volumes and solar fractions are included in the investigation. The yearly solar radiation varies with approximately 20 % in the period from 1990 until 2002. The calculations...... show that the thermal performance of the investigated systems varies due to the weather variation. The variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar heating plant is about 40 % while the variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system is about 30...

  17. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  18. An integrated user-oriented weather forecast system for air traffic using real-time observations and model data

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Caroline; Tafferner, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Weather Forecast User-oriented System Including Object Nowcasting (WxFUSION), an integrated weather forecast system for air traffic. The system is currently under development within a new project named “Weather and Flying” under the leadership of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). WxFUSION aims at combining data from various sources, as there are weather observations, remote sensing, nowcasting and numerical model forecast ...

  19. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: A look at integrating unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; DeFelice, Tom P.

    2016-09-01

    Present-day weather modification technologies are scientifically based and have made controlled technological advances since the late 1990s, early 2000s. The technological advances directly related to weather modification have primarily been in the decision support and evaluation based software and modeling areas. However, there have been some technological advances in other fields that might now be advanced enough to start considering their usefulness for improving weather modification operational efficiency and evaluation accuracy. We consider the programmatic aspects underlying the development of new technologies for use in weather modification activities, identifying their potential benefits and limitations. We provide context and initial guidance for operators that might integrate unmanned aircraft systems technology in future weather modification operations.

  20. Using Weather Radar to Optimise Operation of an Urban Drainage System with Distributed Rainwater Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2012-01-01

    The perspective of controlling the local rain water storage tanks for a small catchment is investigated to evaluate if a predictive control reduces the CSO from the storm drainage system. A weather radar based nowcast system is used to predict the actual precipitation two hours ahead. In case...... and with passive local rainwater storage tanks are used as a reference. The results show that local rain water storage tanks reduce the CSO’s by 50% and lower the maximal water levels in the storm drainage system. The active control clearly outperforms the passive storage strategy....... of more than 1 mm rain - the control strategy is set to empty all rainwater storage tanks down to 50% capacity in order to capture a significant part of the approaching rain. This strategy is evaluated though simulation with the MOUSE model. Simulations of scenarios without local storage tanks...

  1. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  2. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  3. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark C.; Wooster, Martin J.; Kitchen, Karl; Manley, Cathy; Gazzard, Rob; McCall, Frank F.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires in the United Kingdom (UK) pose a threat to people, infrastructure and the natural environment. During periods of particularly fire-prone weather, wildfires can occur simultaneously across large areas, placing considerable stress upon the resources of fire and rescue services. Fire danger rating systems (FDRSs) attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning and preparedness purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI), is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. The MOFSI currently provides daily operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian FWI System. However, it is known that the system has scope for improvement. Here we explore a climatology of the six FWI System components across the UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland), calculated from daily 2km × 2km gridded numerical weather prediction data and supplemented by long-term meteorological station observations. We used this climatology to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System, optimised for UK conditions. We find this approach to be well justified, as the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile) fire danger situation vary by more than an order of magnitude across the country. Therefore, a simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied in the MOFSI) may incur large errors of omission and commission with respect to the identification of periods of significantly elevated fire danger. We evaluate our approach to enhancing UK fire danger rating using records of wildfire occurrence and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), Initial Spread Index (ISI) and FWI components of the FWI System generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fire activity across Great

  4. The effects of land surface process perturbations in a global ensemble forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guo; Zhu, Yuejian; Gong, Jiandong; Chen, Dehui; Wobus, Richard; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric variability is driven not only by internal dynamics, but also by external forcing, such as soil states, SST, snow, sea-ice cover, and so on. To investigate the forecast uncertainties and effects of land surface processes on numerical weather prediction, we added modules to perturb soil moisture and soil temperature into NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), and compared the results of a set of experiments involving different configurations of land surface and atmospheric perturbation. It was found that uncertainties in different soil layers varied due to the multiple timescales of interactions between land surface and atmospheric processes. Perturbations of the soil moisture and soil temperature at the land surface changed sensible and latent heat flux obviously, as compared to the less or indirect land surface perturbation experiment from the day-to-day forecasts. Soil state perturbations led to greater variation in surface heat fluxes that transferred to the upper troposphere, thus reflecting interactions and the response to atmospheric external forcing. Various verification scores were calculated in this study. The results indicated that taking the uncertainties of land surface processes into account in GEFS could contribute a slight improvement in forecast skill in terms of resolution and reliability, a noticeable reduction in forecast error, as well as an increase in ensemble spread in an under-dispersive system. This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of land surface processes on predictability. Further research using more complex and suitable methods is needed to fully explore our understanding in this area.

  5. North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to construct quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, land-surface model...

  6. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... CONTACT: Annie Eberhart Goode, Planning Specialist, Ecosystem Management Coordination Staff,...

  7. A Long-Term Wind Speed Ensemble Forecasting System with Weather Adapted Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind forecasting is critical in the wind power industry, yet forecasting errors often exist. In order to effectively correct the forecasting error, this study develops a weather adapted bias correction scheme on the basis of an average bias-correction method, which considers the deviation of estimated biases associated with the difference in weather type within each unit of the statistical sample. This method is tested by an ensemble forecasting system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. This system provides high resolution wind speed deterministic forecasts using 40 members generated by initial perturbations and multi-physical schemes. The forecasting system outputs 28–52 h predictions with a temporal resolution of 15 min, and is evaluated against collocated anemometer towers observations at six wind fields located on the east coast of China. Results show that the information contained in weather types produces an improvement in the forecast bias correction.

  8. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  9. Forest cover change in the upper Midwestern United States results from both climate and land use change following European settlement: Historical survey and weather records provide robust support for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dawson, A.; Dietze, M.; Paciorek, C. J.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Record, S.; Cogbill, C. V.; Hooten, M.; Ruid, M.; Jackson, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Since European settlement, both climate and human land use have acted on forests in the upper Midwestern United States resulting in changes in forest structure and composition. The extent of these changes has been examined locally and at the state level by examining forest records from the Public Lands Survey System (PLSS), but here we bring together records of changing forest composition with weather records from the mid to late 19th century from the 19th Century Forts and Observer's Database. We are able to assign attribution for taxon range and composition shifts in the region to either land use, climate or both. We see that much of the range contraction in the region seen when comparing Forest Inventory and Analysis data with Public Land Survey System data occurs along the prairie margin, with northern forests showing greater stability in both range and composition suggesting a dominant role for land use in structuring regional vegetation. Modern forests are often less diverse than PLSS forests and the mean minimum dissimilarity between modern and PLSS-era forests is significantly higher than the minimum dissimilarity within either the PLSS-era forests or the modern (FIA) forests, indicating the possiblity that our modern forests have already become 'no-analogue' ecosystems.

  10. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  11. Study of One Rainstorm Being Affected by Two Weather Systems in Jinzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study one rainstorm process being affected by two weather system. [Method] Influenced by high trough and Mongolia cold front, high latitude trough and subtropical high shear, rainstorm occurred in Jinzhou from October 19 to 22 in 2010. In order to make the analysis clear, there were two precipitation stages. Considering precipitation, weather situation, satellite image and numerical forecast, the rainstorm process was discussed. [Result] There were two raining stages during this p...

  12. Building Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Bell, Keith; Lemmen, Christiaan;

    2014-01-01

    Arguably sound land governance is the key to achieve sustainable development and to support the global agenda set by adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The operational component of land governance is the country specific land administration systems dealing with the four key func...

  13. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Land Management Planning; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 68 / Monday, April 9, 2012... National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule and record... land management planning rule (planning rule). The new planning rule guides the development,...

  14. All-Embracing Manufacturing Roadmap System

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    All-embracing manufacturing is a system that aims to dissolve the complexity of the manufacturing process and restore the inherent simplicity. It claims that production is very simple and flexible by nature. However, the complexity is a result of the production system approach which makes it rigid and therefore complex. All-embracing manufacturing introduces flexibility to production planning, it eliminates constraints, bottlenecks, and disruptions automatically while it restores the simplicity. No decision is made ahead of time, but only at the time of execution. It introduces technology as dominant part of manufacturing. It is a computer oriented system that imitates human behavior i.e. practically as any of us behave in daily personal life.

  15. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  16. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  17. Regime shifts limit the predictability of land-system change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Daniel; Sun, Zhanli; Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2014-01-01

    (China, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia). The results show how sudden events and gradual changes in underlying drivers caused rapid, surprising and widespread land-system changes, including shifts to different regimes in China, Vietnam and Indonesia, whereas land systems in Laos remained stable in the study...... and livelihoods. This implies that long-term initiatives such as REDD must account for the substantial uncertainties inherent in future predictions of land-system change. Learning from past regime shifts and identifying early warning signs for future regime shifts are important challenges for land-system science....

  18. Design of an aircraft landing system using dual-frequency GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyuki

    There is a strong demand for new all-weather navigation aids to support aircraft precision approach and landing. The Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is one such navigation aid that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate aircraft location. LAAS is required to provide very high levels of accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability, and the integrity requirement of one undetected navigation failure in a billion approaches has been a critical challenge in the design of this system. Tremendous efforts have developed methods to guarantee integrity for various potential anomalies that might threaten LAAS-aided landing. Currently, almost all these risks are mitigated by existing methods. One issue that remains is the risk due to ionosphere anomalies. This dissertation introduces novel integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies that take advantage of GPS modernization---undergoing changes in the GPS system that enhance civil user capabilities. This modernization includes adding new GPS civil signals, and these signals make possible multiple-frequency techniques. This research focuses on two types of dual-frequency carrier-smoothing methods---Divergence-Free Smoothing and Ionosphere-Free Smoothing---and develops integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies using these methods. Simulations show that the first algorithm, using Ionosphere-Free Smoothing, can achieve 96% to 99.9% availability at best over a broad region of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This level of availability is unacceptably low for practical use. However, a benefit is that the resulting availability is not a function of the ionosphere condition. The second algorithm, based on Divergence-Free Smoothing, is shown by simulations to achieve more than 99.9% availability over more than 70% of CONUS under nominal ionosphere conditions. However, it has the potential to completely lose availability under severe ionosphere conditions. Taking

  19. Analysis on Land Ticket Transaction System of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; WANG; Xiaoyan; LIU; Chunxin; ZENG

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing essence of land ticket system of Chongqing Municipality and its transaction process,this paper studies the relationship between government and farmers and between city and countryside,and discusses the drawbacks of land ticket system in Chongqing Municipality. Results show that inherent drawbacks of land ticket system and wrong guidance of policies lead to suspicion of land ticket system occupying rural resources. Interregional exploitation and intergenerational exploitation are inherent mechanism of city exploiting countryside. Finally,it proposes increasing construction land index to satisfy demand of new socialist countryside construction primarily,to ensure rural social stability; Later,use land ticket index to fill the gap of construction land in economically developed areas,so as to alleviate conflict of urban land use and maximize circulation value of rural construction land. It is expected to provide theoretical reference for relevant departments to regulate land ticket transaction system and realize the harmonious development,between urban and rural areas.

  20. Puerto Rico Commercial Landings Statistics 1983 and more recent in Accumulated Landings System (ALS) Compatible Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains multi-trip and single trip level quantities and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and...

  1. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  2. Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Environments on Launch and Landing Availability for NASA's Eploration Systems Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Barbre, Robert E.; Leahy, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. Natural environments information is an important asset for NASA's development of the next generation space transportation system as part of the Exploration Systems Development Program, which includes the Space Launch System (SLS) and MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Programs. Natural terrestrial environment conditions - such as wind, lightning and sea states - can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from prelaunch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Space vehicles are particularly sensitive to these environments during the launch/ascent and the entry/landing phases of mission operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch provides engineering design support for NASA space vehicle projects and programs by providing design engineers and mission planners with natural environments definitions as well as performing custom analyses to help characterize the impacts the natural environment may have on vehicle performance. One such analysis involves assessing the impact of natural environments to operational availability. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of meeting or exceeding various sets of hypothetical vehicle-specific parametric constraint thresholds.

  3. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  4. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  6. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) as the reference model for the Cyprus Land Information System (CLIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elia, E.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the enhancement of the data model of the Cyprus Land Information System (CLIS), with the adoption of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is examined. The Cyprus Land Information System (CLIS), was established in 1999, within the Department of Lands and Surveys (DLS), to support

  7. Information System for Land-Use Planning and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao; MIAO Fang

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain the overall social interest in land use and improve the level of land administration, an information system for land-use planning and management (ISLUPM) was established, which is composed of presentation layer, business logic layer and data layer in the general structure. The application support platform of the ISLUPM, built based on COM, COM+ and .NET standard components, includes data engine, data management, assemblies, components management, operation management, and interface. Then, an elaboration was made on major functions of the ISLUPM, such as planning revision scheme, planning operation flow, digital processing, thematic analysis and inquiry, and preparation of the chart of reserved land resources. The developed system has been successfully applied to the land-use planning and management work of Longquanyi District, Chengdu, China. It may provide a reference for development of geographic information system (GIS) for land and resources.

  8. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  9. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  10. Best Practices for Land Administration Systems in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a post-conference summary of the International Conference on Land Policy Reform that took place in Jarkarta from July 25-27, 2000. The paper concerns best practice in land administration systems. While the paper is focussed on world's best practice, it does so in the context of developing and emerging industrial countries such as Indonesia which have diverse land tenure relat...

  11. Traffic Management Coordinator Evaluation of the Dynamic Weather Routes Concept and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a weather-avoidance system for airline dispatchers and FAA traffic managers that continually searches for and advises the user of more efficient routes around convective weather. NASA and American Airlines (AA) have been conducting an operational trial of DWR since July 17, 2012. The objective of this evaluation is to assess DWR from a traffic management coordinator (TMC) perspective, using recently retired TMCs and actual DWR reroutes advisories that were rated acceptable by AA during the operational trial. Results from the evaluation showed that the primary reasons for a TMC to modify or reject airline reroute requests were related to airspace configuration. Approximately 80 percent of the reroutes evaluated required some coordination before implementation. Analysis showed TMCs approved 62 percent of the requested DWR reroutes, resulting in 57 percent of the total requested DWR time savings.

  12. Using Predictive Analytics to Predict Power Outages from Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hartman, B.; Frediani, M. E.; Astitha, M.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of reliable power is essential to businesses, public services, and our daily lives. With the growing abundance of data being collected and created by industry (i.e. outage data), government agencies (i.e. land cover), and academia (i.e. weather forecasts), we can begin to tackle problems that previously seemed too complex to solve. In this session, we will present newly developed tools to aid decision-support challenges at electric distribution utilities that must mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from severe weather. We will show a performance evaluation of outage predictive models built for Eversource Energy (formerly Connecticut Light & Power) for storms of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms and hurricanes) and magnitudes (from 20 to >15,000 outages). High resolution weather simulations (simulated with the Weather and Research Forecast Model) were joined with utility outage data to calibrate four types of models: a decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), boosted gradient tree (BT) and an ensemble (ENS) decision tree regression that combined predictions from DT, RF and BT. The study shows that the ENS model forced with weather, infrastructure and land cover data was superior to the other models we evaluated, especially in terms of predicting the spatial distribution of outages. This research has the potential to be used for other critical infrastructure systems (such as telecommunications, drinking water and gas distribution networks), and can be readily expanded to the entire New England region to facilitate better planning and coordination among decision-makers when severe weather strikes.

  13. The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  14. Sensor performance and weather effects modeling for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jeffrey H.; Kopala, Edward W.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Pomerleau, Dean A.

    1995-01-01

    Optical sensors are used for several ITS applications, including lateral control of vehicles, traffic sign recognition, car following, autonomous vehicle navigation, and obstacle detection. This paper treats the performance assessment of a sensor/image processor used as part of an on-board countermeasure system to prevent single vehicle roadway departure crashes. Sufficient image contrast between objects of interest and backgrounds is an essential factor influencing overall system performance. Contrast is determined by material properties affecting reflected/radiated intensities, as well as weather and visibility conditions. This paper discusses the modeling of these parameters and characterizes the contrast performance effects due to reduced visibility. The analysis process first involves generation of inherent road/off- road contrasts, followed by weather effects as a contrast modification. The sensor is modeled as a charge coupled device (CCD), with variable parameters. The results of the sensor/weather modeling are used to predict the performance on an in-vehicle warning system under various levels of adverse weather. Software employed in this effort was previously developed for the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory to determine target/background detection and recognition ranges for different sensor systems operating under various mission scenarios.

  15. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.

  16. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish...... power system in 2020. This paper analyses and compares the performance of the future Danish power system during extreme wind speeds, where wind power plants are either controlled through a traditional High Wind Shut Down storm controller or a new High Wind Extended Production storm controller...

  17. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  18. Vision Analysis System for Autonomous Landing of Micro Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a concept of an autonomous landing system of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This type of device is equipped with the functionality of FPV observation (First Person View and radio broadcasting of video or image data. The problem is performance of a system of autonomous drone landing in an area with dimensions of 1m × 1m, based on CCD camera coupled with an image transmission system connected to a base station. Captured images are scanned and landing marker is detected. For this purpose, image features detectors (such as SIFT, SURF or BRISK are utilized to create a database of keypoints of the landing marker and in a new image keypoints are found using the same feature detector. In this paper results of a framework that allows detection of defined marker for the purpose of drone landing field positioning will be presented.

  19. Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Environments on Launch and Landing Availability for NASA's Exploration Systems Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Leahy, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. Natural environments information is an important asset for NASA's development of the next generation space transportation system as part of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs, which includes the Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Programs. Natural terrestrial environment conditions - such as wind, lightning and sea states - can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Space vehicles are particularly sensitive to these environments during the launch/ascent and the entry/landing phases of mission operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch provides engineering design support for NASA space vehicle projects and programs by providing design engineers and mission planners with natural environments definitions as well as performing custom analyses to help characterize the impacts the natural environment may have on vehicle performance. One such analysis involves assessing the impact of natural environments to operational availability. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of meeting/exceeding various sets of hypothetical vehicle-specific parametric constraint thresholds. Outputs are tabulated by month and hour of day to show both seasonal and diurnal variation. This paper will discuss how climate analyses are performed by the MSFC Natural Environments Branch to support the ESD Launch Availability (LA) Technical Performance Measure (TPM), the SLS Launch Availability due to Natural Environments TPM, and several MPCV (Orion) launch and landing availability analyses - including the 2014 Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission.

  20. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  1. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    road weather sensors on their maintenance fleet vehicles to collect vehicular and meteorological data. Data from all three states is sent to a processing system called the Pikalert® Vehicle Data Translator (VDT) that quality checks and uses the data to infer current and forecasted weather conditions.

  2. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  3. The labor/land ratio and India's caste system

    OpenAIRE

    Duleep, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that India's caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longit...

  4. Complex airborne system with combined action on the conditions of risk weather phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the weather phenomena is one of the main concerns of scientists. Initially, theresearches in this area were intended to provide military structures new ways of fighting in wars suchas the wars in Korea or Vietnam and then continued with the development of technologies to combatthe phenomena that affect the normal conditions of agriculture, the environment, etc. -extremephenomena- hail, low precipitation regime, etc. Since the last decade of last century also in Romaniathere were a number of initiatives supported through a national program of research in the fightagainst hail and stimulation of precipitation. In this context, INCAS proposed in 2008 a researchproject to implement a complex airborne system, which carry out actions to limit the effects of extremeweather events on crops and objectives of national and strategic interest, on the basis of informationreceived from a system of sensors located on the air platform and intended for measuring the physicalcharacteristics of the atmosphere. Also, as a long-term effect, the action of the complex airbornesystem may lead to the rainfall regulation and control, with all the implications arising from this(avoiding flooding, providing protection from frost of autumn crop, etc.The aerial platform chosen for this research approach is the aircraft for school and training IAR99SOIM, INCAS being the author of its structural design and also holding the patent for IndustrialDesign nr.00081 registered with OSIM. Project acronym : COMAEROPREC.

  5. About to Lose all the Soil in Zaka’s Ward 5, Zimbabwe: Rewards of Unsustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Makwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion which manifests itself in the form of gullies, rills and sheet wash is animmensely complicated process involving the interaction of many biological, social,economic, environmental and political factors. It varies in its occurrence bothspatially and temporally. The ultimate result of soil erosion is that it reduces cropyields and ruins agriculture, though the exact extent of soil erosion and landdegradation is not known.The study was carried out in Masvingo Province, ZakaDistrict, Ward 5 with 4502 households using the questionnaire survey, interviewand field observations as research methods. The study established that populationpressure ( people and livestock, as evidenced by, cultivation of steep slopes,stream bank cultivation, deforestation and overstocking are major problems .Fromthe results, it emerged that people continue to compound the problem by settlingand extending farmlands on steep slopes, stream banks, grazing land and dambos/veils. Therefore, there is need to educate people on conservation, proper tillage,proper or correct stocking rates, develop a proper land tenure system and avoidingland degradation. There are patches of abandoned land on account of failure tosupport crops or grazing. This means that there is need for soil conservationmeasures to be instituted so as to save the soil from further deterioration. This isnot to say nothing has been done before, rather it is the enormity of the problemthat dictates that form and decisive action needs be taken sooner rather than latter.Measures which have been implemented are fragmented and seem to have metwith very limited, if at all any, success so there might be need to revisit both theapproach ,methods, techniques and strategies which have been tried hitherto witha view to blend them with the yet untried and untested methods.

