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Sample records for alkylbenzene sulfonate las

  1. Degradation analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.; Warren, W.J.; Reed, A.

    1980-01-01

    The degradation of mixtures of sodium salts of butyl-, decyl-, and dodecylbenzene sulfonate was studied as influenced by shaking for seven days, by the addition of soil and sand, and by changes in pH. LAS were analyzed by measurement of the absorbance at 223 nm or by reaction with methylene blue and measurement of the absorbance at 652 nm. Slurries containing 48.0 g/l. and 6.6 g/l. of LAS degraded at room temperature, which suggested a simple chemical decomposition of the LAS to simpler products since these concentrations prohibited microbial activity. None of the treatments significantly aided the degradation process, except the addition of soil, i.e., the addition of a source of microorganisms. Contrary to the LAS slurry data, the dodecylbenzene sulfonate solution did not degrade even after aging for 30 days; however, it degraded completely after 7 days on the addition of a glucose and nutrient solution.

  2. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on human intestinal Caco-2 cells at non cytotoxic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Mohamed; Han, Junkyu; Omri, Abdelfatteh El; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2016-08-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a cytotoxic synthetic anionic surfactant widely present in the environment due to its large-scale production and intensive use in the detergency field. In this study, we investigated the effect of LAS (CAS No. 25155-30-0) at non cytotoxic concentrations on human intestinal Caco-2 cells using different in vitro bioassays. As results, LAS increased Caco-2 cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 ppm, more significantly for shorter exposure time (24 h), confirmed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion methods. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed that this effect was associated with an over-expression of elongation factor 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 3, and a down-regulation of 14-3-3 protein theta, confirmed at mRNA level using real-time PCR. These findings suggest that LAS at non cytotoxic concentrations, similar to those observed at wastewater treatment plants outlets, increases the growth rate of colon cancer cells, raising thereby its tumor promotion effect potential. PMID:25999174

  3. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments. PMID:27088975

  4. Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians concentrates waterborne linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). • Size/weight plays a role in the LAS concentration in shrimp. • The LAS previously concentrated in the shrimp are rapidly depurated and weakly retained. • Shrimp’s target compartments for concentration of waterborne LAS are mainly located in the cephalothorax. - Abstract: Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [14C]C12-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg−1 after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg−1, reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d−1 leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration

  5. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment. PMID:22053469

  6. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C......% of the added C-12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C-12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C-12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation......Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...

  7. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...... of the anaerobic digestion process should be seriously taken into consideration when wastewater from a surfactant producing industry is to be treated biologically or enter a municipal wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic technology. The upper allowable biomass specific LAS concentration should be 14......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...

  8. Ultrafiltration of an alkylbenzene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlumpf, J.P.; Quemeneur, F.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of various parameters, such as pressure, flow rate, and concentration, on the ultrafiltration of an amonic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) in aqueous solution through a membrane with a cut-off point of M.W. 20,000 was studied. The variations of the rate of flow of ultrafiltrate and the rate of rejection can be explained by the presence of miscelles of the surface-active agent and by concentration polarization close to the membrane. Values of the rate of rejection between 0.7 and 0.95 show that membranes with high cut-off points can be used to ultrafilter surfactants whose molecular weights are much lower than the cut-off point.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  10. Assessment of the potential toxicity of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to freshwater animal life by means of cladoceran bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Katiuscia da Silva; Rocha, Odete

    2010-04-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of LAS on the cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were tested. Both types of toxicity bioassays and the methods of culture and stock maintenance of the test organisms conformed to the recommendations of ABNT (Brazilian Society of Technical Standards), which closely follow the standard methods of USEPA. The results obtained for EC(50) (48 h) were: 14.17 mg L(-1) for D. similis, 11.84 mg L(-1) for C. dubia and 13.52 mg L(-1) for C. silvestrii. In the chronic toxicity tests performed on C. dubia and C. silvestrii, there was a significant decrease in the fecundity of the exposed animals; the value of NOEC for C. dubia and C. silvestrii were 1.00 mg L(-1) and 2.50 mg L(-1), respectively. Cladoceran bioassays provided evidence that LAS concentration as low as 1.00 mg L(-1) can damage invertebrate animal life in freshwaters, concentrations that can be found in many eutrophic rivers and reservoirs. PMID:20091119

  11. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 mumol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon...

  12. Mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [14C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [14C]LAS was mineralized to 14CO2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members

  13. Investigating the Efficiency of UV/H2O2 Process for Removal of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nabizadeh Nodehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objective: Surfactants are one of the largest pollutants which exist in urban and industrial wastewaters. Large quantities of surfactants have entered to the environment since last decade due to increased use of synthetic detergent in industrial and home consumptions.In this study, the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process in removal of linear alkylbenzane sulfonate (LAS from aqueous solutions was investigated."nMaterials and Methods: In this study methylene blue active substane(MBASmethod and spectrometery were used to determine anion and residual surfactant respectively. In this study important variables were H2O2 concentration, initial concentration of surfactant, pH and duration of UV radiation. The effect of UV/H2O2 process on the degradation of LAS was analyzed statistically by using Multiple Linear Regression test."nResults: The resulted showed that after 20 minute, ultraviolet radiation solely removed 38.44 percent of Anionic detergent, Hydrogen peroxide showed no significant removal of detergent solution in the time course study. The efficiency of UV/H2O2 process in 10, 20 and 30 minute were to 86.2, 90 and 96.5 %, respectively."nConclusion: The results showed that the efficiency of ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen peroxide process in anionic detergent was not significant thoogh it was considerable in combination process (UV/H2O2.

  14. Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Aggregation Behaviors of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    In aqueous environment, organic matters may exert impacts on the aggregation behaviors of titanium dioxide nanoparticles ( TiO2⁃NPs). Owing to the deficiency of studies on the aggregation of TiO2⁃NPs in the presence of synthetic organic compound, this study used linear alkylbenzene sulfonate ( LAS) as a representative to evaluate the effects of TiO2⁃NPs concentration (1⁃10 mg/L), LAS concentration (0-1 mg/L), pH (4-8) and ionic strength ( NaCl, CaCl2; 5-20 mM ) during aggregation of TiO2⁃NPs suspensions based on the detection of hydrodynamic diameters and electrophoretic mobilities and the calculation of interaction energies. The results showed that the TiO2⁃NPs in the presence of LAS are more stable than that in the absence of LAS. With the increase of ionic strength, the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs decreases, and the existence of LAS changes the point of zero charge from 5�4 to a lower value and thus alteres the aggregation behaviors of TiO2⁃NPs. The present study suggests that the LAS has a significant impact to the transportation and transformation of nanoparticles in aqueous environment.

  15. Evaluation of the microbial diversity in sequencing batch reactor treating linear alkylbenzene sulfonate under denitrifying and mesophilic conditions using swine sludge as inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte; Lorena Lima de Oliveira; Dagoberto Yukio Okada; Pierre Ferreira do Prado; Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under denitrifying conditions using swine sludge as inoculum. The reactor was operated for 104 days with synthetic substrate containing nitrate, and LAS was added later (22 mg/L). Considering the added mass of the LAS, the adsorbed mass in the sludge and discarded along with the effluent, degradation of the surfactant at the end of operation was 87%, ...

  16. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM. Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 µg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume. Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  17. Investigating the potential of using acoustic frequency on the degradation of linear alkylbenzen sulfonates from aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of using acoustical (sonochemical) reactor for degradation of linear alkylbenzen sulfonate (LAS) from aqueous solution was investigated. LASs are anionic surfactants, found in relatively high amounts in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, experiments on LAS solution were performed using methylene blue active substances (MBAS) method.The effectiveness of acoustical processor reactor for LAS degradation is evaluated with emphasis on the effect of treatment time and initial LAS concentration. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L, acoustic frequency of 130 kHz, applied power of 500 W and temperature of 18 ℃~20 ℃. At the conditions involved, LAS degradation was found to increase with increasing sonochemical time. In addition, as the concentration increased, the LAS degradation rate decreased in the acoustical processor reactor.

  18. Reactive transport experiments of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in laboratory soil columns

    OpenAIRE

    Boluda Botella, Nuria; Cases López, Vicente; León León, Victor Manuel; Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Prats Rico, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory column experiments aids in the understanding of hydrogeochemistry dynamics of different linear alkylbenzene sulfonate homologues when they interact with different sand/soil proportions. Previously it was necessary to characterize the soil columns with a tracer. In this paper, the method to obtain breakthrough curves for the conductivity and chloride concentration of a tracer is verified, and also permits the calculation of transport parameters with an easy-to-use interface, ACUAINT...

  19. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.;

    2006-01-01

    in hydroponic solution spiked with LAS at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C for 192 h. The normalized relative transpiration of plants was used to determine toxicity. Severe reduction of the transpiration was only found for high doses of LAS (>= 240 mg 1(-1)). Chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied...

  20. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    methanogenesis from acetate and hydrogen and it is shown that the propionate-utilising bacteria are more sensitive to the presence of LAS than the acetoclastic methanogens. It has been proven that the inhibition intensity depends on the solids concentration and thus the term "biomass specific LAS concentration...

  1. Evaluation of the microbial diversity in sequencing batch reactor treating linear alkylbenzene sulfonate under denitrifying and mesophilic conditions using swine sludge as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR under denitrifying conditions using swine sludge as inoculum. The reactor was operated for 104 days with synthetic substrate containing nitrate, and LAS was added later (22 mg/L. Considering the added mass of the LAS, the adsorbed mass in the sludge and discarded along with the effluent, degradation of the surfactant at the end of operation was 87%, removal of chemical oxygen demand was 86% and nitrate was 98%. The bacterial community was evaluated by cutting the bands and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences obtained were related to the phylum Proteobacteria and the alpha-and beta-proteobacteria classes, these bacteria were probably involved in the degradation of LAS. The efficiently degraded LAS in the reactor was operated in batch sequences in denitrifying conditions.

  2. Development of acute toxicity quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and their use in linear alkylbenzene sulfonate species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; Price, Brad B

    2016-07-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is high tonnage and widely dispersed anionic surfactant used by the consumer products sector. A range of homologous structures are used in laundry applications that differ primarily on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain. This research summarizes the development of a set of acute toxicity QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and daphnids (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) using accepted test guideline approaches. A series of studies on pure chain length LAS from C10 to C14 were used to develop the QSARs and the robustness of the QSARs was tested by evaluation of two technical mixtures of differing compositions. All QSARs were high quality (R(2) were 0.965-0.997, p < 0.0001). Toxicity normalization employing QSARs is used to interpret a broader array of tests on LAS chain length materials to a diverse group of test organisms with the objective of developing Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for various chain lengths of interest. Mixtures include environmental distributions measured from exposure monitoring surveys of wastewater effluents, various commercial mixtures, or specific chain lengths. SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentrations (HC5s) ranged from 0.129 to 0.254 mg/L for wastewater effluents containing an average of 11.26-12 alkyl carbons. The SSDs are considered highly robust given the breadth of species (n = 19), use of most sensitive endpoints from true chronic studies and the quality of the underlying statistical properties of the SSD itself. The data continue to indicate a low hazard to the environment relative to expected environmental concentrations. PMID:27105149

  3. γ-H2AX induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is due to deoxyribonuclease-1 translocation to the nucleus via actin disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Non-genotoxic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) generated γ-H2AX. • The γ-H2AX was not induced through direct LAS-induced DNA damage. • LAS weakened interactions between actin and DNase I. • Released DNase I translocated to nucleus and broke DNA strands, generating γ-H2AX. • This is a novel pathway for chemically induced γ-H2AX. - Abstract: Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) occurs following formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Other types of DNA damage also generate DSBs through DNA replication and repair, leading to the production of γ-H2AX. In the present study, we demonstrated that linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), the most widely used and non-genotoxic anionic surfactants, could generate γ-H2AX via a novel pathway. Breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were treated with five kinds of LAS with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 14 carbon units (C10–C14LAS). The generation of DSBs and subsequent production of γ-H2AX increased in a manner that depended on the number of carbon units in LAS. γ-H2AX could also be generated with non-cytotoxic doses of LAS and was independent of the cell cycle, indicating the non-apoptotic and DNA replication-independent formation of DSBs. The generation of γ-H2AX could be attenuated by EGTA and ZnCl2, deoxyribonuclease-1 (DNase I) inhibitors, as well as by the knockdown of DNase I. LAS weakened the interaction between DNase I and actin, and the enhanced release of DNase I was dependent on the number of carbon units in LAS. DNase I released by the LAS treatment translocated to the nucleus, in which DNase I attacked DNA and generated γ-H2AX. These results suggested that the LAS-induced generation of γ-H2AX could be attributed to the translocation of DNase I to the nucleus through the disruption of actin, and not to LAS-induced DNA damage

  4. γ-H2AX induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is due to deoxyribonuclease-1 translocation to the nucleus via actin disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Kubota, Toru; Yang, Guang; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Non-genotoxic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) generated γ-H2AX. • The γ-H2AX was not induced through direct LAS-induced DNA damage. • LAS weakened interactions between actin and DNase I. • Released DNase I translocated to nucleus and broke DNA strands, generating γ-H2AX. • This is a novel pathway for chemically induced γ-H2AX. - Abstract: Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) occurs following formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Other types of DNA damage also generate DSBs through DNA replication and repair, leading to the production of γ-H2AX. In the present study, we demonstrated that linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), the most widely used and non-genotoxic anionic surfactants, could generate γ-H2AX via a novel pathway. Breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were treated with five kinds of LAS with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 14 carbon units (C{sub 10}–C{sub 14}LAS). The generation of DSBs and subsequent production of γ-H2AX increased in a manner that depended on the number of carbon units in LAS. γ-H2AX could also be generated with non-cytotoxic doses of LAS and was independent of the cell cycle, indicating the non-apoptotic and DNA replication-independent formation of DSBs. The generation of γ-H2AX could be attenuated by EGTA and ZnCl{sub 2}, deoxyribonuclease-1 (DNase I) inhibitors, as well as by the knockdown of DNase I. LAS weakened the interaction between DNase I and actin, and the enhanced release of DNase I was dependent on the number of carbon units in LAS. DNase I released by the LAS treatment translocated to the nucleus, in which DNase I attacked DNA and generated γ-H2AX. These results suggested that the LAS-induced generation of γ-H2AX could be attributed to the translocation of DNase I to the nucleus through the disruption of actin, and not to LAS-induced DNA damage.

  5. Applying moving bed biofilm reactor for removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate using synthetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaleddin Mollaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergents and problems of their attendance into water and wastewater cause varied difficulties such as producing foam, abnormality in the growth of algae, accumulation and dispersion in aqueous environments. One of the reactors was designated with 30% of the media with the similar conditions exactly same as the other which had filling rate about 10 %, in order to compare both of them together. A standard method methylene blue active substance was used to measure anionic surfactant. The concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate which examined were 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/l in HRT 72, 24 and 8 hrs. The removal percentage for both of reactors at the beginning of operating at50 mg/l concentration of pollutant had a bit difference and with gradually increasing the pollutant concentration and decreasing Hydraulic retention time, the variation between the removal percentage of both reactors became significant as the reactor that had the filling rate about 30 %, showed better condition than the other reactor with 10 % filling rate. Ideal condition in this experiment was caught at hydraulic retention time about 72 hrs and 200 mg/l pollutants concentration with 99.2% removal by the reactor with 30% filling rate. While the ideal condition for the reactor with 10% filling rate with the same hydraulic retention time and 100 mg/l pollutants concentrations was obtained about 99.4% removal. Regarding anionic surfactant standard in Iran which is 1.5 mg/l for surface water discharge, using this process is suitable for treating municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater which has a range of the pollutant between 100-200 mg/l. but for the industries that produce detergents products which make wastewater containing more than 200 mg/l surfactants, using secondary treatment process for achieving discharge standard is required.

  6. Determination of photodegradation and ozonation by products of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by liquid chromatography and ion chromatography under controlled laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Riu, J; Garíca-Calvo, E; Rodríguez, A; Fernández-Alba, A R; Barceló, D

    2004-09-01

    A Suntest solar simulator with arc xenon lamp was used to irradiate pure linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) standard and some commercial LAS solutions. The ozonation treatment was carried out in a pilot plant air-lift type reactor. Kinetic degradation curves were obtained showing an apparent first order reaction in both cases. Extraction and preconcentration of samples was carried out by off-line SPE using polymeric an RP-18 cartridges with recoveries varying from 77 to 93% for the LAS compounds. For LC chromatographic elution of LAS and degradation products an ion pair based on 5mM triethylamine and 5nM acetic acid had to the acetonitrile-water or methanol-water mobile phases. Fluorescence detection was achieved at 225 and 295nm as excitation and emission radiation wavelength, respectively. Degradation by products were identified by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS). Ion chromatography (IC) was used to analyze refractory species such as oxalate, formate and acetate ions which were present in the treated solution even after 3h of ozone treatment. The LAS mixture was almost totally degraded in less than 20min using O(3)/H(2)O(2), the reaction being faster than in the case of catalyzed photodecomposition. TOC removal reached 84% after 3h of ozonation process. PMID:18969570

  7. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B

    2008-12-01

    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste. PMID:19419067

  8. The scale epithelium as a novel, non-invasive tool for environmental assessment in fish: Testing exposure to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Ribeiro, R G L G; Pitol, D L; Ciamarro, C M; Valim, J R T; Caetano, F H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing pollution levels have turned our attention to assessing lethal and sublethal effects of toxic agents using the most informative techniques possible. We must seek non-invasive or non-lethal sampling methods that represent an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of environmental assessment in fish. Detergents are amongst the most common contaminants of water bodies, and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) is one of the most used anionic surfactant on the market. Our study analyzed morphological alterations (histological and histochemical) of the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus under exposure to two concentrations of LAS, 3.6mg/L and 0.36mg/L, for a period of 30 days and evaluated at 14, 21 and 30 days. In order to establish morphological analysis of the scale epithelium as a new non-lethal environmental assessment tool that is reliable and comparable to classic methods, the relative sensibility of this technique was compared to a commonly used method of environmental assessment in fish, the estimation of the effects of pollutants upon branchial morphology. Two experiments were carried out, testing animals in tanks, and in individual aquariums. Results of analyses on gill tissue show that exposure to 3.6mg/L of surfactant caused severe damage, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion at 14 days, with aneurisms at 21 and 30 days; while exposure to 0.36mg/L had lighter effects on the organ, mainly lower incidence of fusion and hyperplasia. Aditionally, scale morphology was altered severely in response to 3.6mg/L of LAS, consistently showing increased mucous and club cell production. Epithelial thickness was the most variable parameter measured. Scale epithelium sensibility has the potential to be a reliable environmental marker for fish species since it has the advantage of being less invasive when compared to traditional methods. However, more studies are required to increase the robustness of the technique before it can be

  9. Inhibition of biogas production by alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) in a screening test for anaerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Dalmau, Manel; Illán, Patricia; Sánchez-Leal, Joaquin

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the inoculum source on the digestion of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) under anaerobic conditions has been investigated. The potential for primary and ultimate LAS biodegradation of anaerobic sludge samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different geographical locations was studied applying a batch test system. It was found that only 4-22% of the LAS added to the batch anaerobic digesters was primarily transformed suggesting a poor primary degradation of the LAS molecule in anaerobic discontinuous systems. Regarding ultimate biodegradation, the addition of LAS to the batch anaerobic digesters caused a reduction on the extent of biogas production. Significant differences in the inhibition extent of the biogas production were observed (4-26%) depending on the sludge used as inoculum. Effect of the surfactant on the anaerobic microorganisms was correlated with its concentration in the aqueous phase. Sorption of LAS on anaerobic sludge affects its toxicity by depletion of the available fraction of the surfactant. LAS content on sludge was related to the total amount of calcium and magnesium extractable ions. The presence of divalent cations promote the association of LAS with anaerobic sludge reducing its bioavailability and the extent of its inhibitory effect on the biogas production. PMID:16453170

  10. Effect of Anionic Surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate(LAS) on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Aquatic Plants%阴离子型表面活性剂(LAS)对水生植物生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红玉; 周朴华; 杨仁斌; 廖柏寒; 鲁双庆; 余苹中

    2001-01-01

    采用室内培养实验方法, 以植物的生长量、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性变化作为观测指标,研究了直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)对稀脉浮萍(Lemna paucicostata L.)、满江红(Azolla imbricata(Roxb.) Nakai)、水网藻(Hydrodictyon sp.)生理生化特性的影响. 结果表明,当 LAS浓度超过 1 mg@ L-1时,稀脉浮萍的生长受到严重抑制,在 10、100 mg@ L-1下,出现负增长. CAT、POD活性变化与细胞受伤程度直接相关,可作为植物分子生态毒理学指标. LAS浓度在 0-10 mg@ L-1范围内,随着浓度升高,酶活性增加,清除细胞中由于 LAS产生的过氧化物伤害; 当浓度超过 10 mg@ L-1时,植物受到明显损伤,甚至死亡. 同时发现, CAT、POD活性水平与植物的类群直接相关, 被子植物稀脉浮萍的酶活性比蕨类植物满江红的高,藻类植物水网藻酶活性最低.

  11. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M;

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  12. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production. PMID:11038243

  13. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  14. Activity and population dynamics of heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil surrounding sludge bands spiked with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K. K.; Sørensen, J.; Krogh, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    bioluminescence toxicity assay, however, LAS or other sludge components never accumulated to toxic levels in the soil compartments and the LAS tolerance of the indigenous microbes further remained unchanged following LAS exposure. LAS effects on the investigated microbial populations largely occurred during...

  15. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  16. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld;

    2001-01-01

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) doped with large anionic detergents have high stability in aqueous systems. PPy can be reversibly oxidised and reduced electrochemically. The redox change of PPy is accompanied by a change in volume of the polymer. This is partly ascribed to take-up of...

  17. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld; Mazur, Tanja; Jørgensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Helle D.

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) doped with large anionic detergents have high stability in aqueous systems. PPy can be reversibly oxidised and reduced electrochemically. The redox change of PPy is accompanied by a change in volume of the polymer. This is partly ascribed to take-up of...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE BROWN MUSSEL Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA) EXPOSED TO THE ANIONIC SURFACTANT LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONATE (LAS) = RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DE MEXILHÃO Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA) EXPOSTO AO SURFACTANTE ANIÔNICO ALQUILBENZENO SULFONATO LINEAR (LAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Freitas Stefanoni; Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna, using physiological and genotoxic biomarkers. The Micronuclei (MN) assay was used to estimate effects at nuclear level, whereas the physiological effects were evaluated by measuring the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. Significant effects were observed for the MN assay and the ammonia excretion rate, even in low concentrations. The oxygen consumption was not affected in the tested ...

  19. Alkylbenzene Project in Xinjiang Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1996-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on alkylbenzene project in Dushanzi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, submitted jointly by the government of Xinjiang UygurAutonomous Region and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), has been approved by State Council recently,after pass appraisa l by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation entrusted by State Planning Committee.

  20. Oxidative stress and histopathology damage related to the metabolism of dodecylbenzene sulfonate in Senegalese sole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñoz, D; Gómez-Parra, A; Blasco, J; Sarasquete, C; González-Mazo, E

    2009-03-01

    Surfactants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) are widely utilised in the formulation of detergents in commercial products. After use, they pass through waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and are then discharged to aquatic ecosystems, causing risk to aquatic life. The exposure of marine animals to these compounds enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent damage to macromolecules, and produces histological alterations. A flow-through experiment with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) has been devised with the object of correlating the metabolism of LAS including sulfophenylcarboxylic acids (SPCs) by fish with their antioxidant defence system (generation of oxyradicals) and histopathological damage. The generation of intermediate degradation products (SPCs) by the organism, the histopathological responses, the antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), as well as other kinds of enzyme such as acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP, ALP), were measured. SPCs from 5ØC(6) to 11ØC(12) were identified and quantified in fish and water; their concentrations differed depending on the sampling moment. In general, the responses found in the enzymes were slight: a decrease in the enzymatic activity in gills and activation in the digestive tract. The evidence of histopathological damage identified was also small; the organism's defensive mechanism against pollutants should enable it to recover easily. A direct relationship was established between biotransformation and the generation of SPCs and ROS. In conclusion, the correct functioning of the antioxidant defence system with absence of large variations, the short-term histopathological damage, and the evidence of SPCs indicate an adequate metabolism of 2-phenyl-C(12)-linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (2ØC(12)LAS) by this specie and non-toxic effects at environmentally realistic levels. PMID:19121837

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE BROWN MUSSEL Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA EXPOSED TO THE ANIONIC SURFACTANT LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONATE (LAS = RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DE MEXILHÃO Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA EXPOSTO AO SURFACTANTE ANIÔNICO ALQUILBENZENO SULFONATO LINEAR (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Freitas Stefanoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna, using physiological and genotoxic biomarkers. The Micronuclei (MN assay was used to estimate effects at nuclear level, whereas the physiological effects were evaluated by measuring the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. Significant effects were observed for the MN assay and the ammonia excretion rate, even in low concentrations. The oxygen consumption was not affected in the tested concentrations. For MN and ammonia excretion, the animals exposed to intermediate concentrations were not affected, but responded to the higher concentrations, indicating the existence of compensatory mechanisms at physiological level. However, parallel to this study other authors indicate the presence of progressive effects at the cellular level, suggesting that the organisms are not capable to recover of such increasing effects. Additionally, the results show that the levels of LAS observed for Brazilian coastal waters may chronically affect the biota. = Os efeitos do Alquilbenzeno Sulfonato de Sódio Linear sobre o mexilhão Perna perna foram avaliados por meio do uso de biomarcadores genotóxicos e fisiológicos. O ensaio da taxa de micronúcleos (MN foi conduzido para estimar o efeito ao nível nuclear, enquanto os efeitos fisiológicos foram avaliados através da medição da taxa de consumo de oxigênio e de excreção de amônia. Efeitos significativos foram observados para o ensaio do MN e para a taxa de excreção de amônia, mesmo em baixas concentrações. O consumo do oxigênio não foi afetado pelas concentrações dos ensaios. Para MN e excreção de amônia, os animais expostos às concentrações intermediárias não foram afetados, mas responderam às maiores concentrações, sugerindo a existência de mecanismos compensatórios em nível fisiológico. Contudo, paralelamente ao presente estudo, outros autores demonstraram haver efeitos

  2. Las degradation in a fluidized bed reactor and phylogenetic characterization of the biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluidized bed reactor was used to study the degradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge and was fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with LAS in increasing concentrations (8.2 to 45.8 mg l-1. The removal efficiency of 93% was obtained after 270 days of operation. Subsequently, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the sample at the last stage of the reactor operation recovered 105 clones belonging to the domain Bacteria. These clones represented a variety of phyla with significant homology to Bacteroidetes (40%, Proteobacteria (42%, Verrucomicrobia (4%, Acidobacteria (3%, Firmicutes (2%, and Gemmatimonadetes (1%. A small fraction of the clones (8% was not related to any phylum. Such phyla variety indicated the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS.