  6. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  7. Tethered Satellites as an Enabling Platform for Operational Space Weather Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Krause, Linda Habash; Gallagher, Dennis Lee; Bilen, Sven Gunnar; Fuhrhop, Keith; Hoegy, Walt R.; Inderesan, Rohini; Johnson, Charles; Owens, Jerry Keith; Powers, Joseph; Voronka, Nestor; Williams, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Tethered satellites offer the potential to be an important enabling technology to support operational space weather monitoring systems. Space weather "nowcasting" and forecasting models rely on assimilation of near-real-time (NRT) space environment data to provide warnings for storm events and deleterious effects on the global societal infrastructure. Typically, these models are initialized by a climatological model to provide "most probable distributions" of environmental parameters as a function of time and space. The process of NRT data assimilation gently pulls the climate model closer toward the observed state (e.g., via Kalman smoothing) for nowcasting, and forecasting is achieved through a set of iterative semi-empirical physics-based forward-prediction calculations. Many challenges are associated with the development of an operational system, from the top-level architecture (e.g., the required space weather observatories to meet the spatial and temporal requirements of these models) down to the individual instruments capable of making the NRT measurements. This study focuses on the latter challenge: we present some examples of how tethered satellites (from 100s of m to 20 km) are uniquely suited to address certain shortfalls in our ability to measure critical environmental parameters necessary to drive these space weather models. Examples include long baseline electric field measurements, magnetized ionospheric conductivity measurements, and the ability to separate temporal from spatial irregularities in environmental parameters. Tethered satellite functional requirements are presented for two examples of space environment observables.

  8. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  9. Present readiness of and white spots in the Dutch National System for greenhouse gas reporting of the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Dirkse, G.M.; Kuikman, P.J. [Alterra, Green World Research, Wageningen (Netherlands); Daamen, W. [Bureau Daamen, Kesteren (Netherlands); Paasman, J. [Institute for Forests and Forest Products, Wageningen (Netherlands); Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Current LULUCF greenhouse gas reporting by the Netherlands is incomplete. The few sections that are included in the current reporting are done at lower Tiers. Thirty nine existing monitoring systems or databases were identified as possibly relevant for setting up a national system. The systems are grouped as follows : (1) systems for land use and area (mapping), including soil maps:13; (2) data on agricultural and forestry practices that may serve to derive emission factors: 16; (3) data on emission factors including weather and groundwater data: 8; (4) modelling systems: 2. Based on the identified existing systems, the report concludes on the main discrepancies between the ongoing reporting/current monitoring systems and the requirements as set out by the Marrakesh Accords and the 1st draft of the Good Practice Guidance.

  10. A land data assimilation system for sub-Saharan Africa food and water security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Arsenault, Kristi; Kumar, Sujay; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Peterson, Pete; Wang, Shugong; Funk, Chris; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa. These modeled data and derived products, like soil moisture percentiles and water availability, were designed and are currently used to complement FEWS NET's operational remotely sensed rainfall, evapotranspiration, and vegetation observations. The 30+ years of monthly outputs from the FLDAS simulations are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and recommended for use in hydroclimate studies, early warning applications, and by agro-meteorological scientists in Eastern, Southern, and Western Africa.

  11. A land data assimilation system for sub-Saharan Africa food and water security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Arsenault, Kristi; Kumar, Sujay; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Peterson, Pete; Wang, Shugong; Funk, Chris; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa. These modeled data and derived products, like soil moisture percentiles and water availability, were designed and are currently used to complement FEWS NET’s operational remotely sensed rainfall, evapotranspiration, and vegetation observations. The 30+ years of monthly outputs from the FLDAS simulations are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and recommended for use in hydroclimate studies, early warning applications, and by agro-meteorological scientists in Eastern, Southern, and Western Africa. PMID:28195575

  12. Intercomparison of the Performance of CLM3, NOAH, RUC, and STD Land Surface Schemes in the Weather and Research Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 2.2. The performance of WRF-CLM3 in predicting regional climate was quantitatively compared with that of WRF coupled to the soil thermal diffusion (STD), Rapid Update Cycle, and NOAH Land Surface Schemes. These land surface schemes represent a range of complexity within land-surface schemes. CLM3 is the most sophisticated model, with detailed snow and vegetation processes. The STD scheme is oversimplified, which only calculates soil temperature and neglects vegetation and snow physics. The RUC and NOAH schemes are intermediate in the detail, and the major deference between them is that RUC has a multi-layer snow scheme, and Noah has a single snow layer lumped with the topmost soil layer. WRF was driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data II with each of these land surface schemes for one-year simulations over the period, 1 October 1995 to 30 September 1996, resulting in four one-year simulations for intercomparison. Each simulation has 30km-10km two-way nested domains. The 30 km domain includes the western U.S. and eastern Pacific, and the inner domain includes California and parts of Nevada, Oregon, and the eastern Pacific. Our analysis shows that WRF-CLM3 outperforms WRF-RUC, WRF-NOAH, and WRF-STD in simulating temperature and snow when compared with observations. The WRF-STD scheme, which does not include snow and vegetation processes resulted in the poorest results, with a dramatic overestimation of surface air temperature. However, regardless of the land surface scheme chosen, WRF reasonably well reproduces the winter precipitation, a major water resource for California, suggesting that the linkage between land surface processes and precipitation is not explicit. In general, land surface schemes play a significant role in the simulation of regional

  13. Biologically-Mediated Weathering of Minerals From Nanometre Scale to Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Banwart, S. A.; Smits, M. M.; Leake, J. R.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Haward, S. J.; Ragnarsdottir, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Weathering Science Consortium is a multi-disciplinary project that aims to create a step change in understanding how biota control mineral weathering and soil formation (http://www.wun.ac.uk/wsc). Our hypothesis is that rates of biotic weathering are driven by the energy supply from plants to the organisms, controlling their biomass, surface area of contact with minerals and their capacity to interact chemically with minerals. Symbiotic fungal mycorrhiza of 90% of plant species are empowered with an available carbohydrate supply from plants that is unparalleled amongst soil microbes. They develop extensive mycelial networks that intimately contact minerals, which they weather aggressively. We hypothesise that mycorrhiza play a critical role through their focussing of photosynthate energy from plants into sub-surface weathering environments. Our work identifies how these fungal cells, and their secretions, interact with mineral surfaces and affect the rates of nutrient transfer from minerals to the organism. Investigating these living systems allows us to create new concepts and mathematical models that can describe biological weathering and be used in computer simulations of soil weathering dynamics. We are studying these biochemical interactions at 3 levels of observation: 1. At the molecular scale to understand interactions between living cells and minerals and to quantify the chemistry that breaks down the mineral structure; 2. At the soil grain scale to quantify the activity and spatial distribution of the fungi, roots and other organisms (e.g. bacteria) and their effects on the rates at which minerals are dissolved to release nutrients; 3. At soil profile scale to test models for the spatial distribution of active fungi and carbon energy and their seasonal variability and impact on mineral dissolution rates. Here we present early results from molecular and soil grain scale experiments. We have grown pure culture (Suillus bovinus, Paxillus involutus

  14. Weathering Pathways and Limitations in Biogeochemical Models: Application to Earth System Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Current biogeochemical box models for Phanerozoic climate are reviewed and reduced to a robust, modular system, allowing application to the Precambrian. It is shown that stabilisation of climate following a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth should take more than 10(7) years, due to long-term geological limitation of global weathering rates. The timescale matches the observed gaps between extreme glaciations at this time, suggesting that the late Neoproterozoic system was oscillating around a s...

  15. Space Weathering Perspectives on Europa Amidst the Tempest of the Jupiter Magnetospheric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Ip. W.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Europa resides within a "perfect storm" tempest of extreme external field, plasma, and energetic particle interactions with the magnetospheric system of Jupiter. Missions to Europa must survive, functionally operate, make useful measurements, and return critical science data, while also providing full context on this ocean moon's response to the extreme environment. Related general perspectives on space weathering in the solar system are applied to mission and instrument science requirements for Europa.

  16. All row, planar fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  17. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-30

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  18. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  19. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  20. Proceedings of the COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems; Beitraege des Instituts zum COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Flender, F.; Hagen, M.; Hoeller, H.; Keil, C.; Meischner, P.

    1998-07-01

    Across Europe more than 110 weather radars are in operation. More than 60 of them are Doppler radars and this number is increasing steadily. Doppler systems are becoming an operational standard. Most systems operate in C-band, with the exception of the Spanish radar network which is composed of S-band Doppler radars. Radar product composites are available for Scandinavia and Central Europe. National networks exist for the UK, France and Spain. Europe further is fortunate to have 8 polarimetric Doppler radars used mainly for research. In Italy some of those systems are used also for operational nowcasting applications for dedicated customers. The Chilbolton multiparameter Doppler radar operates at S-band. (orig.)

  1. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  2. Retrieval of land parameters by multi-sensor information using the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes

  3. Land System Adjustment in Process of Developing Modern Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jiwen

    2008-01-01

    Under the premise of unchanging the collective ownership and the mode of family business, China should choose land shares pack system as the goal pattern of farmland system innovation.It is hoped that the pattern is accepted and supported by both sides of the government and the farmers,and then it constructs the land reasonable circulation and the effective centralism mechanism, thus realizing smooth transition from the traditional agriculture to the modern agriculture.

  4. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.

  5. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  6. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. De Jong

    2015-11-01

    can periodically place considerable stress upon the resources of Fire and Rescue Services. "Fire danger" rating systems (FDRS attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. MOFSI currently provides operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian System. Here we explore a climatology of the full set of FWI System components across the entire UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland, calculated from daily 2 km gridded numerical weather prediction data, supplemented by meteorological station observations. We used this to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System optimised for UK conditions. We find the calibration to be well justified, since for example the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile fire danger situation can vary by up to an order of magnitude across UK regions. Therefore, simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied may be prone to large errors of omission and commission with respect to identifying periods of significantly elevated fire danger compared to "routine" variability. We evaluate our calibrated approach to UK fire danger rating against records of wildfire occurrence, and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC, Initial Spread Index (ISI and final FWI component of the FWI system generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fires in Great Britain, with performance varying seasonally and by land cover type. At the height of the most recent severe wildfire period in the UK (2 May 2011, 50 % of all wildfires occurred in areas where the FWI component exceeded the 99th percentile, and for each of the ten most serious wildfire events

  7. Updated global soil map for the Weather Research and Forecasting model and soil moisture initialization for the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DY, C. Y.; Fung, J. C. H.

    2016-08-01

    A meteorological model requires accurate initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain realistic numerical weather predictions. The land surface controls the surface heat and moisture exchanges, which can be determined by the physical properties of the soil and soil state variables, subsequently exerting an effect on the boundary layer meteorology. The initial and boundary conditions of soil moisture are currently obtained via National Centers for Environmental Prediction FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis data, which are collected operationally in 1° by 1° resolutions every 6 h. Another input to the model is the soil map generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (FAO-UNESCO) soil database, which combines several soil surveys from around the world. Both soil moisture from the FNL analysis data and the default soil map lack accuracy and feature coarse resolutions, particularly for certain areas of China. In this study, we update the global soil map with data from Beijing Normal University in 1 km by 1 km grids and propose an alternative method of soil moisture initialization. Simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that spinning-up the soil moisture improves near-surface temperature and relative humidity prediction using different types of soil moisture initialization. Explanations of that improvement and improvement of the planetary boundary layer height in performing process analysis are provided.

  8. SPARX: a modelling system for Solar Energetic Particle Radiation Space Weather forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, M S; Dierckxsens, M; Laitinen, T; Crosby, N B

    2014-01-01

    The capability to predict the parameters of an SEP event such as its onset, peak flux, and duration is critical to assessing any potential space weather impact. We present a new operational modelling system simulating the propagation of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) from locations near the Sun to any given location in the heliosphere. The model is based on the test particle approach and is spatially 3D, thus allowing for the possibility of transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The model naturally includes the effects of perpendicular propagation due to drifts and drift-induced deceleration. The modelling framework and the way in which parameters of relevance for Space Weather are obtained within a forecasting context are described. The first results from the modelling system are presented. These results demonstrate that corotation and drift of SEP streams play an essential role in shaping SEP flux profiles.

  9. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.

  10. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  11. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  13. Toward seamless weather-climate and environmental prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Gilbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade or so, predicting the weather, climate and atmospheric composition has emerged as one of the most important areas of scientific endeavor. This is partly because the remarkable increase in skill of current weather forecasts has made society more and more dependent on them day to day for a whole range of decision making. And it is partly because climate change is now widely accepted and the realization is growing rapidly that it will affect every person in the world profoundly, either directly or indirectly. One of the important endeavors of our societies is to remain at the cutting-edge of modelling and predicting the evolution of the fully coupled environmental system: atmosphere (weather and composition), oceans, land surface (physical and biological), and cryosphere. This effort will provide an increasingly accurate and reliable service across all the socio-economic sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of adverse weather and climatic conditions, whether now or in the future. This emerging challenge was at the center of the World Weather Open Science Conference (Montreal, 2014).The outcomes of the conference are described in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G. Brunet, S. Jones, P. Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, 2015). It is freely available on line at the WMO website. We will discuss some of the outcomes of the conference for the WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) long term goals and provide examples of seamless modelling and prediction across a range of timescales at convective and sub-kilometer scales for regional coupled forecasting applications at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).

  14. Evaluation of medium-range weather forecasts about Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model System (KIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Seol, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is a government funded non-profit research and development institute located in Seoul, South Korea. KIAPS was established in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration, KIAPS' primary sponsor. KIAPS is developing the KIAPS Integrated Model System (KIM), a backbone for the next-generation operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. The KIM will be a unified model that can be used for global modeling as well as local areas, particularly optimized to topographic and meteorological features of the Korean Peninsula. We have been completed developing major model components based on KIAPS own research and release the KIAPS beta version model on September 2014. We evaluated the results of KIM by using verification system developed KIAPS, it is composed of standard verification score based on WMO report. The system consists of four parts: verification against analysis, observations, vertical verification and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The results of verification against analysis, we found that increase of error for temperature under 700 hPa. In case of MSLP, poor performance except for tropical region is represented, and the increase of error for geopotential height is shown in tropical region. For verification against observations, positive bias is represented for upper level geopotential height, for low level wind speed in tropical region in summer, for all level wind speed in Northern Hemisphere in winter, and for specific humidity in Northern Hemisphere in summer. As previously stated about the result against analysis, cold bias for low level temperature is shown in Northern Hemisphere in summer. In case of verification for rain about KIM, the model value is underestimated in heavy rain category in summer, on the contrary, that is overestimated in heavy rain category in winter. Overall, there is overestimation in ocean for all models. Our findings indicate that continuing

  15. Space weathering on airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Noble, Sarah K.

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering refers to alteration that occurs in the space environment with time. Lunar samples, and to some extent meteorites, have provided a benchmark for understanding the processes and products of space weathering. Lunar soils are derived principally from local materials but have accumulated a range of optically active opaque particles (OAOpq) that include nanophase metallic iron on/in rims formed on individual grains (imparting a red slope to visible and near-infrared reflectance) and larger iron particles (which darken across all wavelengths) such as are often found within the interior of recycled grains. Space weathering of other anhydrous silicate bodies, such as Mercury and some asteroids, produces different forms and relative abundance of OAOpq particles depending on the particular environment. If the development of OAOpq particles is minimized (such as at Vesta), contamination by exogenic material and regolith mixing become the dominant space weathering processes. Volatile-rich bodies and those composed of abundant hydrous minerals (dwarf planet Ceres, many dark asteroids, and outer solar system satellites) are affected by space weathering processes differently than the silicate bodies of the inner solar system. However, the space weathering products of these bodies are currently poorly understood and the physics and chemistry of space weathering processes in different environments are areas of active research.

  16. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and those ... conditions such as vascular disease or diabetes, the weather does not have to hit 100 degrees to ...

  17. Expert Systems and Weather Forecasting in the 4th and 5th Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, James J.; Gimblett, Randy H.

    1992-01-01

    Fourth and fifth graders built weather measuring instruments, entered data into a computer program that forecasted weather, and compared the resultant forecast with actual weather. As a result of their activities, students took a greater interest in weather phenomena, understood the computer program, and learned to think more logically. (LB)

  18. Biofuels, land, and water: a systems approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Negri, M Cristina; Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Snyder, Seth W; Lafreniere, Lorraine

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. 75 FR 36677 - Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Do a Ana County, NM... vicinity of the Community Pit No.1 in Do a Ana County, New Mexico. DATES: This closure is effective on June.../ 4\\, E\\1/2\\SW\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\, S\\1/2\\N\\1/2\\SE\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\, S\\1/2\\SE\\1/ 4\\SE\\1/4\\. Do a Ana County,...

  20. The auto-tuned land data assimilation system (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...

  1. NEURAL NETWORK BP MODEL APPROXIMATION AND PREDICTION OF COMPLICATED WEATHER SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧; 余志豪; 蒋全荣

    2001-01-01

    An artificial neural network BP model and its revised algorithm are used to approximate quite successfully a Lorenz chaotic dynamic system and the mapping relation is established between the indices of Southern Oscillation and equatorial zonal wind and lagged equatorial eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) in the context of NCEP/NCAR data, and thereby a model is prepared.The constructed net model shows fairly high fit precision and feasible prediction accuracy, thus making itself of some usefulness to the prognosis of intricate weather systems.

  2. A 100% renewable power system for Europe - Let the weather and physics decide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten Grud;

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system....... This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs....

  3. Neural Fuzzy Inference System-Based Weather Prediction Model and Its Precipitation Predicting Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a weather prediction model in this article based on neural network and fuzzy inference system (NFIS-WPM, and then apply it to predict daily fuzzy precipitation given meteorological premises for testing. The model consists of two parts: the first part is the “fuzzy rule-based neural network”, which simulates sequential relations among fuzzy sets using artificial neural network; and the second part is the “neural fuzzy inference system”, which is based on the first part, but could learn new fuzzy rules from the previous ones according to the algorithm we proposed. NFIS-WPM (High Pro and NFIS-WPM (Ave are improved versions of this model. It is well known that the need for accurate weather prediction is apparent when considering the benefits. However, the excessive pursuit of accuracy in weather prediction makes some of the “accurate” prediction results meaningless and the numerical prediction model is often complex and time-consuming. By adapting this novel model to a precipitation prediction problem, we make the predicted outcomes of precipitation more accurate and the prediction methods simpler than by using the complex numerical forecasting model that would occupy large computation resources, be time-consuming and which has a low predictive accuracy rate. Accordingly, we achieve more accurate predictive precipitation results than by using traditional artificial neural networks that have low predictive accuracy.

  4. MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Gebhardt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating forest area at a national scale within the United Nations program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD is primarily based on land cover information using remote sensing technologies. Timely delivery for a country of a size like Mexico can only be achieved in a standardized and cost-effective manner by automatic image classification. This paper describes the operational land cover monitoring system for Mexico. It utilizes national-scale cartographic reference data, all available Landsat satellite imagery, and field inventory data for validation. Seven annual national land cover maps between 1993 and 2008 were produced. The classification scheme defined 9 and 12 classes at two hierarchical levels. Overall accuracies achieved were up to 76%. Tropical and temperate forest was classified with accuracy up to 78% and 82%, respectively. Although specifically designed for the needs of Mexico, the general process is suitable for other participating countries in the REDD+ program to comply with guidelines on standardization and transparency of methods and to assure comparability. However, reporting of change is ill-advised based on the annual land cover products and a combination of annual land cover and change detection algorithms is suggested.

  5. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  6. Domesday 2000 - a National Land Information System for Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, C. E.; Ralphs, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Domesday 2000 Project aims to ensure that by the year 2000 there will be a National Land Information System for Britain, containing up to date information on land and property ownership, value and use. It is proposed that the system will make use of distributed databases connected over a wide......-area network, to integrate data from a wide variety of sources, using GIS technology to enable interested parties to access the on-line information via locally based terminals. This article explains the background to the project, before moving on to discuss the proposed format and data holdings...

  7. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  8. Stormy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the deep abyss of the unknown; a constant source for investigation and discovery, heating and destruction, all simultaneously. Beneath the deep darkness, millions of species vibrantly thrive in another universe wholly untouched by human hands, though affected by their choices. The weathered pieces and people associated with seaside villages, the deep wrinkles that tell a story of one's life and experiences like

  9. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping... General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and remote... while the turning gear is engaged. (b) Automatic control systems must be stable over the entire range...