  3. Equilibrium partitioning theory to predict the sediment toxicity of the anionic surfactant C12-2-LAS to Corophium volutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the effect of the sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on the bioavailability to marine benthic organisms is essential to refine the environmental risk assessment of these compounds. According to the equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP), the effect concentration in water-only exposure will be similar to the effect concentration in the sediment pore water. In this work, sorption and desorption experiments with two marine sediments were carried out using the compound C12-2-LAS. The effect of the sediment sorption on the toxicity of benthic organisms was studied in water-only and in sediment bioassays with the marine mud shrimp Corophium volutator. In addition, three common spiking methods were tested for its application in the toxicity tests, as well as the stability of the surfactant during the water-only and sediment-water test duration. LC50 values obtained from water-only exposure showed a good correspondence with the pore water concentrations calculated from the sorption and desorption isotherms in the spiked sediments. - The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate to Corophium volutator in marine sediments can be predicted from toxicity measured via water-only exposure

  4. Enantioselective degradation and unidirectional chiral inversion of 2-phenylbutyric acid, an intermediate from linear alkylbenzene, by Xanthobacter flavus PA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yishan; Han, Ping [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Xiao-yan; Shih, Kaimin [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Gu, Ji-Dong, E-mail: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong, Shek O, Cape d' Aguilar, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We isolated a Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 utilizing the racemic 2-PBA and the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. {yields} Both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers can be degraded in a sequential manner in which the (S) disappeared before the (R) form. {yields} The biochemical degradation pathway involves an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. - Abstract: Microbial degradation of the chiral 2-phenylbutyric acid (2-PBA), a metabolite of surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), was investigated using both racemic and enantiomer-pure compounds together with quantitative stereoselective analyses. A pure culture of bacteria, identified as Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 isolated from the mangrove sediment of Hong Kong Mai Po Nature Reserve, was able to utilize the racemic 2-PBA as well as the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. In the presence of the racemic compounds, X. flavus PA1 degraded both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers to completion in a sequential manner in which the (S) enantiomer disappeared much faster than the (R) enantiomer. When the single pure enantiomer was supplied as the sole substrate, a unidirectional chiral inversion involving (S) enantiomer to (R) enantiomer was evident. No major difference was observed in the degradation intermediates with either of the individual enantiomers when used as the growth substrate. Two major degradation intermediates were detected and identified as 3-hydroxy-2-phenylbutanoic acid and 4-methyl-3-phenyloxetan-2-one, using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The biochemical degradation pathway follows an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. This study reveals new evidence for enantiomeric inversion catalyzed by pure culture of environmental bacteria and emphasizes the

  5. Equilibrium partitioning theory to predict the sediment toxicity of the anionic surfactant C{sub 12}-2-LAS to Corophium volutator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico-Rico, Angeles [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.ricorico@uu.nl; Temara, Ali [Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, Temselaan 100, 1853 Strombeek-Bever (Belgium); Hermens, Joop L.M. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The study of the effect of the sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on the bioavailability to marine benthic organisms is essential to refine the environmental risk assessment of these compounds. According to the equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP), the effect concentration in water-only exposure will be similar to the effect concentration in the sediment pore water. In this work, sorption and desorption experiments with two marine sediments were carried out using the compound C{sub 12}-2-LAS. The effect of the sediment sorption on the toxicity of benthic organisms was studied in water-only and in sediment bioassays with the marine mud shrimp Corophium volutator. In addition, three common spiking methods were tested for its application in the toxicity tests, as well as the stability of the surfactant during the water-only and sediment-water test duration. LC50 values obtained from water-only exposure showed a good correspondence with the pore water concentrations calculated from the sorption and desorption isotherms in the spiked sediments. - The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate to Corophium volutator in marine sediments can be predicted from toxicity measured via water-only exposure.

  6. Killing of preimplantation mouse embryos by main ingredients of cleansers AS and LAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When main ingredients of cleansers, alcohol sulfate (AS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), were applied to the dorsal skin of pregnant JCL:ICR mice during preimplantation period, significant numbers of embryos collected from the oviducts and uteri on day 3 showed severe deformity or remained at the morula stage. Most of abnormal embryos were fragmented or remained at the 1-8 cell stages, and they were either dead or dying. Similar results were observed with commercially obtained kitchen detergent and hair shampoo. Fertilized eggs may be specifically sensitive to synthetic detergents. Very low doses of X-rays also induced significant yields of abnormal embryos. Major difference between X-rays and detergents was that X-ray-induced abnormality appeared at the morula or blastocyst stage, while detergent-induced one did at the earlier stages. (Auth.)

  7. Investigations of ultrafast dynamics in electronically excited alkylbenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksyutenko P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate ultrafast dynamics in electronically excited states of some typical alkylbenzenes by time-resolved two-colour four wave mixing and velocity map imaging as complementary methods. In this context an upgraded double-sided time-resolved velocity map imaging setup is also proposed.

  8. Applying moving bed biofilm reactor for removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate using synthetic media

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaleddin Mollaei; Seyed Bagher Mortazavi; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Detergents and problems of their attendance into water and wastewater cause varied difficulties such as producing foam, abnormality in the growth of algae, accumulation and dispersion in aqueous environments. One of the reactors was designated with 30% of the media with the similar conditions exactly same as the other which had filling rate about 10 %, in order to compare both of them together. A standard method methylene blue active substance was used to measure anionic surfactant. The co...

  9. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

  10. Effect of sediment properties on the sorption of C{sub 12}-2-LAS in marine and estuarine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico-Rico, Angeles [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.ricorico@uu.nl; Temara, Ali [Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, Temselaan 100, 1853 Strombeek-Bever (Belgium); Behrends, Thilo [Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hermens, Joop L.M. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) are anionic high production volume surfactants used in the manufacture of cleaning products. Here, we have studied the effect of the characteristics of marine and estuarine sediments on the sorption of LAS. Sorption experiments were performed with single sediment materials (pure clays and sea sand), with sediments treated to reduce their organic carbon content, and with field marine and estuarine sediments. C{sub 12}-2-LAS was used as a model compound. Sorption to the clays montmorillonite and kaolinite resulted in non-linear isotherms very similar for both clays. When reducing the organic content, sorption coefficients decreased proportionally to the fraction removed in fine grain sediments but this was not the case for the sandy sediment. The correlation of the sediment characteristics with the sorption coefficients at different surfactant concentrations showed that at concentrations below 10 {mu}g C{sub 12}-2-LAS/L, the clay content correlated better with sorption, while the organic fraction became more significant at higher concentrations. - Sorption of C{sub 12}-2-LAS to marine sediments mainly depends on both clay and organic carbon content. The importance of each parameter varies with the surfactant concentration.

  11. Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio in linear alkylbenzene

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Wenqian; Zhang, Yuning; Wu, Wenjie; Luo, Wentai; Yu, Miao; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is adopted to be the organic solvent for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) liquid scintillator detectors due to the ultra-transparency. However the current Rayleigh scattering length calculation disagrees with the measurement. The present paper for the first time reports the Rayleigh scattering of LAB being anisotropic and the depolarization ratio being 0.31+-0.01(stat.)+-0.01(sys.). We proposed an indirectly method for Rayleigh scattering measurement with Einstein-Smoluchowski-Cabannes formula, and the Rayleigh scattering length of LAB is determined to be 28.2+-1.0 m at 430 nm.

  12. Simulation of Suspension Catalytic Distillation for Synthesis of Linear Alkylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二强; 李成岳

    2003-01-01

    Suspension catalytic distillation (SCD) has been developed recently as an innovative technology in catalytic distillation. In this paper, a brief introduction to SCD is given and an equilibrium stage (EQ) model is developed to simulate this new process for synthesis of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) from benzene and 1-dodecene.Since non-ideality of this reaction system is not strong, EQ model developed could be applied to it successfully.Simulation results agree well with experimental data, and indicate some characteristics of SCD process as an advanced technology for the production of LAB: 100% conversion of olefins, low temperature (90-100℃) and low benzene/olefin mole ratio.

  13. Comparative toxicity of some detergents on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunthala, B.; Shanmukhappa, H.; Neelakantan, B.

    1988-01-01

    The comparative toxicity was evaluated using four detergents, viz, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), branched alkylbenzene sulfonate (BAS), sodium sulfonate (SS) and alfa-olefin sulfonate (AOS) on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii, abundant in Kali estuarine system. Standard toxicity bioassay method was followed as per APHA (1980). AOS concentration in "Mega" soap was determined by the standard MBAS method described in APHA (1980). The results indicate that LAS was the most toxic det...

  14. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes

  15. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, David M., E-mail: dml@unr.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), Freiburg (Germany); Pandey, Hari Datt [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes.

  16. Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio in linear alkylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qian, E-mail: liuqian@ucas.ac.cn [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Zhou, Xiang [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Wenqian [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Yuning [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu, Wenjie [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Luo, Wentai [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Miao [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zheng, Yangheng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-21

    It is planned to use linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as the organic solvent for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) liquid scintillator detectors, due to its ultra-transparency. However, the current Rayleigh scattering length calculation for LAB disagrees with the experimental measurement. This paper reports for the first time that the Rayleigh scattering of LAB is anisotropic, with a depolarization ratio of 0.31±0.01(stat.)±0.01(sys.). We use an indirect method for Rayleigh scattering measurement with the Einstein–Smoluchowski–Cabannes formula, and the Rayleigh scattering length of LAB is determined to be 28.2±1.0 m at 430 nm.

  17. Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio in linear alkylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is planned to use linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as the organic solvent for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) liquid scintillator detectors, due to its ultra-transparency. However, the current Rayleigh scattering length calculation for LAB disagrees with the experimental measurement. This paper reports for the first time that the Rayleigh scattering of LAB is anisotropic, with a depolarization ratio of 0.31±0.01(stat.)±0.01(sys.). We use an indirect method for Rayleigh scattering measurement with the Einstein–Smoluchowski–Cabannes formula, and the Rayleigh scattering length of LAB is determined to be 28.2±1.0 m at 430 nm

  18. Measurements of the densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 Celsius degree with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene.

  19. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  20. Efficient photolytic C-H bond functionalization of alkylbenzene with hypervalent iodine(iii) reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryu; Inada, Tsubasa; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Moteki, Shin A; Maruoka, Keiji

    2016-03-01

    A practical approach to radical C-H bond functionalization by the photolysis of a hypervalent iodine(iii) reagent is presented. The photolysis of [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) leads to the generation of trifluoroacetoxy radicals, which allows the smooth transformation of various alkylbenzenes to the corresponding benzyl ester compounds under mild reaction conditions. PMID:26686276

  1. Increasing maturity of kerogen type II reflected by alkylbenzene distribution from pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, G.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian type II kerogens with vitrinite reflectance values Ro 0.29-2.41% were analyzed using py-GC-MS. In addition, a low maturity kerogen with Ro 0.44% was separated into fractions via density gradient centrifugation, followed by py-GC-MS of the alginite and amorphinite maceral concentrates. Alkylbenzenes and n-alk-1-ene/n-alkane doublets represented the main compound classes identified in all pyrolysates. The pyrolysate from alginite featured 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and toluene as the two most prominent alkylbenzenes. In contrast, alkylbenzenes in pyrolysates from amorphinite and low maturity bulk kerogens with Ro 0.29-0.63% were dominated by 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene. With increasing thermal maturity, pyrolysates were increasingly dominated by (i) alkylbenzenes with fewer methyl groups, namely by tri- and dimethylbenzenes at medium maturity (Ro 0.69-1.19%), and (ii) by toluene at higher maturity (Ro 1.30-2.41%). With increasing maturity of kerogen type II, the decreasing abundance of highly methyl-substituted alkylbenzenes and the parallel increase in less methyl-substituted alkylbenzenes in flash pyrolysates suggest that demethylation is an important chemical process in the thermal maturation of kerogen type II. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments. (orig.)

  3. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu [Wuhan University, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian; Zheng, Yangheng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments. (orig.)

  4. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments

  5. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: xiangzhou@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian, E-mail: liuqian@ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zheng, Yangheng [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-21

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  6. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  7. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  8. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  9. A performance comparison of select alkylbenzene and detergent based liquid scintillation cocktails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium was employed in the evaluation of performance characteristics for six commercially available cocktails represented by the manufacturers to possess favorable disposal characteristics. Unidentified alkylbenzene organic solvents and/or triton-like detergents form the basis for these cocktails, which were evaluated in large (20 mL) and mini (7 mL) glass and polyethylene vials. The cocktails showed higher backgrounds, lower unquenched efficiencies, and greater quench resistance to nitromethane than a reference toluene based preparation. Detergent based cocktails were difficult to dispense accurately, and resisted sample incorporation. One cocktail lacked stability in polyethylene vials. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Linear Alkylbenzene in a Novel Liquid-Solid Circulating Moving Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明汉; 徐聪; 崔哲; 金涌

    2004-01-01

    For the alkylation of benzene with long-chain olefins, using Hβ zeolite catalyst as replacement of HF or A1Cl3 has the advantages of no corrosion, less environmental pollution, and much more 2-phenyl isomer, which has the highest biodegradability and solubility, and better detergent properties among the related isomers. The characterization of the coke shows that the deactivation of catalyst is caused by the jam of bulkier molecules, such as naphthalene, indane and linear alkylbenzenes, which are too big to move quickly in the intracrystalline pores of catalyst. The deactivated catalyst can be regenerated by benzene washing at higher temperature. To make the processes of reaction and regeneration continuous, a novel moving bed reactor is developed. Comparing with the processes with fixed bed reactors, the processes in this work have the advantages of continuous operation, low temperature, low pressure, low mole ratio of benzene to olefins, and high weight hourly space velocity.Keywords t3 zeolite, alkylation, linear alkylbenzene, moving bed reactor

  11. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-03-18

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin

    2011-02-24

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  14. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Wan; Lim, Young-Don; Lee, Soon-Ho; Jeong, Young-Gi; Kim, Whan-Gi [Department of Applied Chemistry/RIC-ReSEM, Konkuk University, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Department of Materials Sci and Engineering/RIC-ReSEM, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s (S-APES)s were prepared by nitration, reduction and sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) (ultrason {sup registered} -S6010). Poly(ether sulfone) was reacted with ammonium nitrate and trifluoroacetic anhydride to produce the nitrated poly(ether sulfone), and was followed by reduction using tin(II)chloride and sodium iodide as reducing agents to give the amino-poly(ether sulfone). The S-APES was obtained by reaction of 1,3-propanesultone and the amino-poly(ether sulfone) (NH{sub 2}-PES) with sodium methoxide. The different degrees of nitration and reduction of poly(ether sulfone) were successfully synthesized by an optimized process. The reduction of nitro group to amino was done quantitatively, and this controlled the contents of the sulfonic acid group. The films were converted from salt to acid forms with dilute hydrochloric acid. Different contents of sulfonated unit of the S-APES were studied by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), a measure of proton conductivity, was evaluated. The S-APES membranes exhibit conductivities (25 C) from 1.05 x 10{sup -3} to 4.83 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, water swell from 30.25 to 66.50%, IEC from 0.38 to 0.82 meq/g, and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3.10 x 10{sup -7} to 4.82 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/S at 25 C. (author)

  15. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  16. Polystyrene-supported Selenomethyl-sulfonates:Efficient Reagents for Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Vinyl Sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; Lu Ling WU; Xian HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported selenomethyl-sulfonates have been prepared. These novel reagents were treated with LDA to produce selenium stabilized carbanions, which reacted with alkyl halide and epoxides, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give E-vinyl sulfones and γ-hydroxy-substituted-E-vinyl sulfones respectively.

  17. 4-Aminopyridinium-3-sulfonate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Biao Zhu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-aminopyridine and oleum yielded the title hydrated zwitterion, C5H6N2O3S·H2O. There are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The H and non-H atoms of both zwitterions lie on a mirror plane except for one sulfonate O atom. The water molecules are also situated on a mirror plane. In the crystal, the zwitterions and water molecules are linked by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  18. Sulfonates and Organotrophic Sulfite Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Alasdair M.; Theo H. M. Smits; Denger, Karin

    2007-01-01

    One is used to considering sulfite oxidation as part of a lithotrophic process (e.g. SorAB or Sox system), much of which involves neutral or ionic inorganic sulfur species on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, the processes referred to in this chapter involve organic compounds, which (1) include a highly stable sulfonate substituent (C−SO3−), (2) are involved in the organotrophic growth of the organism and (3) much of whose metabolism takes place in the cytoplasm. Man...

  19. Solid-Phase Contact Assay That Uses a lux-Marked Nitrosomonas europaea Reporter Strain To Estimate Toxicity of Bioavailable Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Kristian K.; Pedersen, Anders; Sørensen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Information about in situ toxicity of the bioavailable pools of adsorptive soil pollutants is a prerequisite for proper ecological risk assessment in contaminated soils. Such toxicity data may be obtained by assays allowing for direct exposure of introduced test microorganisms to the toxicants, as they appear in solid solution equilibria in the natural soil. We describe a novel sensitive solid-phase contact assay for in situ toxicity testing of soil pollutants based on a recombinant biolumine...

  20. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the...... lignin and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for...... MWL. Methylation had also a small rate effect for W, but again a large decrease for MWL....

  1. Solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes into gemini surfactant micelles in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Kojima, Yui; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Shibata, Osamu

    2014-05-27

    Solubilization of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, and n-pentylbenzene into micelles of decanediyl-1-10-bis(dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide) (14-10-14,2Br(-)) has been investigated in the temperature range from 288.2 to 308.2 K. The equilibrium concentrations of all the solubilizates are determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of the solubilizates remains constant below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and increases linearly with an increase in 14-10-14,2Br(-) concentration above the cmc. Compared to the mother micelle, the solubilized micelles indicate much larger hydrodynamic diameters, which are determined by dynamic light scattering. Therefore, the Gibbs energy change for the solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes has been evaluated by the partitioning of the solubilizates between the aqueous and micellar phases. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy changes for the solubilization could be calculated from temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy change. From the thermodynamic parameters, it is found that the solubilization for the present system is entropy-driven and that the location of the solubilizates moves into the inner core of the micelle with an elongation of their alkyl chains. The movement on the location is also supported by the results of absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2-D NOESY). PMID:24802668

  2. Synthesis and properties of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) membranes containing metallophthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Metallophthalocyanine (MPc) is a potent catalyst for hydrogen peroxide oxidation, and the mechanism of H2O2 decomposition in solution has been previously explored (H2O2 → 2H+ + O2 + 2e−). This work presents a role of MPc as an anti-oxidant for water and hydrogen peroxide. Poly(ether sulfone)s contained MPc (Ni and Co) (PMPc) were prepared by two-step reaction from 1,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dicyanonaphthlene, 4,4-biphenol and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, and followed reaction with metal (II) chloride (Ni and Co) and 1,2-dicyanobenzene in quinoline. The sulfonated PMPc (SPMPc) were synthesized by sulfonation reaction with chlorosulfuric acid and methylene chloride. All these membranes were casted from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structure properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy and FT-IR. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. These membranes deterioration test was performed by Fenton reagent as kind of contained metal ions, and compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion. - Highlights: • We synthesize sulfonated copolymers contained metallophthalocyanine for PEMFC. • We control selectively sulfonation on biphenyl structures on polymer. • Increasing sulfonic acid group increases proton conductivity. • These type membranes show good chemical stability and performance. - Abstract: Metallophthalocyanine (MPc) is a potent catalyst for hydrogen peroxide oxidation (H2O2 → 2H+ + O2 + 2e−). The properties of membranes with and without MPc have been studied in this study. Poly(ether sulfone)s containing MPc (Ni and Co) (PMPc) were prepared by two-step reaction from 1,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dicyanonaphthlene, 4,4-biphenol and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, and were followed reaction with metal (II) chloride (Ni and Co) and 1,2-dicyanobenzene in quinoline. The sulfonated PMPc (SPMPc) were synthesized by sulfonation reaction of

  3. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E.; Park, Ho Bum; Freeman, Benny D.

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  4. Evaluation of the asphaltenes macromolecules stabilization by alkylbenzenes compounds; Avaliacao da estabilizacao de macromoleculas asfaltenicas por compostos alquilbenzenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Mansur, C.R.E.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; geiza@ima.ufrj.br; Gonzalez, G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: gaspar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The asphaltene deposition is a problem that affects oil production, transportation and storage. Some researches about asphaltene stabilization have been made in order to avoid its flocculation and deposition. In this work, the performance of four alkylbenzene compounds as asphaltene stabilizer was evaluated. The additive were tested in two different concentrations: 5000 and 10000 mg/L. Cardanol, polycardanol, polystyrene and polystyrene sulfonade were used as additive. The study was carried out by asphaltene precipitation in a solvent mixture (toluene and heptane), since that the asphaltene solubility in these solvents are different. The best results were obtained by using cardanol, at 5000 mg/L. (author)

  5. 高碱值磺酸钙制备工艺开发%Research on the preparation of overbasd calcium sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小清; 刘永彪

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of overbased calcium sulfonate was researched with F heavy alkylbenzene as material. The effects of various technological conditions on the solid content,filtration velocity,yield and quality of product were investigated. By changing the technological condition and adjusting the amount of solvent and promoter, the optimization experiments were conducted to research the preparation of overbased calcium sulfonate process of new technology, and the two-step process , the original step process, the improved one step process,and the new process technology were compared. Results indicated that the new process has short cycle and can be carried out in the low working strength ; the overbased calcium sulfonate production is not only up to standard in quality but also produced in a stable way,the yield is 75. 5 %.%对以F重烷基苯为原料的高碱值磺酸钙制备工艺进行研究,考察了各种工艺条件对产品的同体含量、过滤速度、产品收率和产品质世的影响,通过改变工艺条件及调整溶剂和促进剂用量进行优化组合实验,研究高碱值磺酸钙制备新工艺,并对比两步法、原一步法、改良一步法、新工艺等4种工艺进行实验.实验结果表明,新工艺的生产周期短,操作强度低,生产的高碱值磺酸钙产品质量合格且稳定,收率达到75.5%.

  6. Deactivation of sulfonated hydrothermal carbons in the presence of alcohols: Evidences for sulfonic esters formation

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile, José M.; García Bordejé, E.; Roldán, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonated hydrothermal carbons present high activity for esterification of palmitic acid with alcohols. However, the catalyst is significantly deactivated upon recovery. Leaching of sulfonated species does not account for this deactivation, which is observed even by pretreatment only with the alcohol under reflux. Solid state NMR shows the presence of chemically bound alkyl groups coming from the alcohol, clearly different from strongly physisorbed species obtained by pretreatment at room te...

  7. Influence of LAS on marine calanoid copepod population dynamics and potential reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Kirsten; Hansen, Benni Winding; Johansson, Liselotte Sander;

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) to marine invertebrates is well documented under laboratory conditions using single-species tests. It is less known how LAS affects natural populations of aquatic organisms. We hypothesised that LAS was more toxic to the calanoid copepod Acarti...

  8. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  9. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongyang [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Shuanjin, E-mail: wangshj@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiao Min [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Meng Yuezhong, E-mail: mengyzh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  10. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed. (author)

  11. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO2+ permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  12. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  13. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Maureen E; Kasturi, Badrinarayanan S.; Barber, Matthew; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; MohanKumar, Sheba M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female rats were inj...

  14. Characterization of a Sulfonated Polycarbonate Resistive Humidity Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio L. Donnici; Henrique Oliveira; Rubinger, Rero M.; Hallen D. R. Calado; Rubinger, Carla P.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work; resistive moisture sensors were obtained by dip coating sulfonated polycarbonate (SPC) onto silver interdigitated electrodes. Commercial polycarbonate was sulfonated with acetyl sulphate at two different sulfonation degrees corresponding to 9.0 and 18.0 mole %. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the humidity sensing properties at controlled relative humidity (RH%) environments generated from standard saline solutions in the range of 11–90 RH%. For the highest sulfona...

  15. Methane sulfonic acid in the marine atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    E. S. Saltzman; Savoie, D. L.; Zika, R. G; J. M. Prospero

    1983-01-01

    Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is an oxidation product of the reaction of OH radical with dimethyl sulfide and, hence, should be an important constituent of marine air. MSA concentrations in marine aerosols ranged from 0.009 to 0.075 μg/m3 in samples from the Pacific and Indian oceans and Miami, Florida. In the samples from remote areas (Pacific and Indian oceans), MSA levels averaged 6.7% (S = 1.9) of the non-sea-salt (nss) SO4 =. In the Miami area, ratios were occasionally lower be...

  16. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cesar C., E-mail: ccmart@ufpr.b [Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 50.002, 83255-000, Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C. [Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by {sup 137}Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  17. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  18. Cycling performance and efficiency of sulfonated poly(sulfone) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soowhan; Yan, Jingling; Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-11-30

    As an alternative to the expensive Nafion® ion exchange membrane, an inexpensive commercially-available Radel® polymer was sulfonated, fabricated into a thin membrane, and evaluated for its performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The sulfonated Radel (S-Radel) membrane showed almost an order of magnitude lower permeability of V (IV) ions (2.07×10-7 cm2/min), compared to Nafion 117 (1.29×10-6 cm2/min), resulting in better coulombic efficiency (~98% vs. 95% at 50 mA/cm2) and lower capacity loss per cycle. Even though the S-Radel membrane had slightly higher membrane resistance, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the S-Radel membrane was comparable to that of Nafion due to its better coulombic efficiency. The S-Radel membrane exhibited good performance up to 40 cycles, but a decay in performance at later cycles was observed.

  19. Experience with chemicals regulation - Lessons from the Danish LAS case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Pia Vestergaard; Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    understanding of how chemicals regulation is being shaped through social and political processes, and which lessons can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of different regulatory measures. We outline briefly the history of the chemicals regulation as a background for the detailed discussion of the case study......Chemicals regulation is under pressure for change, and lessons from former experience are important to inform the process. This paper is based on a case study of the Danish measures towards regulating a specific substance, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS), and the case is used to deepen the....... Finally, we present a few tentative proposals for future changes of the chemicals regulation and conclude with relating the case to the ecological modernization discourse....

  20. Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soowhan; Tighe, Timothy B.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Yan, Jingling; Zhang, Jianlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A.

    2011-10-01

    A sulfonated poly(sulfone) (S-Radel{reg_sign}) membrane with high proton conductivity and low vanadium ion diffusion showed high initial performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) but suffered damage during charge/discharge cycling. The S-Radel membrane had different degradation behaviors in flow cell cycling and ex-situ vanadium ion immersion tests. The S-Radel membrane immersed in V5+ solution cracked into small pieces, but in the VRFB cell, the membrane underwent internal delamination preferentially on the side of the membrane that faced the positive electrode. A vanadium-rich interface was observed near the membrane surface that experienced delamination and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the surfaces of the membrane indicated a slightly depressed 1026 cm-1 band corresponding to the sulfonate SO2 stretch for the degraded surface. Even though the S-Radel membrane underwent severe mechanical damage during the flow cell cycling, significant chemical degradation was not obvious from the spectroscopic analyses. For the VRFB containing an S-Radel membrane, an increase in membrane resistance caused an abnormal voltage depression during the discharge cycle. The reversible increase in membrane resistance and severe mechanical degradation of the membrane during cycling may be attributed repeated formation and dissolution of particles inside the membrane. The mechanical stresses imposed by the particles coupled with a small amount of chemical degradation of the polymer by V5+, are likely degradation mechanisms of the S-Radel membrane in VRFBs under high state-of-charge conditions.

  1. Sulfonated polyimide membranes with different non-sulfonated diamines for vanadium redox battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of vanadium ion blocking sulfonated polyimide (SPI) membranes with various non-sulfonated diamines were prepared for vanadium redox battery (VRB) applications. FT-IR spectrum verifies the successful synthesis of SPIs, FSEM images illustrate that the membrane surface facing the negative electrode is more intact than that facing the positive electrode. The properties of SPI membranes such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity, thermal stability, proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability can be adjusted by the species and the structure of non-sulfonated diamine. All SPI membranes show over one or two order of magnitude lower permeability of vanadium ion (0.48 - 2.36 × 10−7 cm2 min−1) than currently used Nafion 117 membrane (17.10 × 10−7 cm2 min−1). Vanadium redox static batteries with SPI membranes exhibit lower self-discharge rate, higher coulombic efficiency (97% - 99%) compared with Nafion 117 (94%) at 30 mA cm−2. Meanwhile, as-prepared SPI membranes are durable in 0.1 mol L−1 VO2+ + 3.0 mol L−1 H2SO4 solutions at 40 °C. All results show that SPI membranes are promising proton conductive membranes for VRB applications, among which the SPI (BAPP) has the best VRB performance

  2. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. → The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. → The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g-1 (1.3 H+ per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm-1 at room temperature in aqueous H2SO4 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  3. Hydroquinone based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer as proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer by direct copolymerization of 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid, benzene 1,4-diol and synthesized sulfonated 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone and its characterization by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic techniques have been performed. The copolymer was subsequently cross-linked with 4, 4!(hexafluoroisopropylidenediphenol epoxy resin by thermal curing reaction to synthesize crosslinked membranes. The evaluation of properties showed reduction in water and methanol uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity with simultaneous enhancement in oxidative stability of the crosslinked membranes as compared to pristine membrane. The performance of the membranes has also been evaluated in terms of thermal stability, morphology, mechanical strength and methanol permeability by using Thermo gravimetric analyzer, Differential scanning calorimetery, Atomic force microscopy, XPERT-PRO diffractometer, universal testing machine and diffusion cell, respectively. The results demonstrated that the crosslinked membranes exhibited high thermal stability with phase separation, restrained crystallinity, acceptable mechanical properties and methanol permeability. Therefore, these can serve as promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications.

  4. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion coefficients and structural properties of some alkylbenzenes in supercritical carbon dioxide at infinite dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping, E-mail: cesclp@mail.sysu.edu.cn [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Feng, Huajie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2014-03-14

    The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ∞}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ≥ 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.

  6. Sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer via chloro-sulfonic acid for potential PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, A.; Clarizia, G.; Gugliuzza, A.; Ebrasu, D.; Basile, A. [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bevilacqua, A. [Research Centre Italsistemi S.r.l., Via Avogadro, 88900 Crotone (KR) (Italy); Trotta, F. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Torino, C.So M. D' Azeglio 48, 10125 Torino (TO) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The preparation and characterization of thin dense sulfonated poly-ether-ether-ketone with cardo group (PEEK-WC) membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications are described. The sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer was realized via chloro-sulfonic acid and different kinds of membrane samples were prepared with a sulfonation degree ranging from 67 to 99%. The degree of sulfonation, homogeneity and thickness significantly affect both the membrane transport properties and the electrochemical performances. The dense character of the membranes was confirmed by SEM analysis. Proton conductivity measurements were carried out in a temperature range from 30 to 80 C and at 100% of relative humidity, reaching 5.40 x 10{sup -3} S/cm{sup -1} as best value at 80 C and with a sulfonation degree (DS) of 99%. At the same conditions, a water uptake of 17% was achieved. DSC and TGA characterizations were used in order to determine the thermal stability of the membranes, confirming a T{sub g} ranging between 206 and 216 C depending on the DS, whereas FT-IR yielded indication about intermolecular interactions and water uptake at various sulfonation degrees. (author)

  7. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  8. Twofold deprotonation and substitution of branched alkyl aryl sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehová, Lucie; Jahn, Ullrich

    Praha : Czech Chemical Society, 2015. s. 133. [Liblice 2015. Advances in Organic , Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /50./. 06.11.2015-08.11.2015, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : sulfones * twofold deprotonation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for Reverse Osmosis Water Purification and Gas Separation Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Sundell, Benjamin James

    2014-01-01

    Crosslinking is an effective technique for increasing the salt rejection of water purification membranes and the selectivity of gas separation membranes. An abundance of monomers, telechelic oligomers, and novel polymers were synthesized for use as separation membranes. These materials were often imbued with crosslinking functionalities to increase their performance during testing at the University of Texas-Austin. Crosslinking of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomers was stud...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of trans-1,4-Cyclohexylene Ring Containing Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Bin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PAES) are important commercial polymers and have been extensively studied due to their excellent thermal and mechanical properties. However, some applications are still limited when good solvent resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient are required. There has been a continuous interest in developing new PAES based on new monomers or polymer modifications to obtain new properties or to enhance existing properties. In this dissertation, the synthesis, chara...

  12. Synthesis and Water Uptake of Sulfonated Poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone)/Polyacrylic Acid Proton Exchange Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei WU; Gao Hong HE; Lin GAO; Shuang GU; Zheng Wen HU; Ping Jing YAO

    2006-01-01

    Novel SPPESK/PAA composite proton exchange membranes with semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN) structure have been synthesized through the in-situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK). The composite membranes were identified by FT-IR analysis. Water uptake of the composite membranes was as high as 89.7% at 90℃, nearly one time higher than that of the corresponding SPPESK membrane.

  13. Dynamic exchange of counterions of polystyrene sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengxiang; Yang, Qingbo; Gong, Yongkuan; Zhao, Jiang

    2012-02-01

    Adopting a cationic fluorescent molecule, rhodamine 6G, as the probe of the counterions of the model anionic polyelectrolyte (sodium polystyrene sulfonate, PSSNa), the diffusion of the counterion probes inside the solution of PSSNa was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Two species of the counterion probes with different diffusion coefficient were discovered—the freely diffusing probes and the probes bound to the PSS- chains. The concentration fraction of these two species was found to change with the concentration and molecular weight of PSSNa. The results show that the counterion binding to the PSS- chain is enhanced with the increase of polymer concentration, attributed to the result of the lowered translational entropic penalty at higher polymer concentrations. The counterion binding is also enhanced with the increase of molecular weight, and the origin was attributed to the chain end effect to the counterion distribution. The results indicate the dynamic exchange process between the free counterions and the bound ones, which is further evidenced by the replacement of the bound probes by the elevated salt levels in the solution.

  14. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Maureen E; Kasturi, Badrinarayanan S; Barber, Matthew; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; MohanKumar, Sheba M J

    2003-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, or 10 mg PFOS/kg body weight (BW) for 2 weeks. Food and water intake, BW, and estrous cycles were monitored daily. At the end of treatment, PFOS levels in tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with electrospray mass spectrometry. Changes in brain monoamines were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and serum corticosterone and leptin were monitored using radioimmunoassay. Treatment with PFOS produced a dose-dependent accumulation of this chemical in various body tissues, including the brain. PFOS exposure decreased food intake and BW in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PFOS affected estrous cyclicity and increased serum corticosterone levels while decreasing serum leptin concentrations. PFOS treatment also increased norepinephrine concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results indicate that exposure to PFOS can affect the neuroendocrine system in rats. PMID:12948888

  15. Multiblock copolymers with highly sulfonated blocks containing di- and tetrasulfonated arylene sulfone segments for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patric [Polymer and Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with different block lengths and ionic contents are tailored for durable and proton-conducting electrolyte membranes. Two series of fully aromatic copolymers are prepared by coupling reactions between non-sulfonated hydrophobic precursor blocks and highly sulfonated hydrophilic precursor blocks containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The sulfonic acid groups are exclusively introduced in ortho positions to the sulfone bridges to impede desulfonation reactions and give the blocks ion exchange capacities (IECs) of 4.1 and 4.6 meq. g{sup -1}, respectively. Solvent cast block copolymer membranes show well-connected hydrophilic nanophase domains for proton transport and high decomposition temperatures above 310 C under air. Despite higher IEC values, membranes containing tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments display a markedly lower water uptake than the corresponding ones with disulfonated diarylsulfone segments when immersed in water at 100 C, presumably because of the much higher chain stiffness and glass transition temperature of the former segments. The former membranes have proton conductivities in level of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (NRE212) under fully humidified conditions. A membrane with an IEC of 1.83 meq. g{sup -1} reaches above 6 mS cm{sup -1} under 30% relative humidity at 80 C, to be compared with 10 mS cm{sup -1} for NRE212 under the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Cycling performance and efficiency of sulfonated poly(sulfone) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soowhan; Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Yan, Jingling [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2010-11-15

    As an alternative to Nafion ion exchange membrane, an inexpensive commercially-available Radel polymer was sulfonated, fabricated into a thin membrane, and evaluated for its performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The sulfonated Radel (S-Radel) membrane showed almost an order of magnitude lower permeability of VO{sup 2+} ions (2.07 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/min), compared to Nafion 117 (1.29 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/min), resulting in better coulombic efficiency ({proportional_to} 98% vs. 95% at 50 mA/cm{sup 2}) and lower capacity loss per cycle. Even though the S-Radel membrane had a slightly higher membrane resistance, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the S-Radel membrane was comparable to that of Nafion because of its better coulombic efficiency resulting from the lower vanadium ion crossover. The S-Radel membrane exhibited good performance up to 40 cycles, but a decline in performance at later cycles was observed, likely as a result of membrane degradation. (author)

  17. Preparation and electrochemical properties of polyethylene membrane modified with the sulfonic acid groups for battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-exchange membrane modified with the sulfonic acid group for battery separator was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of styrene (St) onto polyethylene (PE) film and subsequent sulfonation of poly(St) graft chains. The surface area, thickness, and volume of grafted film increased with increase in grafting yield. The water uptake and KOH diffusion flux of ion-exchange membrane increased with increase in the sulfonic acid content. Electrical resistance of ion-exchange membrane modified with the sulfonic acid group decreased with increase in the sulfonic acid content. The transport number (t+) of K+ in the sulfonated membrane was in the range of 0.91 - 0.96

  18. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive correla

  19. Characterization of sulfonated silica nanocomposite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deuk-Ju; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and sulfonated silica (silica-SO3H) prepared via sol-gel reaction are used as an organic polymer matrix and inorganic nanoparticles. The contents of the silica-SO3H particles in the composite membranes are controlled at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 wt.% in order to evaluate the appropriate content for high proton conductivity. Randomly dispersed silica particles are obtained from all composite membranes as a result of the hydrophilic domains in the polymer and silica-SO3H. In this study, the optimum silica-SO3H content for high proton conductivity is 3 wt.% in fully hydrated conditions and 0.5 wt.% in low humidity conditions. PMID:25970990

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Adsorption Studies of Sulfonated Poly(Styrene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(styrene) was synthesized by suspension polymerization of styrene. Molar mass of poly(styrene) was determined by viscosity method. Sulfonated poly(styrene) was synthesized by direct sulfonation of poly(styrene) at 40 degree C. These products were identified by using IR spectroscopic technique. Cation exchange properties of sulfonated poly(styrene) have been determined for some metal ions such as Ni/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Cu/sup 2+/ and Ca/sup 2+/. The distribution co-efficient and apparent adsorption capacities show that selectivity order of the metals as follow: Ni/sup 2+/ > Zn/sup 2+/ > Cu/sup 2+/ > Ca/sup 2+/. It was found that by increasing the pH of solution, the distribution Co-efficients (Kd) value also increased. (author)

  1. Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 等

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism of microemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate.alcohols,water and isooctane was studied,with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alocohols.Phase diagram of the four components,alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfonate,water and isooctane,was used as a means of study,through which the microemulsion regions were determined.Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km=2(km=Wn-pentanol/WSDS)is presented. The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured.From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil(W/O)at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a structure of oil droplets in water(O/W)at high water content.

  2. Hexaaquamagnesium(II bis(d-camphor-10-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jeremić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title complex, [Mg(H2O6](C10H15O4S2, consists of regular octahedral [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. A three-dimensional supramolecular architecture is formed via hydrogen-bond interactions [O—H...O = 2.723 (2–2.833 (2 Å] to give alternating layers of [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. The title compound is isomorphous with the zinc, copper, cadmium and nickel analogues.

  3. Miscibility of Methylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic Acid Polymer with Magnesium, Zinc, and Manganese Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    ALKAN, Cemil; YURTSEVEN, Nebahat; ARAS, Leyla

    2005-01-01

    The miscibility of methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid polymer (MMA-MAA) with metal neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers was investigated by viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared radiation spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Polystyrene (PS) was sulfonated by acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid and the sulfonation degree was found to be 2.6 mole percent, and 2.6 mole percent sulfonated polystyrene was neutralized by Mg, Zn, and Mn sa...

  4. On the electronic transport mechanism in thin films of some new poly(azomethine sulfone)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied polymers, poly(azomethine sulfone)s, were prepared by the reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl)sulfone with a mixture of bisphenols: 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A) and 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxybenzylideneiminophenoxy)biphenyl in various molar ratios. The temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of polymers were investigated using thin-film samples deposited from chloroform solutions (spin coating method) onto glass substrates. It was found that the respective polymers show typical semiconducting properties. Some correlations between these properties and the chemical structures of the polymers were established. The mechanism of electronic transport in the films studied is discussed. The study of optical absorption (in spectral range, 300-1400 nm) evidenced direct bandgaps ranged between 1.30 and 1.80 eV

  5. On the electronic transport mechanism in thin films of some new poly(azomethine sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, G.I. [Faculty of Physics, ' Al.I. Cuza' University, 11 Carol I Bldv, RO-700506, Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: girusu@uaic.ro; Airinei, A. [P. Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41 A, RO-700487, Iasi (Romania); Rusu, M. [Faculty of Physics, ' Al.I. Cuza' University, 11 Carol I Bldv, RO-700506, Iasi (Romania); Prepelita, P. [Faculty of Physics, ' Al.I. Cuza' University, 11 Carol I Bldv, RO-700506, Iasi (Romania); Marin, L. [P. Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41 A, RO-700487, Iasi (Romania); Cozan, V. [P. Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41 A, RO-700487, Iasi (Romania); Rusu, I.I. [University of Bacau, 157 Marasesti Str., RO-600115 Bacau (Romania)

    2007-01-15

    The studied polymers, poly(azomethine sulfone)s, were prepared by the reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl)sulfone with a mixture of bisphenols: 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A) and 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxybenzylideneiminophenoxy)biphenyl in various molar ratios. The temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of polymers were investigated using thin-film samples deposited from chloroform solutions (spin coating method) onto glass substrates. It was found that the respective polymers show typical semiconducting properties. Some correlations between these properties and the chemical structures of the polymers were established. The mechanism of electronic transport in the films studied is discussed. The study of optical absorption (in spectral range, 300-1400 nm) evidenced direct bandgaps ranged between 1.30 and 1.80 eV.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  8. Sulfone-Containing Methacrylate Homopolymers: Wetting and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shota; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2016-01-26

    Although the sulfonyl functional group has a large dipole moment and compounds containing them (sulfones) have correspondingly high dielectric constants, this chemical structure has been neglected for use as a functional group to render surfaces hydrophilic. We have prepared three methacrylate polymers containing side chains capped with sulfolane, methylsulfone, and ethylsulfone functionality. The sulfolane-containing polymer exhibits an unusually high glass transition temperature (Tg = 188 °C) for a methacrylate polymer and slightly different thermal degradation behavior than the other two sulfone-containing polymers, likely due to the bulky structure of the sulfolane group in the polymer side chain. At macroscopic polymer film/water interfaces, the sulfone-containing side chains exposed to the interface impart hydrophilic properties as assessed by contact angle analysis. The hydrophilicities of sulfolane and methylsulfone surfaces are similar, and greater than the ethylsulfone surface. Although the chemical compositions of the sulfolane and ethylsulfone polymers are almost identical, the five-membered ring structure of sulfolane allows the sulfonyl moiety to be exposed at the interface in a manner similar to that of the methylsulfone polymer. The sulfonyl group at the ethylsulfone polymer/water interface is slightly masked by the ethyl group. Interestingly, the sulfolane surface displays a higher affinity to methylene iodide and n-hexadecane probe fluids compared to the other sulfone surfaces, suggesting that the five-membered ring structure of the sulfolane moiety can orient in a manner that shelters the sulfonyl group at hydrophobic interfaces. PMID:26716766

  9. Sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate as antidote against non-metallic pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-kang CHEN; Zhong-qiu LU

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION With the advent of World War II, dimercaptol was first developed in England as an effective antidote against arsenical agents. In 1950' s, scientists from the Soviet Union developed a water-soluble compound, sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) named as Unithiol (or Unitiol), which was able to chelate heavy metals and metalloids.

  10. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  11. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  12. Proton exchange membranes from sulfonated polyetheretherketone and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo blends: Conductivity, water sorption and permeation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five blend membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation from solutions of the synthesized sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo (SPESc). Their ion exchange capacity and degree of sulfonation determined by acid–base titration and by thermogravimetric analysis were consistent. The blends glass transition behavior obtained by differential scanning calorimetry suggests that the two sulfonated polymers are compatible in the whole composition range. The values of the activation energy for proton transport determined by conductivity measurements on the SPEEK-based blend membranes were in the range of 13–34 kJ mol−1, which suggest a mixed transport mechanism that involves both proton jumps on ionic sites and water of hydration and diffusion of proton–water complex in hydrophilic domains. The water vapor sorption in the membranes exhibits sigmoid-shape isotherms which were well fitted by the “new dual mode sorption” model, and the fitted parameters values were successfully used to model the change in the water permeation flux with the upstream water activity using the first Fick's diffusion equation. The fast increase in the permeation flux beyond a critical value of activity (0.5) was owing to the exponential concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. These modelings allowed us to show a strong increase in the limit diffusion coefficient of water and a decrease in the water-diffusion plasticization coefficient with the SPEEK content in the polymer blends

  13. Las estructuras

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    La afirmación de que las primeras realizaciones arquitectónicas y de ingeniería estructural son tan antiguas como la civilización no es gratuita. En efecto, tan pronto como se desea cubrir un espacio, salvar un vano o transmitir un empuje (vertical u horizontal), es preciso el desarrollo de un conocimiento específico. El dominio de las técnicas para resolver,en particular, tales problemas ha sido transmitido a través de construcciones religiosas o áulicas que han permanecido a través de los s...

  14. Proton conductive membranes based on doped sulfonated polytriazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, M.; Brandao, L.; Mendes, A. [Laboratorio de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE), Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ponce, M.L.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of proton conducting sulfonated polytriazole membranes doped with three different agents: 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid, benzimidazole and phosphoric acid. The modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The addition of doping agents resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature. For membranes doped with 85 wt.% phosphoric acid solution proton conductivity increased up to 2.10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 120 C and at 5% relative humidity. The performance of the phosphoric acid doped membranes was evaluated in a fuel cell set-up at 120 C and 2.5% relative humidity. (author)

  15. Hypernatremia in a patient treated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Nepal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Manish Nepal, Ion Dan Bucaloiu, Evan R NorfolkGeisinger Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Danville, PA, USAAbstract: Severe hyperkalemia requires urgent medical attention and correction in order to prevent arrhythmic complications. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS is a cation exchange resin commonly used in the management of hyperkalemia. A recent review raised concerns regarding its effectiveness and potential adverse effects. Hypernatremia in adults in the setting of sodium polystyrene sulfonate therapy has not been described in the literature. We report the case of a woman who developed hypernatremia in the setting of excessive SPS administration and hope to increase awareness among clinicians regarding this potential side effect of SPS therapy.Keywords: SPS, hyperkalemia 

  16. Proton conductivity enhancement in oriented, sulfonated polyimide thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Karthik; Iwatsuki, Hiroko; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Nagao, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Studies of proton transport in confined thin polymer electrolytes are essential for providing additional information regarding the structure-property relationships of such materials. Using a combination of proton transport measurements and structural characterization, we explored the effect of proton conductivity in sulfonated polyimide (SPI) under both bulk and nanostructured thin film systems. SPI film confined to a thickness of approximately 530 nm shows significant proton conductivity enh...

  17. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guang-hua; Jian-chao LIU; Sun, Li-Sha; Lu-jin YUAN

    2015-01-01

    In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS) on Daphnia magna (D. magna), a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-hour acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination) at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and rep...

  18. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31. ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2014

  19. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pop

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enantiopure (R,R and (S,S-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species.

  20. Hypernatremia in a patient treated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, M

    2010-01-01

    Manish Nepal, Ion Dan Bucaloiu, Evan R NorfolkGeisinger Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Danville, PA, USAAbstract: Severe hyperkalemia requires urgent medical attention and correction in order to prevent arrhythmic complications. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) is a cation exchange resin commonly used in the management of hyperkalemia. A recent review raised concerns regarding its effectiveness and potential adverse effects. Hypernatremia in adults in the setting of sodium polyst...

  1. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm−1. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm−2. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm−1 which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm−2 and current density of 0.62 A cm−2 at 0.6 V

  2. Synthesis of proton conducting sulfonated and phosphonated polybenzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, F.; Peron, J.; Salunke, A.; Jones, D.J.; Roziere, J. [Montpellier Univ., Montpellier (France). Lab. des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a new flexible polybenzimidazoles (PBI) was synthesized with a proton conductivity higher than 10-3 S/cm at room temperature, in the absence of any unbound acid. Polybenzimidazoles are particularly robust polymers that are stable under various chemical and thermal environments. It is difficult to achieve direct sulfonation in solution of commercially available PBI, although alternative types of PBI with different solubility properties may be modified in this way. Reaction at high temperature of sulfuric acid-doped PBI membranes results in cross-linked and poorly conducting systems. Although acid-doped PBI membranes have high conductivity, acid loss occurs at temperature and load cycling in an operating fuel cell. Alternative approaches have been suggested, such as direct sulfonation and polycondensation reaction involving building blocks functionalized with protogenic groups that lead to new functionalized polybenzimidazoles with suitable properties for fuel cell application. The membrane microstructure can be modified by controlling the position, number and distribution of the sulfonic (phosphonic) acid groups along the backbone. This also affects membrane swelling and conductivity. This study also investigated the influence of the degree of protogenic group functionalization of polymer and membrane properties such as Tg, film forming properties, membrane water uptake and conductivity, and surface hydrophobic/philic properties. It was concluded that the polymer's conductivity depends on the ion exchange capacity and on the nature of the component diacids that give flexibility to the functionalized polybenzimidazole chains.

  3. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: jchutiaiasst@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  4. Effect of additives on the performance and morphology of sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) composite nanofiltration membranes☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Shouhai; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Guozhen; Jian, Xigao

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (SPPBES) composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated by adding low molecular weight additives into SPPBES coating solutions during a dip coating process. Three selected additives: glycol, glycerol and hydroquinone were used in this work. The effect of additives on the membrane performance was studied and discussed in terms of rejection and permeation flux. Among all the composite membranes, the membrane prepared with glycol as an additive achieved the highest Na2SO4 rejection, and the membrane fabricated with glycerol as an additive exhibited the highest flux. The salts rejection of SPPBES composite membranes increased in the following order MgCl2 < NaCl ≤ MgSO4 < Na2SO4. The morphologies of the SPPBES composite membranes were characterized by SEM, it was found that the membrane prepared with hydroquinone showed a rough membrane surface. Composite membrane fabricated with glycol or glycerol as the additive showed very good chemical stability.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mecham, Sue Jewel

    1997-01-01

    Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites. High molecular weight amorphous poly(arylene ether sulfone) thermoplastic materials display many of these desirable characteristics but are deficient in solvent resistance. Previous attempts to prepare poly(arylene ether) based thermosets to improve solvent resistance have been largely unsuc...

  6. Poly (ether ether ketone) derivatives: Synthetic route and characterization of nitrated and sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, T.F.; Bertolino, J.R. [Grupo de Estudo em Materiais Polimericos-Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barra, G.M.O. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Pires, A.T.N. [Grupo de Estudo em Materiais Polimericos-Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: alfredotiburcio@pq.cnpq.br

    2009-03-01

    Nitrated and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) [SNPEEK] samples were prepared through sulfonation of nitrated PEEK (NPEEK) at different temperatures resulting in polymers with distinct sulfonation degrees (SD). The sulfonation occurred preferentially in the hydroquinone segment even after 81% of this moiety had been nitrated. Sulfonation in the benzophenone moiety was achieved only in 16% of this segment at the reaction temperature of 80 deg. C. The substitution degree was obtained through the TG curves, and values were in agreement with {sup 1}H NMR data when SD is much higher as ND (nitration degree). The highest SD obtained was 72%. Membranes of the sulfonated and nitrated PEEK (SNPEEK) were prepared by casting and showed good ductility depending on the substitution degree, with proton conductivity in the order of 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}, an important characteristic in some applications, such as in fuel cells.