  10. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  11. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  12. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  13. Extratropical Weather Systems on Mars: Radiatively-Active Water Ice Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Extratropical, large-scale weather disturbances, namely transient, synoptic-period,baroclinic barotropic eddies - or - low- (high-) pressure cyclones (anticyclones), are components fundamental to global circulation patterns for rapidly rotating, differentially heated, shallow atmospheres such as Earth and Mars. Such "wave-like" disturbances that arise via (geophysical) fluid shear instability develop, mature and decay, and travel west-to-east in the middle and high latitudes within terrestrial-like planetary atmospheres. These disturbances serve as critical agents in the transport of heat and momentum between low and high latitudes of the planet. Moreover, they transport trace species within the atmosphere (e.g., water vapor/ice, other aerosols (dust), chemical species, etc). Between early autumn through early spring, middle and high latitudes on Mars exhibit strong equator-to-pole mean temperature contrasts (i.e., "baroclinicity"). Data collected during the Viking era and observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that such strong baroclinicity supports vigorous, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems [Banfield et al., 2004; Barnes et al., 1993]. A good example of traveling weather systems, frontal wave activity and sequestered dust activity from MGS/MOC image analyses is provided in Figure 1 (cf. Wang et al. [2005]). Utilizing an upgraded and evolving version of the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Mars global climate model, investigated here are key dynamical and physical aspects of simulated northern hemisphere (NH) large-scale extratropica lweather systems,with and without radiatively-active water ice clouds. Mars Climate Model:

  14. Urbanization, Rural Land System and Social Security in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhigangXu; RanTao

    2004-01-01

    In China's transition and economic development, temporary migration, lack of basic social security arrangements for migrants, and frequent administrative land reallocation in rural areas and abusive rural land requisition in the urbanization process are all important policy issues that have been studied intensively with lots of policy recommendations. However, these issues are closely related and need to be explored under an integrated framework that takes into account China's large size and characteristics in economic development and transition. The paper aims to establish such an analytical framework and proposes a policy package to systematically address these issues. Implications from such proposed policy package are also discussed and compared to other policy recommendations.

  15. Climate and weather of the Sun-Earth system (CAWSES) highlights from a priority program

    CERN Document Server

    Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some impor

  16. A 10 cm dual frequency Doppler weather radar. Part 1: The radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A. W.; Armstrong, G. M.

    1982-10-01

    Design concepts and test results are summarized for a Doppler weather radar system suitable for precipitation measurements over a wide span of radial velocities and slant ranges, even in the presence of ground clutter. The radar transmits two uniform pulse trains at 2.710 and 2.760 GHz. Uniformly spaced pulses permit ground clutter cancellation of up to 50 dB to be achieved with a three-pole elliptic filter. Pulse spacing at one frequency is consistent with long-range coverage in reflectivity, while spacing of the second is consistent with a wide unambiguous velocity measurement span.

  17. Spectrum slicing WDM for FSO communication systems under the heavy rain weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Florence; He, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, the spectrum sliced wavelength division multiplexed (SS-WDM) is proposed for Free Space Optic (FSO) communication in the heavy rain weather of Changsha, China. The study seeks to investigate the possibility of communication links up to 3 km with 1.56 Gb/s data rate on the wavelength of 1550 nm. A WDM-Demux is used to operate as slicing system. The SS-WDM-FSO system has been realized and investigated for 4 channels with data rate up to 1.56 Gb/s using a continue wave (CW) laser source with and without SS technique. The simulation results show that, using the SS-WDM technique, a data rate of 1.56 Gb/s is achieved over a transmission distance of 2.5 km with the bit error ratio of nearly 9.816×10-11 and the power of 0 dBm. Meanwhile transmitting over FSO channel using WDM without spectrum slicing, the sampled data rate is achieved over a transmission distance of 2.5 km with the BER of 10-3 on power supply of 10 dBm. In addition, the proposed SS-WDM scheme can improve the FSO communication system performance compared to WDM-FSO scheme. Also, its adaptive and scalable network architecture support high bandwidth and wide coverage area over the heavy rain weather, without power penalty.

  18. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...-1104. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ecosystem Management Coordination staff's Planning Specialist... management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) at 16 U.S.C....

  19. Stochastic Analysis of Land Degradation on Edo State Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Edo state, like many other states in Niger-Delta and Nigeria as a nation has resultant land and water degradation problems such as persistent oil spillage, erosion of arable land, sedimentation of dam and reservoirs. This research study investigates the effects of land degradation in all the local government areas in Edo state. The results of the findings indicated that 28% corresponding to 634,416.3 ha of arable land had totally been affected by soil erosion. Highest erodibility index of 0.75 was obtained at Estako west (Auchi, while least value of 0.1 was found at Akoko-Edo local government area respectively. Between 1976 and 1997, 1,820,410.50 barrels of crude oil spilled with maximum spill value 600,511.02 barrels in 1984 and minimum spill of 5,956 barrels in 1989. Reduction of cassava production was estimated and analyzed. The result showed that the reduction is highly significant at 95% confidence interval. Etasko -west had the highest reduction from 7.26 MT/HA in 1993 to 1.1 MT/HA in 2002. In addition, analysis of erosion and land degradation control expenditures showed that little attention has been paid to controlling land degradation in the state. Erosion control expenditure was increased from 4.1% in 1990 to 10% in 2002. This increase is not significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. All these constraints affect agricultural production, human well-being, social and economic growth of the people in Edo state.

  20. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  1. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  2. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  3. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  4. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  6. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We often look "through a glass, darkly" at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers are radiation crusts on cometary nuclei and iogenic components of sulfate hydrate deposits on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. Weathering processes include plasma ion implantation into surfaces, sputtering by charged particles and solar ultraviolet photons, photolytic chemistry driven by UV irradiation, and radiolytic chemistry evolving from products of charged particle irradiation. Regolith structure from impacts, and underlying deeper structures from internal evolution, affects efficacy of certain surface interactions, e.g. sputtering as affected by porosity and surface irradiation dosage as partly attenuated by local topographic shielding. These processes should be regarded for mission science planning as potentially enabling, e.g. since direct surface sputtering, and resultant surface-bound exospheres, can provide in-situ samples of surface composition to ion and neutral mass spectrometers on orbital spacecraft. Sample return for highest sensitivity compOSitional and structural analyses at Earth will usually be precluded by limited range of surface sampling, long times for return, and high cost. Targeted advancements in instrument technology would be more cost efficient for local remote and in-situ sample analysis. More realistic laboratory simulations, e.g. for bulk samples, are needed to interpret mission science observations of weathered surfaces. Space environment effects on mission spacecraft and science operations must also be specified and mitigated from the hourly to monthly changes in space weather and from longer

  7. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  8. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O' Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  9. Study on the Modernization of Collective Land Expropriation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天

    2014-01-01

    Through the discussion of the compensation standard,the use of the expropriation right and the supervision and remedy approaches as three outstanding aspects in China’s col ective land expropriation system,the author discovered the main defects of the system embodied on an institutional level are:low compensation standard,abuse of the expropriation right in the absence of effective supervision power,and the scarcity and inadaptability of remedy approaches.In order to prevent group events from frequently taking place in col ective land expropriation and improve the modernization level of governance capability of the country,the thesis has put forward some related suggestions for the system based on the comparison and learning of relevant foreign systems.

  10. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  11. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  12. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  13. Cascading model uncertainty from medium range weather forecasts (10 days) through a rainfall-runoff model to flood inundation predictions within the European Flood Forecasting System (EFFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Pappenberger, F.; K. J. Beven; N. M. Hunter; Bates, P. D.; B. T. Gouweleeuw; Thielen, J.; A. P. J. De De Roo

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The political pressure on the scientific community to provide medium to long term flood forecasts has increased in the light of recent flooding events in Europe. Such demands can be met by a system consisting of three different model components (weather forecast, rainfall-runoff forecast and flood inundation forecast) which are all liable to considerable uncertainty in the input, output and model parameters. Thus, an understanding of cascaded uncertainties is a necessa...

  14. 澳门大学新校区全天候立体步行连廊设计%The Design of the All-weather Stereoscopic Corridor of the New Campus for University of Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骏; 林燕

    2014-01-01

    澳门大学新校区的全天候步行连廊系统是校园环境的重要组成部分,又是校园各部分之间的联系手段,通过建立立体化多层次的步行系统,实现了人车分流与全校区全天候无障碍步行环境。通过对其建筑设计理念及手法的分析,阐释了立体化多层次步行校园的设计理念。%The all-weather stereoscopic corridor of the new campus for University of Macau,which links the whole campus,is an integral part of the campus environment. By setting up the stereoscopic multi-level walking system, it realizes the separation of people and vehicles and all-weather barrier-free walking environment in the campus. This paper will analyze the design of the stereoscopic corridor to discuss the design idea of the stereoscopic multi-level walking campus.

  15. If ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances observed before strong earthquakes may result from simultaneous impact of space weather on all geospheres including solid earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina

    2016-07-01

    It is revealed in previous decades that ionospheric disturbances precede strong earthquakes, thus, the ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes are now under developing [Pulinets and Boyarchuk, 2004]. Simultaneously, it is revealed that strong earthquakes may be preceded by geomagnetic disturbances as well, as a result, the geomagnetic variations, for example, in the ULF band, are considered now as precursory signals [Fraser-Smith, 1990, doi/10.1029/GL017i009p01465]. At the same time, there is currently no reliable theory nor for ionospheric or to magnetic precursors of earthquakes. Moreover, several researches have reexamined some of above results and concluded that observed magnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes could be generated by other sources, such as global magnetic activity [e.g. Campbell, 2009, doi/10.1029/2008JA013932], and that ionospheric anomalies can also be an effect of the increase of the global magnetic activity [e. g. Masci and Thomas, 2015, doi:10.1002/2015RS005734]. Taking into account such conclusions, one may suggest that the observed ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes might be due to simultaneous influence of a space weather on the complicated surrounding system including the solid earth. This report presents some statistical results to prove such suggestion. In particular, it is shown [Khachikyan et al., 2012, doi:10.4236/ijg.2012.35109] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude (seismic potential) can be determined, in first approximation, on the base of geomagnetic Z-component measured in the Geocentric Solar Magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system, in which the space weather impact on the earth's environment, due to reconnection of the solar wind magnetic field with the earth's magnetic field, is more ordered.

  16. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  17. A Space Weather Forecasting System with Multiple Satellites Based on a Self-Recognizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokumitsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV. The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  18. A space weather forecasting system with multiple satellites based on a self-recognizing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2014-05-05

    This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV). The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  19. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  20. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  1. All-Weather Flight Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    exatlllple, if Vtt wPere sowhtheast. of .otipiis. ilindicator. The ma/mglie~tic heladintg of the (orplus ( hiisti. and wished to Ily ’I) tile (’cous’o...8217" Irby l111 rovidle thet( trac ¢k ,’als forl p)lottinlg llII’lposes. (if courlse, if youl want ’line f,,. a tw,!-li,.’ fix. to know your ipositiolt relative...8217Fill, tI H lt. I,,% l’it 11 !)t( .’mIlk.’ 11 1 VI+’t JIMtl I Ift.% f~t’tl fi ’l( 1 1 0 1 tl’ ]+ CItt.il II-.I,’r ltt t Vtt . t lit’, I’’.tr t, 1,U 1

  2. Relationships between Urban Heat Island Effect and Land Use and Land Cover Change around Urban Weather Stations%城市台站周边热岛效应和土地利用与覆被变化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剋; 顾行发; 余涛; 高志强; 高炜; 刘朝顺

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Landsat TM remote sensing images from 1990 to 2006, the relationship between different types of underlying surfaces and Urban Heat Island (UHI) by analyzing various underlying surfaces from different radius circular buffer zones (with Hefei Weather Station as their center) and their corresponding air temperatures (annual average temperaeure, maximum temperaeure, minimum temperaeure, and fixed time data). It is found that a very strong positive correlation between construction land and UHI and a negative correlation between woodland/ grassland and UHI. There is a relatively strong positive correlation between water body and UHI at night. The influence of different types of underlying surfaces on UHI varies with different hours everyday. As far as range of influence is concerned, construction land is within 6 km; woodland/grassland is within 4 km; farmland influence reaches its peak at 4 km; influence of water body reaches 8 km slowly. At the same time, through analyzing the relationship between yearly Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) and UHI, the authors give more evidence of the vital effect laid by city development on UHL There is a relatively strong correlation between the maximum temperature and the annual variation of heat island intensity at 1400 LST and the yearly variation of LUCC. By the way, UHI decreases dramatically after the moving out of Hefei Weather Statioa At last, the possible reasons for how the correlation between different underlying surfaces and UHI can be formed are discussed.%以合肥市气象站为中心,利用1990~2006年的Landsat TM影像,获取不同半径圆形缓冲区范围内下垫面土地分类信息以及对应年份的气温年均值、极值、日定时数据资料,分析了下垫面各土地类型及其变化和站点周边热岛效应的关系.分析得出:城市热岛与建设用地有着最强正相关,与林草地和耕地有着显著负相关,与夜晚水体有着较强正相关.下垫面类型对城

  3. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  4. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  6. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  7. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  8. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  9. Space Weather Impact on the European Interconnected Power Transmission System at High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Roberta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    High voltage power transmission grids can suffer outages or blackouts during geomagnetic storms (GMS). More specifically, GMS can inject geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) into the power network. Transformers were identified as the most vulnerable components of the power networks: GICs cause transformers to work in saturation regions generating voltage instabilities and eventually driving the system to collapse. Since GMS are expected to cause more pronounced disturbances at high latitudes, we addressed the effects of extreme GMS on the Scandinavian 400 kV interconnected power transmission grid, including Finland, Sweden and Norway. By applying extreme 100-year-benchmark scenarios, we analyzed potential space-weather triggered voltage instabilities in the power grid considering mono-phase transformers, which are known to be more vulnerable to GIC injection, and three-phase transformers, which are more resistant. We assumed that every node of the grid included either transformers of the mono-phase type, or three-phase transformers.Our simulations indicate that the three-phase configuration of the network is significantly more robust than the mono-phase one. Our study indicates that for a system with only three-phase transformers the likelihood of grid collapse is very low, and collapse only occurs for the worst-case scenario with extremely high geoelectric field intensities. In such a case, the increase in reactive power demand caused by transformer saturation is too high for the system to continue to provide power. Our results indicate that lines that experience higher reactive power losses during normal operation are more likely to increase losses during a GMS event. According to our study, the portion of the Scandinavian interconnected power transmission grid most vulnerable to extreme space weather is the part where the highest reactive losses in transmission lines and in voltage magnitudes are observed. This corresponds to the southern parts of Sweden and

  10. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Atsuki Urata, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic-period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  11. A Prototype Web-based system for GOES-R Space Weather Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravel, A.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) makes use of advanced instruments and technologies to monitor the Earth's surface and provide with accurate space weather data. The first GOES-R series satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2015. The data from the satellite will be widely used by scientists for space weather modeling and predictions. This project looks into the ways of how these datasets can be made available to the scientists on the Web and to assist them on their research. We are working on to develop a prototype web-based system that allows users to browse, search and download these data. The GOES-R datasets will be archived in NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) and CSV (Comma Separated Values) format. The NetCDF is a self-describing data format that contains both the metadata information and the data. The data is stored in an array-oriented fashion. The web-based system will offer services in two ways: via a web application (portal) and via web services. Using the web application, the users can download data in NetCDF or CSV format and can also plot a graph of the data. The web page displays the various categories of data and the time intervals for which the data is available. The web application (client) sends the user query to the server, which then connects to the data sources to retrieve the data and delivers it to the users. Data access will also be provided via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and REST (Representational State Transfer) web services. These provide functions which can be used by other applications to fetch data and use the data for further processing. To build the prototype system, we are making use of proxy data from existing GOES and POES space weather datasets. Java is the programming language used in developing tools that formats data to NetCDF and CSV. For the web technology we have chosen Grails to develop both the web application and the services. Grails is an open source web application

  12. An integrated planning and decision support system (IPDSS) for land consolidation: theoretical framework and application of the land-redistribution modules

    OpenAIRE

    Demetris Demetriou; John Stillwell; Linda See

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new planning support system currently under development for land consolidation in Cyprus called LACONISS (LAnd CONsolidation Integrated Support System). The system’s structural framework is outlined and the core land redistribution sub-system called LandSpaCES (Land Spatial Consolidation Expert System) is exemplified using a case study. Model evaluation indicates that the results provide a close fit to those derived by independent human experts. Alternative solutions a...

  13. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  14. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  15. A STUDY ON LAND SYSTEM INNOVATIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL TOWNS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The economic development in China and the rising of the living standard need to speed up the urbanisa-tion. The development of small towns is an important way to Chinese urbanisation. Land use plays a very important rolein the development of small towns. However there are many problems in the development of small towns, esp. in landuse. The paper first discusses the land problems in the development of small towns. Such as much cultivated land liesidle, under-utilization and waste of land, increasing illegal use of land, unstable contractual relationship for land use.The relationship between the development of small towns and land use is also studied. Then the guidelines for the landsystem innovations of small towns are put forward. Namely the sustainability of social and economic development, the bal-ance between land reservation and land utilization, the provision of service to village, agriculture and farmer, the manage-ment of land resource and land assets, the parsimonious and legal use of land. The basic framework of land system innova-tions of small towns is put forward finally. It include the land replacement policy for small towns and the permanent tenan-cy of farmland, the overall plan for land uses and other plans in harmony, the establishment of a flexible system of landsupplies, using land with payments, the transfer of agricultural land and refining the land law related to the constructionof small towns.

  16. Performance Analysis of Hybrid WDM-FSO System under Various Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S.; Jasmine, S.

    2016-09-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is being realized as an effective solution for future accessing networks, offering light passed through air. The performance of FSO system can be primarily degraded by various atmospheric attenuations such as rain, fog, haze and snow. At present, hybridization of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) with Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) becomes necessary to scale the speed and high bandwidth of the services. In this paper, primarily the attenuation values for different weather conditions are calculated. Then the hybrid WDM-FSO system is proposed, designed and the network parameters such as Bit Error Rate (BER), Quality factor (Q factor) and receiver sensitivity are analyzed with respect to link distance for various weather conditions. For investigation, four CWDM (1,510 nm, 1,530 nm, 1,570 nm and 1,570 nm) channel and eight DWDM channels (1,537.4 nm, 1,538.2 nm, 1,539 nm, 1,539.8 nm, 1,540.6 nm, 1,541.4 nm, 1,542.2 nm and 1,543 nm) are considered whose corresponding channel spacing is 20 nm and 0.8 nm, respectively. In addition, the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is inserted at the receiver end in order to enhance the link distance. The proposed hybrid WDM-FSO system is designed to handle the quality of transmission for 12 users, each at a data rate of 2.5 Gbps along an FSO link distance of about 960 km.

  17. Reform of Rural Land System from the Perspective of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue; ZHANG; Zhongxiang; YU

    2015-01-01

    In view of artificially high urbanization rate of China and possible causes,survey and data analysis methods were used to discuss reform of household registration system,and path for promoting rural land system reform. Results show that it is required to eliminate bottlenecks of land system in the advance of new urbanization process. In line with land system bottlenecks of new urbanization,it is recommended to take following measures.( i) Promoting land right confirmation centered land system reform.( ii) Weakening rural land ownership and stressing land use right.( iii) Establishing urban and rural integrated land market and putting an end to low cost urbanization road.( iv) Realizing asset value of rural construction land and tackling the problem of insufficient construction land.( v) Reforming the land expropriation system and increasing the share of gain in land value to farmers.( vi) Implementing different land policies to promote coordinated development of regional social economy.( vii) Establishing land circulation access system to ensure unchanged land use purpose and high efficient use.

  18. Indoor weather related to the energy consumption of air conditioned classroom: Monitoring system for energy efficient building plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanongphisat, W.; Suwannakom, A.; Harfield, A.

    2016-08-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relation of indoor weather to energy consumption of air conditioned classroom by design and construct the indoor weather and energy monitoring systems. In this research, a combined temperature and humidity sensor in conjunction with a microcontroller was constructed for the indoor weather monitoring system. The wire sensor network for the temperature-humidity sensor nodes is the Controller Area Network (CAN). Another part is using a nonintrusive method where a wireless current transformer sending the signal to the data collection box then transmitted by the radio frequency to the computer where the Ethernet application software was installed for the energy monitoring system. The results show that the setting air temperature, outdoor ambient temperature and operating time impact to the energy consumption of the air conditioned classroom.