  7. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  8. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  9. Adsorption of sodium alkyl aryl sulfonates on sandstone. [Berea and Benton Tar Springs sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.B.; Dilgren, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms of commercial alkyl aryl sulfonates (petroleum sulfonates), and pure alkyl aryl sulfonates on disaggregated Berea and Benton Tar Springs sandstones were determined. Adsorption isotherms of commercial sulfonates were found to contain maxima, which did not necessarily correspond to the measured C.M.C. At adsorption maxima, surface coverage corresponded to about one half monomolecular layer of sulfonate, but, at high surfactant concentrations, coverage sometimes amounted to only about one-tenth of a monolayer. Pure alkyl aryl sulfonates were synthesized and adsorption on sandstone determined. These materials were found to yield conventional adsorption isotherms, with adsorption plateaus at about one half a monolayer of surface coverage. Apparently, adsorption maxima are unique to impure sulfonates. Selectivity of adsorption with respect to molecular weight and structural type was studied. Structure of petroleum sulfonate and accompanying mineral oil was determined as were structures of sulfonate and mineral oil that had been equilibrated with sandstone. Comparison showed no selectivity of adsorption based on carbon number distribution or structural type. However, aggregates relatively rich in mineral oil were found to be selectively adsorbed.

  10. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junfen; Wu, Lishun

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Sulfonate to hydrocarbon ratio influencing thermostability of micellar dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A.; Kunzman, W.J.

    1970-02-03

    The thermostability of micellar dispersions can be shifted to higher temperatures by increasing the ratio of surfactant to hydrocarbon within the dispersion, by increasing the amount of electrolyte, and by varying the particular type of components within the micellar solution. The oil recovery solution is composed of soft water, hydrocarbon (crude oil), surfactant (sodium or ammonium petroleum sulfonates with an average molecular weight of 420 to 470), cosurfactant (primary butanols, primary pentanols, primary and secondary hexanols), and electrolyte (inorganic bases, inorganic acids, or inorganic salts).

  12. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom;

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...... dodecyl isomers (with the benzene group at positions 1, 2 and 6). The conductivity was measured both by van der Pauw measurements on PPy-DBS in the oxidized, dry state as function of temperature, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as function of potential in 0.1 M NaCl aqueous electrolyte...

  13. las telecomunicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneta Andonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian las interacciones entre tres tecnologías de comunicación, telefonía fija, móvil e Internet, modelizando los efectos de red y controlando por el impacto del ingreso per capita en el país y el nivel de precios de la tecnología, dos variables clave en el proceso de difusión de tecnologías de información. Los resultados de las estimaciones, usando una base de datos de 195 países, reflejan que (1 Internet y la telefonía móvil son totalmente complementarias; (2 la telefonía fija ayuda la difusión de la móvil mientras que la móvil canibaliza la fija; (3 la telefonía fija favorece la difusión de Internet mientras que el desarrollo de Internet no tiene ningún efecto significativo sobre la difusión de la telefonía fija. Estos resultados pueden ayudar en construir escenarios más sólidos y predecir el impacto de Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP en la industria de telecomunicaciones.

  14. Reaction of arylsulfonylhydrazones of aldehydes with alpha-magnesio sulfones. A novel olefin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek-Tyrlik, A; Marczak, S; Michalak, K; Wicha, J; Zarecki, A

    2001-10-19

    Reactions of representative tosylhydrazones of aldehydes and ketones with alpha-metalated sulfones were examined in order to develop a practical olefination method. Treatment of aldehyde tosylhydrazone 2 with an excess of alpha-lithiated methyl phenyl or dimethyl sulfones yielded 3a. The reaction of 2 with sterically unhindered lithiated alkyl sulfones gave mixtures of the respective olefination products 3b-d along with the Shapiro fragmentation product 4. Sterically hindered lithiated sulfones afforded Shapiro products exclusively. In contrast, aldehyde tosylhydrazones 2 or 6 in reactions with a variety of alpha-magnesio primary or secondary alkyl sulfones gave olefination products 3a-j and 7a-c in high yields (Tables 1 and 2). beta-Branched alkyl sulfones afforded predominantly (E)-alkenes, whereas unhindered primary sulfones gave mixtures of (E)- and (Z)-alkenes with low selectivity. Reaction of the 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonylhydrazone (trisylhydrazone) of cyclodecanone 11c with alpha-magnesio methyl phenyl sulfone afforded the methylidene derivative 12a contaminated with the Shapiro product 13. Tosylhydrazone 2 resisted reaction with i-PrMgCl and gave only a small amount of the addition product in reaction with Bu(2)Mg. Some mechanistic aspects of the reaction of tosylhydrazones with organomagnesium compounds are discussed. PMID:11597219

  15. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David;

    2015-01-01

    series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  16. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  17. Sulfonate Functionalisation of Transition Metal Complexes: A Versatile Tool Towards Catalyst Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virboul, M.A.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and application of sulfonate-functionalised ligands in organometallic chemistry and (aqueous) catalysis. Due to their ability to trigger specific solubility, different NHC ligand precursors bearing a butyl-sulfonate chain were synthesised. The formation of transit

  18. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9597 Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo... substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  19. Low-level Determination of Residual Methyl Methane Sulfonate and Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Pharmaceuticals by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarat; M. Ramakrishna; Y. Suresh; S. Harikrishna; C. Rambabu; Kishore, K.; K. Nagabhushana Reddy

    2010-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method using mass spectrometric detection was developed and validated for the trace analysis (ppm level) of methyl methane sulfonate and ethyl methane sulfonate in pharmaceutical drug substances. The method utilizes a capillary column (DB-624) with 6% cyanopropyl phenyl and 94% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase. A dissolve-and-injection approach was adopted for sample introduction in a split less mode. Mixture of (80:20) ratio of methanol and chloroform wa...

  20. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hidehito, E-mail: hidehito@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kanayama, Masaya; Sato, Nobuhiro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, Sentaro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with {sup 36}Cl-, {sup 60}Co-, {sup 137}Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters. - highlights: • Undoped poly (ether sulfone) (PES) can be used as a scintillation material in radiation survey meters. • Large PES plates with treated surfaces were characterized. • Surface roughening of the plates increased light collection efficiency. • Plates with a combination of mirrored/scattering surfaces work best. • A significant amount of light generated by radiation remains in the PES plates.

  1. Polyaniline synthesized with functionalized sulfonic acids for blends manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Joelma Raupp Cardoso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAni, an electronic conductive polymer, has poor mechanical properties, such as low tensile, compressive and flexural strength that render PAni a non-ideal material to be processed for practical applications. Desired properties of polyaniline can be enhanced by mixing it with a polymer that has good mechanical properties. In this work, PAni was synthesised using functionalized sulfonic acids like camphorsulfonic acid (CSA and dodecilbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA in order to promote PAni doping and improve its solubility, making possible conductive blends manufacture. The different forms of PAni were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and conductivity measurements. A conductive blend composed of PAni/DBSA and lower density polyethylene (LDPE was obtained via solubilization method and its thermal, morphological and electrical properties were investigated. Concentrations as low as 5 wt. (% of PAni was able to lead to electrical conductivities of PAni/LDPE blends in the range of 10-3 S.cm-1, showing great potential to be used in antistatic packing, electromagnetic shielding, anti-corrosion shielding or as a semiconductor.

  2. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  4. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with 36Cl-, 60Co-, 137Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters. - highlights: • Undoped poly (ether sulfone) (PES) can be used as a scintillation material in radiation survey meters. • Large PES plates with treated surfaces were characterized. • Surface roughening of the plates increased light collection efficiency. • Plates with a combination of mirrored/scattering surfaces work best. • A significant amount of light generated by radiation remains in the PES plates

  5. Physical ageing and molecular mobilities of sulfonated polysulfone for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixon Buquet, C. [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); PBS Department, UMR 6270 CNRS, MPBM, FR 3038, Universite de Rouen, Boulevard Maurice de Broglie, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Hamonic, F.; Saiter, A. [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Dargent, E., E-mail: eric.dargent@univ-rouen.fr [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Langevin, D.; Nguyen, Q.T. [PBS Department, UMR 6270 CNRS, MPBM, FR 3038, Universite de Rouen, Boulevard Maurice de Broglie, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2010-09-20

    The thermal behaviour, the physical ageing and the amorphous phase dynamics of polysulfone (PSU) and sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The sulfonic group introduction (the sulfonation degree is 70%) in the polymer implies a drastic decrease of the thermal decomposition temperature (220 and 517 {sup o}C for SPSU and PSU respectively) and a modification of calorimetric parameters (for SPSU, the heat capacity in the glassy state is lower and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} is higher than for PSU). In terms of molecular dynamics, the amorphous phase heterogeneities are greater and the cooperative rearranging region size at the glass transition temperature is smaller for SPSU than for PSU. Moreover, after a physical ageing process, the enthalpy recovery kinetic has slowed down by sulfonation. These results can be explained from the existence of sulfonic domains confining the amorphous phase domains.

  6. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail: dhhan@yumail.ac.kr; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail: juliavad@yahoo.co

    2011-04-01

    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  7. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  8. Effect of the incorporation of sulfonated chitosan/sulfonated graphene oxide on the proton conductivity of chitosan membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdast, Abbas; Sharif, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mahdi

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan biopolymer (CS) has been attracting considerable interest as polymer electrolyte in fuel cells. However, proton conductivity of chitosan is low and it is necessary to enhance its conductivity. In this work, 10 wt% sulfonated chitosan (SCS) and different amounts of sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) nanosheets are incorporated into a chitosan membrane to investigate their effects on the electrochemical properties of the membrane. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability tests conducted on the CS/SCS/SGO membranes show that the conductivity is increased by 454%, the permeability is reduced by 23% and hence the selectivity is increased by 650%, relative to the neat chitosan, at SGO content of 5 wt%. Furthermore, combined addition of SCS and SGO to chitosan causes much more proton conductivity enhancement than the individual additives due to the synergistic effect of SCS and SGO. The observed synergistic effect reveals the importance of the chemical functionality of chitosan and nanofillers in the formation of ionic cluster domains with enhanced size within the membranes for proton transport. Finally, a Nernst-Planck based model is applied to the experimental proton conductivity data in order to shed more light on the role of GOs in the proton conductivity mechanism of chitosan.

  9. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  10. Measurements of photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes with hydroxyl radicals during EXACT using comprehensive gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes, (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene with hydroxyl radicals in the presence of NOx have been investigated using comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC. A GCxGC system has been developed which utilises valve modulation and independent separations as a function of both volatility and polarity. A number of carbonyl-type compounds were identified during a series of reactions carried out at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE, a large volume outdoor reaction chamber in Valencia, Spain. Experiments were carried as part of the EXACT project (Effects of the oXidation of Aromatic Compounds in the Troposphere. Two litre chamber air samples were cryo-focused, with a sampling frequency of 30 minutes, allowing the evolution of species to be followed over oxidation periods of 3-6 hours. To facilitate product identification, several carbonyl compounds, which were possible products of the photo-oxidation, were synthesised and used as reference standards. For toluene reactions, observed oxygenated intermediates found included the co-eluting pair a-angelicalactone/4-oxo-2-pentenal, maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, benzaldehyde and p-methyl benzoquinone. In the p-xylene experiment, the products identified were E/Z-hex-3-en-2,5-dione and citraconic anhydride. For 1,3,5-TMB reactions, the products identified were 3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde, 3,5-dimethyl-3H-furan-2-one and 3-methyl-5-methylene-5H-furan-2-one. Preliminary quantification was carried out on identified compounds using liquid standards. Comparison of FTIR and GCxGC for the measurement of the parent aromatics generally showed good agreement. Comparison of the concentrations observed by GCxGC to concentration-time profiles simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3, demonstrates that this mechanism significantly over-predicts the concentrations of many product compounds and highlights the

  11. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane based on a Sulfonated Polyphenyl Sulfone/Phosphotungstic acid/Silica for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell at Low Humidity Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfonated polyphenyl sulfone/phosphotungstic acid/silica (sPPS/PWA/silica) hybrid membranes were prepared and characterized as alternative materials for PEMFC operation at high temperature and low humidity conditions. Polyphenyl sulfone polymer (PPS) was sulfonated with trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate in 1,2 dichloroethane at ambient temperatures. The degree of sulfonation was determined by 1H-NMR analysis. Sulfonation levels from 25 to 45% were easily achieved by varying the content of the sulfonation agent. The hybrid membrane was composed of the mixture of sPPS solution, PWA/silica particles. The structures of the membranes were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The composite membranes gained good thermal resistance with insertion of PWA/silica. SEM results have proven the uniform and homogeneous distribution of PWA/silica in hybrid membrane. The existence PWA/silica has improved the water uptake, proton conductivity and oxidative stability of hybrid membrane. Gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) were fabricated by ultrasonic coating technique. Catalyst loading was 0.4 mg Pt/cm2 for both anode and cathode sides. The membranes were tested in a single cell with a 5 cm2 active area operating at the temperature range of 70 to 120 °C and 100 and 30% relative humidity conditions. Single PEMFC tests performed at different operating temperatures indicated that sPPS/PWA/silica hybrid membrane was more stable and also performed better than pristine sPPS membrane. At the overall, the sPPS/PWA/silica hybrid membrane seems to be a promising alternative membrane for the possible utilization in PEMFC

  12. Performance analysis of sulfonated PPTA polymers as potential fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Every, Hayley A.; Mendes, Eduardo; Picken, Stephen J. [NanoStructured Materials, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628BL Delft (Netherlands); Janssen, Gaby J.M.; Sitters, Eric F. [Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-11-08

    In this paper, preliminary fuel cell tests on sulfonated poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)s (PPTAs) are reported. Two polymers with differing degrees of sulfonation were imbibed into a porous support matrix (Solupor{sup R} (DSM) with proton conductivities ranging from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2}Scm{sup -1}. Under fuel cell conditions, the fully sulfonated PPTA demonstrated longer lifetime. Furthermore, the same polymer exhibited a higher open circuit voltage and constant current value under constant voltage conditions. The partially sulfonated PPTA failed after approximately 250h. SEM analysis indicated a less uniform integration of the partially sulfonated PPTA into the Solupor{sup R} matrix, which could account for the premature failure of the membrane. Initial polarisation measurements showed slightly poorer performance for the partially sulfonated PPTA but after 230h, the polarisation curves for the two membranes were very similar. Under similar conditions, Nafion{sup R} 112 is a far superior membrane. However, if the incomplete filling of the Solupor{sup R} with PPTA in the present materials is taken into consideration, the performance of the sulfonated PPTAs becomes more competitive. (author)

  13. Inexpensive proton exchange membrane synthesis by sulfonation of commercially available polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available thermoplastic, bisphenol polymer (polycarbonate) was sulfonated with various reagents to introduce sulfonic acid group (So/sub 3/H) under optimum conditions. Subsequently modified polymer was studied for its physical and chemical properties needed for its potential use as PEM in Fuel Cells (FCs). Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to confirm the occurrence of sulfonation. Differential thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the effects of sulfonation on glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of modified polymer. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and Degree of substitution (DS) of sulfonic acid group were determined using standard procedure. Swelling properties were tested using water soaking. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was utilized to study the morphology of the polymeric membrane both before and after sulfonation. the results reveal that proper controlled sulfonation of bisphenol polymer can be a viable substitute for NAFION owing to its comparable IEC (1.15 meq/g), DS, water uptake (35%), good mechanical properties/ thermal stability and above all low cost of production. (author)

  14. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Young [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • The c-SBS films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam. • The crosslinking degree of the c-SBS films were increased with the irradiation dose. • The prepared c-SBS films were sulfonated with various concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation of the c-SBS film is largely dependent on the concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation process is progressed from the surface to the inner part of c-SBS film. -- Abstract: Several crosslinked poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of quaternized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) for anion-exchange membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloromethylated poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (CMPPESK) was prepared from poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) using chloromethyl octyl ethers (CMOE) with lower toxicity as chloromethylated regent. CMPPESK was soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and chloroform. Quatemized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (QAPPESK) was prepared from CMPPESK by quaternization. QAPPESK had excellent solvent resistance,which was only partly soluble in sulfuric acid (98%) and swollen in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The vanadium redox flow battery (V-RFB) using QAPPESK anion-exchange membrane had better performance with 88.3% of overall energy efficiency.

  16. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  17. Laser photolysis of interaction of poly-guanylic acid (5’) with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 韩镇辉; 林维真; 姚思德; 王文峰; 林念芸

    2002-01-01

    The electron transfer reaction between triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly-guanylic acid (5’) in CH3CN-H2O (97 : 3) has been investigated by 248 nm (KrF) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly[G] demonstrate that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate have been detected simultaneously. The free energy changes in the process of the electron transfer were also calculated.

  18. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly( phenylene sulfide sulfone)%磺化聚苯硫醚砜的制备和性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖慧; 李涛; 胡祥; 李瑞海

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied on sulfonated process of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfide sulfone) based on sulfuric aid as solvent and oleum as sulfonating agent. By changing the four factors, such as temperature, reaction time, the dosage of sulfuric acid and oleum, the sulfonated conditions were explored. The structures and properties of the obtained polymer were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, testing of solubility, sulfonation degree and reduced inherent viscosity. The results indicated the sulfonation degree was 62. 2% and reduced inherent viscosity was 0. 964 mL/g when the raction temperature was at 15℃, the sulfonated time was for 2 h, sulfuric aid was 8 mL and the ratio of oleum/PPSS was 9. 5. Decomposition temperature of sulfonic aid group and its main chain were 346℃, 534 % , respectively. It can be dissolved improvably in the polar solvent which dialectic constant exceeded 20.7.%以浓硫酸为溶剂,发烟硫酸为磺化剂对聚苯硫醚砜的磺化过程,通过改变温度、反应时间、浓硫酸的用量和发烟硫酸的用量这四个因素来探究磺化反应的条件.利用FTIR、热重分析(TGA)、磺化度、比浓黏度和溶解性测试对其结构和性能进行了表征.结果表明,采用磺化时间为2h,反应温度15℃,浓硫酸8 mL,发烟硫酸与聚苯硫醚砜的质量比为9.5时,可得到磺化度为62.2%,比浓黏度为0.964 mL/g的磺化聚苯硫醚砜.磺酸基的主要分解温度为346℃,主链的分解温度为534℃.其溶解性得到提高,可溶解在介电常数大于20.7的有机溶剂中.

  20. Surface adsorption of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone)/C14TAB mixtures and its correlation with foam film stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Martin; Miller, Reinhard; Klitzing, Regine von

    2016-07-21

    Polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures of rigid monosulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone) (sPSO2-220) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) were investigated by surface tension, surface elasticity and foam film stability measurements. The results were compared to former measurements of polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures containing more flexible polyelectrolytes (PAMPS or PSS and C14TAB). For all polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures an increased surface adsorption in comparison to the pure surfactant was detected. Moreover, sPSO2-220/C14TAB mixtures showed a much higher surface activity and foam film stability than mixtures with more flexible polyelectrolytes. The results presented give insight into the surface adsorption and foam film formation of rigid polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures. Therefore, this study helps to understand the role of polyelectrolyte backbone rigidity in the formation and stabilization of foam films made from polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures. PMID:27338310

  1. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haojie [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shouchun, E-mail: zschun@sxicc.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lu, Chunxiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  2. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES

  3. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  4. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  5. Nonaqueous preparation of stable silver nano particles dispersions from organic sulfonic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Glushko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for stable silver nano particles dispersions synthesis from organic sulfonic acids in an anhydrous medium of ethylene glycol and its methyl ester were studied. Ascorbic acid and potassium citrate were used as reducing agents.

  6. Molecular Dynamics of Film Formation of Metal Tetra sulfonated Phthalocyanine and Poly Amidoamine Demanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed molecular dynamics computer simulations to elucidate the behavior and properties of the metal tetra sulfonated phthalocyanine molecule and the poly(amidoamine) dendrimers in self-assembly depositions, respectively, on poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polymer and on film formed by metal tetra sulfonated phthalocyanine with poly(allylamine hydrochloride). Important physical properties of phthalocyanines were obtained such as the kinetic energy and temperature in situ. By the semiempirical model, we also obtained the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the film formed by cobalt tetra sulfonated phthalocyanine deposited on poly(allylamine hydrochloride). We performed a study with poly(amidoamine) dendrimers on their deposition time on metal tetra sulfonated phthalocyanine, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) film, and we show the relationship of deposition time with the electrical charge and molecular mass of phthalocyanines. The deposition times of the dendrimers, as a function of their mass, were also elucidated.

  7. Effect of sulfonation and diethanolamine addition on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of SEPS copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, D.; Correa, E.; Acevedo-Morantes, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modification techniques have been developed to achieve changes in the processing of polymers, and modification of their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties, as well as their hydrophobicity and conductivity. Sulfonation improves ion conductivity, antistatic behaviour, hydrophilicity and solubility of the polymers. These characteristics are related to the presence of sulfonic groups in the polymer matrix. This research project focuses on the evaluation of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of membranes that are based on a sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS) copolymer. The membranes were functionalized with diethanolamine at 5, 15 and 30% w/w, to separate carbon dioxide. FTIR and XRD analyses were used to characterize the membranes. The sulfonated-loaded membrane with 15% of diethanolamine showed the best results in each characterization.

  8. Magnetite-supported sulfonic acid: a retrievable nanocatalyst for the Ritter reaction and multicomponent reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetite-sulfonic acid (NanocatFe-OSO3H), prepared by wet-impregnation method, serves as a magnetically retrievable sustainable catalyst for the Ritter reaction which can be used in several reaction cycles without any loss of activity.

  9. Asymmetrical Self-assembly From Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers of fluorinated isoprene and partially sulfonated styrene form novel tapered rods and ribbon-like micelles in aqueous media due to a distribution of sulfonation sites and a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A combination of microscopy, light scattering, and simulation demonstrates the presence of these unique nanostructures. This study sheds light on the micellization behavior of amphiphilic block polymers by revealing a new mechanism of self-assembly.

  10. Sulfonate salts of amino acids: novel inhibitors of the serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groutas, W C; Brubaker, M J; Zandler, M E; Stanga, M A; Huang, T L; Castrisos, J C; Crowley, J P

    1985-04-16

    A series of amino acid-derived sulfonate salts have been synthesized. They were found to inactivate efficiently and selectively human leukocyte elastase. The sulfonate salts of the methyl esters of L-norleucine, L-norvaline and L-valine were the most potent. The enzyme is inactivated irreversibly with concomitant release of bisulfite ion. The results demonstrate for the first time that ionic compounds can indeed function as novel inhibitors for the serine proteinases. PMID:3885950

  11. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  12. Sulfonated mesoporous silica–carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla Solís, Marta; Fuertes Arias, Antonio Benito

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica–carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica–carbon composites contain ∼30 wt % of carbo...

  13. Sulfonate Functionalisation of Transition Metal Complexes: A Versatile Tool Towards Catalyst Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Virboul, M.A.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and application of sulfonate-functionalised ligands in organometallic chemistry and (aqueous) catalysis. Due to their ability to trigger specific solubility, different NHC ligand precursors bearing a butyl-sulfonate chain were synthesised. The formation of transition metal complexes containing gold and rhodium was enabled by a simple procedure involving the initial synthesis of a silver complex and a transmetallation with a suitable metal precursor and an o...

  14. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the

  15. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Junhwa

    2013-12-01

    Several crosslinked poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  16. Study of high-anionic conducting sulfonated microporous membranes for zinc-air electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance electrochemical membranes have been in great demand due to the rapid market growth in the portable power source devices. The electrochemical characteristics of high-anionic conducting membrane separators were studied in this report using microporous membranes with different sulfonation degrees obtained by changing the sulfonation reaction time. The degree of sulfonation treatment and the effects on the membrane separators were carefully investigated. The room temperature anionic conductivity of the membranes was improved by 132% to 3.52 x 10-2 S cm-1 when the sulfonation treatment time was 128 h. It was about 1.52 x 10-2 S cm-1 for the unsulfonated membranes. The anionic transport number in 1 M KOH aqueous solution was also improved to 0.89 from 0.79. The characteristic properties of these membrane separators were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), AC impedance, contact angle measuring system and stress-strain tests. In addition, the solid-state zinc-air cells assembled from the sulfonated membrane separators showed enhanced battery power density of 38 mW cm-2 while the discharge current density was higher at 45 mA cm-2. The battery power density was around 20 mW cm-2 and the discharge current density was 25 mA cm-2 for the unsulfonated samples. Therefore, the sulfonated microporous membranes could be tailored for the different electrochemical cell applications

  17. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, and alcohols in the paramagnetic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III) using gas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γi∞ of alkanes, alkenes, and alkylbenzenes as well as of the linear C1-C6 alcohols in the paramagnetic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III) have been determined by gas chromatography using the ionic liquids as stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between (305 and 403) K. From the temperature dependence of the limiting activity coefficients partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution HiE,∞ of the solutes in the ionic liquids have been derived. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γi∞ of ionic liquid with the ionic liquids containing 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cation and different non-magnetic anions have been compared at 298 K with results for 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III). No significant effects caused by the paramagnetic anion anion have been observed

  18. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-hua Lu; Jian-chao Liu; Li-sha Sun; Lu-jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS) on Daphnia magna (D. magna), a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-h acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination) at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. The biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined after seven days of exposure. PFOS was more toxic than PFNA based on the results of the acute toxicity test. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) inhibited both growth and reproduction of D. magna during the testing period. The ingestion rates and the biomarkers, including AChE, SOD, and CAT activities, were significantly inhibited by PFCs in most cases. Moreover, the combined effects related to the growth and reproduction showed the antagonistic effects of PFCs.

  19. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua LU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS on Daphnia magna (D. magna, a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-hour acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. The biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities, were determined after seven days of exposure. PFOS was more toxic than PFNA based on the results of the acute toxicity test. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs inhibited both growth and reproduction of D. magna during the testing period. The ingestion rates and the biomarkers, including AChE, SOD, and CAT activities, were significantly inhibited by PFCs in most cases. Moreover, the combined effects related to the growth and reproduction showed the antagonistic effects of PFCs.

  20. Phase behaviour of tertiary recovery sulfonates - petroleum fractions - aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, S.A.; Darwish, T.A.; Salamah, A.O.

    1988-02-01

    The phase behaviour of tertiary recovery sulfonates having commercial names TRS-10, TRS-16 and TRS-40 with aqueous phase and light petroleum fractions (non polar kerosene and gasoline) was studied at 20, 40 and 60/sup 0/C. The adopted pseudo components of the ternary diagram are hydrocarbon, surfactant and aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was composed of bidistilled water in addition to different proportions of pure alcohols and sodium chloride. The tested alcohols included methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol and n-pentanol. Thus, the best alcohol type and concentration in addition to optimum salinity, which correspond to maximum single phase region, were established for each surfactant at the various tested temperatures. It was shown that higher the affinity of the tested surfactant for hydrocarbon phase, the greater is the solubility of the corresponding optimum co-surfactant in water. The variation of optimum alcohol concentration with temperature, the effect of salt on the single phase region and the effect of hydrocarbon phase on the observed phenomena were discussed and found to agree with the previously established theories.

  1. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  2. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated polysulfone/polyvinyltriazole after doping with inorganic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serkan Sevinç; Sevim Ünügür Çelik; Ayhan Bozkurt

    2015-04-01

    As anhydrous proton conductive membranes, sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to at least 150° C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the homogeneity of the ternary composites. The maximum proton conductivity has been measured as 3.63 × 10−4S cm−1 at 150° C.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF SULFONATED POLY(ARYLENE ETHER) CONTAINING TRIPHENYL METHANE MOIETIES FROM ISOCYNATE MASKED BISPHENOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether) containing triphenylmethane moieties was synthesized by the sulfonation of a designed parent polymer using chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonation agent. The sulfonation took place at the para position of the pendant phenyl rings because of the specially designed parent polymer. The position and degree of sulfonation were characterized by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The sulfonated polymers are highly soluble in common organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and can be readily cast into tough and smooth films from solutions. The films showed good thermal and hydrolysis stabilities. Moreover, Fenton's reagent test revealed that the films exhibited superior stability to oxidation. The proton conductivities of the films were comparable with Nation 117 under same conditions. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared with the asmade film (706 EW, 100 μm dry thickness) shows better cell performance than Nation 115-MEA in the whole current density range.

  4. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  5. Ag (I)-based 2D metal frameworks with helical structures decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Pan, Daocheng; Xu, Guohai

    2010-12-01

    Two two-dimension homochiral Ag (I) metal frameworks constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acid and hexamethylenetetramine have been synthesized at the room temperature. These two complexes with (6, 3) topology decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid possess the unique helical structures. The result of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirms that the bulk materials are homochiral and also indicates the handedness of the single crystals can be controlled by the chirality of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

  6. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-lin Lei; Yun-jie Luo; Fei Chen; Le-he Mei

    2014-01-01

    With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the alloy particles on the...

  7. Highly Efficient Biomimetic Oxidation of Sulfide to Sulfone by Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of Manganese meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Xian-Tai; JI,Hong-Bing; YUAN,Qiu-Lan; XU,Jian-Chang; PEI,Li-Xia; WANG,Le-Fu

    2008-01-01

    Low amount of manganese meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin [Mn(TPP)] was used for highly efficient selective oxidation of sulfide to sulfone by hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.Sulfones were produced directly with yields generally around 90% while the catalyst concentration was only 4 ×10-5 mol·L-1.In a large-scale experiment of thioanisole oxidation,the isolated yield of sulfone (87%) was obtained and the turnover number (TON) reached up to 8×106,which is the highest TON for the oxidation systems of sulfide to sulfone catalyzed by metalloporphyrins.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  9. Synthesis and properties of a novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membrane with a high β-value for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduction of carboxyl groups into copolymers resulted in extensive hydrogen bond. • The C-SPAEKS membranes had obviously hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation. • The membranes showed low methanol permeability and high β values. • The membranes exhibited good thermal property and desirable mechanical performance. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membranes containing carboxylic acid groups (C-SPAEKS) with different degrees of sulfonation were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 4-carboxylphenyl hydroquinone (4C-PH), bisphenol A, 3,3′-disulfonated 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone, and 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone. The Fourier transform infrared and 1H NMR analyses of C-SPAEKS revealed the presence of carboxylic acid groups in the C-SPAEKS membranes. The membranes exhibited a low swelling degree and methanol crossover level. The effects of different degrees of sulfonation on the water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient of the membranes were studied. The maximum proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane at room temperature was 0.069 S cm−1, which was higher than that of Nafion® 117 membrane. The methanol permeability coefficient of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane was 9.15 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 at 20 °C, much lower than that of Nafion 117 membrane (22.9 × 10−7 cm2 s−1). Furthermore, the carboxyl group-containing membranes exhibited a high β-value, further confirming that this series of membranes possess excellent comprehensive performance and can be applied in direct methanol fuel cells

  10. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G

    2014-09-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm(2). PMID:25280842

  11. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate to hippocampal cells in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2 and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor, Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4 were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice.

  12. Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Membrane structure and transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    With a view to optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block copolymer ionomers of fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) with various sulfonation levels, in both the acid form and the cesium neutralized form. The morphology of these membranes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, as well as water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol permeability within the temperature range from 20 to 60 C. Random phase separated morphologies were obtained for all samples except the cesium sample with 50 mol% sulfonation. The transport properties increased with increasing degree of sulfonation and temperature for all samples. The acid form samples absorbed more water than the cesium samples with a maximum swelling of 595% recorded at 60 C for the acid sample having 50 mol% sulfonation. Methanol permeability for the latter sample was more than an order of magnitude less than for Nafion 112 but so was the proton conductivity within the plane of the membrane at 20 C. Across the plane of the membrane this sample had half the conductivity of Nafion 112 at 60 C.

  13. Highly Sulfonated Diamine Synthesized Polyimides and Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes Improve PEM Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel sulfonated diamine was synthesized from 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy benzene [pBAB]. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were synthesized from sulfonated pBAB, 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy-2-sulfonic acid benzenesulfonic acid [pBABTS], various diamines and aromatic dianhydrides. Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs made of novel SPIs and a protic ionic liquid (PIL 1-vinyl-3-H-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [VIm][OTf] showed substantially increased conductivity. We prepared an SPI/PIL composite PEM using pBABTS, 4,4′-(9-fluorenylidene dianiline (9FDA as diamine, 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA as dianhydride and 40 wt % [VIm][OTf] with a high conductivity of 16 mS/cm at 120 °C and anhydrous condition. pBABTS offered better conductivity, since the chemical structure had more sulfonated groups that provide increased conductivity. The new composite membrane could be a promising anhydrous or low-humidity PEM for intermediate or high-temperature fuel cells.

  14. Tin Coatings Electrodeposited from Sulfonic Acid-Based Electrolytes: Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, L. N.; Tuckart, W. R.; Zabala, N.; Prieto, G.; Egli, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    A high efficiency methane sulfonic acid electrolyte used for tin electrodeposition was studied, and the properties of the resulting deposits were compared to those of tin coatings obtained from an industrial phenol sulfonic acid electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the effect of organic additives on the reduction process to define the composition of the electrolytic bath. Thick tin electrodeposits were obtained on rotating cylinder steel electrodes, and their surface morphology, preferred crystal orientation, surface roughness, micro hardness, and tribological behavior were measured. Smooth, adherent, and bright tin coatings were obtained from the methane sulfonic acid electrolyte, which differed in morphology and texture from tin electrodeposited from the industrial bath. Influence of organic additives on preferred crystal orientation of the coatings was found to be stronger than changing the supporting sulfonic acid type. Tribological tests showed that the two types of deposits have a similar coefficient of friction. However, tin coatings obtained from methane sulfonic electrolytes presented a lower wear resistance and underwent galling at lower loads.

  15. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1, one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  16. Synthesis of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate intercalated iron(II) iron(III) hydroxide sulphate (green rust) and adsorption of carbon tetrachloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Kaldor, D.K.; Bender Koch, Christian;

    2007-01-01

    Green rusts, GRs, can act as both sorbents and reductants towards selected pollutants. Organo-GRs are expected to combine these properties with a high affinity for hydrophobic substances. A novel organo-GR, GRLAS, was synthesized by incorporating a mixture of linear alkylbenzenesulphonates (LAS) ...

  17. Las versiones homericas Las versiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Borges

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ningún problema tan consustancial con las letras con su modesto misterio como el que propone una traducción. Un olvido animal por la vanidad, el tenor de confesar procesos mentales que adivinamos peligrosamente comunes, el conato de mantener intacta y central una reserve incalculable de sombre, velan las tales escrituras directas. La traducciOn, en cambio, parece destinada a ilustrar la discusión estitica. El modelo propuesto a su imitaciOn es un texto visible, no un labirint° inestimable de proyectos preteritos o la acatada tentaciOn momentanea de una facilidad. Bertrand Russell define un objeto extern( como un sistema circular, irradiante, de impresiones posibles; lo mismo puede aseverarse de un texto, dadas las repercusiones incalculables de lo verbal. Un parcial y precioso documento de las vicisitudes que sufre queda en sus traducciones.

  18. Las lenguas en las sociedades del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, J. Francisco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages become a strategic resource for information and knowledge societies. By expressing and sharing knowledge by means of languages, every culture generates deposits of knowledge, which can be transferred and exchanged among different epistemic communities. The contemporary technologies of information and communication have changed the structure of knowledge flows. Globalization of knowledge poses a great challenge to every language, including the Spanish one. In order to survive in the digital world, they should develop technolanguages. The lemma “Thinking in Spanish” implies a new model of governance for the Ibero-American knowledge communities.En las sociedades de la información y el conocimiento las lenguas se convierten en un recurso estratégico. Al expresar y compartir conocimiento por medio de los idiomas, las culturas generan yacimientos de conocimiento, que pueden ser transferidos e intercambiados entre comunidades epistémicas diferentes. Las actuales tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han cambiado la estructura de los flujos de conocimiento. La globalización del conocimiento plantea un gran desafío a todas las lenguas, incluyendo la española. Para sobrevivir en el mundo digital, los lenguajes han de convertirse en tecnolenguajes. El lema “Pensar en español” aporta un nuevo modelo de gobernanza para las comunidades iberoamericanas del conocimiento.

  19. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Functionalized with Sulfonic Acid Groups as Acid Catalyst for Glycerol Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Van Der Voort

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO functionalized with sulfonic acid groups has been successfully synthesized via a sequence of post-synthetic modification steps of a trans-ethenylene bridged PMO material. The double bond is functionalized via a bromination and subsequent substitution obtaining a thiol functionality. This is followed by an oxidation towards a sulfonic acid group. After full characterization, the solid acid catalyst is used in the acetylation of glycerol. The catalytic reactivity and reusability of the sulfonic acid modified PMO material is investigated. The catalyst showed a catalytic activity and kinetics that are comparable with the commercially available resin, Amberlyst-15, and furthermore our catalyst can be recycled for several subsequent catalytic runs and retains its catalytic activity.

  20. Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Structural evolution with hydration and heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) have been used to study the structural changes in fluorinated polyisoprene/sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) diblock copolymers as they evolved from the dry state to the water swollen state. A dilation of the nanometer-scale hydrophilic domains has been observed as hydration increased, with greater dilation occurring in the more highly sulfonated samples or upon hydration at higher temperatures. Furthermore, a decrease in the order in these phase separated structures is observed upon swelling. The glass transition temperatures of the fluorinated blocks have been observed to decrease upon hydration of these materials, and at the highest hydration levels, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown the presence of tightly bound water. A precipitous drop in the mechanical integrity of the 50% sulfonated materials is also observed upon exceeding the glass transition temperature (Tg), as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  1. Synthesis and Process Optimization of Electrospun PEEK-Sulfonated Nanofibers by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Boaretti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study electrospun nanofibers of partially sulfonated polyether ether ketone have been produced as a preliminary step for a possible development of composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Response surface methodology has been employed for the modelling and optimization of the electrospinning process, using a Box-Behnken design. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, has been focused on the analysis of the effect of both process (voltage, tip-to-collector distance, flow rate and material (sulfonation degree variables on the mean fiber diameter. The final model has been verified by a series of statistical tests on the residuals and validated by a comparison procedure of samples at different sulfonation degrees, realized according to optimized conditions, for the production of homogeneous thin nanofibers.

  2. Characterisation of ion transport in sulfonate based ionomer systems containing lithium and quaternary ammonium cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sulfonated ionomers based on poly(triethylmethyl ammonium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and containing mixtures of Li+ and quaternary ammonium cations are characterised. The first system contains Li+ and the methyltriethyl ammonium cation (N1222) in a 1:9 molar ratio, and the 7Li NMR line widths showed that the Li+ ions are mobile in this system below the glass transition temperature (105 °C) and are therefore decoupled from the polymer segmental motion. The conductivity in this system was measured as 10−5 S cm−1 at 130 °C. A second PAMPS system containing Li+ and the dimethylbutylmethoxyethyl ammonium cation (N114(2O1)) in a 2:8 molar ratio showed much lower conductivities despite a significantly lower Tg (60 °C), possibly due to associations between the Li+ and the ether group on the ammonium cation, or between the latter cations and the sulfonate groups

  3. Cyclization of gold acetylides: synthesis of vinyl sulfonates via gold vinylidene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Janina; Wurm, Thomas; Nalivela, Kumara Swamy; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2014-04-01

    Differently substituted terminal alkynes that bear sulfonate leaving groups at an appropriate distance were converted in the presence of a propynyl gold(I) precatalyst. After initial formation of a gold acetylide, a cyclization takes place at the β-carbon atom of this species. Mechanistic studies support a mechanism that is related to that of dual gold-catalyzed reactions, but for the new substrates, only one gold atom is needed for substrate activation. After formation of a gold vinylidene complex, which forms a tight contact ion pair with the sulfonate leaving group, recombination of the two parts delivers vinyl sulfonates, which are valuable targets that can serve as precursors for cross-coupling reactions, for example. PMID:24596326

  4. Particle size effects of sulfonated graphene supported Pt nanoparticles on ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pt colloidal nanoparticles with five mean diameters are synthesized. • Size-selected Pt nanoparticles are loaded on sulfonated graphene (sG). • Sulfonic acid functional groups atop graphene donate charge to Pt. • Pt-sG catalysts are used for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). • Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR. - Abstract: Fuel cells are promising alternative in automobile and stationary power generation. Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) offer significant advantages due to the non-toxicity and renewability of ethanol as well as its high power density. Development of the efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) has attracted great attention and represents one of the major challenges in electrocatalysis. Graphene, one-atom thick nanocarbon materials, has attracted much attention recently in a variety of applications. The sulfonation of graphene is able to make it hydrophilic, which enhances its dispersibility in aqueous solvents. Furthermore, sulfonation increases the adsorption and uniform distribution of the Pt nanoparticles, which increases both the electrocatalytic activity and the durability. In this study, theoretical calculations demonstrated that the sulfonate functional group can donate charge to Pt, enhanced the adsorption energy of Pt, and then reduce the adsorption energy of CO on Pt. Then experimentally five kinds of Pt/sulfonated-graphene (Pt/sG) catalysts were synthesized via the control of pH values during the preparation of five-selected colloidal nanoparticles. Among all catalysts, Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR

  5. An electrochemical study in aqueous solutions on the binding of dopamine to a sulfonated cyclodextrin host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DA and Sβ-CD form an Inclusion complex. ► Electrochemical techniques demonstrated this inclusion complex. ► The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3. ► 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. ► NMR studies confirmed the structural information on the inclusion complex. - Abstract: Clear evidence for the formation of a weak inclusion complex between dopamine (DA) and a sulfonated β-CD host in aqueous solution was obtained using a combination of electrochemical approaches. Using cyclic voltammetry, a distinct increase in the oxidation potential of DA and a reduction in the peak oxidation current were observed on adding an excess concentration of the sulfonated β-CD to the electrolyte solution. Equally, a clear increase in the half-wave oxidation potential of DA was observed in the presence of the sulfonated β-CD using rotating disc voltammetry. The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3 ± 5.8, indicating the formation of a weak inclusion complex, while a 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. The rate constant for the oxidation of DA was found to decrease on formation of the inclusion complex. This was attributed to higher reorganization energy for the oxidation of the included DA. These changes in the electrochemistry of DA were not observed when an excess of the smaller sulfonated α-CD was added to the electrolyte, indicating that these variations are not connected with simple electrostatic interactions between the protonated DA and the anionic sulfonated groups. It is proposed that the aromatic ring of the DA molecule includes within the cyclodextrin cavity, while the protonated amine group remains outside the cavity, bound electrostatically with the anionic sulfonated groups.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  7. Preparation and Reactions of Amino Acid Ester Sulfones as New Remote Asymmetrical Induced Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Cheng-He; BAI,Xue; LI,Tan-Qing; WU,Jun; Alfred Hassner

    2004-01-01

    @@ The development of chiral auxiliary-controlled asymmetric synthesis has been receiving increasing interest in recent yearsfi,2] Various chiral auxiliary reagents have been observed[3] and a lot of results showed that variation of the chiral auxiliary could influence asymmetric induction. Recently, it has been reported the reaction of the aminated sulfones as a remote chiral auxiliary with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.[4] Here we would like to report the preparation of amino acid ester sulfones as new remote asymmetrical induced reagents and their reactions with α,β-unsaturated esters.

  8. Inactivation of leukocyte elastase by aryl azolides and sulfonate salts. Structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groutas, W C; Brubaker, M J; Zandler, M E; Mazo-Gray, V; Rude, S A; Crowley, J P; Castrisos, J C; Dunshee, D A; Giri, P K

    1986-07-01

    The inhibitory activity of a series of aryl azolides and sulfonate salts toward human leukocyte elastase is reported. Several of the compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme. Active compounds were obtained only when the specificity group and the reactive moiety were separated by a two-carbon chain. The introduction of hydrophobic groups enhanced the inhibitory activity of these compounds, with the exception of the sulfonate salts. The nature of the leaving group had a profound effect on inhibitory activity, with compounds 23 and 26 being the most active (kobsd/[I] = 11,722 and 13,500 M-1 s-1, respectively). PMID:3643283

  9. Cloning and Characterization of a Sulfonate/α-Ketoglutarate Dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Deborah A.; Auchtung, Thomas A.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YLL057c is predicted to encode a gene product with 31.5% amino acid sequence identity to Escherichia coli taurine/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase and 27% identity to Ralstonia eutropha TfdA, a herbicide-degrading enzyme. Purified recombinant yeast protein is shown to be an Fe(II)-dependent sulfonate/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase. Although taurine is a poor substrate, a variety of other sulfonates are utilized, with the best natural substrates being is...

  10. Oxidation of oil sulfur compounds to sulfones under foam-emulsion conditions in presence of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of sulfur compounds in diesel fraction, as well as of sulfoxide concentrate, by hydrogen peroxide to sulfones under foam-emulsion conditions in the presence of variable valency metal (V, Mo, W, Ti, Cr) compounds has been studied. It is ascertained that organic derivatives of molybdenum and vanadium are effective catalysts of sulfides to sulfones. The best results are obtained in the presence of water soluble ethylene glycolate of molybdenum. The mechanisms of chemical reactions occurring in the process is considered. Refs. 10

  11. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  12. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  13. Alquilbenzeno sulfonato linear: uma abordagem ambiental e analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos P. Penteado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of detergents and other consumer products is behind the continued interest in the chemistry of the surfactants used. Of these, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs are most widely employed in detergent formulations. The precursors to LASs are linear alkylbenzenes (LABs. There is also interest in the chemistry of these hydrocarbons, because they are usually present in commercial LASs (due to incomplete sulfonation, or form as one of their degradation products. Additionally, they may be employed as molecular tracers of domestic waste in the aquatic environment. The following aspects are covered in the present review: The chemistry of surfactants, in particular LAS; environmental impact of the production of LAS; environmental and toxicological effects of LAS; mechanisms of removal of LAS in the environment, and methods for monitoring LAS and LAB, the latter in domestic wastes. Classical and novel analytical methods employed for the determination of LAS and LAB are discussed in detail, and a brief comment on detergents in Brazil is given.

  14. Transport of protonic charge carriers in methyl-sulfonic-acid/water mixtures : a model for lowly hydrated sulfonic acid based ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    Telfah, Ahmad D. S.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs) deliver high power density and offer the advantages of low weight and volume, compared to other fuel cell systems. State-of-the-art separator materials in PEM-FCs are sulfonic acid functionalized polymers, like the perfluorinated polymer Nafion. The suitability of proton-conducting materials as separators in a particular fuel-cell application is essentially dependent on its transport properties, durability, and reactivity. Thus, this thesis...

  15. Synthesis and reactions of a nucleoside derivative of phosphoric sulfonic anhydride. Studies related to the mechanisms of coupling reactions in the chemical synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by phosphotriester procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Dabkowski, W; Skrzypczynski, Z; Michalski, J; Piel, N; McLaughlin, L W; Cramer, F

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of a model compound, diphenylphosphoric toluene-p-sulfonic anhydride, an arylsubstituted phosphoric sulfonic mixed anhydride, is described. Using the same procedure a thymidyl substituted derivative was prepared. The phosphoric sulfonic anhydride is the presumed intermediate in oligonucleotide coupling reactions involving phosphodiester activation by arenesulfonyl derivatives. This mixed anhydride reacts with a variety of nucleophiles. It can be converted to phophotriester deriv...

  16. Facile synthesis of 4H-chromene derivatives via base-mediated annulation of ortho-hydroxychalcones and 2-bromoallyl sulfones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadkapally, Srinivas; Kunjachan, Athira C

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cesium carbonate-mediated reaction of 2-bromoallyl sulfones and ortho-hydroxychalcones furnished 3-arylsulfonyl-4H-chromene derivatives in 58–67% yield (18 examples). 2-Bromoallyl sulfones functioned as synthetic surrogates for allenyl sulfones in the reaction. PMID:26877804

  17. Synthesis and properties of novel multiblock copolyimides consisting of benzimidazole-groups-containing sulfonated polyimide hydrophilic blocks and non-sulfonated polyimide hydrophobic blocks as proton exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of novel multiblock copolymers consisting of benzimidazole-groups-containing sulfonated polyimide hydrophilic blocks (averaged block length = 20) and non-sulfonated polyimide hydrophobic blocks (averaged block length = 5 or 10) have been synthesized via two-pot synthetic procedures. The anhydride-terminated hydrophilic oligomer is synthesized by copolymerization of excess 1,4,5,8-naphthalelnetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with amine-terminated polybenzimidazole (PBI-NH2) and 4,4′-bis(4-aminophenoxy) biphenyl-3,3′-disulfonic acid (BAPBDS), while the amine-terminated hydrophobic oligomers are synthesized by polymerization of excess non-sulfonated diamines with NTDA or a fluorinated dianhydride. The resulting multiblock copolymers can be cast into tough membranes indicating that reasonably high molecular weights block copolymers have been obtained. The block SPIs exhibit microphase-separated structure, whereas the random one is amorphous. Fenton’s test reveals that the block copolymer membranes, in particular, those consisting of fluorinated hydrophobic blocks, are fairly stable toward radical oxidation. Preliminary fuel cell tests are performed to evaluate the fuel cell performance of the block copolymer membranes. The single cell equipped with the block copolymer membrane of which hydrophobic block is prepared from NTDA and a fluorinated diamine (averaged block length = 5) exhibits a peak output power density of 0.70 W/cm2 at 90 °C and 92% relative humidity for H2/air which is comparable to that of Nafion 112

  18. Las TIC en las Aulas Hospitalarias

    OpenAIRE

    Prendes Espinosa, Mª Paz; Serrano Sánchez, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Libro en el cual se recoge un análisis de la experiencia del proyecto ALTER en las Aulas Hospitalarias de la Región de Murcia (desarrollado con financiación de la Fundación Séneca de la Región de Murcia). Además se completa con otras experiencias que se desarrollan en este mismo contexto de las Aulas Hospitalarias y todo ello desde el contexto teórico de la Pedagogía Hospitalaria.

  19. Association of hydrophobic organic compounds with river particles of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hideshige; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Satoh, Futoshi [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture & Technology (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Hydrophobic molecular markers are potentially useful to identify the sources and the transport pathways of hydrophobic pollutants like polychlonnated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Use of molecular markers for the source-identification requires consideration of the similarity and differences in environmental behaviors between the marker compounds and the pollutants. Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), which are present in linear alkylbenzene-sulfonates (LAS) surfactants as impurities, are molecular markers of sewage-derived pollutants. Recently Sherblom et. al demonstrated that their hydrophobicities (Kong) overlap with those of PCBs and PAHs. This enhances their potential utility for mimicking the transport pathways of the hydrophobic pollutants. However, the similarity in environmental behaviors between LAB s and PCBs and PAHs has not been examined on observation. This study compared the sorption behavior of LABs with PCBs and PAHs in river water.

  20. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264. ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  1. Perfluoroalkanesulfonamide Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Conjugate Additions of Branched Aldehydes to Vinyl Sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakashima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric conjugate additions of branched aldehydes to vinyl sulfones promoted by sulfonamide organocatalyst 6 or 7 have been developed, allowing facile synthesis of the corresponding adducts with all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in excellent yields with up to 95% ee.

  2. Thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the properties of thin films from highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been investigated within the context of their application as membranes for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used as the predominant measurement t

  3. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  4. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment...

  5. Association of Osteoarthritis with Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in NHANES 2003–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Sarah A.; James-Todd, Tamarra; Bell, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent, synthetic industrial chemicals. Perfluorinated compounds are linked to health impacts that may be relevant to osteoarthritis, cartilage repair, and inflammatory responses. Objectives: We investigated whether PFOA and PFOS exposures are associated with prevalence of osteoarthritis, and whether associations differ between men and women. Methods: We used multiple logistic regression to estimate association...

  6. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of perfluorooctane sulfonate on nanosized inorganic oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyu; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-07-15

    Adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) is critical for understanding their transport and fate in aquatic environments. In this study, the adsorption behavior of PFOS on nanosized Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 was examined in terms of adsorption isotherms and influences of pH, ionic strength and heavy metallic cations. The nano-oxides had much higher adsorption capacities than bulk particles due to higher surface hydroxyl density. PFOS adsorption showed strong pH dependence due to different species of surface hydroxyl groups on nano-oxides. Besides electrostatic interaction, sulfonic group of PFOS possibly formed hydrogen bonds on the surface of nano-oxides. Because of the bridging effect in the co-adsorption process, the coexisting PFOS and heavy metallic cations greatly enhanced their adsorption onto the nano-oxides. Comparative adsorption of different perfluorinated sulfonates indicated the possible formation of bilayer PFOS adsorption on the nano-oxides, leading to the enhanced Cu(II) adsorption on the sulfonic groups of PFOS on the surfaces through electrostatic interaction. PMID:27127908

  7. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifali Sandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P<0.001 as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P=0.73. In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P=0.99. Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P=0.32. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P=0.54. Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium.