  19. Matrix effects in applying mono- and polyclonal ELISA systems to the analysis of weathered oils in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S J T; Farmer, J G; Knight, D M; Young, P J

    2002-01-01

    Commercial mono- and polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems were applied to the on-site analysis of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at a former integrated steelworks. Comparisons were made between concentrations of solvent extractable matter (SEM) determined gravimetrically by Soxhlet (dichloromethane) extraction and those estimated immunologically by ELISA determination over a concentration range of 2000-330,000 mg SEM/kg soil dry weight. Both ELISA systems tinder-reported for the more weathered soil samples. Results suggest this is due to matrix effects in the sample rather than any inherent bias in the ELISA systems and it is concluded that, for weathered hydrocarbons typical of steelworks and coke production sites, the use of ELISA requires careful consideration as a field technique. Consideration of the target analyte relative to the composition of the hydrocarbon waste encountered appears critical.

  20. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  1. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  2. Numerical simulation of birch pollen dispersion with an operational weather forecast system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Vogel, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    We included a parameterisation of the emissions of pollen grains into the comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. In addition, a detailed density distribution of birch trees within Switzerland was derived. Based on these new developments, we carried out numerical simulations of the dispersion of pollen grains for an episode that occurred in April 2006 over Switzerland and the adjacent regions. Since COSMO-ART is based on the operational forecast model of the German Weather Service, we are presenting a feasibility study of daily pollen forecast based on methods which have been developed during the last two decades for the treatment of anthropogenic aerosol. A comparison of the model results and very detailed pollen counts documents the current possibilities and the shortcomings of the method and gives hints for necessary improvements.

  3. The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Parker, Tess; Woollings, Tim; Harvey, Benjamin; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-07-01

    Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

  4. A prototype informatics system integrating weather and health data to manage meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Yoksas, T.; Hayden, M.; Hopson, T.; Laing, A.; Lazo, J.; Warner, T.; Rice, J.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Hodgson, A.; Semazzi, F.; Mera, R.; Thomson, M.; Trzaska, S.; Lamptey, B.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation will describe progress in developing the informatics system that will support a newly funded project designed to integrate health and environmental data for health-related decision-making in Africa. This infromatics system supports a project in which the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and North Carolina State University in the United States, and the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana will build and implement a prototype decision-support system that integrates two- to 14-day weather forecasts and epidemiological data to provide actionable information that can be used to contain the spread of meningitis epidemics in Ghana. By applying a preliminary economic evaluation of this decision support system, we will also assess the potential benefit of using environmental data to improve public health outcomes, help prioritize continuing investment in meningitis management in Ghana and throughout the Meningitis Belt, and determine the appropriateness of extending the prototype to other diseases, nations, and continents. This effort is a small piece of an overall Google.org effort to develop an Earth-gauging System that will integrate environmental, health and development data into products that stakeholders and researchers can use to monitor variables, analyze trends and identify relationships among different variables. The Earth-gauging System will support the prediction of emerging threats, and provide the basis for an robust early-warning system that will improve health, food security, and development and conservation outcomes. For the informatics session, our presentation will focus on the projects' leveraging of current UCAR Unidata data management software to create and populate an archive of meteorological and epidemiological data. We will also describe strategies to extend the Unidata network for data distribution - which currently provides real-time access

  5. All-optical sampling OFDM system performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Ye; Hongwei Chen; Chao Tang; Minghua Chen; Shizhong Xie

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a novel all-optical sampling orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system is proposed and analyzed. Time delays and phase shifters are used to realize all optical forward/inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT/IDFT). Different system configurations are tested and analyzed to optimize the performance, including the system capacity, modulation formats, DFT/IDFT constructions,and the width of the sample pulse. The 50- and 100-Gb/s real-time all-optical sampling (AOS) OFDM systems are investigated. All results are analyzed, and useful suggestions are offered for future high-speed applications.%@@ The performance of a novel all-optical sampling orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system is proposed and analyzed. Time delays and phase shifters are used to realize all optical forward/inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT/IDFT). Different system configurations are tested and analyzed to optimize the performance, including the system capacity, modulation formats, DFT/IDFT constructions,and the width of the sample pulse. The 50-and 100-Gb/s real-time all-optical sampling (AOS) OFDM systems are investigated. All results are analyzed, and useful suggestions are offered for future high-speed applications.

  6. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  7. Land-surface parameter optimisation using data assimilation techniques: the adJULES system V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Nina M.; Jupp, Tim E.; Cox, Peter M.; Luke, Catherine M.

    2016-08-01

    Land-surface models (LSMs) are crucial components of the Earth system models (ESMs) that are used to make coupled climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is the land-surface model used in the climate and weather forecast models of the UK Met Office. JULES is also extensively used offline as a land-surface impacts tool, forced with climatologies into the future. In this study, JULES is automatically differentiated with respect to JULES parameters using commercial software from FastOpt, resulting in an analytical gradient, or adjoint, of the model. Using this adjoint, the adJULES parameter estimation system has been developed to search for locally optimum parameters by calibrating against observations. This paper describes adJULES in a data assimilation framework and demonstrates its ability to improve the model-data fit using eddy-covariance measurements of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat (LE) fluxes. adJULES also has the ability to calibrate over multiple sites simultaneously. This feature is used to define new optimised parameter values for the five plant functional types (PFTs) in JULES. The optimised PFT-specific parameters improve the performance of JULES at over 85 % of the sites used in the study, at both the calibration and evaluation stages. The new improved parameters for JULES are presented along with the associated uncertainties for each parameter.

  8. Research Project Entitled "The Dynamics and Physical Processes in The Weather and Climate System" --Part Ⅰ: A Brief Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云峰; 郑文静; 周小刚

    2004-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the Tenth Five-Year Priority Research Projects of the Earth Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) were initiated. After nearly a two-year long process to prepare, the first version of six Priority Research Projects of Earth Sciences was published in October 2001 by NSFC, viz., Local Response to Global Changes, Life Process and Environment,Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System, Continental Dynamics, Regional Sustainable Development, Solar-Terrestrial Environment and Space Weather. The process involved more than 200 renowned Chinese scientists and many departments and agencies in China. The six Priority Research Projects guide the research effort of the earth sciences for the NSFC from year 2001 to 2005.This paper provides a brief introduction to the Third Priority Research Project of the Department of Earth Sciences of NSFC-Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System (DPWOS).

  9. Ensemble forecasting of short-term system scale irrigation demands using real-time flow data and numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Kushan C.; Western, Andrew W.; Robertson, David E.; George, Biju; Nawarathna, Bandara

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation demands fluctuate in response to weather variations and a range of irrigation management decisions, which creates challenges for water supply system operators. This paper develops a method for real-time ensemble forecasting of irrigation demand and applies it to irrigation command areas of various sizes for lead times of 1 to 5 days. The ensemble forecasts are based on a deterministic time series model coupled with ensemble representations of the various inputs to that model. Forecast inputs include past flow, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration. These inputs are variously derived from flow observations from a modernized irrigation delivery system; short-term weather forecasts derived from numerical weather prediction models and observed weather data available from automatic weather stations. The predictive performance for the ensemble spread of irrigation demand was quantified using rank histograms, the mean continuous rank probability score (CRPS), the mean CRPS reliability and the temporal mean of the ensemble root mean squared error (MRMSE). The mean forecast was evaluated using root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) and bias. The NSE values for evaluation periods ranged between 0.96 (1 day lead time, whole study area) and 0.42 (5 days lead time, smallest command area). Rank histograms and comparison of MRMSE, mean CRPS, mean CRPS reliability and RMSE indicated that the ensemble spread is generally a reliable representation of the forecast uncertainty for short lead times but underestimates the uncertainty for long lead times.

  10. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  11. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  12. Application of Refactoring and Design Pattern in Land Information System Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Luyao; YUE Jianwei; JIANG Weiguo; LI Jing; CHEN Yunhao

    2007-01-01

    The unceasing change problem of land information systems can be resolved through the refactoring and design pattern. To promote the implementation of design pattern and refactoring methods in developing land information systems reusing software design, applying refactoring methods to the abstract factory and decorator design patterns in land information system development is discussed.

  13. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system...

  14. Impact of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the potential impact of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian region, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian region. Further, the impact of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).

  15. A novel algorithm for monitoring reservoirs under all-weather conditions at a high temporal resolution through passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Huilin

    2016-08-01

    Flood mitigation in developing countries has been hindered by a lack of near real-time reservoir storage information at high temporal resolution. By leveraging satellite passive microwave observations over a reservoir and its vicinity, we present a globally applicable new algorithm to estimate reservoir storage under all-weather conditions at a 4 day time step. A weighted horizontal ratio (WHR) based on the brightness temperatures at 36.5 GHz is introduced, with its coefficients calibrated against an area training data set over each reservoir. Using a predetermined area-elevation (A-H) relationship, these coefficients are then applied to the microwave data to calculate the storage. Validation results over four reservoirs in South Asia indicate that the microwave-based storage estimations (after noise reduction) perform well (with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.41 to 0.74). This is the first time that passive microwave observations are fused with other satellite data for quantifying the storage of individual reservoirs.

  16. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with different land use systems of Arunachal Pradesh of Eastern Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, A; Nath, P C; Shukla, A K

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the main component of soil microbial population in most agroecosystems. They forms a close association with more than 80% of the plant species making immobilized mineral nutrients available to the plants in order to sustain normal growth and reproduction. In this study the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi has been examined in seven land use ecosystems of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalayan region. A total of 24 species of AM fungi belonging to 4 genera viz., Glomus, Scutellospora, Aculospora and Gigaspora were isolated from the soil samples collected from different land use systems. Glomus was the dominant genera and Glomus occulatum was the most abundant species in all the seven land use systems. Total spore number was highly variable among all the land use systems. Species richness was recorded highest in natural forest that maintains a faster nutrient cycle with the highest diversity index. The Jhum fallow land and tea garden has the least number of AM fungal species due to high disturbance of fire and application of fungicides and inorganic fertilizer. Further the plant species composition, particularly the ground vegetation coverage and disturbance level affects the distribution of the AM fungal species. In our study it has been shown that AMF diversity is significantly affected by the land use practices practiced by the people. Hence, the AM fungi isolated from different land use system may be useful in improving the agriculture practices particularly the plantation crops in the region.

  17. An investigation of an active landing gear system to reduce aircraft vibrations caused by landing impacts and runway excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.; Li, Weiji

    2008-10-01

    A mathematical model is developed to control aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation using an active landing gear system. Equations are derived to describe the integrated aircraft-active system. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are modelled and it is actively controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) strategy. The performance of this system and its corresponding passive system are compared using numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the impact loads and the vertical displacement of the aircraft's centre of gravity caused by landing and runway excitations are greatly reduced using the active system, which result in improvements to the performance of the landing gear system, benefits the aircraft's fatigue life, taxiing performance, crew/passenger comfort and reduces requirements on the unevenness of runways.

  18. Wildfire, Ecosystems and Climate in Siberia: Developing Weather and Climate Data Sets for Use in Fire Weather and Bioclimatic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    A primary driving force of land cover change in boreal regions is fire, and extreme fire seasons are influenced by local weather and ultimately climate. It is predicted that fire frequency, area burned, fire severity, fire season length, and severe fire seasons will increase under current climate change scenarios. Already, there is evidence of an increased number of extreme fire seasons in Siberia that correlate with current warming. Our overall goal is to explore the degree to which current and future climate variability has and will affect wildfire-induced land cover change and to highlight the significance of the interaction between the biosphere and the climate system. Developing reliable weather and climate data provides the backbone of this research, which is to examine the relationships between weather, extreme fire events, and fire-induced land cover change in the changing climate of Siberia. The primary focus in this presentation is the description of the assembled weather and climate data sets and the verification efforts, followed by an example where the data set is used in a fire prediction application. Ground- based weather observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for the years 1983-2006, have been used to verify various modeled meteorological parameters from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) data. Specifically, we have extracted "Summary of the Day" and "Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH)" weather data from the NCDC. The ISH data has been processed to obtain hourly observation times for all stations in Siberia, including Mongolia and parts of northern China. A subset of these stations have been selected for validation purposes if they meet a criteria of having at least 75% of the possible reporting observations per day and 75% of the possible days in each month. GEOS-4 data interpolated to a 1x1 degree grid have compared well with the NCDC station data, covering the burning season from April through September

  19. A weather analysis system for the Baja California peninsula: tropical cyclone season of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, L. M.; Cosio, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    General characteristics of tropical weather systems were documented on a real-time basis. The geographical area of interest is the Baja California peninsula, located in northwestern Mexico. This study covers the warm season of 2007, from May through October, and includes observations derived from radar and satellite imagery as well as reports from a network of rain gauges. A set of graphical products were generated and they were available to the public through the internet. The analysis system has been in operation since the summer of 2005 and it is focused to document the development of tropical cyclones in eastern Pacific Ocean. During the season of 2007, this basin had a total of 11 tropical storms and four of them were within 800 km from the west coast of Mexico (Dalila, Ivo, Juliette and Kiko). Only one system made landfall in the area of interest: Hurricane Henriette which moved across Baja California, the Gulf of California and a portion of the state of Sonora. This presentation provides an overview of the graphical products along with lessons learned from the season studied, collaborations with local emergency managers and plans for the upcoming season of 2008.

  20. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  1. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiefang; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  2. ALL INCLUSIVE SYSTEM ADOPTION WITHIN ROMANIAN TOURIST SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The all-inclusive system has greatly developed in countries with a traditional tourism branch. Regarding the degree of implementation of this system in the tourist unities from Romania, we can say that it is a very low one, found generally, exclusively in the resorts from the Black Sea coast. Throughout this paper we present a series of general aspects which characterize the all-inclusive system, both positive and negative aspects concerning its implementation, but also a series of aspects which characterize the present situation of the use of this system in Romania, respectively its perspectives, starting with the statements of the representants from the Romanian tourism domain.

  3. Structure Design of a Vehicle-borne All-around Weather Indemnificatory Radar%某车载综合气象保障雷达结构总体设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许家民; 徐法东; 郭月霞

    2012-01-01

    Weather radar can effectively forecast weather disasters. Considering the function independence of present weather radar, the paper designs a highly integrated vehicle-borne all-around weather indemnificatory radar which consists of an X band precipitation radar, an L band wind-finding radar and an automatic weather station. By referring to the structural characteristic, function and using condition of the radar, the paper pres- ents the make-up and layout of the radar equipments, and describes the key technology and some necessary calculations of the structural design. The radar can provide all-around weather indemnificatory service for weather forecasting and sailing safety, and has wide atmlication value.%气象雷达是用来预报灾害性天气的有效手段之一,文中针对目前气象雷达功能的独立性,设计了1部集成度高的车载综合气象保障雷达,该雷达由1部X波段测雨雷达、1部L波段测风雷达和l台自动气象站组成。结合该雷达的结构特点、功能以及使用条件等,论述了设备的结构组成、布局、结构总体设计的关键技术以及必要的分析和计算。该雷达能为预报天气和保障航行安全提供综合气象保障服务,具有较广的应用价值。

  4. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  5. Land-use implications of wind-energy-conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noun, R. J.

    1981-02-01

    An estimated 20 utilities in the United States are now investigating potential wind machine sites in their areas. Identifying sites for wind machine clusters (wind farms) involves more than just finding a location with a suitable wind resource. Consideration must also be given to the proximity of sites to existing transmission lines, environmental impacts, aesthetics, and legal concerns as well as the availability of and alternative uses for the land. These issues have made it increasingly difficult for utilities to bring conventional power plants on-line quickly. Utilities are now required, however, to give careful consideration to specific legal, social, and environmental questions raised by the siting of wind energy conversion systems.

  6. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  7. Alternating Current All-electrical Gun Control System in Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The ac all-electrical gun control system is composed of permanent magnetic synchronous machine-drive control systems and the ball-screw by replacing the complicated electrohydraulic systems. At the same time, the variable-structure system with sliding modes makes the gun control systems to have higher performances using the only rate flexure gyroscope. Thereby, vehicle hull gyroscope and angular gyroscope are left out.The new ac all-electrical gun control systems developed are reduced by 40 per cent in weight, decreased by 30 per cent in volume, increased by 35 per cent in efficiency, and enhanced by three times in service life as compared to the current gun control systems.

  8. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  9. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210 Section 972.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS....210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  10. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  11. The Role Played by Blocking Systems over Europe in Abnormal Weather over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the role played by blocking high systems over Europe in abnormal weather over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in summer 2010. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data of several meteorological elements such as surface air temperature, wind, sea level pressure, relative humidity, outgoing long wave radiation, precipitation rate, and geopotential height at level 500 hpa for summer seasons for the period 1948–2012 and in particular of summer 2010 have been used and analyzed through the present work. Furthermore, the corresponding daily and monthly mean values of climatic indices NAO index, SOI, and El-Nino3.4 have been analyzed. The results uncovered that air current in the upper atmosphere over Europe and NAO, SOI and El-Nino3.4 have impacts on the weather conditions over KSA through the study period 1948–2012. During the period of persistence of blocking system over Europe in summer 2010, results revealed that; weather in KSA was fully controlled by two abnormal weather regimes. The first one is the European blocking system and negative anomaly of NAO from the north. The second one is the positive anomaly of SOI and negative anomaly of El-Nino3.4.

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. Land use change and human systems dynamics: Cotacachi Ecuador 1963-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reports on a study to analyze land-use change over 40 years in Cotacachi, Ecuador, link land-use change to human system dynamics, and discuss implications for sustainability. BA-2 (SANREM-Andes Research)

  14. A parsimonious land data assimilation system for the SMAP/GPM satellite era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land data assimilation systems typically require complex parameterizations in order to: define required observation operators, quantify observing/forecasting errors and calibrate a land surface assimilation model. These parameters are commonly defined in an arbitrary manner and, if poorly specified,...

  15. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  16. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  17. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  18. Cantronic Systems Takes Active Night Vision to the Next Level By Breaking 800m (2600 ft) Mark in Total Darkness and Demanding Weather Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Capturing clear images in total darkness from up to 800m (2600 ft) away in demanding weather conditions and total darkness isnow possible with Cantronic Systems' CIRPS00m Active Infrared Night Vision System. Cantronic Systems, Inc.

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel boundaries for all properties within Phillips County, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Phillips County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels for all of Walworth County, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2000. It...

  1. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  2. Solving All-SAT Problems by P Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; JI Jinfang; CHEN Haizhu; LIU Ran

    2015-01-01

    — The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a well known NP-complete problem. Obtaining All of the truth assignments of SAT is called All-SAT and it has numerous applications in artificial intelligence and computer theo-ries. Many algorithms about SAT have been built, but how to solve All-SAT is still diffi cult. P system is a new distributed and parallel computation model. We use mem-brane division, which is frequently investigated to obtain an exponential working space in a linear time, to design a family of P systems to solve All-SAT in polynomial time. Our work provides a new and eff ective solution to All-SAT in a distributed and parallel manner.

  3. A Systems Analysis of Alternative Concepts for Aircrew Cold Weather Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Boot, Mountain Gloves Leather Shells with Wool Inserts Nomex Flight Gloves Headwear Cap, cold weather Balaclava Flight Helmet, SPH-4 𔄀. ;’, 62...accommodate easy drying to minimize cold injuries. (9) Must be compatible with existing/developmental protectIve aircrew headwear (flight helmet) during flight... Headwear for survival situations should consist of the standard cap, cold weather, and/or face masks used in conjunction with the parka hood. (10

  4. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  5. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  6. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  7. Accurately Estimating the State of a Geophysical System with Sparse Observations: Predicting the Weather

    CERN Document Server

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the a...

  8. Assimilation of Satellite Based Soil Moisture Data in the National Weather Service's Flash Flood Guidance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D.; Lakhankar, T.; Cosgrove, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability increases the probability of frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of flood events. After rainfall, soil moisture is the most important factor dictating flash flooding, since rainfall infiltration and runoff are based on the saturation of the soil. It is difficult to conduct ground-based measurements of soil moisture consistently and regionally. As such, soil moisture is often derived from models and agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) use proxy estimates of soil moisture at the surface in order support operational flood forecasting. In particular, a daily national map of Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is produced that is based on surface soil moisture deficit and threshold runoff estimates. Flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study analyzes the accuracy and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas-Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) System using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparison of the GFFG and real-time Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Improved flash flood forecasting requires accurate and high resolution soil surface information. The remote sensing observations of soil moisture can improve the flood forecasting accuracy. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are two

  9. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    horizontal grid spacing inner domain centered near San Diego, California. The San Diego area contains a mixture of urban , suburban, agricultural, and...Global Forecast System (GFS) model (Environmental Modeling Center 2003). The WRE–N is envisioned to be a rapid-update cycling application of WRF–ARW...surface– hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Monthly Weather Review. 2001a

  10. Land-Based Mobile Laser Scanning Systems: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.

    2011-09-01

    Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  11. LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  12. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  13. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  14. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  15. National Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Program Center conducted a land cover analysis to determine land cover types, acres and their subsequent percentages for the National Wildlife...

  16. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  17. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land

  18. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  19. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  20. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, climate considerations have received increasing attention from urban designers and land-use planners. Because of legal binding requirements and/or a growing awareness regarding climate change, scholars and practitioners have already started to think about urban designs and land-use patterns that may contribute to face the climate change challenge. (e.g. Bulkeley, 2006; Shaw et al., 2007; Davoudi et al., 2009) The thorough analysis of spatial planning documents - e.g. SCoT (Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale) adopted in the Île-de-France Region (i.e. Paris region) - we have made and will report on has revealed the two main ways through which climate change action is thought about and for which measures are encouraged at the territorial level: 1. via mitigation strategy, i.e. solutions to either limit atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions or to capture them (e.g. urban structures that aim at limiting transportation-related emissions by promoting compact settlements, bioclimatic principles in urban and architectural designs that aim at reducing energetic consumption). Such solutions will in fine affect the global level of CO2 in the atmosphere, and thereby contribute to limit global warming. Local/regional effects may however not be felt by citizens and decision makers as they depend on the magnitude of the changes at the global scale; 2. via adaptation strategy, i.e. solutions to cope with adverse local/regional consequences of climate change. The global climate in this case is seen as a driver of local changes. Actions will be undertaken to moderate negative impacts of global climate change, potentially at costs, by reducing the vulnerability of local human communities and biological ecosystems on the concerned area (e.g. flood prevention systems, countermeasures to urban heat islands). We can wonder whether this traditional way of approaching the climate change action, based on a double mitigation-adaptation strategy, does not restrain the

  1. Space Weather Influence on Power Systems: Prediction, Risk Analysis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy

    2016-04-01

    This report concentrates on dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of optical elements for complex characterization of damages using physical model of solid state lasers and predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. The following main subjects will be covered by our report: (a) solid-state laser model; (b) mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment; and (c) software for modeling and prediction of ionizing radiation. A probabilistic risk assessment method for solid-state lasers is presented with consideration of some deterministic and stochastic factors. Probabilistic risk assessment is a comprehensive, structured, and logical analysis method aimed at identifying and assessing risks in solid-state lasers for the purpose of cost-e®ectively improving their safety and performance. This method based on the Conditional Value-at-Risk measure (CVaR) and the expected loss exceeding Value-at-Risk (VaR). We propose to use a new dynamical-information approach for radiation damage risk assessment of laser elements by cosmic radiation. Our approach includes the following steps: laser modeling, modeling of ionizing radiation in°uences on laser elements, probabilistic risk assessment methods, and risk minimization. For computer simulation of damage processes at microscopic and macroscopic levels the following methods are used: () statistical; (b) dynamical; (c) optimization; (d) acceleration modeling, and (e) mathematical modeling of laser functioning. Mathematical models of space ionizing radiation in°uence on laser elements were developed for risk assessment in laser safety analysis. This is a so-called `black box' or `input-output' models, which seeks only to reproduce the behaviour of the system's output in response to changes in its inputs. The model inputs are radiation in°uences on laser systems and output parameters are dynamical characteristics of the solid laser. Algorithms and software for optimal structure and parameters of

  2. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Meteorites: Implications for Weathering Rates, Meteorite Flux, and Early Solar System Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, P. A. [Open University, Planetary Science Research Institute (United Kingdom); Berry, F. J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Jull, A. J. T. [University of Arizona, NSF Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Analyses (United States); Smith, T. B. [Open University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bevan, A. W. R. [Western Australian Museum, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (Australia); Cadogan, J. M. [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia); Sexton, A. S.; Franchi, L. A.; Pillinger, C. T. [Open University, Planetary Science Research Institute (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-15

    Ordinary chondrite finds, terrestrial age dated using {sup 14}C analyses, from different meteorite accumulation sites, have been examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy to quantitatively determine terrestrial oxidation. We observe differences in weathering rates between sites, and also between different chondrite groups. A comparison of weathering over time, and its effect in 'eroding' meteorites, together with the number and mass distribution of meteorites in each region, enables us to derive estimates of the number of meteorite falls over a given mass per year. Studies of how the oxygen isotopic composition of samples varies with weathering indicate that incipient alteration may occur without a pronounced isotopic effect, possibly due to weathering of silicates to topotactically oriented smectite confined spaces where the water volume is limited. This finding has profound implications for the use of oxygen isotopes as a tool in understanding water-rock interaction. It also may reconcile previously contradictory data regarding the nebular or asteroidal location of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration. Finally, Moessbauer spectroscopy is also found to be a useful tool in determining mineral abundance in carbonaceous chondrites, where a fine-grained matrix makes traditional approaches inapplicable. Again, the results have implications for the modification of chondritic materials in the early solar system.

  3. No evidence of general CO2 insensitivity in ferns: one stomatal control mechanism for all land plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Britton-Harper, Zoe J

    2016-08-01

    Stomatal regulation of plant carbon uptake and water loss under changing environmental conditions was a crucial evolutionary step in the colonization of land by plants. There are currently two conflicting models describing the nature of stomatal regulation across terrestrial vascular plants: the first is characterized by a fundamental mechanistic similarity across all lineages, and the second is characterized by the evolution of major differences in angiosperms compared with more ancient lineages. Specifically, the second model posits that stomata of ferns lack a response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca ) and therefore cannot regulate leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (ci ). We compared stomatal sensitivity to changes in ca in three distantly related fern species and a representative angiosperm species. Fern and angiosperm stomata responded strongly and similarly to changes in ca . As a result, ci /ca was maintained within narrow limits during ca changes. Our results challenge the model in which stomata of ferns generally lack a response to elevated ca and that angiosperms evolved new dynamic mechanisms for regulating leaf gas exchange that differ fundamentally from ferns. Instead, the results are consistent with a universal stomatal control mechanism that is fundamentally conserved across ferns and angiosperms, and therefore likely all vascular plant divisions.

  4. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  5. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  6. Assimilation of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrievals in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Cae, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable for weather prediction because of its influence on evaporation. It is of critical importance for drought and flood monitoring and prediction and for public health applications. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has implemented a new module in the NASA Land Information System (LIS) to assimilate observations from the ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. SMOS Level 2 retrievals from the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah LSM within LIS via an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The retrievals have a target volumetric accuracy of 4% at a resolution of 35-50 km. Parallel runs with and without SMOS assimilation are performed with precipitation forcing from intentionally degraded observations, and then validated against a model run using the best available precipitation data, as well as against selected station observations. The goal is to demonstrate how SMOS data assimilation can improve modeled soil states in the absence of dense rain gauge and radar networks.

  7. Land Management for Climate Change Mitigation and Geoengineering - Are Earth System Models up to the Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the terrestrial models included in Earth system models simulate changes to the land surface from human activities. In the Community Land Model (CLM), for example, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, soil tillage, wood harvesting, and numerous crop types are represented in addition to anthropogenic land-cover change (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, and afforestation). These land uses are included in the models because they have a strong influence on the hydrological cycle (irrigation), crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions (nitrogen fertilization, crop type), and carbon storage (wood harvesting, tillage). However, the representation of these processes in Earth system models is uncertain, as is the specification of transient changes from 1850 through the historical era and into the future. A more fundamental aspect of land surface models is the coupling of land and atmosphere through exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum. Here, too, anthropogenic activities can affect climate through land-cover change and land management. Eddy covariance flux tower analyses suggest that the land management effects are as significant as the land-cover change effects. These analyses pose a challenge to land surface models - How well do the models simulate the effects of land management (e.g., changes in leaf area index or community composition) on surface flux exchange with the atmosphere? Here I use the CLM and a new, advanced multilayer canopy flux model to illustrate challenges in model surface fluxes and the influence of land management on surface fluxes.

  8. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...

  9. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  10. Land use planning of paddy field using geographic information system and land evaluation in West Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning analysis to increase rice production either through intensiḀcation of existing paddy Ḁeld area or ex-tensiḀcation in potential land area was conducted in West Lombok Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Existing paddy Ḁeld was delineated using high-resolution data from IKONOS imagery of 2012. Land use and land cover outside existing paddy Ḁeld were interpreted using SPOT-5 imagery of 2012. ἀe Automated Land Evaluation System (ALES was used for land suitability analysis for paddy. ἀe results are interpreted in terms of the potential of paddy Ḁeld intensiḀcation in existing paddy Ḁeld area and the potential of extensiḀcation in land potentially used for paddy Ḁeld. ἀe result of analysis showed that in West Lombok Regency, there are still possible to do intensiḀcation and extensiḀca-tion of paddy Ḁeld to increase rice production in order to improve regional food security.

  11. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  12. Optical Obstacle Avoidance System for Lunar and Mars Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The systems developed at fibertek for Obstacle-Avoidance has so far all been operated at 1560nm. Such an operation is required due to the required eye-safety...

  13. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  14. Use of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances in the Weather Research and Forecasting 3DVAR assimilation system for mesoscale weather predictions over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    A set of assimilation experiments is conducted with the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system associated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The purpose of the investigation is to assess the impact on forecast skill in response to assimilation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) clear-sky and cloud-cleared radiances over the Indian region. This is the first study that makes use of cloud-cleared radiances in the WRF system. Two sets of thirty-one 72 h forecasts are performed, all initialized at 00:00 UTC each day throughout the month of July 2010, to compare the model performance consequent to assimilation of clear-sky versus cloud-cleared radiances. A rigorous validation is produced against National Centers for Environmental Prediction analyzed wind, temperature, and moisture. In addition, the precipitation forecast skill is assessed against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observations. The results show improvement in forecast skill consequent to the assimilation of cloud-cleared radiances (CCR). The implications of using CCR for operational weather forecasting appear to be significant. Since only a small fraction of AIRS channels are cloud-free, information obtained in cloudy regions, which is meteorologically very significant, is lost when assimilating only clear-sky radiances (CSR). On the contrary, assimilation of CCR allows a larger yield, which leads to improved model performance. The assimilation of CCR resulted in significantly improved rainfall prediction compared to that obtained from the use of CSR. The finding of this study clearly shows the advantage of CCR available from clear-sky as well as from partly cloudy regions as compared to CSR, which are available only in clear-sky regions.

  15. Meta-All: a system for managing metabolic pathway information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Uwe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many attempts are being made to understand biological subjects at a systems level. A major resource for these approaches are biological databases, storing manifold information about DNA, RNA and protein sequences including their functional and structural motifs, molecular markers, mRNA expression levels, metabolite concentrations, protein-protein interactions, phenotypic traits or taxonomic relationships. The use of these databases is often hampered by the fact that they are designed for special application areas and thus lack universality. Databases on metabolic pathways, which provide an increasingly important foundation for many analyses of biochemical processes at a systems level, are no exception from the rule. Data stored in central databases such as KEGG, BRENDA or SABIO-RK is often limited to read-only access. If experimentalists want to store their own data, possibly still under investigation, there are two possibilities. They can either develop their own information system for managing that own data, which is very time-consuming and costly, or they can try to store their data in existing systems, which is often restricted. Hence, an out-of-the-box information system for managing metabolic pathway data is needed. Results We have designed META-ALL, an information system that allows the management of metabolic pathways, including reaction kinetics, detailed locations, environmental factors and taxonomic information. Data can be stored together with quality tags and in different parallel versions. META-ALL uses Oracle DBMS and Oracle Application Express. We provide the META-ALL information system for download and use. In this paper, we describe the database structure and give information about the tools for submitting and accessing the data. As a first application of META-ALL, we show how the information contained in a detailed kinetic model can be stored and accessed. Conclusion META-ALL is a system for managing

  16. Development of a Chinese land data assimilation system: its progress and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of land data assimilation is to merge multi-source observations into the dynamics of land surface model for improving the estimation of land surface states. We have developed a land data assimilation system for China's land territory. In this system, the Common Land Model and Simple Biosphere Model 2 are used to simulate land surface processes. The radiative transfer models of thawed and frozen soil, snow, lake, and vegetation are used as observation operators to transfer model predictions into estimated brightness temperatures. A Monte-Carlo based sequential filter, the ensemble Kalman filter, is implemented as data assimilation method to integrate modeling and observation. The system is capable of assimilating passive microwave remotely sensed data such as special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I), TRMM microwave imager (TMI), and advanced microwave scanning radiometer enhanced for EOS (AMSRE) and the conventional in situ measurements of soil and snow. A spatiotemporally consistent assimilated dataset for soil moisture, soil temperature, snow and frozen soil, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree and temporal resolution of one hour, has been produced. This paper introduces the development of Chinese land data assimilation system and the progress made on data assimilation algorithms, land surface modeling, microwave remote sensing of land surface hydrological variables, and the preparation of atmospheric forcing data. The distinct characteristics and challenges of developing land data assimilation system and the perspectives for future development are also discussed .

  17. Efficient power supply in all weather conditions. Space satellite monitoring ensures reliable, low-cost power supply; Effiziente Stromversorgung trotz Wetterkapriolen. Dank Waechter aus dem All noch sicherere und guenstigere Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-06-11

    Weather conditions are an important influencing factor in power generation, distribution and consumption. Long-distance power suppliers like the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) therefore keep an eye on the weather. Satellites provide valuabe information that is tailored to the specific requirements of the power industry. [Deutsch] Die Witterung zaehlt noch immer zu den wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren bei der Produktion, der Verteilung und beim Verbrauch von Strom. Es liegt deshalb auf der Hand, dass grosse Ueberlandwerke, wie die Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK), ein wachsames Auge auf das Wettergeschehen richten. Seit kurzem liefern ihnen Wettersatelliten wertvolle Entscheidungshilfen, die auf die besonderen Anforderungen der Stromproduktion zugeschnitten sind. (orig.)

  18. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  19. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented...... bonded by ultrasonic welding. In the sub-projects of this PhD, improvements have been made to multiple aspects of fabricating and conducting droplet (or multiphase) microfluidics: • Design phase: Numerical prediction of the capillary burst pressure of a multiphase system. • Fabrication: Two new types...... here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation...

  20. Implementation of a new aerosol HAM model within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mashayekhi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new coupled system of aerosol HAM model and the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF model is presented in this paper. Unlike the current aerosol schemes used in WRF model, the HAM is using a "pseudomodal" approach for the representation of the particle size distribution. The aerosol components considered are sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter, sea salt and mineral dust. The preliminary model results are presented for two different 6-day simulation periods from 22 to 28 February 2006 as a winter period and 6 to 12 May 2006 as a mild period. The mean shortwave radiation and thermal forcing were calculated from the model simulations with and without aerosols feedback for two simulation periods. A negative radiative forcing and cooling of the atmosphere were found mainly over the regions of high emission of mineral dust. The absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon caused warming effects in some regions with positive radiative forcing. The simulated daily mean sulfate mass concentration showed a rather good agreement with the measurements in the European EMEP network. The diurnal variation of the simulated hourly PM10 mass concentration at Tehran was also qualitatively close to the observations in both simulation periods. The model captured diurnal cycle and the magnitude of the observed PM10 concentration during most of the simulation periods. The differences between the observed and simulated PM10 concentration resulted mostly from limitation of the model in simulating the clouds and precipitation, transport errors and uncertainties in the particulate emission rates. The inclusion of aerosols feedback in shortwave radiation scheme improved the simulated daily mean shortwave radiation fluxes in Tehran for both simulation periods.

  1. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  2. All-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-08-06

    The current rapid industrial development causes the serious energy and environmental crises. Photocatalyts provide a potential strategy to solve these problems because these materials not only can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources but also can decompose organic pollutants under solar-light irradiation. However, the aforementioned applications require photocatalysts with a wide absorption range, long-term stability, high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for a single-component photocatalyst to simultaneously fulfill all these requirements. The artificial heterogeneous Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, mimicking the natural photosynthesis process, overcome the drawbacks of single-component photocatalysts and satisfy those aforementioned requirements. Such multi-task systems have been extensively investigated in the past decade. Especially, the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems without redox pair have been widely used in the water splitting, solar cells, degradation of pollutants and CO2 conversion, which have a huge potential to solve the current energy and environmental crises facing the modern industrial development. Thus, this review gives a concise overview of the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, including their composition, construction, optimization and applications.

  3. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. The resulting system, the NCA - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS), is a NASA contribution to the NCA. The outputs of the NCA-LDAS contribute to the development and evaluation of a suite of water indicators. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and validation data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. Currently released data include NCA-LDAS outputs from the Noah Land Surface Model version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and Catchment Land Surface Model version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5) and the post- processed data sets for the routing variables. The NCA-LDAS data have temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively, of daily and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N ~ 53N; 125W ~ 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2012. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent netCDF-4 format. The data contain a set of water- and energy-related Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The NCA-LDAS data are archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/NCA_LDAS), THREDDS (http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/thredds/catalog.html), and Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation describes the main characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and data services (access, subsetting, visualization, and analysis). The major differences between the NCA-LDAS data and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data are discussed

  4. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  5. Towards an Integrated Global Land Cover Monitoring and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Herold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover mapping has evolved in a number of ways over the past two decades including increased activity in the areas of map validation and inter-comparison, which is the main focus of this Special Issue in Remote Sensing. Here we describe the major trends in global land cover mapping that have occurred, followed by recent advances as exemplified by the papers in the Special Issue. Finally, we consider what the future holds for global land cover mapping.

  6. Low-Order GAM Admire System in Landing Preparation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel IORGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the symbolic and numeric computations for the simplified GAM (Generic Aerodynamic Model Admire system are presented . The numeric computations were performed into the MatLab environment with the aim of presenting to the reader the details of the preparation for landing of the airplane generic model. Regarding the symbolic computations that have been made it's worth to mention here the fact that they concerned the issues of stability in the manner that the trim point for the low order non-linear system was computed and an analysis of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix associated to the system, which has been evaluated in the trim point, was performed. The case of the stable longitudinal level descending flight and the case of transition to a state appropriate for the touch-down are presented. It is shown the fact that the plane can regain stability if the real moment for touch-down is missed by reentering into the stable longitudinal level descending flight (by usage of the control e.

  7. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  8. Tethered Satellites as Enabling Platforms for an Operational Space Weather Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L. Habash; Gilchrist, B. E.; Bilen, S.; Owens, J.; Voronka, N.; Furhop, K.

    2013-01-01

    Space weather nowcasting and forecasting models require assimilation of near-real time (NRT) space environment data to improve the precision and accuracy of operational products. Typically, these models begin with a climatological model to provide "most probable distributions" of environmental parameters as a function of time and space. The process of NRT data assimilation gently pulls the climate model closer toward the observed state (e.g. via Kalman smoothing) for nowcasting, and forecasting is achieved through a set of iterative physics-based forward-prediction calculations. The issue of required space weather observatories to meet the spatial and temporal requirements of these models is a complex one, and we do not address that with this poster. Instead, we present some examples of how tethered satellites can be used to address the shortfalls in our ability to measure critical environmental parameters necessary to drive these space weather models. Examples include very long baseline electric field measurements, magnetized ionospheric conductivity measurements, and the ability to separate temporal from spatial irregularities in environmental parameters. Tethered satellite functional requirements will be presented for each space weather parameter considered in this study.

  9. Preliminary Cost Benefit Assessment of Systems for Detection of Hazardous Weather. Volume II. Appendices,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    intensification went undetected. The straight-line winds from the storm, a microburst in Dr. Ted Fujita’s analysis, damaged 65 homes and mobile homes...Science and Technologyy , 95th Congress, No. 32, U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C. 36 U.S. House of Representatives, 1978, Weather Forecasting - Past, Present

  10. The EAGLE Concept-Framework for a Future Land Morning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hezeu, Gerard; Valcarcel Sanz, Nuria

    2016-08-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to harmonize and make comparable different LC/LU classification systems on national and European level. Also, it can provide guidance for mapping initiatives and field campaigns to describe landscape in an application- neutral manner by the descriptive decomposition of the landscape instead of classification. The EAGLE concept ´s target is after all the pan-European dimension, but also can be broadened up to be check on the dimension of global test beds.

  11. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is no longer acceptable due to traffic...

  12. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  14. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...

  15. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...