  8. Gene expression profiling identifies mechanisms of protection to recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis mediated by probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Erk, M. van; Lagerweij, T.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Host-microbiota interactions in the intestinal mucosa play a major role in intestinal immune homeostasis and control the threshold of local inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis

  9. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hacer Doǧan; Emel Yildiz; Metin Kaya; Tülay Y Inan

    2013-08-01

    Two different commercial grade carbon black samples, Cabot Regal 400R (C1) and Cabot Mogul L (C2), were sulfonated with diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. The resultant sulfonated carbon black samples (S–C) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton conduction, water uptake, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. Incorporation of S–C particles above 0.25 wt% caused decrease in chemical stability. Pristine and composite membranes prepared from SPEEK82 decomposed completely in <1 h, which is undesirable for fuel cell applications. SPEEK60 membrane having wt% of 0.25–0.5 with S–C particles led to higher proton conductivity than that of pristine membrane. No positive effect was observed on the properties of the composite membranes with the addition of S–C particles at high concentrations due to the agglomeration problems and decrease in the content of conductive polymer matrix.

  10. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling. PMID:26709023

  11. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels J.; He, Ronghuan

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability agains...

  12. Raman XPS and UV Characterization of IR Laser Irradiated Poly(phenylene ether sulfone)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Pola, Josef

    -: -, 2013, s. 302. ISBN N. [Congress of Chemists and Technologists of Macedonia /22./. Ohrid (MK), 05.09.2012-09.09.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : deposition og polymer films * laser ablation * poly(1,4-phenylene ether sulfone) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.tmf.ukim.edu.mk/shtmcongress2012/doc/Book%20of%20abstracts.pdf

  13. Radiation Detection: Resistivity Responses in Functional Poly(Olefin Sulfone)/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Swager, Timothy Manning; Lobez, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of gamma rays is shown using a non-scintillating organic-based sensor composed of poly(olefin sulfone)/carbon nanotube blends. Functionalization of the polymers can be performed after polymerization to tailor their structure with different pyrene and bismuth-containing moieties not accessible by copolymerization, and a systematic improvement in sensitivity is achieved in this way.

  14. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was po...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF THERMOSPRAY LCMS: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SULFONATED AZO DYES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermospray mass spectra (TSMS) has been used to obtain mass spectra of several di- and tetra- sulfonated azo dyes. Commercial dye preparations were dissolved in various mobile phases and injected into the TSMS system. Mobile phases investigated included pure water and varying co...

  16. Pharmacokinetic profiles of perfluorobutane sulfonate and activation of hepatic genes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are organic chemicals with wide industrial and consumer uses. They are found ubiquitously at low levels in the environment and detectable in humans and wildlife. Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS) is a short-chained PFAS used to replace perfluorooc...

  17. Application of a carbanion transmetalation of aryl alkyl sulfones in the total synthesis of cyclopentanoid monoterpenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehová, Lucie; Jahn, Ullrich

    Lisboa : -, 2015 - (Rauter, A.; Martins, A.; Matos, A.; Dias, C.; Xavier, N.; Nunes, R.; Lucas, S.; Cachatra, V.; Paiva, A.; Batista, D.). s. 505 ISBN 978-989-8124-11-1. [ESOC 2015. European Symposium on Organic Chemistry /19./. 12.07.2015-16.07.2015, Lisboa] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclopentanoid monoterpenes * sulfones * transmetalation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Haciendo resonar las voces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas; Corrigan, Arran; Ekstrøm, Ylva;

    2011-01-01

    sexualidad protegida y el VIH/SIDA”. FEMINA persigue sus objetivos por medio de la producción de dos de las revistas de mayor circulación en Tanzania: SiMchezo! y Fema, apuntando a la juventud rural y urbana mediante una estrategia de intervención comunicacional multimedia y participativa. Las dos revistas...

  19. Violencia contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ciaccia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A partir de considerar las paradojas del orden simbólico, este texto aborda la violencia contra las mujeres, pero no solamente como un dato de estructura, y resitúa esa violencia en conexión con el llamado por Freud “rechazo a la femineidad”.

  20. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: changbinbin806@163.com; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  1. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion[reg] 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50 deg. C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion[reg] 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD = 71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion[reg] 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD = 52%

  2. Single cell performance and electrochemical characterization of photocrosslinked and post-sulfonated SEBS-DVB membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photocrosslinked and post-sulfonated (SEBS-DVB) membranes were successfully prepared • Membranes with 25%DVB showed reduced water swelling and improved ionic conductivity • A change in morphology was observed with increasing DVB content and irradiation time • Hydrogen and electronic crossover are negligible in all cases • Best cell performance was reported for s(SEBS-DVB 75-25) irradiated for 15 minutes - ABSTRACT: This work describes the preparation of UV photocrosslinked and post-sulfonated s(SEBS-DVB) membranes for their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM). Photocrosslinking is chosen as a useful method to reduce water uptake and enhance the dimensional stability while post-sulfonation reaction prevents the possibility of sulfonic groups may photocrosslink between different molecules. The experimental membranes are evaluated and compared with pristine sSEBS in terms of IEC, swelling ratio (in water and chloroform), FTIR-ATR and thermal properties (TGA, DSC). Morphology is investigated using SEM and AFM. The membranes are fitted into single cells and electrochemically characterized in order to determine in situ through-plane proton conductivity, hydrogen crossover and cell performance at 80 °C, atmospheric pressure and 100% relative humidity. The effects exerted by crosslinkable agent amount (DVB) and irradiation time are examined. Thus, s(SEBS-DVB 75-25) irradiated for 15 minutes highlights significantly from the rest, reaching a maximum current density of about 2300 mAcm−2 and a maximum power density greater than 700 mWcm−2 while these values for sSEBS are 1700 mAcm−2 and 478 mWcm−2, respectively. The results indicate that photocrosslinking and post-sulfonation are effective approaches to reduce the problem of excessive water swelling in membranes based on sSEBS and to endue a good performance

  3. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses high acidity and high –SO3H density. • It

  4. Fipronil sulfone induced higher cytotoxicity than fipronil in SH-SY5Y cells: Protection by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Ramos, E; Ares, I; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2016-06-11

    Fipronil is a broad spectrum insecticide from the phenyl pyrazole family, which targets GABA receptor. Limited information is available about the metabolite fipronil sulfone cytotoxic actions. This study examined in vitro neurotoxicity of fipronil and fipronil sulfone and evaluated Trolox (vitamin E analog) (0.3, 1μM), N-acetyl-cysteine (0.5, 1mM), melatonin (0.1, 1μM) and Tempol (superoxide dismutase analog) (0.3, 0.5mM) protective role in SH-SY5Y cells. MTT and LDH assays were carried out to assess the cytotoxicity of fipronil and fipronil sulfone at 3-100μM concentrations. Fipronil sulfone was more toxic than fipronil. Tempol showed the best neuroprotectant profile against fipronil (50 and 150μM) and fipronil sulfone (3 and 10μM) reaching control levels. Fipronil (100μM) and fipronil sulfone (3μM) treatments induced a 4.7- and 5-fold increases in lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and a 2.2- and 2.0-fold increases in the levels of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that oxidative stress observed may be one of the major mechanisms of fipronil-induced neurotoxicity and it may be attributed in part to fipronil disposition and metabolism. Our results led us postulate that metabolite fipronil sulfone might be responsible for the fipronil-induced toxicity rather than fipronil itself. PMID:27067106

  5. Performance assessment of partially sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP as polymer electrolyte membranes in single chambered microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PVdF-co-HFP and its sulfonated derivatives have been analyzed in MFC as PEM. • Better performance resulted with 7 h long sulfonated membrane. • Impedance analysis revealed lower resistance from 7 h sulfonated membrane than others. • Mixed firmicute consortium has shown its electro-activity for bioenergy generation. - Abstract: In the present study, PVdF-co-HFP copolymer and its sulfonated derivatives have been analyzed as polymer electrolyte membrane in single chamber MFCs. The sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP copolymer was performed by treating with chlorosulfonic acid for 5, 7 and 9 h, resulting in 23%, 30%, and 18% of degree of sulfonation (DS) in the respective SP-5, SP-7, and SP-9 membranes. On observing the membranes under field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with EDAX, porosity was found to be increasing with increase in the duration of sulfonation except for 9 h duration. The elemental analysis of the membranes indicated the presence of higher sulfur and oxygen content with the increasing sulfonation duration except for 9 h duration, for which crosslinks were formed via sulfone linkages. The membranes were characterized for their ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity; IEC value of 0.21 meq g−1, 0.42 meq g−1, and 0.12 meq g−1 and proton conductivity of 0.0012 S cm−1, 0.00363 S cm−1, and 0.0006 S cm−1 were observed for SP-5, SP-7, and SP-9 membranes. Open air cathode MFCs with membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) containing sulfonated and non-sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP membranes have been analyzed for their overall MFC performance. It was observed that amongst these membranes, MFC with SP-7 membrane showed the maximum power and current density of 290.176 ± 15 mW m−2 and 1390.866 ± 70 mA m−2 with an overall ∼89% COD removal in 28 days operation, using electrogenic mixed firmicute consortium. In overall, the study illustrates the impression of sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP membranes as PEM and its application

  6. las relaciones interpersonales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Gómez Albarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo discuto el efecto que han tenido las filtraciones realizadas por WikiLeaks en las relaciones internacionales y en las relaciones interpersonales. Sostengo que Wikileaks motivará a muchos a continuar con la práctica de tales filtraciones y que esa motivación proviene de la justificación de esa práctica en dos conjuntos de valores: la ética del hacker y los valores democráticos. También afirmo que el efecto de esas filtraciones puede causar un impacto profundo en la esfera de la cultura puesto que la evaluación de la conducta de los estadistas se realiza usualmente mediante de analogías basadas en la experiencia interpersonal. Luego de presentar argumentos en favor de decir la verdad en las relaciones personales, concluyo destacando la forma como se engranan varios tipos de argumentos.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfone and sulfoxide derivatives in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xianling; Yuan, Mengmeng; Guo, Ying; Tian, Chao; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhili; Liu, Junyi

    2016-06-01

    (E)-3,4-dihydroxystyryl aralkyl sulfones and sulfoxides have been reported as novel multifunctional neuroprotective agents in previous studies, which as phenolic compounds display antioxidative and antineuroinflammatory properties. To further enhance the neuroprotective effects and study structure-activity relationship of the derivatives, we synthesized their acetylated derivatives, (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides, and examined their neuroprotective effects in vitro models of Parkinson's disease. The results indicate that (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides can significantly inhibit kinds of neuron cell injury induced by toxicities, including 6-OHDA, NO, and H2O2. More important, they show higher antineuroinflammatory properties and similar antioxidative properties to corresponding un-acetylated compounds. Thus, we suggest that (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides may have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease. PMID:26176683

  8. New complexes of samarium(III), terbium(III) and holmium (III) with quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New solid complexes of samarium(III), terbium (III), and holmium (III) with quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid were obtained. Their composition and physicochemical properties were investigated. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy methods were used to determine their structure. (author)

  9. SOLVENT-FREE FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL α-TOSYLOXY β-KETO SULFONES USING [HYDROXY(TOSYLOXY)IODO]BENZENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A facile, general and high yielding protocol for the synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones is described utilizing relatively non-toxic, [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene, under solvent-free conditions at room temperature.

  10. Las flores de Fibonacci

    OpenAIRE

    P-erez, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Casi todo el mundo ha oído hablar de Leonardo de Pisa, más conocido como Fibonacci. Sí, claro, el de la famosa sucesión 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765,...; la de los girasoles, las piñas, las espirales, la del número de oro. Incluso hay un vídeo dedicado a él.

  11. Las competencias laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Mucci, Ottorino Oscar

    2001-01-01

    Las tradicionales formas de calificar al personal, desde el punto de vista del empleo, han sufrido modificaciones sustanciales en los últimos tiempos. Por ello, en este trabajo se intenta -sin desechar totalmente anteriores métodos- mostrar nuevos paradigmas que implican una visualización más abarcativa y profunda entendida como premisa para determinar no solo el potencial del empleado sino también las posibilidades de éxito en su desarrollo individual y colectivo.

  12. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Bor-Kuan Chen; Jhong-Ming Wong; Tzi-Yi Wu; Lung-Chuan Chen; I-Chao Shih

    2014-01-01

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL) to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxy)phenyl]propane (BAPP), sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS) and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanc...

  13. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ali Elsheikh; Faheem Hassan Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to th...

  14. endo-3,3-Dimethyl-4-oxobicyclo-[3.1.0]hexan-2-yl methane-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Adrian; Norberg, Bernadette; Krief, Alain; Wouters, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The relative configuration of the endo isomer of the title compound, C(9)H(14)O(4)S, has been established and the conformation of the diastereoisomer is discussed. The five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. The conformation of the methane-sulfonate substituent is stabilized by inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing results in alternating layers of polar methane-sulfonates and stacked bicyclo-hexa-nyl rings parallel to ab. PMID:21580752

  15. Influence of sulfonated acetone–formaldehyde condensation used as dispersant on low rank coal–water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We synthesize a series of SAF which are applied as dispersants in coal–water slurry. ► SAF have a better effect comparing with naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensation. ► Appropriate molecular weight and sulfonic group content will increase the performance of slurry. ► The effect is attributed to the steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. - Abstract: A water-soluble aliphatic polymer, sulfonated acetone–formaldehyde (SAF) condensation, was developed by sulfonation and polycondensation reaction. To determine the optimum molecular structure of SAF dispersant for preparing the minimum viscosity of highly concentrated low-rank coal–water slurry (CWS), various SAF with different sulfonic group content and different molecular weight were prepared by controlling the quantity of sulfonating agent and the mass concentration of reaction solution. The CWS followed three-parameter Herschel–Bulkley model and behaved as a non-Newtonian fluid in the presence of SAF. Compared with naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensation, SAF had a better effect in reducing the viscosity, especially for the SAF with molecular weight of 31,800–36,800 and the sulfonic group content of 3.53–3.64 mmol/g. The effectiveness of viscosity reduction for CWS had been attributed primarily to the diminution of the coal particle–particle interaction because of steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion, which were offered by adsorbed SAF. The effect was further proved by zeta potential measurements of coal and rheological investigation of slurry in the presence of SAF.

  16. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  17. Electrolytic membrane formation of fluoroalkyl polymer using a UV-radiation-based grafting technique and sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shironita, Sayoko; Mizoguchi, Satoko; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    A sulfonated fluoroalkyl graft polymer (FGP) membrane was prepared as a polymer electrolyte. First, the FGP membrane was grafted with styrene under UV irradiation. The grafted FGP was then sulfonated to functionalize it for proton conductivity. The grafting degree of the membrane increased with increasing grafting time during UV irradiation. The proton conductivity of the membrane increased with increasing grafting degree. The swelling ratio was independent of the grafting time, however, the water uptake increased with increasing grafting degree. Based on these results, it was found that the UV-initiated styrene grafting occurred along the membrane thickness direction. Moreover, the membrane was embedded within the glass fibers of the composite. This composite electrolytic membrane had 1.15 times the proton conductivity of a Nafion 117 membrane.

  18. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  19. Stabilized sulfonated aromatic polymers by in situ solvothermal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDi Vona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK by thermal treatment at 180 °C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to remember the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110 °C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number ( of 73.

  20. IMMOBILIZATION OF POTENTIALLY BIOACTIVE MOIETIES ONTO POLYETHER WITH POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-SULFONATE SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jian; FENG Linxian; QIU Yongxin; YU Xiaojie; YANG Shilin

    1997-01-01

    A new reactive graft copolymer, poly(tetramethylene glycol)-graft-ω-propyl sodium sulfonate-poly(ethylene glycol) (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+), was synthesized by the cationic polymerization of α-ω-bifunctional PEG macromonomer ((o)CH2-PEG--CH2CH2CH2SO3Na ) and THF. The obtained copolymer exhibits the expected structure as indicated by the result of characterization. Two amino acids (L-arginine, L-tyrosine) were covalently attached to the copolymer after converting the sulfonate group to sulfonyl chloride. So the new reactive graft copolymer (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+) is expected to be very useful in attachment of potentially bioactive moieties to polymer via a hydrophilic PEG spacer.

  1. Sulfonate-based fluorescent probes for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of H2O2-mediated hydrolysis of sulfonates, two fluorescein disulfonates compounds (FS-1 and FS-2) were designed and synthesized as the highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probes for imaging H2O2 in living cells. The probes were detected with elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Upon reaction with H2O2, the probes exhibit strong fluorescence responses and high selectivity for H2O2 over other reactive oxygen species and some biological compounds. Furthermore, the sulfonate-based probes, as novel fluorescent reagents, are cell-permeable and can detect micromolar changes in H2O2 concentrations in living cells by using confocal microscopy.

  2. Intercalation of Varied Sulfonates into a Layered MOC: Confinement-Caused Tunable Luminescence and Novel Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Hao; Zhuo, Chao; Hu, Shengmin; Cao, Wenhai; Wu, Xintao

    2016-04-01

    The pores/channels of porous 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely applied to incorporate gas, solvent, or organic molecules. On the contrary, the utilization of the interlamellar void of layered metal-organic complexes (MOCs) remains underappreciated, although it is more flexible and available to accommodate molecules with different sizes. In this work, diverse sulfonates have been intercalated purposely into an identical layered MOC, which constructed various novel intercalation compounds possessing fluorescent, white-light emitting, photochromic, homochiral, or nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. With the help of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, their structures and the mutual interactions between the MOC host and the sulfonate guests were characterized. The properties of the guest molecules were tuned and meanwhile some new performances were generated after confining them into the interlayer region. Such a hybrid approach provides an efficient strategy to design and prepare multifunctional materials. PMID:26919304

  3. Oil-soluble metal containing sulfonated polymers useful as oil additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, H.N.

    1983-02-08

    This invention relates to oil soluble, metal containing sulfonated polymers useful as additives for lubricating oils or hydrocarbon fuels and which are effective as dispersants. Such polymers of high molecular weight are also useful as viscosityindex improvers for the lubricating oils. The polymeric dispersant additives are ionic polymers which comprise a backbone substantially soluble in the fuel or lubricant, and pendant ionic groups which are sulfonic acid groups neutralized with a metal compound. Polymeric dispersant additives of this type may be made which are also capable of imparting excellent viscosity improvement, varnish inhibition, oxidation inhibition and detergency to the lubricant. These additives may also impart rust preventive properties to the oil or fuel, and as V.I. improvers they can be formed to have particularly good low temperature viscosity effects in lubricating oil.

  4. Mechanically and structurally robust sulfonated block copolymer membranes for water purification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective removal of ionic pollutants from contaminated water using negatively charged nanofiltration membranes is demonstrated. Block copolymers comprising polystyrene (PS) and partially hydrogenated polyisoprene (hPI) were synthesized by varying chain architectures. A one step procedure of cross-linking (hPI blocks) and sulfonation reactions (PS chains) was then carried out, which was revealed as an effective method to enhance mechanical integrity of membranes while hydrophilic sulfonated chains remain intact. In particular, the control of chain architecture allows us to create a synergetic effect on optimizing charge densities of the membrane, water permeability, and mechanical integrity under water purification conditions. The best performing membrane can almost completely (>99%) reject various divalent cations and also show NO3− rejection > 85% and Na+ rejection > 87%. Well defined nanostructures (tens of nanometers) as well as the periodically arranged water domains (a few nanometers) within hydrophilic phases of the hydrated membranes were confirmed by in situ neutron scattering experiments. (paper)

  5. Interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates: A molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yu; Wei, Ning; Wang, Ce; Zhou, He; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Lu

    2015-11-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to analyze orientations of sodium branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates molecules at nonane/water interface, which is helpful to design optimal surfactant structures to achieve ultralow interfacial tension (IFT). Through the two dimensional density profiles, monolayer collapses are found when surfactant concentration continues to increase. Thus the precise scope of monolayer is certain and orientation can be analyzed. Based on the simulated results, we verdict the interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates at the oil-water interface, and discuss the effect of hydrophobic tail structure on surfactant assignment. Bigger hydrophobic size can slow the change rate of surfactant occupied area as steric hindrance, and surfactant meta hydrophobic tails have a stronger tendency to stretch to the oil phase below the collapsed concentration. Furthermore, an interfacial model with reference to collapse, increasing steric hindrance and charge repulsive force between interfacial surfactant molecules, responsible for effecting of surfactant concentration and structure has been supposed.

  6. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordoghli, Bessem; Khiari, Ramzi; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Sakli, Faouzi; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of sbnd SO3H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  7. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  8. Synthesis and antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of some chalcone based sulfones and bisulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Naveen Kumar; Dey, Sunita; Sajid, Mohammad; Owais, Mohammad; Ahmed, Naseem

    2013-01-01

    Two series of chalcone based sulfone and bisulfone derivatives were synthesized using chalcone, thiophenol and sodium metal at room temperature, followed by oxidation of chalcone sulfides with m-CPBA at 0 °C in a novel method. Both sulfones and bisulfones were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (yeast), Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram (+) bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram (-) bacteria) strains. Among them, compounds 2c, 3c, 6c, 7c, 8c and 9c have shown high antifungal activity against C. albicans compare to reference drugs viz. Amphotericin-B and Nystatin. Compound 1c has shown slightly better antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and compounds 5c, 6c and 7c have shown excellent antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium in compare to reference drugs Ampicillin and Kanamycin. PMID:23202847

  9. Meaning of leprosy for people who have experienced treatment during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen da Silva Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to analyze the meanings of leprosy for people treated during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods.Method: qualitative nature study based on the Vigotski's historical-cultural approach, which guided the production and analysis of data. It included eight respondents who have had leprosy and were submitted to sulfonic and multidrug therapy treatments. The participants are also members of the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy.Results: the meanings were organized into three meaning cores: spots on the body: something is out of order; leprosy or hanseniasis? and leprosy from the inclusion in the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy.Conclusion: the meanings of leprosy for people submitted to both regimens point to a complex construction thereof, indicating differences and similarities in both treatments. Health professionals may contribute to the change of the meanings, since these are socially constructed and the changes are continuous.

  10. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhabesh Kumar Nath; Aziz Khan; Joyanti Chutia; Arup Ratan Pal; Heremba Bailung; Neelotpal Sen Sarma; Devasish Chowdhury; Nirab Chandra Adhikary

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the achievement of higher proton conductivity of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane synthesized in a continuous RF plasma polymerization process using two precursors, styrene (C8H8) and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (CF3SO3H). The chemical composition of the developed membranes is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the study of surface morphology and thickness measurement of the membrane. The membranes deposited in the power range from 0.114 to 0.318 Wcm-2 exhibit a lot of variation in the properties like proton transport, water uptake, sulfonation rate, ion exchange capacity and thermal behaviour. The proton conductivity of the membranes is achieved up to 0.6 Scm-1, measured with the help of potentiostat/galvanostat. The thermogravimetric study of the plasma polymerized membrane shows the thermal stability up to 140 °C temperature.

  11. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  12. Esterification of levulinic acid into ethyl levulinate catalysed by sulfonated hydrothermal carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filoklis D. Pileidis; Maham Tabassum; Sam Coutts; Maria-Magdalena Ttitirici

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of carbon-based, heterogeneous sulphonic catalysts for the production of levulinate esters. Hydrothermal treatment at moderated temperatures was employed to generate highly func-tional carbonaceous materials, referred to as hydrothermal carbons (HTCs), from both glucose, cellulose and rye straw. The products were sulfonated to generate solid acid-catalysts. Characterisa-tion of the as-synthesised materials as well as catalyst activity tests were performed. SEM images indicate the micrometre-sized particles present in both HTCs were largely unaffected by sulfona-tion, although cellulose-derived HTC displayed signs of inadequate hydrolysis. FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed successful incorporation of sulphonic groups. 13C solid state NMR, in addition to TGA, elucidated the carbons’ structural composition and supported the common-ly-proposed hydrothermal carbonisation mechanism. Finally, the catalysts were tested via levulinic acid-ethanol esterification and gave high conversion and ester-selectivities (>90%).

  13. A database study of intermolecular NH...O hydrogen bonds for carboxylates, sulfonates and monohydrogen phosphonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, version 5.05, 1993) was performed in order to compare the geometrical features of the hydrogen bonds involving on the one hand amino groups and on the other hand carboxylates, sulfonates or monohydrogen phosponates. Phosphonates were not considered because only four entries containing amino and phosphonate moieities were located in the CSD. The hydroxylic group of monohydrogen phosphonates primarily acts as a hydrogen-bond donor. The three moieties under study show NH..O hydrogen bonds with similar geometrical features. This statistical analysis has focused on the hydrogen-bond distances and angles and on the distributions of the H atoms around the acceptor O atoms of carboxylates, sulfonates or monohydrogen phosphonates. (orig.)