  16. CFORS - Regional Chemical and Weather Forecast System in Support of Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yienger, J. J.; Uno, I.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Tang, Y.; Thongboonchoo, N.; Woo, J.; Dorwart, J.; Streets, D.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we will present the development, evaluation, and use of improved modeling techniques and methodologies for the integration of meteorological forecasts with air pollution forecasts in support of field operations during the TRACE-P and Ace-Asia experiments in East Asia. During the campaign period we provided a variety of forecast products using our regional modeling system built upon the dynamic meteorological model RAMS and the 3-D regional chemical transport models STEM-III. These models were run in both on-line and off-line modes, and the results integrated into an interactive web-based data mining and analysis framework. This resulting Chemical Weather Forecasting System CFORS, was run operationally for the period February through May 2001, and provided 72-hr forecasts of a variety of aerosol, chemical and air mass and emission marker quantities. These included aerosol mass distribution and optical depth by major component (e.g., dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate), photochemical quantities including ozone and OH/HO2, and air mass & emissions markers including lightning, volcanic, mega-cities, and biomass burning. These model products were presented along with meteorological forecasts and satellite products, and used to help determine the flight plans, the positioning of the ship, and to alert surface stations of upcoming events (such as dust storms). The use of CFORS forecasts (along with other model results) models were shown to provide important new information and level of detail into mission planning. For example many of the mission objectives required designing flight paths that sampled across gradients of optical depth, or flew above, below and through vertical layers of aerosol, intercepted biomass emission plumes, or sampled dust storms. CFORS, forecasts of dust outbreaks and plume locations, etc., proved to be very useful in designing missions that meet these objective. In this paper we will present an overview of

  17. Jupiter's Spot Seen Glowing - Scientists Get First Look at Weather Inside the Solar System's Biggest Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    New ground-breaking thermal images obtained with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other powerful ground-based telescopes show swirls of warmer air and cooler regions never seen before within Jupiter's Great Red Spot, enabling scientists to make the first detailed interior weather map of the giant storm system linking its temperature, winds, pressure and composition with its colour. "This is our first detailed look inside the biggest storm of the Solar System," says Glenn Orton, who led the team of astronomers that made the study. "We once thought the Great Red Spot was a plain old oval without much structure, but these new results show that it is, in fact, extremely complicated." The observations reveal that the reddest colour of the Great Red Spot corresponds to a warm core within the otherwise cold storm system, and images show dark lanes at the edge of the storm where gases are descending into the deeper regions of the planet. The observations, detailed in a paper appearing in the journal Icarus, give scientists a sense of the circulation patterns within the solar system's best-known storm system. Sky gazers have been observing the Great Red Spot in one form or another for hundreds of years, with continuous observations of its current shape dating back to the 19th century. The spot, which is a cold region averaging about -160 degrees Celsius, is so wide that about three Earths could fit inside its boundaries. The thermal images were mostly obtained with the VISIR [1] instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, with additional data coming from the Gemini South telescope in Chile and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan's Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. The images have provided an unprecedented level of resolution and extended the coverage provided by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. Together with observations of the deep cloud structure by the 3-metre NASA Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, the level of thermal detail observed

  18. Discussion on the Index System of Intensive Land Use Evaluation in Development Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of evaluation index system is the key to the evaluation of intensive land use.On the basis of expounding connotation,characteristics and the principle of establishing evaluation index system,and as for the problems existing in Evaluation Regulation(Trial)of Intensive Land Use in Development Area,regarding the evaluation index system of intensive land use in the development area,in the light of the connotation of intensive land use in development area,coupled with the practical situation of the land use in China’s development area,after referring to the research achievements of domestic and abroad scholars,some suggestions are put forward in order to improve and perfect the evaluation index system of intensive land us in development area.

  19. Minimax is the best electoral system after all

    CERN Document Server

    Darlington, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    When each voter rates or ranks several candidates for a single office, a strong Condorcet winner (SCW) is one who beats all others in two-way races. Among 21 electoral systems examined, 18 will sometimes make candidate X the winner even if thousands of voters would need to change their votes to make X a SCW while another candidate Y could become a SCW with only one such change. Analysis supports the intuitive conclusion that these 18 systems are unacceptable. The well-known minimax system survives this test. It fails 10 others, but there are good reasons to ignore all 10. Minimax-T adds a new tie-breaker. It surpasses competing systems on a combination of simplicity, transparency, voter privacy, input flexibility, resistance to strategic voting, and rarity of ties. It allows write-ins, machine counting except for write-ins, voters who don't rate or rank every candidate, and tied ratings or ranks. Eleven computer simulation studies used 6 different definitions (one at a time) of the best candidate, and found t...

  20. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  1. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... sustainable management of NFS lands. The vision for the proposed rule. The Forest Service mission is to..., benefits, and uses on NFS lands. Issues included, for example: Climate change; insects and disease... development of a shared vision for the unit, as well as an understanding of how and why planning decisions...

  2. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  3. Minor Component Analysis-based Landing Forecast System for Ship-borne Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo,; SHI Ai-guo; WAN Lin; YANG Bao-zhang

    2005-01-01

    The general structure of ship-borne helicopter landing forecast system is presented, and a novel ship motion prediction model based on minor component analysis (MCA) is built up to improve the forecast effectiveness. To validate the feasibility of this landing forecast system, time series for the roll, pitch and heave are generated by simulation and then forecasted based on MCA. Simulation results show that ship-borne helicopters can land safely in higher sea condition while carrying on rescue or replenishment tasks at sea in terms of the landing forecast system.

  4. Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems - Volume 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ. Develop......Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ....... Development of demo-GIS for Jurmala city. Detailed analysis of GIS infrastructure in State Land Service, HQ. Implementation of limited GIS facilities for data capture, conversion and editing. Development of first phase of a national standard for digital maps – object catalogue....

  5. A Differential Thrust Controller for Air Cushion Landing System Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    8217 control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced approximately 70% by the addition...assistance with explanations of the ACLS. Credit should also be given to Lieutenant John Pinnel , a classmate at the Air Force Institute of Technology...the system with and without the control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced

  6. Architecture vision and technologies for post-NPOESS weather prediction system: two-way interactive observing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Michael W.; Higgins, Glenn J.; Mahoney, Robert L.; Lutz, Robert; Mauk, Robin; Seablom, Michael; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    A recently completed two-year NASA-sponsored study on Advanced Weather Forecasting Technologies envisions that given the opportunity to realize key technological advances over the next quarter century, and with judicious infrastructure and technology investments, it may be possible to significantly extend the skill range of model based weather forecasting via real-time two-way feedbacks between computer forecast models and highly networked, intelligent observing systems (Sensor Webs). Through this linkage, the observing system will have access to information about the present and evolving state of the atmosphere and, most importantly, have the intelligence to act on information about the future states of the atmosphere derived from the forecast model. An ultimate aim is full dynamic situation-driven observing system reconfigurability. The system is conceived to enable operational expression of optimized targeted observing. Ideas are presented on how the entire system might be designed and operated from the perspectives of the underlying science, technology evolution, and system engineering in order to provide the needed coordination between and among space- and ground-based observing and forecast model operations. The greatest challenges lay with the development of the large scale deep infrastructure on which the more advanced proposed forecast system functionality depends.

  7. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research.

  8. Application and reliability analysis of DPM system in site investigation of HK weathered granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai; Zhongqi Yue; L.G.Tham; C.F.Lee

    2005-01-01

    A drilling process monitor (DPM) for ground characterization of weathered granite is presented. The monitor is portable and can be mounted on a hydraulic rotary drilling rig to record various drilling parameters in real time during normal subsurface investigation. The identification method for dominative and subsidiary interfaces has been established. The study reveals that the monitored drilling parameters are dependent on geotechnical materials and can be further applied to characterize ground interfaces.The t-test between manual logging and DPM logging has been carried out. The results show that the DPM has high accuracy in interfaces detection and well agreement with the manual logging. The findings show that the device and data analysis method are of potential application in subsurface drilling exploration in weathered granites. It also seems to have prospective uses in the determination of orebody boundary as well as in the detection of geohazards.

  9. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  10. All possible permutational symmetries of a quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intermediate permutational symmetries of a system of qubits that lie in between the perfect symmetric and antisymmetric cases. We prove that, on average, pure states of qubits picked at random with respect to the uniform measure on the unit sphere of the Hilbert space are almost as antisymmetric as they are allowed to be. We then observe that multipartite entanglement, measured by the generalized Meyer-Wallach measure, tends to be larger in subspaces that are more antisymmetric than the complete symmetric one. Eventually, we prove that all states contained in the most antisymmetric subspace are relevant multipartite entangled states in the sense that their 1-qubit reduced states are all maximally mixed.

  11. Updating of the hierarchical rock mass rating (HRMR) system and a new subsystem developed for weathered granite formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miranda Tiago; e Sousa L. Ribeiro; Tinoco Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    The RMR system is still very much applied in rock mechanics engineering context. It is based on the eval-uation of six weights to obtain a final rating. To obtain the final rating a considerable amount of informa-tion is needed concerning the rock mass which can be difficult to obtain in some projects or project stages at least with accuracy. In 2007 an alternative classification scheme based on the RMR, the Hierarchical Rock Mass Rating (HRMR) was presented. The main feature of this system was the adaptation to the level of knowledge existent about the rock mass to obtain the classification of the rock mass since it followed a decision tree approach. However, the HRMR was only valid for hard rock granites with low fracturing degrees. In this work, the database was enlarged with approximately 40%more cases considering other types of granite rock masses including weathered granites and based on this increased database the sys-tem was updated. Granite formations existent in the north of Portugal including Porto city are predom-inantly granites. Some years ago a light rail infrastructure was built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities which involved considerable challenges due to the high heterogeneity levels of the granite formations and the difficulties involved in their geomechanical characterization. In this work it is intended to provide also a contribution to improve the characterization of these formations with special emphasis to the weathered horizons. A specific subsystem applicable to the weathered formations was developed. The results of the validation of these systems are presented and show acceptable perfor-mances in identifying the correct class using less information than with the RMR system.

  12. Regional Variability of the Effects of Land Use Systems on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the regional variability of the effects of land use systems on soil properties, Shouyang County in Shanxi Province and Danling County in Sichuan Province of China were selected as the study areas. Field soil samples of the four land use systems (natural forest, forest plantation, shrubland, and cropland) were collected, respectively, from the two areas. The general statistical tools were used to analyze soil data. The results showed that the influence of land use systems on soil properties was significant. In general, soils in slightly human-disturbed land use systems presented a higher fertility level than those in strongly human-disturbed land use systems in both areas. Furthermore, the impacts of the same land use systems on soil properties showed a distinct regional variability, and even in the same land use system,different farming systems and site management measures (such as irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides) could also lead to the regional heterogeneity in soil properties. The regional variability of land use effects on soil properties reveals the regional variability of the effects of human activities on environmental changes, and could explain the complex relationship between humans and the natural environment in certain ways.

  13. A role for AVIRIS in the Landsat and Advanced Land Remote Sensing Systems program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.

    1993-01-01

    As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.

  14. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... mineral materials. ``Suspension'' is defined as ``a temporary revocation or cancellation of a written... Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources AGENCY: USDA, Forest Service. ACTION: Final... Forest System (NFS) lands and resources. The appeal process for decisions related to occupancy or use...

  15. 78 FR 68811 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is to...

  16. 78 FR 46565 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is...

  17. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is...

  18. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule... System Land Management Planning Rule (Planning Rule). The Committee is necessary and in the...

  19. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204, the..., surface type, or other criteria the NPS deems appropriate. (c) The PMS shall be designed to fit the...

  20. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  1. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  2. Land Use/Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use/land cover practices in, and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as, geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25' - 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq. km. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Landsat MSS, IRS 1A LISS II and IRS 1D LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI/PACE 6.3 ver. platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to devise various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low-cost, people-participatory strategies (such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

  3. The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes-Amazon system: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; West, A. Joshua; Clark, Kathryn E.; Paris, Guillaume; Bouchez, Julien; Ponton, Camilo; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between chemical weathering fluxes and denudation rates suggests that tectonic activity can force variations in atmospheric pCO2 by modulating weathering fluxes. However, the effect of weathering on pCO2 is not solely determined by the total mass flux. Instead, the effect of weathering on pCO2 also depends upon the balance between 1) alkalinity generation by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and 2) sulfuric acid generation by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In this study, we explore how the balance between acid and alkalinity generation varies with tectonic uplift to better understand the links between tectonics and the long-term carbon cycle. To trace weathering reactions across the transition from the Peruvian Andes to the Amazonian foreland basin, we measured a suite of elemental concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Si, Li, SO4, and Cl) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr and δ34S) on both dissolved and solid phase samples. Using an inverse model, we quantitatively link systematic changes in solute geochemistry with elevation to downstream declines in sulfuric acid weathering as well as the proportion of cations sourced from silicates. With a new carbonate-system framework, we show that weathering in the Andes Mountains is a CO2 source whereas foreland weathering is a CO2 sink. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectation that the ratio of sulfide oxidation to silicate weathering increases with increasing erosion. Altogether, our results suggest that the effect of tectonically-enhanced weathering on atmospheric pCO2 is strongly modulated by sulfide mineral oxidation.

  4. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  5. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  6. Application of Feedback Linearization Method in Airplane Automatic Landing Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoyan; Feng Jiang; Feng Xiujuan; Wu Junqin

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the I/O feedback linearization about MIMO system, and applies it to nonlinear control equation of airplane. And also designs the tracing control laws for airplane longitudinal automatic landing control system.

  7. Designing and Implementing Weather Generators as Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassarin Chinnachodteeranun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate and weather realizations are essential inputs for simulating crop growth and yields to analyze the risks associated with future conditions. To simplify the procedure of generating weather realizations and make them available over the Internet, we implemented novel mechanisms for providing weather generators as web services, as well as a mechanism for sharing identical weather realizations given a climatological information. A web service for preparing long-term climate data was implemented based on an international standard, Sensor Observation Service (SOS. The weather generator services, which are the core components of the framework, analyze climatological data, and can take seasonal climate forecasts as inputs for generating weather realizations. The generated weather realizations are encoded in a standard format, which are ready for use to crop modeling. All outputs are generated in SOS standard, which broadens the extent of data sharing and interoperability with other sectoral applications, e.g., water resources management. These services facilitate the development of other applications requiring input weather realizations, as these can be obtained easily by just calling the service. The workload of analysts related to data preparation and handling of legacy weather generator programs can be reduced. The architectural design and implementation presented here can be used as a prototype for constructing further services on top of an interoperable sensor network system.

  8. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard;

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops...

  9. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  10. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  11. [Health for All-Italia: an indicator system on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Alessandra; Crialesi, Roberta; Loghi, Marzia

    2003-01-01

    The Health for All - Italia information system collects health data from several sources. It is intended to be a cornerstone for the achievement of an overview about health in Italy. Health is analyzed at different levels, ranging from health services, health needs, lifestyles, demographic, social, economic and environmental contexts. The database associated software allows to pin down statistical data into graphs and tables, and to carry out simple statistical analysis. It is therefore possible to view the indicators' time series, make simple projections and compare the various indicators over the years for each territorial unit. This is possible by means of tables, graphs (histograms, line graphs, frequencies, linear regression with calculation of correlation coefficients, etc) and maps. These charts can be exported to other programs (i.e. Word, Excel, Power Point), or they can be directly printed in color or black and white.

  12. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  13. A study of the relationship between cloud-to-ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, the correlation between cloud-to-ground (CG lightning and precipitation has been studied by making use of the data from weather radar, meteorological soundings, and a lightning location system that includes three direction finders about 40 km apart from each other in the Pingliang area of east Gansu province in P. R. China. We have studied the convective systems that developed during two cold front processes passing over the observation area, and found that the CG lightning can be an important factor in the precipitation estimation. The regression equation between the average precipitation intensity (R and the number of CG lightning flashes (L in the main precipitation period is R = 1.69 ln (L - 0.27, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.86. The CG lightning flash rate can be used as an indicator of the formation and development of the convective weather system. Another more exhaustive precipitation estimation method has been developed by analyzing the temporal and spatial distributions of the precipitation relative to the location of the CG lightning flashes. Precipitation calculated from the CG lightning flashes is very useful, especially in regions with inadequate radar cover.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; lightning; precipitation

  14. The Determination of Feasible Control Variables for Geoengineering and Weather Modification Based on the Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.

  15. Impacts of coastal upwelling off east Vietnam on the regional winds system: An air-sea-land interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe-Wen; Zheng, Quanan; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Lee, Chia-Ying; Ho, Chung-Ru; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the influence of coastal upwelling off southeast Vietnam (CUEV) on local wind field using numerical simulations based on atmospheric model of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). Several scenarios are simulated by forcing identical model configurations with different SST fields. Based on simulation results, the relationship between CUEV and reduction of wind forcing is numerically evidenced. With the influence of a typical cold patch with a temperature drop of 3-5 °C, the local wind speeds can drop to less than 70% of original level. We find that the mechanism of response of the wind reduction to CUEV is enhancement of sea-breeze induced wind modulation. Onshore sea-breeze will enhance, while the contrast between land and sea is even more striking due to the contribution of a distinct coastal upwelling. This implies that air-sea-land interaction dominates the process of local wind system modulation in response to transient CUEV. This result sheds a new light on the air-sea interaction process within the SCS basin.

  16. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 2: Traffic analysis and market demand for the land mobile communications system in the European scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseable in the 1995-2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. The presence of gaps in the terrestrial system and reasonable traffic extrapolations suggest a very attractive role for a land mobile satellite communications mission.

  17. Land use impacts of low-carbon energy system transition - the case of UK bioenergy deployment under the Carbon Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Lupton, R.; Skelton, S.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change has developed four low-carbon energy transition pathways - the Carbon Plan - towards achieving the legally binding 80% territorial greenhouse gas emissions reduction, stipulated in the 2008 Climate Change Act by 2050. All the pathways require increase in bioenergy deployment, of which a significant amount could be indigenously sourced from crops. But will increased domestic production of energy crops conflict with other land use and ecosystem priorities? To address this question, a coupled analysis of the four energy transition pathways and land use has been developed using an integrated resource accounting platform called ForeseerTM. The two systems are connected by the bioenergy component, and are projected forward in time to 2050, under different scenarios of energy crop composition and yield, and accounting for various constraints on land use for agriculture and ecosystem services. The results show between 7 and 61% of UK agricultural land could be required to meet bioenergy deployment projections under different combinations of crop yield and compositions for the transition pathways. This could result in competition for land for food production and other socio-economic and ecological land uses. Consequently, the potential role of bioenergy in achieving UK emissions reduction targets may face significant deployment challenges.

  18. Development of a GIS-based Decision Support System for Assessing Land Use Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Guoxin; Ryosuke Shibasaki; Kanichiro Matsumura

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess land suitability and to predict the spatial and temporal changes in land use types (LUTs) by using GIS-based land use management decision support system. A GIS database with data on climate, topography, soil characteristic, irrigation condition, fertilizer application, and special socioeconomic activities has been developed and used for the evaluation of land productivity for different crops by integrating with a crop growth model-the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC). International food policy simulation model (IFPSIM) is also embedded into GIS for the predictions of how crop demands and crop market prices will change under alternative policy scenarios. An inference engine (IE) including land use choice model is developed to illustrate land use choice behavior based on logit models, which allows to analyze how diversified factors ranging from climate changes, crop price changes to land management changes can affect the distribution of agricultural land use. A test for integrated simulation is taken in each 0.1° by 0.1° grid cell to predict the change of agricultural land use types at global level. Global land use changes are simulated from 1992 to 2050.

  19. Projected Impacts of Bioenergy-Demand-Induced Land Use and Cover Changes on Regional Climate in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy shortfalls are becoming more and more serious all over the world, and worldwide governments have tried to promote the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the climatic impacts of massive fossil fuel consumption. Since the land is the main input factor of the bioenergy production, the development of biofuels will inevitably lead to change of the land use structure and allocation and thereby affect the climate system. With Central Europe as the study area, this study explored the impacts of land use/land cover change (LUCC on climate under the influence of demand of bioenergy production for land resources. First, the land use structure from 2010 to 2050 is simulated with the Agriculture and Land Use model in MiniCam. The result indicates that the main conversion will be mainly from grassland and forest to cropland and from cropland to grassland. Then the Dynamics of Land System model was used to spatially simulate the LUCC in the future. The impacts of LUCC on the climate were analyzed on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The climate change will be characterized by the increase of latent heat flux and temperature and the decrease of precipitation.

  20. Recreational System Optimization to Reduce Conflict on Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online ( n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system.

  1. 内蒙古半干旱区沙尘天气特征及其与地表特征的关系%Characteristics of Sand-dust Weather and the Relationship between Land Surface Conditions and Sand-dust Weather in Semiarid Region of Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亿; 尚可政; 王式功; 李艳; 熊光洁

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,based on meteorological data from the Zhurihe meteorological station and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI),leaf area index (LAI),net primary productivity (NPP) in Zhurihe from 2002 to 2010,the characteristics of sand-dust weather and the relationships between land surface conditions and sand-dust weather in zhurihe were analyzed.The threshold wind speed is 9.4 m· s-1 in Zhurihe.The frequency of sand-dust weather and strong wind is fluctuant from 2002 to 2010.Sand-dust weather frequency is positively correlated with strong wind.Wind of more than 18 m·s-1 can easily lead to sand-dust weather.The normalized dust outbreak frequency (NfDo) is defined as the ratio of sand-dust weather frequency to strong wind frequency.NfDo in spring was always low in Zhurihe,when the accumulated precipitation amount from June to August,maximum NDVI,maximum LAI and maximum NPP from June to August during the previous year exceeded their thresholds (100 mm,0.24,0.3 and 0.6 g C· m-2 · d-1,respectively).It suggests that the precipitation amount during the vegetation growing season predominantly controls plant production in summer and the land erodibility in spring of the next year and suppress sand-dust outbreak.%利用2002-2010年朱日和气象站观测资料,结合同期归一化植被指数(NDVI),叶面积指数(LAI),植被净初级生产力(NPP)资料,分析了内蒙古半干旱区朱日和地区2002-2010年的沙尘天气特征.结果表明:朱日和地区临界起沙风速为9.4m·s-1,2002-2010年沙尘天气频率和大于临界起沙风速频率呈波动变化,沙尘天气频率和大于临界起沙风速频率有很好相关性,超过18m·s-1的强风极易导致沙尘天气的发生;定义标准化的沙尘天气频率(NfDo)为沙尘天气频率与大于临界起沙风速频率之比,当夏季降水量大于100mm,夏季最大NDVI、最大LAI和最大NPP分别大于0.24、0.3g·m-2·d-1和0.6g·m-2·d-1(以碳计算)时,次年春季NfDO较低,沙尘

  2. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  3. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  4. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  5. Livestock systems and competing claims for land at the wildlife-bsed tourism/livestock interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a t

  6. 78 FR 23219 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Land Management Planning Directives. DATES: The meeting will be held on May 7-9, 2013, from 8:30...