  14. Electrocoagulation of commercial naphthalene sulfonates: process optimization and assessment of implementation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Kartal, Zeynep; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2012-05-30

    The commercially important naphthalene sulfonate K-acid (C(10)H(9)NO(9)S(3); 2-naphthylamine 3,6,8-tri sulfonic acid) was subjected to electrocoagulation employing stainless steel electrodes. An experimental design tool was used to mathematically describe and optimize the single and combined influences of major process variables on K-acid and its organic carbon (COD and TOC) removal efficiencies as well as electrical energy consumption. Current density, followed by treatment time were found to be the parameters affecting process responses most significantly, whereas initial K-acid concentration had the least influence on the electrocoagulation performance. Process economics including sludge generation, electrode consumption, and electrochemical efficiency, as well as organically bound adsorbable halogen formation and toxicity evolution were primarily considered to question the feasibility of K-acid electrocoagulation. Considering process economics and ecotoxicological parameters, process implementation appeared to be encouraging. PMID:22318240

  15. Copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with sodium sulfinates: an efficient synthesis of sulfone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaodong; Huang, Liangbin; Xu, Yanli; Yang, Jidan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2014-04-14

    Sulfone derivatives are important synthetic intermediates. However, the general method for their preparation is through traditional coupling reaction: the alkylation of sodium sulfinates with phenacyl halides. Based on our previous work on sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates, we herein report a novel method for sulfone derivatives by oxidative coupling with sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates using copper as catalyst. The sulfonylvinylamine products could be formed in excellent yields. Upon hydrolysis by silica gel in CH2 Cl2 , β-ketosulfones could also be efficiently constructed. Various sulfonylvinylamines and β-ketosulfones were obtained in good to excellent yields under the optimized reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies indicated that this transformation involved copper-catalyzed N-O bond cleavage, activation of a vinyl sp(2) C-H bond, and C-S bond formation. The oxime acetates act as both a substrate and an oxidant, thus the reaction needs no additional oxidants or additives. PMID:24677481

  16. Effects of polymer structure on properties of sulfonated polyimide/protic ionic liquid composite membranes for nonhumidified fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shin-ichiro; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kinugawa, Kei; Lee, Seung-Yul; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of polymer structure on the properties of composite membranes including a protic ionic liquid, [dema][TfO] (diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate), for nonhumidified fuel cell applications, we synthesized sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) with different structures as matrix polymers, which have different magnitudes of ion-exchange capacities (IECs), different sequence distributions of ionic groups, and positions of sulfonate groups in the main chain or side chain. Despite having similar IECs, multiblock copolymer SPI and random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the side chain exhibit higher ionic conductivity than random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the main chain, indicating that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the sequence distribution of ionic groups greatly affect the ion conduction. Atomic force microscopy observation revealed that the multiblock copolymer SPI forms more developed phase separation than the others. These results indicate that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the connectivity of the ion conduction channel, which greatly depends on the sequence distribution, affect the ion conduction. PMID:22352958

  17. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-lin Lei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB in the alloy particles on the feasibility of the membrane formation are discussed. The results indicate that a favorable sulfonation degree above 80% and a suitable ion exchange capacity of 1.5–2.4 mmol/g can be gained, with concentrated sulfuric acid as the sulfonation agent and 1,2-dichloroethane as the swelling agent. The running electrical resistance and desalination effect of the prepared cation exchange membrane were measured in a pilot-scale electrodialyser and not only obviously exceeded a commercial heterogeneous cation exchange membrane, but was also very close to a commercial homogenous membrane. In this way, the authors have combined the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based cation exchange resins with the traditional thermoforming manufacturing process of heterogeneous cation exchange membranes, to successfully develop a novel, low-price, but relatively high-performance polystyrene/PVDF cation exchange membrane with the semi-IPN structure.

  18. Effect of degree of sulfonation and casting solvent on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jingyu; Li, Zhaohua; Yu, Lihong; Yin, Bibo; Wang, Lei; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes with various degree of sulfonation (DS) and casting solvent are investigated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The optimum DS of SPEEK membrane is firstly confirmed by various characterizations such as physicochemical properties, ion selectivity, and VRFB single-cell performance. Subsequently the optimum casting solvent is selected for the optimum DS SPEEK membrane within N,N‧-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N‧-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The different performance of SPEEK membranes prepared with various casting solvents can be attributed to the different interaction between solvent and -SO3H group of SPEEK. In the VRFB single-cell test, the optimum SPEEK membrane with DS of 67% and casting solvent of DMF (S67-DMF membrane) exhibits higher VRFB efficiencies and better cycle-life performance at 80 mA cm-2. The investigation of various DS and casting solvent will be effective guidance on the selection and modification of SPEEK membrane towards VRFB application.

  19. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J; Hedrick, James L; García, Jeannette M

    2016-07-12

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers. PMID:27354514

  20. The solvation and ion condensation properties for sulfonated polyelectrolytes in different solvents : a computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Smiatek, Jens; Wohlfarth, Andreas; Holm, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the broad knowledge about aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions, less is known about the properties in aprotic and apolar solvents. We therefore investigate the behavior of sulfonated polyelectrolytes in sodium form in the presence of different solvents via all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The results clearly reveal strong variations in ion condensation constants and polyelectrolyte conformations for different solvents like water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and chloroform. T...

  1. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  2. Study of irradiation effects with electron beam over chloro sulfonate polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo analytical methods and x-ray diffraction were used to study electron irradiated chloro sulfonate polyethylene platelets. The beam energy was 0,65 MeV and the dose rate did not exceed 2,5 Mrad. With increase of the dose the samples got a yellowish color. For doses between 5 and 15 Mrad the polymer showed changes in its behaviour which were compatible with the curing dose used in industry. (author)

  3. Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate In Utero Reduces Testosterone Production in Rat Fetal Leydig Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Binghai Zhao; Li Li; Jieting Liu; Hongzhi Li; Chunlei Zhang; Pengfei Han; Yufei Zhang; Xiaohuan Yuan; Ren Shan Ge; Yanhui Chu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC). METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% ...

  4. Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Groundwater: Kinetic Effects of Matrix Inorganics

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jie; vecitis, Chad D.; Park, Hyunwoong; Mader, Brian T.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation has been shown to effectively degrade perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in aqueous solution. Reduced PFC sonochemical degradation rates in organic-rich groundwater taken from beneath a landfill, however, testify to the negative kinetic effects of the organic groundwater constituents. In this study, the PFOX (X = S or A) sonochemical degradation rates in a groundwater sample with organic concentrations ...

  5. Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Their Associations with Human Semen Quality Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Raymer, James H; Michael, Larry C.; Studabaker, William B.; Olsen, Geary W.; Sloan, Carol S.; Wilcosky, Timothy; Walmer, David K.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 256 men were studied to evaluate whether serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impacted semen quality or reproductive hormones. Blood and semen were collected and analyzed for perfluorochemicals and reproductive and thyroid hormones. Semen quality was assessed using standard clinical methods. Linear and logistic modeling was performed with semen profile measurements as outcomes and PFOS and PFOA in semen and plasma as explanatory var...

  6. Diastereoselective synthesis of γ- And δ-lactams from imines and sulfone-substituted anhydrides

    OpenAIRE

    Sorto, NA; Di Maso, MJ; Muñoz, MA; Dougherty, RJ; Fettinger, JC; Shaw, JT

    2014-01-01

    Sulfone-substituted γ- and δ-lactams have been prepared in a single step with high diastereoselectivity. Sulfonylglutaric anhydrides produce intermediates that readily decarboxylate to provide δ-lactams with high diastereoselectivity. Substituents at the 3- or 4-position of the glutaric anhydride induce high levels of stereocontrol. Sulfonylsuccinic anhydrides produce intermediate carboxylic acids that can be trapped as methyl esters or allowed to decarboxylate under mild conditions. This met...

  7. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Motavallian-Naeini, A.; Andalib, S.; M Rabbani; Mahzouni, P.; Afsharipour, M.; Minaiyan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and...

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O R Pal; V G Gaikar; J V Joshi; P S Goyal; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium -butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K.; N. K. Maurya; Mandal, A.; Saxena, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES) was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited go...

  10. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins and their supramolecular interactions with pristine graphene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sweta Mishra; Smriti Arora; Ritika Nagpal; Shive Murat Singh Chauhan

    2014-11-01

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and enhances the yields of porphyrinoids. The non-covalent interaction of porphyrinoids has also been studied with exfoliated graphene solution in organic solvents by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  11. The selective detection of dopamine at a polypyrrole film doped with sulfonated β-cyclodextrins

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Claire C.; Rooney, A. Denise; Breslin, Carmel B.

    2010-01-01

    A highly selective dopamine sensor was fabricated by doping polypyrrole with a sulfonated β-cyclodextrin. This composite material enabled the selective sensing of dopamine in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid and prevented the regeneration of dopamine through the homogeneous catalytic reaction of the ascorbate anion with the dopamine-o-quinone. A single redox wave, corresponding to the oxidation of dopamine, was observed in dopamine/ascorbate mixtures, giving a truly se...

  12. The Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Exposure Time, and Chemical Mixtures on Methanogenic Community Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Patrick J.; LaPara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both s...

  13. Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Landfill Groundwater: Environmental Matrix Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jie; Vecitis, Chad D.; Park, Hyunwoong; Mader, Brian T.; Michael R. Hoffmann

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmentally persistent and recalcitrant to most conventional chemical and microbial treatment technologies. In this paper, we show that sonolysis is able to decompose PFOS and PFOA present in groundwater beneath a landfill. However, the pseudo first-order rate constant for the sonochemical degradation in the landfill groundwater is reduced by 61 and 56% relative to MilliQ water for PFOS...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyphenylene containing benzophenone moiety via nickel catalyzed polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyphenylene containing benzophenone moiety via nickel catalyzed polymerization. - Highlights: • The active new monomer, 1,6-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene, was synthesized. • The sulfonated polyphenylenes containing benzoyl moiety were synthesized with high molecular weight using Ni(II) and Zn catalysts. • Carbon-carbon structures membranes showed good performance with high proton conductivity. - Abstract: The synthesis of polyphenylenes containing benzoyl moiety (PPBP), their functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, and the measurement of properties for PEMs are described. The new monomer was synthesized from an oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Fridel-craft reaction with benzene. The polymerization was performed by a Ni-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of 1,6-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene, followed by a sulfonation reaction with chlorosulfuric acid. Compared with Nafion 211® membrane, these SPPBPs showed rational IECs from 1.47 to 2.51 meq./g, water uptake from 54.1 to 88.4%, proton conductivity from 80.6 to 108.6 mS/cm, and high thermal stability. The proton conductivity was higher than Nafion 211®. These results showed that the morphology of the polymer matrix was greatly affected by the membranes’ properties and stability. Membranes, including benzoyl segments without ether linkage, also provided good dimensional stability in spite of high IEC values. The properties of SPPBPs were very remarkable for fuel cell membrane application. This research demonstrated the possibility of promising SPPBP membranes for excellent proton conductivity

  15. Binary sulfone/ether-based electrolytes for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are a promising electrochemical system because they exhibit high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g−1. However, widespread use of these batteries has been hindered by the poor conductivity and high dissolution rate of the active materials as well as by the high reactivity of the lithium electrodes. In this study, we investigated the effects of the choice of electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries. We studied a number of cyclic and acyclic sulfone-based electrolytes and found that the physical and electrochemical properties of the sulfone-based electrolytes, which could be varied by varying their composition, had an effect on the solubility of S8 in the electrolytes. It was observed that, in contrast to the electrolyte based on 1,2-dimethoxyethane, the one based on a mixture of tetramethylene sulfone/1,2-dimethoxyethane dissolved S8 (or Li2Sm) to a lower degree and resulted in stable electrochemical performance in Li-S batteries. Thus, the chemical reactivity of the solvent used for the electrolyte should be taken into consideration along with the physical properties of the active materials when designing Li-S batteries

  16. Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared by Blending of Sulfonated Polystyrene-Lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Tandi Gonggo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte polymer membrane widely used in PEMFC and DMFC is a perfluorosulfonated membrane such as Nafion. This membrane material exhibits good chemical stability and proton conductivity, but it is very expensive and difficult to recycle. It has high cross-over methanol in DMFC that causes the decrease efficiency and performance of fuel cell, so that the electrolyte polymer membrane with low cross-over methanol has been needed to substitute Nafion membrane. One of the materials used as a polymer electrolyte membrane is polyblends of a sulfonated polystyrene-lignosulfonate (SPS-LS. These polyblends have been prepared by casting polymer solution and characterized as a polyelectrolyte membrane for DMFC. SPS was prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene with acetyl sulfate used as a sulfonating agent. The membranes of SPS-LS were characterized by analysis of functional groups, mechanical properties, and methanol permeability. The maximum mechanical properties of the SPS-LS membrane were observed in LS ratio of 7.5%. However, the methanol permeability of membrane increases as the increase of LS ratio in SPS-LS membranes. The properties of membranes, especially the mechanical property and methanol permeability close to that of Nafion® 117 membrane, so the SPS-LS membrane is highly potential used as the electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cell.

  17. Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin: Experimental and kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol was investigated in the presence of sulfonated cation exchange resin. • We studied kinetic model of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol according to experimental data. • The proposed kinetic model can well predict oleic acid conversion. - Abstract: This paper investigated the effects of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading, water content and catalyst recycling on sulfonated cation exchange resin in a stirred batch reactor under atmospheric pressure. When the esterification was carried out with an ethanol to oleic acid (42.4 g) molar ratio of 9:1, reflux of ethanol at 82 °C, 20 g of catalyst and 8 h of reaction time, the oleic acid conversion rate reached approximately 93%. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for describing the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol by the sulfonated cation exchange resin was developed on the basis of laboratorial results. The kinetic model can well predict the oleic acid conversion

  18. Efficient and selective adsorption of multi-metal ions using sulfonated cellulose as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cuihua; Zhang, Fulong; Pang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guihua

    2016-10-20

    Contamination of heavy metal in wastewater has caused great concerns on human life and health. Developing an efficient material to eliminate the heavy metal ions has been a popular topic in recent years. In this work, sulfonated cellulose (SC) was explored as efficient adsorbent for metal ions in solution. Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) first analyzed the characterizations of SC. Subsequently, effects of solution pH, adsorbent loading, temperature and initial metal ion concentration on adsorption performance were investigated. The results showed that sulfonated modification of cellulose could decrease the crystallinity and thermostability of cellulose. Due to its excellent performance of adsorption to metal ions, SC could reach adsorption equilibrium status within as short as 2min. In multi-component solution, SC can orderly removes Fe(3+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) with excellent selectivity and high efficiency. In addition, SC is a kind of green and renewable adsorbent because it can be easily regenerated by treatment with acid or chelating liquors. The mechanism study shows that the sulfonic group play a major role in the adsorption process. PMID:27474562

  19. Sulfonated block-graft copolyimide for high proton conductive and low gas permeable polymer electrolyte membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kota; Wang, Gang; Tanaka, Manabu; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses issues surrounding the design of the proton exchange membrane for fuel cells, and more specifically, the role of the polymer architecture on the proton conductivity and gas permeability. In this study, we describe the syntheses and characterizations of sulfonated block, graft, random-graft, and block-graft copolymers. The proton conductivity and oxygen permeability of the novel sulfonated block-graft copolyimide, S-bg-PI, showed 0.44 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 98%RH and 3.2 × 10-12 cm3(STP) cm/(cm2 sec cmHg) at 35 °C and 76 cmHg, respectively, while those of Nafion indicated 0.15 S cm-1 and 1.1 × 10-10 cm3(STP) cm/(cm2 sec cmHg) under the same conditions, respectively. The apparent selectivity ratio calculated from the proton and oxygen transports of S-bg-PI was 103 times larger than that determined in Nafion, indicating that the novel sulfonated block-graft copolyimide membrane has excellent properties for fuel cell applications.

  20. Synthesis of Petroleum Sulfonate Surfactant with Ultra-Low Interfacial Tension in Rotating Packed Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Zhan; Zhang Pengyuan; Chu Guangwen; Zou Haikui; Jimmy Yun; Chen Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum sulfonate is one of the most important surfactants used in surfactant lfooding for enhanced oil recov-ery, which is mainly obtained by treating high-boiling petroleum fractions in a stirred tank reactor (STR) or in a falling-iflm reactor (FFR). The synthesis of petroleum sulfonate with ultra-low interfacial tension from viscous petroleum fractions was carried out in a rotating packed bed (RPB) reactor using dilute liquid sulfur trioxide as the sulfonating agent in this study. The effects of various experimental conditions on components content and oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the active matter content could reach up to 50.3% and the IFT could be equal to 4.7×10−3 mN/m. Compared with the traditional reactor, the active matter content is by 14.12% higher in the RPB as compared to that obtained in the STR. The uneven change of the test oil droplets during the IFT measurement was also dis-cussed. The increase of heavy components content not only can eliminate the contraction phenomenon, but also can reduce the IFT to a minimum. This can be conducive to explaining the reason for producing IFT and the preparation of proper for-mulations for practical application.

  1. Sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts for dehydration of C6-monosaccharides to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Morales; Juan A.Melero; Marta Paniagua; Jose Iglesias; Blanca Hernández; María Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized heterogeneous catalysts have been evaluated in the catalytic dehydra-tion of C6 monosaccharides into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Sulfonic commercial resin Amberlyst-70 was the most active catalyst, which was as-cribed to its higher concentration of sulfonic acid sites as compared with the other catalysts, and it gave 93 mol%yield of HMF from fructose in 1 h. With glucose as the starting material, which is a much more difficult reaction, the reaction conditions (time, temperature, and catalyst loading) were optimized for Amberlyst-70 by a response surface methodology, which gave a maximum HMF yield of 33 mol%at 147°C with 23 wt%catalyst loading based on glucose and 24 h reaction time. DMSO promotes the dehydration of glucose into anhydroglucose, which acts as a reservoir of the substrate to facilitate the production of HMF by reducing side reactions. Catalyst reuse without a regeneration treatment showed a gradual but not very significant decay in catalytic activity.

  2. QENS investigation of proton confined motions in hydrated perfluorinated sulfonic membranes and self-assembled surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrod Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on QuasiElastic Neutron Scattering (QENS investigations of the dynamics of protons and water molecules confined in nanostructured perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA materials, namely a commercial Aquivion membrane and the perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS surfactant. The former is used as electrolyte in low-temperature fuel cells, while the latter forms mesomorphous self-assembled phases in water. The dynamics was investigated as a function of the hydration level, in a wide time range by combining time-of-flight and backscattering incoherent QENS experiments. Analysis of the quasielastic broadening revealed for both systems the existence of localized translational diffusive motions, fast rotational motions and slow hopping of protons in the vicinity of the sulfonic charges. The characteristic times and diffusion coefficients have been found to exhibit a very similar behaviour in both membrane and surfactant structures. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the proton motion mechanisms and the dynamics of confined water in model and real PFSA nanostructures.

  3. Blends of a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity and Partially Sulfonated Polyphenylenesulfone for Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wai Fen; Lee, Zhi Kang; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU) and sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU) are widely used for liquid separations in the medical and food industries. However, their potential applications for gas separation have not been studied extensively owing to their low intrinsic gas permeability. We report here for the first time that blending with sPPSU can significantly improve the gas separation performance of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), specifically PIM-1, because of the strong molecular interactions of the sulfonic acid groups of sPPSU with CO2 and O2 . In addition, a novel co-solvent system has been discovered to overcome the immiscibility of these polymers. The presence of a higher degree of sulfonation in sPPSU results in better gas separation performance of the blend membranes close to or above the Robeson upper bound lines for O2 /N2 , CO2 /N2 and CO2 /CH4 separations. Interestingly, the blend membranes have comparable gas selectivity to sPPSU even though their sPPSU content is only 5-20 wt %. Moreover, they also display improved anti-plasticization properties up to 30 atm (3 MPa) using a binary CO2 /CH4 feed gas. The newly developed PIM-1/sPPSU membranes are potential candidates for air separation, natural gas separation, and CO2 capture. PMID:27332951

  4. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  5. Preparation and electrochemical characteristic of porous NiO supported by sulfonated graphene for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiO/sulfonated graphene(NiO/SGN) composites were fabricated under the assistance of urea as supercapacitor materials. The composites as prepared possess the leaf vein-like morphology, forming the porous structure that benefits the enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance. Moreover, the introduction of sulfonated graphene contributes to the surface hydroxylation of NiO, which may increase electrochemically active sites on the surface of NiO. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that specific capacitances of NiO, NiO/thermally reduced graphene(NiO/TRG) and NiO/SGN are 200, 261 and 307 F g−1 at a current density of 5.0 A g−1 respectively, suggesting that the significant improvement of pseudocapacitive performance for NiO/SGN could be expected. The results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) demonstrate that sulfonated graphene can not only provide electron transport channels for its composites similar to thermally reduced graphene, but also benefit the electrolyte penetration in the composites compared with thermally reduced graphene

  6. social de las empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Lizcano Álvarez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Responsabilidad Social Corporativa se encuentra entre los principales temas del pensamiento empresarial y necesita de la crítica y el debate para afianzar su estructura, alcanzando así la coherencia necesaria. Repasando algunos reproches que se hacen a la RSC como teoría empresarial, se trata de mostrar cual es el error que en ellos se encuentra y porque no restan valor a las raíces de la responsabilidad social corporativa. Seguidamente, se expondrá algunos principios básicos del sistema, tratando de detallar las oportunidades que ofrece la responsabilidad social de la empresa al capitalismo futuro como elemento creativo y dinamizador. Además, se ofrece una visión de como la responsabilidad social corporativa puede implicar ganancias en libertad, flexibilidad y eficiencia para el conjunto de la sociedad si se orienta hacia una nueva forma de entender las relaciones entre el Estado y el sector privado con implicaciones sobre el gasto público y la carga fiscal. La propuesta de este artículo pretende abrirse camino entre las diversas aportaciones que están surgiendo en torno al desarrollo y la implantación del modelo de empresa socialmente responsable. Las conclusiones señaladas representan también el inicio de futuras líneas de trabajo de carácter técnico y empírico.

  7. Analizar las interacciones virtuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez Encinas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es abordar una serie de cuestiones relacionadas con las interacciones virtuales. En concreto, nos centraremos en el IRC, los comúnmente llamados chats, para a partir de una crítica a ciertos posicionamientos analíticos, expresar la necesidad de indagar en esa faceta del ciberespacio desde el punto de vista de las relaciones sociales. Nuevas relaciones sociales, que acontecen en un espacio nuevo, y que por tanto se desarrollan bajo reglas y motivaciones que desbordan los viejos esquemas de observación.

  8. Capitulo dos. Las licencias

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprandi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    1. Principios básicos En primer lugar, para evitar caer en los errores más comunes acerca de las licencias Creative Commons, tenemos que establecer los principios que son válidos para todas las licencias de contenido abierto. 1.1. Una definición de "licencia de derechos de autor" Una licencia de derecho de autor es un instrumento jurídico con el que el titular de los derechos de autor regla el uso y la distribución de su trabajo. Por lo tanto, se trata de una herramienta de derecho civil que ...

  9. Las Indias olvidadas

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Ya que las Islas Filipinas fueron colonizadas desde América, y fueron gobernadas durante mas que dos siglos desde el Virreinato de la Nueva España, la cartografía imperial española de esta colonia lejana solía representarla como parte de un mundo trans-pacífico, atada a la imagen cartográfica del Nuevo Mundo. Este intento involucraba otro mas ambicioso de considerar a lo que normalmente llamamos las Indias Orientales como el extremo occidente del hemisferio hispánico, un proyecto que se puede...

  10. Improving the Efficacy of Conventional Therapy by Adding Andrographolide Sulfonate in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuhui Li; Chi Zhang; Qingsheng Shi; Tong Yang; Qingxiong Zhu; Yimei Tian; Cheng Lu; Zhiying Zhang; Zhongsheng Jiang; Hongying Zhou; Xiaofeng Wen; Huasheng Yang; Xiaorong Ding; Lanchun Liang; Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Herb-derived compound andrographolide sulfonate (called Xiyanping injection) recommended control measure for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by the Ministry of Health (China) during the 2010 epidemic. However, there is a lack of good quality evidence directly comparing the efficacy of Andrographolide Sulfonate combination therapy with conventional therapy. Methods. 230 patients were randomly assigned to 7–10 days of Andrographolide Sulfonate 5–10 mg/Kg/day and conventi...

  11. Las TIC como fuente de ventaja competitiva en las PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Fernando Moncada Niño; Martha Lucía Oviedo Franco

    2013-01-01

    Desde su aparición, las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) se han convertido en un recurso fundamental de las empresas para competir en la mayoría de las industrias, generalizando el planteamiento de que son fuente de ventaja competitiva. Pero realmente, ¿cuándo las TIC son fuente potencial de ventaja competitiva para las pymes? ¿Bajo qué condiciones se logra que contribuyan a generar valor y mejorar su posición competitiva? ¿Qué características deben cumplir para alcanz...

  12. Synthesis of Rare Metal Yttrium of Camphor Sulfonic Acid%樟脑磺酸钇的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红; 柯春兰

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the preparation of Yttrium of L-camphor sulfonic acid and Yttrium of D-cam-phor sulfonic acid. In this experiment,racemic camphor was uesd as the raw material,and through the sulfonation reaction,split,purification and separate,chiral camphor sulfonic acid was abtained,and it can react with Y2 O3 to get yttrium of chiral Camphor sulfonic acid. The optimal synthesis conditions were:Camphor sulfonic acid concentration was 12% -15%,reaction temperature was 90 ℃,reaction time was 0. 5-1 h,Y2 O3 excessed 50%. Tested by in-frared spectroscopy( IR)and XRD,it can be found that Yttrium of Rare Metal Camphor Sulfonic Acid are consist-ent with the standard compounds.%研究了左旋樟脑磺酸钇和右旋樟脑磺酸钇的制备。实验以合成樟脑粉为原料,经过磺化反应、拆分、纯化分离等步骤得到手性樟脑磺酸,稀土金属氧化钇与手性樟脑磺酸反应合成了稀土金属樟脑磺酸钇,合成条件:樟脑磺酸质量浓度12%~15%,反应温度90℃,反应时间0.5~1 h,氧化钇过量50%。得到的产品稀土金属樟脑磺酸钇经红外光谱( IR)、XRD分析,证明与目标产物一致。

  13. Los cuidados y las mujeres en las familias Los cuidados y las mujeres en las familias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martín Palomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection on a debate that is generating an important theorical and empirical production: the care. In the first place, the specificity of care is explored from a point of view that includes, besides the material aspects, affective and moral ones. It stands out the complexity of care at the different dimensions that operate in this concept. Second: care is changing in our society, starting from the massive and durable arrival of women to the labor market. In the families women are mainly responsible or caring for aged population, children and other fragile people. As to this moment care has not been reorganized among the genders, they have been the women of different generations who have articulated its solidarities with available state help or appealing to the market to cover the necessities of its relatives. Howevwe, the graving deficit in the provision of family care seems to approach a point of not sustainability in the near future. Propoal of “social care” offer institutional articulation between private solidarities and public duties in the allotment of family care so tha society in general can bear to the participation of women in the labour work. This implying the return of moral responsibility in the politics of care.Este artículo propone una reflexión sobre uno de los debates que está generando una importante producción teórica y empírica en los últimos años: los cuidados. Para ello, en primer lugar, se explora la especificidad de los cuidados ampliando el enfoque desde un punto de vista que incluya, además de los aspectos materiales, aspectos afectivos y morales. Se destaca la transversalidad y enorme complejidad de los cuidados por las diferentes dimensiones que operan en dicho concepto. En segundo lugar, se revisa como se están reestructurando los cuidados en nuestra sociedad a partir de las transformaciones que ha provocado la llegada masiva y duradera de mujeres al mercado laboral, a la par

  14. Las marcas no tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones en el comercio tanto nacional como internacionalmente han hecho necesario el aparecimiento de nuevas formas de manifestación de los signos destinados a diferenciar los productos y servicios en el mercado. El artículo reseña algunos de ellos.