  7. Re-engineering land administration systems for sustainable development — from rhetoric to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ian P.

    Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations — International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.

  8. Model Bera dalam Sistem Agroforestri (Fallow Land Model in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Suryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tree-based agroforestry model gives consequences to the space utilization dominated by trees. Farmers take action on this condition by conniving the fallow land. This research was aimed to know the fallow land model, find the key parameters of fallow land model, and formulating the management of fallow land. The spatial model of agroforestry used in this research were trees along border, alley cropping, alternate rows and mixer. The actual data obtained were tree height, tree diameter, crown diameter, land width, and light intensity; the calculated data were land extent, the percentage of crown cover and crown density. The analysis used to determining the percentage of crown cover to calculate the affective arable land area was zone system. Zonation system maked for four zone : 1 zone 1 interval 0-1 m ; 2 zone 2 interval 1-2 m; zone 3 interval 2-3 m; zone 4 interval 3-4m.Key words: agroforestry, fallow land, silviculture, land cover, resource sharing, crown dynamic

  9. Performance of a coupled lagged ensemble weather and river runoff prediction model system for the Alpine Ammer River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiatek, G.; Kunstmann, H.; Werhahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Ammer River catchment located in the Bavarian Ammergau Alps and alpine forelands, Germany, represents with elevations reaching 2185 m and annual mean precipitation between1100 and 2000 mm a very demanding test ground for a river runoff prediction system. Large flooding events in 1999 and 2005 motivated the development of a physically based prediction tool in this area. Such a tool is the coupled high resolution numerical weather and river runoff forecasting system AM-POE that is being studied in several configurations in various experiments starting from the year 2005. Corner stones of the coupled system are the hydrological water balance model WaSiM-ETH run at 100 m grid resolution, the numerical weather prediction model (NWP) MM5 driven at 3.5 km grid cell resolution and the Perl Object Environment (POE) framework. POE implements the input data download from various sources, the input data provision via SOAP based WEB services as well as the runs of the hydrology model both with observed and with NWP predicted meteorology input. The one way coupled system utilizes a lagged ensemble prediction system (EPS) taking into account combination of recent and previous NWP forecasts. Results obtained in the years 2005-2011 reveal that river runoff simulations depict high correlation with observed runoff when driven with monitored observations in hindcast experiments. The ability to runoff forecasts is depending on lead times in the lagged ensemble prediction and shows still limitations resulting from errors in timing and total amount of the predicted precipitation in the complex mountainous area. The presentation describes the system implementation, and demonstrates the application of the POE framework in networking, distributed computing and in the setup of various experiments as well as long term results of the system application in the years 2005 - 2011.

  10. Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit

    2016-09-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.

  11. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  12. The role of land use planning in sustainable rural systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The creation of a more sustainable countryside has become a very important item across the world. Several methods, approaches and policies can be applied and agencies, interests groups etc. can become active in this regard. Land-use planning, as one of these activities, is challenged to play an acti

  13. The Overall Design of Land-Use Information System Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The land-use information system (LUIS) is a special geographical information system developed under the support of the geographical information system (GIS). It effectively combines the quantitative analysis with space analysis, mixes the feature of the land-use data and figure description, achieves the mutual transfer of the data and figure, and provides some effective methods for the quantitative research and space analysis. The targets, methods and procedures of the overall design of LUIS and its structure function and characteristic are presented in this paper. It provides the guide and references for developing the special GIS suitable for the demand of land-use management.

  14. Use of Road Weather Information System (RWIS as Assistive Tool for Effective Winter Road Maintenance – Technical and Contractual Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter highway operation and maintenance in the northern periphery is a challenge, a broad and complex area. Understanding about this area and its effect on winter traffic performance is far from complete. During the last forty years since Swedish Transport Administration (former Swedish National Road Administration began attempting of the use of Road Weather Information System - RWIS on the Swedish road network, the repair and maintenance methods of this assistive tool has dramatically changed. Changing of the methods have been due to the progress and development of the technology within this area i.e. from simple stations that could be connected via telephone network for icy road warning to a more sophisticated and modern internet based technology. The main objective of this study was to investigate and find the importance and effectiveness of using weather data collected from RWIS by road agencies as an assistive tool for effective performance of winter road maintenance, and how these tools are currently maintained without influencing the delay of winter road maintenance. The study also attempts to find possible interactions between technical and contractual issues that may affect winter road maintenance. The method of the study was partly based on a theoretical study by reviewing some internationally published articles and reports in this area and furthermore a domestic questionnaire survey, an international benchmarking and a follow-up study within a selected region in Sweden. The results of the study reveal that even if the weather stations are normally placed on roads where the risk of icy roads is greatest, there are indirect factors which influence the planned maintenance of these tools which subsequenly cause delay of winter road maintenance.

  15. The WC-130 Meteorological System and Its Utilization in Operational Weather Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    lI for rel v? and then become imnrersed in higher priority doti , i 2Ju,’t . . uita handl ing by the, weather Txon itor anrr t K- wr ict 0 ,t her elin...inc-v A t ict u. t jXir t’ tefl of tHeL clout lr*1 -5 dri j C’ t I ad’t’Ft rt, At. iii it rd 1* . -- , i’l, I Lid I’ i, .* tə )uul IwM I’’( ltv I, 3...vel -s ic ors for tiore AcUrdt e iii, sot t i ’t I t~I (4) the -- elt iI ity t o tert I n, vetLi cal wiri prof ile I n-I(,Iow fI iIltI leVt-tI a)AUt

  16. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terribile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc. but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports – as a case study – results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater. Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering – through a smart web based system – truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu. This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  17. A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-07-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) as well as many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a spatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can address all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry, and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on land management and soil conservation. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry, and urban planning issues through the Web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the south of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project (SOILCONSWEB). The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart Web-based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last very important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  18. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-02-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI) can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project). The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart web based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  19. Hourly forecasts of renewable energy sources by an operating MOS-system of the German Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gernot; Sebastian, Trepte

    2016-04-01

    Model Output Statistics (MOS) is a powerful tool for optimizing the direct output of numerical weather forecast models. By developing multiple linear regressions with predictors, derived from observations and numerical weather prediction (NWP) at DWD (German Meteorological Service), a reduction of 50% of the error variance in the forecast has been achieved. Moreover, statistical post-processing yields numerous advantages in forecasting, e. g. down-scaling to point forecasts at observation stations with specific topographic and climatologic characteristics, correction of biases and systematic errors produced by numerical models, the derivation of further predictands of interest (e. g. exceedance probabilities) and the combination of several models. In the German project EWeLiNE (Simultaneous improvement of weather and power forecasts for the grid integration of renewable energies), which is carried out in collaboration by DWD and IWES (Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology), one of the main goals is an adjustment of the DWD-system MOSMIX (combining numerical forecasts of the global models IFS and ICON) to the demands of transmission system operators (TSO). This includes the implementation of new predictands like wind elements in altitudes > 10m or solar radiance. To meet the demands of the TSOs the temporal resolution of MOSMIX, currently delivering forecasts in 3-hour time-steps, needs to be enhanced to 1-hour time-steps. This can be achieved by adjusting the statistical equations to take account of hourly SYNOP observations. Thus, diverse input parameters and internal processing schemes have to be re-specified for example in terms of precipitation. We show a comparative verification of 1-hour MOS and 3-hour MOS for different forecast elements. Raw data comprising of acquired point measurements of wind observations have been converted and implemented into the MOS-system. Sensitivity studies have then been conducted investigating the fit

  20. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  1. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  2. Forecasting of Severe Weather in Austria and Hungary Using High-Resolution Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Mihaly; Simon, Andre; Szintai, Balazs; Suklitsch, Martin; Wang, Yong; Wastl, Clemens; Boloni, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    The study presents and compares several approaches in EPS (ensemble prediction system) forecasting based on the non-hydrostatic, high resolution AROME model. The PEARP (global ARPEGE model EPS) was used for coupling. Besides, AROME-EPS was also generated upon hydrostatic ALADIN-EPS forecasts (LAEF), which were used as initial and lateral boundary conditions for each AROME-EPS run. The horizontal resolution of the AROME model is 2.5km and it uses 60 vertical levels for the vertical discretization. In most of the tests, the AROME-EPS run with 10+1 members in Hungarian and 16 members in Austrian implementation. The forecast length was usually set to 30-36 hours. The use of high-resolution EPS has advantages in almost all situations with severe convection (mostly in forecasting intense multicell thunderstorms or mesoscale convective systems of non-frontal origin). The possibility of severe thunderstorm was indicated by several EPS runs even if the deterministic (reference) AROME model failed to forecast the event. Similarly, it could be shown that the AROME-EPS can perform better than hydrostatic global or ALADIN-EPS models in situations with strong wind or heavy precipitation induced by large-scale circulation (mainly in mountain regions). Both EDA (Ensemble of Data Assimilation) and SPPT (Stochastically Perturbed Parameterized Tendencies) methods were tested as a potential perturbation generation method on limited area. The EDA method was able to improve the accuracy of single members through the reduction of the analysis error by applying local data assimilation. It was also able to increase the spread of the system in the early hours due to the additional analysis perturbations. The impact of the SPPT scheme was proven to be smaller in comparison to the impact of this method in global ensemble systems. Further possibilities of improving the assimilation methods and the setup of the AROME-EPS are also discussed.

  3. Agricultural Land Use Optimal Allocation System in Developing Area:Application to Yili Watershed, Xinjiang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Hongqi; NI Dongying; SONG Wei

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries,land productivity involves little market,where the agricultural land use is mainly determined by the food demands as well as the land suitability.The land use pattern will not ensure everywhere enough land for certain cropping if spatial allocation just according to land use suitability.To solve this problem,a subzone and a pre-allocation for each land use are added in spatial allocation module,and land use suitability and area optimization module are incorporated to constitute a whole agricultural land use optimal allocation (ALUOA) system.The system is developed on the platform.Net 2005 using ArcGIS Engine (version 9.2) and C# language,and is tested and validated in Yili watershed of Xinjiang Region on the newly reclaimed area.In the case study,with the help of soil data obtained from 69 points sampled in the fieldwork in 2008,main river data supplied by the Department of Water Resources of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China,and temperature data provided by Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,land use suitability on eight common crops are evaluated one by one using linear weighted summation method in the land use suitability model.The linear programming (LP) model in area optimization model succeeds to give out land area target of each crop under three scenarios.At last,the land use targets are allotted in space both with a six subzone file and without a subzone file.The results show that the land use maps with a subzone not only ensure every part has enough land for every crop,but also gives a more fragmental land use pattern,with about 87.99% and 135.92% more patches than the one without,while at the expense of loss between 15.30% and 19.53% in the overall suitability at the same time.

  4. Assessing the Utility of 3-km Land Information System Soil Moisture Data for Drought Monitoring and Hydrologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL has been running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) since June 2010. The SPoRT LIS version is run as a stand-alone land surface model over a Southeast Continental U.S. domain with 3-km grid spacing. The LIS contains output variables including soil moisture and temperature at various depths, skin temperature, surface heat fluxes, storm surface runoff, and green vegetation fraction (GVF). The GVF represents another real-time SPoRT product, which is derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. These data have demonstrated operational utility for drought monitoring and hydrologic applications at the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, AL since early 2011. The most relevant data for these applications have proven to be the moisture availability (%) in the 0-10 cm and 0-200 cm layers, and the volumetric soil moisture (%) in the 0-10 cm layer. In an effort to better understand their applicability among locations with different terrain, soil and vegetation types, SPoRT is conducting the first formal assessment of these data at NWS offices in Houston, TX, Huntsville, AL and Raleigh, NC during summer 2014. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate the LIS output in the context of assessing flood risk and determining drought designations for the U.S. Drought Monitor. Forecasters will provide formal feedback via a survey question web portal, in addition to the NASA SPoRT blog. In this presentation, the SPoRT LIS and its applications at NWS offices will be presented, along with information about the summer assessment, including training module development and preliminary results.

  5. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  6. Developing land use scenario dynamics model by the integration of system dynamics model and cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya

    2005-01-01

    Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.

  7. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  8. Geographical information systems as a tool to explore land characteristics and land use, with reference to Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    An adequate inventory of land characteristics and land use is increasingly necessary to support agricultural land use planning, especially in view of the conflicting demands on scarce land resources. Fortunately new tools like GIS are being developed and adapted to support these inventories. Althoug

  9. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Yanes, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections points. Nevertheless, all the methodologies used to transmit the weather data are based in protocols non adapted for this purpose. Thus, the weather stations are limited by the data formats and protocols used in them, not taking advantage of the real-time data available on them. We research the weather instruments, their technology and their network capabilities, in order to provide a solution for the mentioned problem. OpenWeather is the protocol proposed to provide a more optimum and reliable way to transmit the weather data. We evaluate the environmental factors, such as location or bandwi...

  10. Wastewater Treatment by a Prototype Slow Rate Land Treatment System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    blue 0-1 1 melt 001M 12 chnucon AAII T I ai No 329-74W1S(MerchI97Ft Oceanic C 1973-76 Comubustion. infrared 0- so WWI 20(12) Beekman 915S * eckman 91S...ulture Sicienc e and F ducation Ad ual for land treatment of municipal wastewater EPA ministration. Agric ultural Researi h. St Paul 62511V77-008. COE

  11. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...

  12. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ..., Communications common carriers, Communications equipment, Radio, Telecommunications, Telephone, Television... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land...

  13. Beyond fragmentation and disconnect: networks for knowledge sharing in the English land management advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Proctor, A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing multifunctionality in agriculture, combined with privatisation of previously state-funded agricultural extension services, has resulted in a pluralistic land management advisory system. Despite benefits in terms of increased client orientation and greater advisor diversity, it is argued

  14. Beyond fragmentation and disconnect: Networks for knowledge exchange in the English land management advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Proctor, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing multifunctionality in agriculture, combined with privatisation of previously public agricultural extension services, has resulted in a pluralistic land management advisory system. Despite benefits in terms of increased client orientation and greater advisor diversity, it is argued that t

  15. Review: Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Nolte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System, London, New York: Zed Books, 2013, ISBN 9781780324203, 248 pages

  16. Further Discussion the Development on New Weather Forecasting Technology System%再论气象台天气预报技术新体系的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐羹慧

    2012-01-01

    在前期对气象台天气预报技术发展的现状分析、发展趋势预测的基础上,从气象台天气预报技术的基本属性分析出发,进一步探讨气象台天气预报技术体系的基本框架和内容,并就推进技术发展的若干重要问题进行讨论。本文认为,如同“临床医学”一样,建筑在多种优秀成果基础上气象台天气预报技术的发展已自成体系,要象重视数值天气预报那样重视气象台预报技术体系的发展,发挥气象科技进步的综合效益,加快气象台一线预报服务水平的提高。%Based on the previous analysis upon the progress of weather forecasting system and the prediction of its developing tendency, the fundamental frame and content of weather forecasting technology system and several important issues regarding advancing technology were further discussed in this paper through analyzing the basic attribute of weather prediction skills. It was advocated that, just as "Clinical Medicine" ,the weather prediction technology founded upon various excellent researching outcomes has already had its own system. Just like numerical weather forecast ,the development of weather prediction technology system should be emphasized. Not only the benefit of the advanced meteorological science and technology should be exerted ,but also the improving process of weather prediction should be speeded up.

  17. The Land System and Population Growth——A Study of Man-land Relationship from the Perspective of Rural Land System%农村土地制度视野下的人地关系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑素梅; 罗峰

    2009-01-01

    The history of Chinai-s land system shows the poupation growth in antient China is caused by the instability of land right, the typical property sharing method and equal inheritance of properties. In the Age of collective economy, the equal distribution systerm also results in the population growth. The household responsibility system leads to the constant change of land and rapid growth of population. It is of significance to study the relationship between Man and land from the perspective of rural land system by using"Agricultural Involution", "High-level-equilibrium Trap", and "Excess-density Theory". Key Words: Land system, Population growth, Man-land relationship, Conflict between Man and land, Theoretical explanation.%通过对我国土地制度的历史性考察,揭示出中国古代社会由于地权不稳定以及中国式的分家析产、均分继承制导致人口增长.进入集体经济时代,特有的平均分配机制刺激了人口的增长.家庭联产承包制实施后,频繁调整土地与人口增长之间又相互强化.面对此现象,运用学术界中的"农业内卷化"、"高水平均衡陷阱"以及"过密化理论"三种理论加以释读.

  18. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  19. Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.

  20. Application of Case-Based Reasoning to Intelligent Support System for Coordinating Land Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-bo; TAN Shu-kui; ZHONG Hai-feng

    2007-01-01

    To establish the institutional mechanism for land conflict coordination in China, a case-based reasoning system is developed as an intelligent support and effective manner to resolve such issues. The establishment of the case library is discussed, previous land conflict cases are archived in a structural representation format for retrieval, and the similarity algorithm is adopted to compare the case features. Group tests show a good classification performance, which reveals that the system is feasible.

  1. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  2. Natural occurrence and stability of pyrochlore in carbonatites, related hydrothermal systems, and weathering environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, G.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia). Materials Div.; Mariano, A.N.

    1996-08-01

    Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric (defect) pyrochlores crystallize during the magmatic and late magmatic-hydrothermal phases of carbonatite emplacement (T > 450--550 C, P < 2 kb). Defect pyrochlores can also form at low temperatures in laterite horizons during weathering. After crystallization, pyrochlore is subject to alteration by hydrothermal fluids (T {approximately} 550--200 C) and ground water. Alteration occurs primarily by ion exchange of low valence A-site cations together with O, F, and OH ions. The high valence cations Th and U are generally immobile; however, the authors have documented one example of hydrothermal alteration involving loss of U together with cation exchange at the B-site in samples from Mountain Pass, California. During laterite accumulation, the cation exchange rate of pyrochlore greatly exceeds the rate of matrix dissolution. The exceptional durability of pyrochlore in natural environments is related to the stability of the B-site framework cations. In carbonatites, defect pyrochlores may contain significant amounts of Si (up to 7.6 wt% SiO{sub 2}) which is negatively correlated with Nb.

  3. The Economic Impact of Space Weather: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J P; Biffis, E; Hapgood, M A; Green, L; Bisi, M M; Bentley, R D; Wicks, R; McKinnell, L-A; Gibbs, M; Burnett, C

    2017-02-23

    Space weather describes the way in which the Sun, and conditions in space more generally, impact human activity and technology both in space and on the ground. It is now well understood that space weather represents a significant threat to infrastructure resilience, and is a source of risk that is wide-ranging in its impact and the pathways by which this impact may occur. Although space weather is growing rapidly as a field, work rigorously assessing the overall economic cost of space weather appears to be in its infancy. Here, we provide an initial literature review to gather and assess the quality of any published assessments of space weather impacts and socioeconomic studies. Generally speaking, there is a good volume of scientific peer-reviewed literature detailing the likelihood and statistics of different types of space weather phenomena. These phenomena all typically exhibit "power-law" behavior in their severity. The literature on documented impacts is not as extensive, with many case studies, but few statistical studies. The literature on the economic impacts of space weather is rather sparse and not as well developed when compared to the other sections, most probably due to the somewhat limited data that are available from end-users. The major risk is attached to power distribution systems and there is disagreement as to the severity of the technological footprint. This strongly controls the economic impact. Consequently, urgent work is required to better quantify the risk of future space weather events.

  4. Analysis of weather patterns for attribution of changes in floods to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Aline; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Detection of changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of floods has been extensively carried out for many river basins worldwide. However, little effort has been made so far to attribute these changes to certain drivers such as climate change, changes in land use, catchment properties, or river training. The knowledge of reasons behind observed changes is essential in order to better quantify related risks and to be able to adapt to changing flood risks or to take action to reduce them. As climate change is assumed to be a significant driver of changes in the past decades and near future, the contribution of climate change to changes in floods is of great interest. To quantify the flood risk attributable to climate change, a hydrological model can be run with different climate input - weather time series representing the observed climate or a climate without the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (non-GHG). These two different states of the climate system are assumed to be represented in the occurrence of weather patterns. Each weather pattern can be linked to an individual distribution of values of weather variables (e.g. precipitation, temperature, etc.). This link can be established by first applying a weather pattern classification scheme to large-scale gridded observations, and secondly deriving the distribution of values of weather variables that were observed locally during the same weather pattern occurrence. After applying the weather pattern classification scheme to the GCM output as well, values for weather variables can be drawn from the derived distributions, resulting in new weather time series for local stations. The derivation of weather patterns and establishment of a link to local weather variables is presented in this contribution.

  5. AFTER ALL, WHAT IS TEXTUAL GENRE IN SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS?

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Rodrigues Silva; Elaine Espindola

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a comparative study of the main theoretical perspectives concerned with textual genre as disseminated internationally in the realm of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Results have shown that scholars do share a systemic-functional ground for their approaches, but at the same time, these same scholars tend to focus on different analytical parameters of textual genre, which we have named here: classical and typological. We have also found that Systemic Functional Ling...

  6. Hydrologic assessment of the shallow groundwater flow system beneath the Shinnecock Nation tribal lands, Suffolk County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Rivera, Simonette L.; Busciolano, Ronald

    2016-12-02

    west.Water levels in many of the wells in the network fluctuated in response to precipitation, upgradient groundwater flow, and tidal flux in Shinnecock Bay. Water level altitudes ranged from 6.66 to 0.47 feet (ft) above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 during the spring measurement period, and from 5.25 to -0.24 ft (NAVD 88) during fall 2014. Historically, annual and seasonal precipitation seem to indicate long-term water level trends in an index well located in the town of Southampton, correlates with changes in storage in the upper glacial aquifer, but does not necessarily indicate water level extremes in the shallow groundwater system. To place the study period in perspective, calendar year 2014 was the 32d wettest year on record, with precipitation for the year totaling 48.1 inches, a 2.6-percent increase from the annual average (46.9 inches per year), based on 81 years of complete record at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service cooperative meteorological station at Bridgehampton, New York. Estimated recharge to the water table beneath the tribal lands from precipitation for 2014 is 25.4 inches.Tidal flux caused water levels in wells to fluctuate from 0.30 to -0.24 ft during May 2014. Water levels in wells located north of Old Fort Pond and beneath the southernmost extent of the tribal lands were most influenced by tidal flux. During June 2014, hydrographs indicate that tidal flux influenced water levels by 0.48 ft in a well located near the southernmost extent of the tribal lands approximately 0.3 miles north of Shinnecock Bay, and was zero at a well located approximately 0.5 miles south of Montauk Highway, and 0.4 miles west of Heady Creek, near the geographic center of the tribal lands. Tidal-influence delay time (time interval between peak high-tide stage and corresponding peak high-water level) ranged from 1.75 hours at the well located near the southernmost extent of the tribal lands, to more than 4

  7. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  8. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  9. WARP Weather Information Network Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — WINS is the dissemination module of the WARP system that provides an interface to various NAS Users/systems that require weather data/products/information from WARP...

  10. Development Model and Characteristics of Rural Land Joint Stock-cooperative System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and analyze operating mechanism of three major rural land joint-stock cooperative systems in China,including community type(Nanhai model),collective leasing type(Ningxia Pingluo model) and joint operating type(Zhejiang Jiande model).Current rural land joint-stock cooperative system has following characteristics.Firstly,adhere to the collective ownership and household contract responsibility system in rural areas.Secondly,safeguard farmers’ land contractual rights and interests.Thirdly,implement large-scale agricultural production and operation.Fourthly,carry out normative operation of farmers’ cooperatives.On the basis of these,we point out such problems as backward technology and short of funds in development of rural land joint-stock cooperative system.Finally,we conclude that the development of rural land joint-stock cooperative system should fully draw lessons from foreign advanced experience,actively try new model like securitization of rural land,to explore a road suitable for current national conditions.

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands Commercial Landings Statistics 1974 and more recent in compatible format with Accumulated Landings System (ALS) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains quantities and values for all seafood products that are reported landed in St. Thomas, St. Croix or St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. These data...

  12. Government Districts, Other, Land-The data set is the ownership data from the REDI land system., Published in 2005, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is described as 'Land-The data set is...

  13. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T I; Wallig, J; Ybarrolaza, N; Gando, A; Gando, Y; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Kishimoto, Y; Koga, M; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, S; Kozlov, A; Grant, C; Keefer, G; Piepke, A; Bloxham, T; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Ichimura, K; Murayama, H; O'Donnell, T; Steiner, H M; Winslow, L A; Dwyer, D A; McKeown, R D; Zhang, C; Berger, B E; Lane, C E; Maricic, J; Miletic, T; Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Sakai, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Downum, K E; Gratta, G; Efremenko, Y; Perevozchikov, O; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Heeger, K M; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  14. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, T.I., E-mail: tbanks@berkeley.edu [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Freedman, S.J. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Inoue, K. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Koga, M. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Mitsui, T. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); and others

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  15. Fuzzy rank functions in the set of all binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sik; Neggers, J; So, Keum Sook

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce fuzzy rank functions for groupoids, and we investigate their roles in the semigroup of binary systems by using the notions of right parallelisms and [Formula: see text]-shrinking groupoids.

  16. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. ON EVOLUTION OF MAN-LAND SYSTEM IN OASIS-Taking Minqin Basin as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Human beings have had a tremendous impact on natural ecosystems and are now the principal power tochange the biosphere. It is logical that we should pay close attention to the interaction between human systems and environ-mental systems. Taking Minqin basin, Gansu Province, as a case, this paper focuses on the evolution of regional physi-cal environments and the cultural systems by which people maintain their relationships with those environments. This paper presents the conceptual framework for the man-land system. Expecting to accelerate the regional sustainable develop-ment, it also analyses the evolutionary mechanism of regional man-land system. On the basis of reviewing and analyzingthe evolution of man-land system in Minqin basin, the paper also brings forward an adjusting mode for the studied area,which consists of three aspects: to build up a concept that economic growth must harmonize with environmental quality'sand land productivity's improvement; to make a whole planning and management in the drainage area; and to push forward the technique of water-saving irrigation and establish water-saving agricultural system. It's meaningful for resourceexploitation and sustainable development of Chinese northwestern arid area, which is represented by Minqin basin, by under-standing what great changes the basin has experienced and is experiencing at the global background, and studying its timeorder and territorial structure, the system's character and law of evolution, trend and the regulating ways to improveman-land relationship.

  18. GEOSS interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David; Nyenhuis, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    "Understanding the Earth system — its weather, climate, oceans, atmosphere, water, land, geodynamics, natural resources, ecosystems, and natural and human-induced hazards — is crucial to enhancing human health, safety and welfare, alleviating human suffering including poverty, protecting the global environment, reducing disaster losses, and achieving sustainable development. Observations of the Earth system constitute critical input for advancing this understanding." With this in mind, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) started implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). GEOWOW, short for "GEOSS interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water", is supporting this objective. GEOWOW's main challenge is to improve Earth observation data discovery, accessibility and exploitability, and to evolve GEOSS in terms of interoperability, standardization and functionality. One of the main goals behind the GEOWOW project is to demonstrate the value of the TIGGE archive in interdisciplinary applications, providing a vast amount of useful and easily accessible information to the users through the GEO Common Infrastructure (GCI). GEOWOW aims at developing funcionalities that will allow easy discovery, access and use of TIGGE archive data and of in-situ observations, e.g. from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), to support applications such as river discharge forecasting.TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) is a key component of THORPEX: a World Weather Research Programme to accelerate the improvements in the accuracy of 1-day to 2 week high-impact weather forecasts for the benefit of humanity. The TIGGE archive consists of ensemble weather forecast data from ten global NWP centres, starting from October 2006, which has been made available for scientific research. The TIGGE archive has been used to analyse hydro-meteorological forecasts of flooding in Europe as well as in China. In general the analysis has been favourable in terms of

  19. Investigating potential transferability of place-based research in land system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Langerwisch, Fanny; Cotter, Marc; Fick, Johanna; Häuser, Inga; Hotes, Stefan; Kamp, Johannes; Settele, Josef; Spangenberg, Joachim H.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Much of our knowledge about land use and ecosystem services in interrelated social-ecological systems is derived from place-based research. While local and regional case studies provide valuable insights, it is often unclear how relevant this research is beyond the study areas. Drawing generalized conclusions about practical solutions to land management from local observations and formulating hypotheses applicable to other places in the world requires that we identify patterns of land systems that are similar to those represented by the case study. Here, we utilize the previously developed concept of land system archetypes to investigate potential transferability of research from twelve regional projects implemented in a large joint research framework that focus on issues of sustainable land management across four continents. For each project, we characterize its project archetype, i.e. the unique land system based on a synthesis of more than 30 datasets of land-use intensity, environmental conditions and socioeconomic indicators. We estimate the transferability potential of project research by calculating the statistical similarity of locations across the world to the project archetype, assuming higher transferability potentials in locations with similar land system characteristics. Results show that areas with high transferability potentials are typically clustered around project sites but for some case studies can be found in regions that are geographically distant, especially when values of considered variables are close to the global mean or where the project archetype is driven by large-scale environmental or socioeconomic conditions. Using specific examples from the local case studies, we highlight the merit of our approach and discuss the differences between local realities and information captured in global datasets. The proposed method provides a blueprint for large research programs to assess potential transferability of place-based studies to other

  20. Weather shocks and cropland decisions in rural Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar Espinoza, César Antonio; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to examine the effect of weather shocks on cropland decisions. We account for the bounded nature of land shares and estimate a Pooled Fractional Probit model for panel data. Our results show that crop choice is sensitive to past weather shocks. Farmers shift land use away from cash and permanent crops one...

  1. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  2. Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near-real-time data from satellite sensors. The EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) was not originally designed to provide data with sufficiently low latency to satisfy the requirements for near-real-time users. The EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments aboard the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily, which are processed into higher-level 'standard' products within 8-40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However, applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near-real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users often need data much sooner than routine science processing allows, usually within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. While Direct Broadcast provides more timely access to data, it does not provide global coverage. In 2002, a joint initiative between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and the DOD (Department of Defense) was undertaken to provide data from EOS instruments in near-real-time. The NRTPE (Near Real Time Processing Effort) provided products within 3 hours of observation on a best-effort basis. As the popularity of these near-real-time products and applications grew, multiple near-real-time systems began to spring up such as the Rapid Response System. In recognizing the dependence of customers on this data and the need for highly reliable and timely data access, NASA's Earth Science Division sponsored the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS)-led development of a new near-real-time system called

  3. All-optical animation projection system with rotating fieldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuko; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-06-01

    A simple and compact rewritable holographic memory system using a fieldstone of Ulexite is proposed. The role of the fieldstone is to impose random patterns on the reference beam to record plural images with the random-reference multiplexing scheme. The operations for writing and reading holograms are carried out by simply rotating the fieldstone in one direction. One of the features of this approach is found in a way to generate random patterns without computer drawings. The experimental study confirms that our system enables the smooth readout of the stored images one after another so that the series of reproduced images are projected as an animation.

  4. An Automated Artificial Neural Network System for Land Use/Land Cover Classification from Landsat TM Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Khorram

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an automated ANN classification system consisting of two modules: an unsupervised Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM neural network module, and a supervised Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural network module using the Backpropagation (BP training algorithm. Two training algorithms were provided for the SOM network module: the standard SOM, and a refined SOM learning algorithm which incorporated Simulated Annealing (SA. The ability of our automated ANN system to perform Land-Use/Land-Cover (LU/LC classifications of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was tested using a supervised MLP network, an unsupervised SOM network, and a combination of SOM with SA network. Our case study demonstrated that the ANN classification system fulfilled the tasks of network training pattern creation, network training, and network generalization. The results from the three networks were assessed via a comparison with reference data derived from the high spatial resolution Digital Colour Infrared (CIR Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quad (DOQQ data. The supervised MLP network obtained the most accurate classification accuracy as compared to the two unsupervised SOM networks. Additionally, the classification performance of the refined SOM network was found to be significantly better than that of the standard SOM network essentially due to the incorporation of SA. This is mainly due to the SA-assisted classification utilizing the scheduling cooling scheme. It is concluded that our automated ANN classification system can be utilized for LU/LC applications and will be particularly useful when traditional statistical classification methods are not suitable due to a statistically abnormal distribution of the input data.

  5. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  6. One Size Does Not Fit All: A System Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    EVM also communicates a project status within a portfolio and is an integral component of the Office of Management and Budget Exhibit 300 ( Primavera ... Primavera Systems. (2008, November). Leveraging earned value management and IT governance. Contract Management, 48(11), 66–70. Pruitt, J. (2011

  7. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  8. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): mobile apps and collaboration for optimizing climate change investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massive investments in climate change mitigation and adaptation are projected during coming decades. Many of these investments will seek to modify how land is managed. The return on both types of investments can be increased through an understanding of land potential: the potential of the land to s...

  9. Supporting institutional development in land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems are institutional...... and implementation of efficient Land Administration Models and to support good governance. The paper identifies the role of FIG in this regard. This includes support for professional, institutional and global development in surveying and land management, and aims to facilitate the creation of sustainable...

  10. Land-use systems affect Archaeal community structure and functional diversity in western Amazon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Aparecido Navarrete

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of soil microbial communities at relevant spatial scales is primordial in the wide Amazon region due to the current land use changes. In this study, the diversity of the Archaea domain (community structure and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (richness and community composition were investigated using molecular biology-based techniques in different land-use systems in western Amazonia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in two periods with high precipitation (March 2008 and January 2009 from Inceptisols under primary tropical rainforest, secondary forest (5-20 year old, agricultural systems of indigenous people and cattle pasture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA (PCR-DGGE using the 16S rRNA gene as a biomarker showed that archaeal community structures in crops and pasture soils are different from those in primary forest soil, which is more similar to the community structure in secondary forest soil. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands indicated the presence of crenarchaeal and euryarchaeal organisms. Based on clone library analysis of the gene coding the subunit of the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of Archaea (306 sequences, the Shannon-Wiener function and Simpson's index showed a greater ammonia-oxidizing archaeal diversity in primary forest soils (H' = 2.1486; D = 0.1366, followed by a lower diversity in soils under pasture (H' = 1.9629; D = 0.1715, crops (H' = 1.4613; D = 0.3309 and secondary forest (H' = 0.8633; D = 0.5405. All cloned inserts were similar to the Crenarchaeota amoA gene clones (identity > 95 % previously found in soils and sediments and distributed primarily in three major phylogenetic clusters. The findings indicate that agricultural systems of indigenous people and cattle pasture affect the archaeal community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in western Amazon soils.

  11. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth.

  12. Fracture Analysis of an All-Ceramic Bearing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Alpha Optical Systems, Inc., 1611 Government Street, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 1 Andre Ezis, Cercom, Inc., 1960 Watson Way, Vista, CA 92083 1 Robert Feest...David R. Breton 1 Sid 0. Davis 1 Edward R. Schillemat, Jr. 1 Barry O’Dwyer Director, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Watertown, MA 02172-0001 2 ATTN: AMSRL-OP-WT-IS, Technical Library 10 Authors 32

  13. A HISTORICAL EXAMINATION ON LAND DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desertification control has been facing severe situations in the interlocking area between cultivated land and gazing land in North China since the Qing Dynasty because of unreasonable land utilization. The paper analyzes the policies of all the previous governments to open up land, and examines the historical and geographical background and process by means of historical records. We consider that causes of the area of land desertification to extend are increase of farming migrants, the change of life style of Mongol and weather and land conditions. In order to control the spread of land desertification, we suggest the level of the government to make policies should be improved, the number of farming migrants should be controlled, the Government′s general and specifie polices should be actively publicized, and invest ment in agriculture should be increased.

  14. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  15. North American Land Change Monitoring System: Current Status and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, D.; Homer, C.; Ressl, R.; Takaki, F.; Meneses, C.; Latifovic, R.; Giri, C.; Colditz, R.; Jimenez, F.; Orozco, R.; Hossain, N.; Lopez, G.; Palafox, R.; Díaz, P.

    2009-05-01

    At the Land Cover Summit meeting held in Washington, DC in September 2006 the North American Land Change Monitoring System (NLCMS) project was initiated between representatives from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Information of Mexico (INEGI) and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The objective of the NALCMS is a joint effort to create a harmonized system for multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring and reporting of North American land cover change. The proposed system couples 250m and 30m resolutions, offering products relevant at both spatial scales. The two spatial resolutions will provide users with investigation, confirmation, calibration, and assessment of 250m change products with 30m product support. This combination of spatial resolutions offers a valuable increase in temporal frequency, context, and strategic prioritization for 30m products. In due course these land change products can provide continental, national, and regional consistency to land cover and land cover change analysis.

  16. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Yildizhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9 the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18 was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed.

  17. Assessing the Effects of ‘Stand-alone’ Structuration of Land Administration System on Urban Land Delivery and Accessibility in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbola Kazeem Bolayemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and effectiveness of land administration system had been acknowledged to be premised on so many factors, arguably the chief of which, is the degree of mutuality, frictionlessness and bi-directionality in the interrelationship that exist amongst the various factors that are discharging arrays of tasks that these formal lands regulo-administrative machineries are saddled with. Undoubtedly, this simple conduct of affairs resultantly drives the formal lands delivery, hence it increases accessibility to urban lands by several categories of users in Nigeria, as thus the case globally. However, these interrelationships are absent among land administration and regulation systems in Nigeria. Hence, this study intends to assess the direct and possible indirect impacts that these interrelationships fallouts have on the formal delivery and accessibility of urban lands in Nigeria, Firstly, this was done by articulating the issues involved and calibrating them into constructs, then measuring them via the following score-cards, thus: myopism, non-ingenuity, disservice, eco-financial loss, distrust, trauma, anti-growth, death, market distortion and thriving informalisation focussing on the South Western Nigeria. Out of the total 586 individuals considered as the total population for the sample space, 120 individual qualified for the sample frame, upon which the structured questionnaires were distributed among land regulators, land administrators, independent land consultants and ultimate land users, essentially to have a fair and broad view of the issues inherent in this lands accessibility dilemma. 93 questionnaires were retrieved, out of which 87 questionnaires were valid, thus formed the basis upon which analyses were done, with emphasis on the 5 point Likert scale measurement usage, via both inferential and descriptive statistical tools. The results showed amongst other things, that unbridled relationship frictions had led to unwarranted role

  18. Development of base-isolation system for lightweight structure. Rubber bearing isolation with soft landing system applied to 2-story wooden structure; Keiryo kozobutsuyo menshin system no kaihatsu. Mokuzo nikaidate sakagura kenchiku ni tekiyoshita soft landing menshin koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, A.; Nobara, A.; Inaba, S.; Tanaka, K.; Manbo, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    When a laminated rubber bearing base-isolation system is used in a lightweight structure, it is difficult to ensure that the rubber bearing can withstand larger deformation and longer period. This report describes the application of a laminated rubber bearing and soft landing system to a 2-story wooden structure. The soft landing system can prevent buckling of the laminated rubber bearing in case of strong earthquake motion, which was confirmed by earthquake response analysis. As a result, the seismic performance of the structure and the effect of the soft landing system were verified. (author)

  19. Systems Biology and Cancer Prevention: All Options on the Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rosenfeld

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we outline the status quo and approaches to further development of the systems biology concepts with focus on applications in cancer prevention science. We discuss the biological aspects of cancer research that are of primary importance in cancer prevention, motivations for their mathematical modeling and some recent advances in computational oncology. We also make an attempt to outline in big conceptual terms the contours of future work aimed at creation of large-scale computational and informational infrastructure for using as a routine tool in cancer prevention science and decision making.

  20. The AARTFAAC All Sky Monitor: System Design and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Peeyush; Kooistra, Eric; van der Schuur, Daniel; Gunst, Andre; Romein, John; Kuiack, Mark; Molenaar, Gijs; Rowlinson, Antonia; Swinbank, John D; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2016-01-01

    The Amsterdam-ASTRON Radio Transients Facility And Analysis Center (AARTFAAC) all sky monitor is a sensitive, real time transient detector based on the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). It generates images of the low frequency radio sky with spatial resolution of 10s of arcmin, MHz bandwidths, and a time cadence of a few seconds, while simultaneously but independently observing with LOFAR. The image timeseries is then monitored for short and bright radio transients. On detection of a transient, a low latency trigger will be generated for LOFAR, which can interrupt its schedule to carry out follow-up observations of the trigger location at high sensitivity and resolutions. In this paper, we describe our heterogeneous, hierarchical design to manage the 240 Gbps raw data rate, and large scale computing to produce real-time images with minimum latency. We discuss the implementation of the instrumentation, its performance, and scalability.