  15. Las competencias emocionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisquerra Alzina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de competencia está en revisión debido a su complejidad. Hay diversas categorías de competencias: técnicas, profesionales, participativas, personales, básicas, clave, genéricas, transferibles, emocionales, socio-emocionales, etc. En este trabajo se toman en consideración las competencias emocionales, entendidas como un subconjunto de las competencias personales. Se exponen los trabajos en torno a estas competencias y se aporta una conceptualización y una sistemática estructurada en cinco grandes bloques: conciencia emocional, regulación emocional, autonomía emocional, competencia social, habilidades de vida y bienestar. Se hace referencia a las aplicaciones de las competencias emocionales en la empresa, la salud y la educación. De cara a la clarificación de conceptos, se establece la distinción entre inteligencia emocional, competencia emocional y educación emocional.

  16. Las voces del silencio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Semilla Durán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the novel by Carlos Gamerro El secreto y las voces in the framework of the texts studying the memory issues of the last Argentinian dictatorship. The purpose here is to shed light on the narrative devices used to describe the logical manipulations, the verbal shift and the social mechanisms that contributed to configure a society globally accomplice of the crimes committed by the dictatorship, be it by naturalization or concealment. The silence plot is difficult to counter, and when the speech finally returns, it carries other unsensed secrets and shows that all the consciences have, in one way or another, lacked vigilance.El artículo analiza la novela de Carlos Gamerro El secreto y las voces, inscribiéndola en el marco de los textos que trabajan sobre la memoria de la última dictadura argentina. Se trata de poner en evidencia los procedimientos narrativos utilizados para describir las manipulaciones lógicas, los desvíos verbales y los mecanismos sociales qui contribuyeron a configurar una sociedad globalmente pasiva, cómplice en cierta medida de los crímenes de la dictadura, por naturalización u ocultación. Es difícil quebrar el complot del silencio, y cuando la palabra se libera finalmente,  porta otros secretos imprevistos y muestra que todas las consciencias, de una manera u otra, han fallado al deber de vigilancia.

  17. Investigation of sulfonated polysulfone membranes as electrolyte in a passive-mode direct methanol fuel cell mini-stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufrano, F.; Baglio, V.; Staiti, P.; Stassi, A.; Arico, A.S.; Antonucci, V. [CNR - ITAE, Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5 - 98126 S. Lucia - Messina (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on sulfonated polysulfone for application in a DMFC mini-stack operating at room temperature in passive mode. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) with two degrees of sulfonation (57 and 66%) was synthesized by a well-known sulfonation process. SPSf membranes with different thicknesses were prepared and investigated. These membranes were characterized in terms of methanol/water uptake, proton conductivity, and fuel cell performance in a DMFC single cell and mini-stack operating at room temperature. The study addressed (a) control of the synthesis of sulfonated polysulfone, (b) optimization of the assembling procedure, (c) a short lifetime investigation and (d) a comparison of DMFC performance in active-mode operation vs. passive-mode operation. The best passive DMFC performance was 220 mW (average cell power density of about 19 mW cm{sup -2}), obtained with a thin SPSf membrane (70 {mu}m) at room temperature, whereas the performance of the same membrane-based DMFC in active mode was 38 mW cm{sup -2}. The conductivity of this membrane, SPSf (IEC = 1.34 mequiv. g{sup -1}) was 2.8 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}. A preliminary short-term test (200 min) showed good stability during chrono-amperometry measurements. (author)

  18. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxyphenyl]propane (BAPP, sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanced conductivity. A PIL, 1-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate ([VIm][OTf], was utilized. [VIm][OTf] offered better conductivity, which can be attributed to its vinyl chemical structure attached to an imidazolium ring that contributed to ionomer-PIL interactions. We prepared sulfonated polyimide/ionic liquid (SPI/IL composite PEMs using 50 wt% [VIm][OTf] with a conductivity of 7.17 mS/cm at 100 °C, and in an anhydrous condition, 3,3',4,4'-diphenyl sulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA was used in the synthesis of SPIs, leading to several hundred-times improvement in conductivity compared to pristine SPIs.

  19. The Role of Moderate Static Magnetic Fields on Biomineralization of Osteoblasts on Sulfonated Polystryene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Ba; M Hadjiargyrou; E DiMasi; Y Meng; M Simon; Z Tan; M Rafailovich

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the effects of moderate static magnetic fields (SMFs) on murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and found that they enhance proliferations and promote differentiation. The increase in proliferation rates in response to SMFs was greater in cultures grown on partially sulfonated polytstyrene (SPS, degree of sulfonation: 33%) than in cultures grown on tissue culture plastic. We have previously shown that when the degree of sulfonation exceeded a critical value (12%) [1], spontaneous fibrillogenesis occured which allowed for direct observation of the ECM fibrillar organization under the influence of external fields. We found that the ECM produced in cultures grown on the SPS in the presence of the SMFs assembled into a lattice with larger dimensions than the ECM of the cultures grown in the absence of SMFs. During the early stages of the biomineralization process (day 7), the SMF exposed cultures also templated mineral deposition more rapidly than the control cultures. The rapid response is attributed to orientation of diamagnetic ECM proteins already present in the serum, which could then initiate further cellular signaling. SMFs also influenced late stage osteoblast differentiation as measured by the increased rate of osteocalcin secretion and gene expression beginning 15 days after SFM exposure. This correlated with a large increase in mineral deposition, and in cell modulus. GIXD and EDXS analysis confirmed early deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite. Previous studies on the effects of moderate SMF had focused on cellular gene and protein expression, but did not consider the organization of the ECM fibers. Our ability to form these fibers has allowed us explore this additional effect and highlight its significance in the initiation of the biomineralization process.

  20. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE8-g-EnSO3Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10-7 S cm-1 was obtained for the PAE8-co-E3SO3Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE8-g-E3SO3Li is lower than that of PAE8-co-E3SO3Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li+. The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE8-g-E2SO3Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm-2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  1. Las habilidades comunicativas en las carreras de las Ciencias de la Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Tejera Concepcion; Miriam Iglesias León; Manuel Cortés Cortés; Gisela Bravo López; Norma Mur Villar; Juan Virgilio López Palacio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamento: las habilidades como componentes cognitivo-instrumentales de la actuación del sujeto, han sido ampliamente estudiadas en el ámbito pedagógico para fortalecer la didáctica específica de las Ciencias de la Salud y de esta forma enseñar a los estudiantes a establecer una adecuada comunicación. Objetivo: definir las habilidades comunicativas que pueden ser tratadas mediante el sistema de conocimientos de las asignaturas y las actividades preprofesionalizantes en los estudiantes de las...

  2. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 3-(Substituted methylthio-4-phenyl-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized in six steps starting from easily accessible gallic acid. The resulting sulfides were then catalytically oxidized to the title sulfones with H2O2. The products were obtained in high yield under mild conditions and practically devoid of any by-products. The structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data. Furthermore, a detailed X-ray crystallography structural analysis of model triazole 7g was carried out.

  3. Determination of petroleum sulfonates in crude oil by column-switching anion-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhao; Xu Long Cao; Hong Yan Wang; Xia Liu; Sheng Xiang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    A column-switching anion-exchange chromatography method was described for the separation and determination of petroleum monosulfonates (PMS)and petroleum disulfonates (PDS)in crude oil that was simply diluted with the dichloromethane/methanol (60140).The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)system consisted of a clean-up column and an analytical column,which were connected with two six-port switching valves.Detection of petroleum sulfonates was available and repeatable.This method has been successfully applied to determine PMS and PDS in crude oil samples from Shengli oil field.

  4. Development of Sulfonated FEP / Nafion Hybrid Proton Exchange Membranes for PEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are consisted of proton exchange membranes (PEMs), binder and Pt/C electrodes. In our previous work, the partial-fluorinated sulfonic acid membranes have been fabricated by pre EB-grafting method. However, in the PEFC operation at higher temperatures, the difference of thermo-physical properties in MEAs consists of obtained PEMs, Pt/C, electrodes and binder such as Nafion-dispersion would be induced de-lamination between the PEM and electrodes. The poor adhesion between PEM and electrodes causes higher membrane resistance and decreasing of PEFC performance. In this study, in order to get well-laminated MEA, PEMs based on partial-fluorinated sulfonic acid were fabricated by adding same polymeric components with binder materials. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene co-polymer (FEP) films (thickness: 25μm) were grafted with styrene monomer at 80 degree in liquid phase after EB irradiation under nitrogen gas atmosphere at room temperature, and then sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid solution. The sulfonated FEP membranes (s-FEP) were milled to fine powders and the average diameter was 73.6μm. Then, s-FEP / Nafion hybrid membranes (FN) were obtained by mixing s-FEP powder with Nafion-dispersion and 1-propanol. The thickness of obtained FN was about 90μm. Ion exchange capacity (IEC) was measured by titration. IECs of FN and Nafion were 1.2 meq/g and 0.9 meq/g, respectively. MEA was fabricated by hot-pressing, and was measured by electrochemical spectroscopy. PEFC performances at 60 degree of FN, Nafion 112 and s-FEP were evaluated. The power density of FN at 500 mA/cm2 and the maximum power density were about 1.1 times higher than those of Nafion 112, respectively.The membrane resistance and ion conductivity (IC) of MEAs were measured by 4-electrode AC impedance method. Ohmic resistance and charge transfer resistance of FN were lower than those of s-FEP. These indicate that interface properties

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Zinc Using 7-(4-Nitrophenylazo)-8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Korn Maria das Graças Andrade; Ferreira Adriana Costa; Teixeira Leonardo Sena Gomes; Costa Antonio Celso Spínola

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of zinc(II) using an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, 7-(4-nitrophenylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (p-NIAZOXS), as a new spectrophotometric reagent. The reaction between the p-NIAZOXS and zinc(II) is instantaneous at pH 9.2 (borax buffer) and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The method allows the determination of zinc over the range of 0.05-1.0 mug mL-1 with a molar absorptivity of...

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) with 7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (ferron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is introduced to estimate uranium(VI) spectrophotometrically by extraction of its ferron (7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) complex with 1% tridodecylamine in chloroform at pH 4.5. The optimum absorption wavelength is 380 mm. The stoichiometry of the uranium-ferron complex as indicated by a mole ratio plot is 1:2 and its dissociation constant is 3.24x10-9. The effects of various parameters on the absorption are studied. This method has a sensitivity of 0.028 ppm on Sandell's scale. Interferences are described. (author)

  7. Mesoporous silica containing sulfonic acid groups as catalysts for alpha-pinene methoxylation

    OpenAIRE

    Castanheiro, J; Guerreiro, L; Fonseca, I.; Ramos, A.; Vital, J

    2008-01-01

    The methoxylation of a-pinene was studied over sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41, PMO) at 60ºC. The support functionalization was achieved by the introduction of 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane onto the surface of these materials either by grafting or by co-condensation. The thiol groups were oxidized to SO3H by treatment with H2O2. All the catalysts were active in the studied reaction being the PMO-SO3H-g the best one. Good values of selectivity to a-terpinyl methyl e...

  8. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish;

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmui...... coverage (ΓSmax) of the CNFs is one order of magnitude higher than the one of Vulcan. The large discrepancy is due to the fact that the ionomers are inaccessible to the internal surface area of Vulcan with high micro porosity....

  9. Quinolinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Smith

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid), C9H7N+·C9H5INO4S−·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37) lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π–π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6) Å]. The...

  10. IONIC CONDUCTIVITY IN THE COMPLEXES OF COMB-SHAPED POLYETHER WITH LITHIUM AROMATIC SULFONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shengshui; QIU Weihua; XUE Dacui; LIU Qingguo

    1993-01-01

    Complexes of comb-shaped polyether and lithium aromatic sulfonates bearing different negative charge number were prepared by in situ thermal polymerization. Their conductivity depends deeply on salt content, ambient temperature and negative charge number of the added salts. Results show that anions can be partly immobilized by increasing their negative charges at lower temperature.Against discharge time the short circuit current of the battery (Li/complex film/Lix V3O8) is stabilized by increasing the anionic charge number of the complex.

  11. Reaction of Sulfadiazine with Sodium 1,2-Naphtoquinone-4-sulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    ., Hayriye AMAL, Serpil DEMİR

    2013-01-01

    A red coloured condensation product of sulfadiazine with sodium l,2-naphtoquinone-4-sulfonate is prepared by heating the equimole-cular ammounts of each componant in aqueous solution.A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of sul- fadiazine is presented. The method is suitable as a rapid control method in neutrol medium. Sülfadiazinin sodium l,2-naftokinon-4-sülfonat ile kondansasyon mahsulü hazırlanmış ve bu reaksiyonda kırmızı renkli bir madde husule gelmesinden faydalanılarak ...

  12. Las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas y las adolescentas obesas

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Meza

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza la opresión por cuerpo (obesidad) a la que las mujeres son sometidas dentro del sistema patriarcal durante la adolescencia, específicamente a través de la representación televisiva que de las jóvenes gordas se hace en la telenovela juvenil mexicana. Los enormes niveles de audiencia que poseen las telenovelas en nuestro país hace indispensable, para los estudios de género desde las ciencias dela comunicación, estudiar el papel de las mujeres en dichas teleseries. En ...

  13. Las TIC y las culturas minoritarias en un mundo global

    OpenAIRE

    Ovide, Evaristo

    2008-01-01

    Las culturas minoritarias, sus lenguas y tradiciones se vuelven más minoritarias y su aliento vital se debilita a medida que la globalización las sitúa dentro de un contexto mucho más amplio. La aparición de las Nuevas Tecnologías (NN.TT.) eInternet como base de las mismas ha supuesto una nueva discriminación entre los que tienen acceso a ellas y los que no. Las culturas minoritarias lo son por haber sido doblegadas por otra dominante y por ello, a menudo padecen males más acuciantes que la p...

  14. Las Violencias contra las Mujeres en una Sociedad en Guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Olga Amparo

    2008-01-01

    Las violencias contra las mujeres exceden los acontecimientos violentos, y abarcan su producción y reproducción como fenómeno social y discursivo. Los hechos violentos y los discursos sobre la violencia aparecen entrelazados, especialmente si se piensa en papel que juega la cultura patriarcal en el desarrollo, perpetuación y validación de las violencias contra las mujeres. “A las mujeres nos violan, nos asaltan y nos golpean, nos ultrajan, nos humillan, nos deshumanizan, nos manosean, nos ase...

  15. Analisis sobre las obligaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Avila, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Los lenguajes ordinarios presentan dificultades de interpretación cuando son usados para formular y resolver problemas filosoficos. Estos inconvenientes intentaron ser solucionados desde las funciones propositivas (Russell) y los lenguajes artificiales (Carnap). Como respuesta a estas tesis surge la escuela de la filosofia del lenguaje ordinario que sostiene 1) la confianza en el lenguaje claro y siple 2) la ideificacion del abuso del lenguaje como origen de todos los problemas filosoficos 3)...

  16. Welcome to Theoretical Las Vegas

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Las Vegas, a city often theorized as the ultimate spectacular city, has a commensurate history of spectacular theories. This essay explores the connections between urban theory and spectacle through etymology, a brief history of the literature on Las Vegas, and an encounter between a Las Vegas urban planner and a theorist.

  17. Refugiados de las pandillas centroamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras se encuentran entre las naciones más frágiles del mundo, sin embargo, son ampliamente ignoradas por las agencias de refugiados que subestiman los abusos y poderes de control de las organizaciones criminales transnacionales, mientras sobrestiman la capacidad y voluntad de los gobiernos nacionales de proteger a sus ciudadanos.

  18. Synthesis of a Sulfonated Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Biobased Chemical Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Hu, Zhigang; Gao, Yongjun; Yuan, Daqiang; Kang, Zixi; Qian, Yuhong; Yan, Ning; Zhao, Dan

    2015-10-12

    Because of limited framework stability tolerance, de novo synthesis of sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging and unexplored. Herein, a sulfonated two-dimensional crystalline COF, termed TFP-DABA, was synthesized directly from 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid through a previously reported Schiff base condensation reaction, followed by irreversible enol-to-keto tautomerization, which strengthened its structural stability. TFP-DABA is a highly efficient solid acid catalyst for fructose conversion with remarkable yields (97 % for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 65 % for 2,5-diformylfuran), good chemoselectivity, and good recyclability. The present study sheds light on the de novo synthesis of sulfonated COFs as novel solid acid catalysts for biobased chemical conversion. PMID:26448524

  19. Enhancing the phase segregation and connectivity of hydrophilic channels by blending highly sulfonated graft copolymers with fluorous homopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated for...... morphology, water sorption, and proton transport properties. The blend membranes exhibit conductivities superior to pure graft copolymers under fully humidified conditions despite their lower water uptake. Transmission electron microscopy images of the blends reveal that the membranes comprise a combination...... of macro-phase segregated regions of ion-rich and PVDF-rich domains, and, at higher PVDF contents, ion-rich nano-scale domains within fluorine-rich domains. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  20. Las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas y las adolescentas obesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Meza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la opresión por cuerpo (obesidad a la que las mujeres son sometidas dentro del sistema patriarcal durante la adolescencia, específicamente a través de la representación televisiva que de las jóvenes gordas se hace en la telenovela juvenil mexicana. Los enormes niveles de audiencia que poseen las telenovelas en nuestro país hace indispensable, para los estudios de género desde las ciencias dela comunicación, estudiar el papel de las mujeres en dichas teleseries. En este análisis se pretende mostrar la triple marginación a la que son sometidas las adolescentes obesas en las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas: por ser mujeres, por ser jóvenes y por ser gordas.

  1. Alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides: Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and anticancer, antibacterial, anticarbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Ozdemir, Ummuhan; İlbiz, Firdevs; Balaban Gunduzalp, Ayla; Ozbek, Neslihan; Karagoz Genç, Zuhal; Hamurcu, Fatma; Tekin, Suat

    2015-11-01

    Methane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3SO2NHNH2 (1), ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2SO2NHNH2 (2), propane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (3) and butane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (4) have been synthesized as homologous series and characterized by using elemental analysis, spectrophotometric methods (1H-13C NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS). In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we have performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d, p) functional in which B3LYP functional were implemented. The geometry of the sulfonic acide hydrazides were optimized at the DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package. A conformational analysis of compounds were performed by using NMR theoretical calculations with DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level of theory by applying the (GIAO) approach. The anticancer activities of these compounds on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus NRRL-B-3711, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using the disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that butane sulfonic acide hydrazide (4) has more activity than the others against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram negative/Gram positive bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  2. SYNTESIS OF THE COMPLEXES OF MACROPOROUS SULFONATED RESINS WITH FERRIC CHLORIDE AND THEIR CATALYTIC BEHAVIOR FOR SETERIFICATION OF ACETIC ACID WITH BUTANOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangWenqiang; HouXin; 等

    1997-01-01

    The complex resins prepared from macroporous sulfonated resin D72(H+ form) with ferric chloride or ferric chloride hexahydrate have both sites of Bronsted acid and Lewis acid.In the catalysis of exterification of acetic acid with butanol the complex resins show to have much higher catalytic activity than that of its matrix.a conventional sulfonated cation exchange resin D72.

  3. endo-3,3-Dimethyl-4-oxobicyclo­[3.1.0]hexan-2-yl methane­sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Adrian; Norberg, Bernadette; Krief, Alain; Wouters, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The relative configuration of the endo isomer of the title compound, C9H14O4S, has been established and the conformation of the diastereoisomer is discussed. The five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. The conformation of the methane­sulfonate substituent is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing results in alternating layers of polar methane­sulfonates and stacked bicyclo­hexa­nyl rings parallel to ab. PMID:21580752

  4. Synthesis,crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxyl-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  5. A study on the distribution of polystyrene sulfonic acid grafts over the cross-section of a PFA film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the distribution behaviors of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) grafts over the cross-section of grafted PFA membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) were investigated by using SEM-EDX analysis. Membranes with various degrees of grafting (DOG) and thicknesses were prepared by a simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene and a subsequent sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acid. A SEM-EDX instrument was utilized to directly observe that the distribution behaviors of the PSSA grafts over the cross-section of grafted PFA membranes and the results showed that the distribution behaviors were largely affected by the grafting conditions such as the degree of grafting, monomer concentration, and film thickness.

  6. Synthesis and behavior of novel sulfonated water-soluble N-heterocyclic carbene (η(4)-diene) platinum(0) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Varilla, Andrea M; Baquero, Edwin A; Silbestri, Gustavo F; Gonzalez-Arellano, Camino; de Jesús, Ernesto; Flores, Juan C

    2015-11-14

    A series of water-soluble (NHC)Pt(0)(dvtms) and (NHC)Pt(0)(AE) complexes containing different sulfonated NHC ligands (dvtms = divinyltetramethyldisiloxane and AE = diallyl ether) are reported. The dvtms compounds have been found to be quite robust and to display some conformational rigidity, whereas their AE counterparts are less stable and more flexible. The catalytic evaluation of these complexes in the hydrosilylation of alkynes in water revealed no benefits in favor of the complexes containing the more labile spectator diene (AE), and a fairly regular catalytic behavior for all complexes that restricts the location of the sulfonate group to the proximity of the metal site. PMID:26346995

  7. Preservar las empresas de familia

    OpenAIRE

    José Vargas Caicedo

    2005-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de las empresas de familia es usualmente corto por muchas razones. Entre las más frecuentes podemos considerar la marcada ignorancia acerca de los mecanismos adecuados para la solución de los conflictos, y este es el más común de los temas. La lucha por el poder, por la propiedad y la competencia en el cuidado de las realizaciones personales genera fricciones frecuentes entre los miembros de una familia. Las actitudes y las respuestas de tipo emocional que por lo general se d...

  8. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  9. Animated sulfonated or sulformethylated lignins as cement fluid loss control additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, P.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a well penetrating a subterranean formation comprising injecting down the well and positioning in the zone to be cemented a hydraulic aqueous cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and a fluid loss control additive comprising from about 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been aminated by reacting it with between about 2-5 moles of a polyamine and 2-5 moles of an aldehyde per 1,000g of the lignin, and 0.1 to 1.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, sodium phosphate, sodium sulfite and sodium naphthalene sulfonate and a combination thereof.

  10. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  11. Monitoring and toxicity of sulfonated derivatives of benzene and naphthalene in municipal sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring benzenesulfonates (BS) and naphthalenesulfonates (NS) took place in five municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). A previously optimized method based on solid phase extraction with polymeric cartridges followed by ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (SPE-IPC-ESI-MS) was used. This work confirmed the little or no effect of primary settlement on total organic carbon (TOC) and monosulfonated compounds removal, whereas the main reduction is obtained at the biological stage. However, the most polar compounds, such as naphthalenedisulfonates (NDS), were not effectively removed using the biological treatment. An aromatic sulfonated compound is suggested to be used as a tracer of the origin of industrial pollutants discharged into STPs. A bioluminescence inhibition test, Microtox[reg] assay, allowed toxicity determination of the most relevant aromatic sulfonated compounds detected and toxicity comparison between primary and secondary effluents. - Sulphonated organic pollutants enter sewage treatment plants and although they partly discharged into the river waters no toxic effects are observed when biological treatment is used

  12. Sorption of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroheptanoic acid on granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Luo, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Woodward, David; Huang, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    The sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on granular activated carbon (GAC) was characterized and compared to explore the underlying mechanisms. Sorption of the three perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on GAC appeared to be a rapid intra-particle diffusion process, which were well represented by the pseudo-second-order rate model with the sorption rate following the order PFOS > PFOA > PFHpA. Sorption isotherm data were well fitted by the Freundlich model with the sorption capacity (Kf) of PFOS, PFOA and PFHpA being 4.45, 2.42 and 1.66 respectively. This suggests that the hydrophilic head group on PFAAs, i.e. sulfonate vs carboxylic, has a strong influence on their sorption. Comparison between PFOA and PFHpA revealed that hydrophobicity could also play a role in the sorption of PFAAs on GAC when the fluorocarbon chain length is different. Analyses using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested possible formation of a negative charge-assisted H-bond between PFAAs and the functionalities on GAC surfaces, including non-aromatic ketones, sulfides, and halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:26606188

  13. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-01

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body. PMID:23057644

  14. Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei

    Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).

  15. Clean synthesis of biodiesel over solid acid catalysts of sulfonated mesopolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    FDU-15-SO3H,a solid acid material prepared from the sulfonation of FDU-15 mesoporous polymer,has been demonstrated to serve as an efficient catalyst in the esterification of palmitic acid with methanol as well as in the transesterification of fatty acid-edible oil mixture.FDU-15-SO3H achieved an acid conversion of 99.0% when the esterification was carried out at 343 K with a methanol/palmitic acid molar ratio of 6:1 and 5 wt% catalyst loading.It was capable of giving 99.0% yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) when the transesterification of soybean oil was performed at 413 K and the methanol/oil weight ratio of 1:1.FDU-15-SO3H was further applied to the transesterification/esterification of the oil mixtures with a varying ratio of soybean oil to palmitic acid,which simulated the feedstock with a high content of free fatty acids.The yield of FAME reached 95% for the oil mixtures containing 30 wt% palmitic acid.This indicated the sulfonated mesopolymer was a potential catalyst for clean synthesis of fuel alternative of biodiesel from the waste oil without further purification.

  16. Fabrication of protic ionic liquid/sulfonated polyimide composite membranes for non-humidified fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    We have demonstrated that a protic ionic liquid, diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]) functions as a proton conductor and is suitable for use as an electrolyte in H 2/O 2 fuel cells, which can be operated at temperatures higher than 100 °C under non-humidified conditions. In this study, in order to fabricate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, matrix polymers for [dema][TfO] are explored and sulfonated polyimides (SPI), in which the sulfonic acid groups are in diethylmethylammonium form, are found to be highly compatible with [dema][TfO]. Polymer electrolyte membranes for non-humidified fuel cells are prepared by the solvent casting method using SPI and [dema][TfO]. The SPI, with an ion exchange capacity of 2.27 meq g -1, can retain four times its own weight of [dema][TfO] and produces uniform, tough, and transparent composite membranes. The composite membranes have good thermal stability (>300 °C) and ionic conductivity (>10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C when the [dema][TfO] content is higher than 67 wt%) under anhydrous conditions. In the H 2/O 2 fuel cell operation using a composite membrane without humidification, a current density higher than 240 mA cm -2 is achieved with a maximum power density of 100 mW cm -2 at 80 °C.

  17. A highly aromatic and sulfonated ionomer for high elastic modulus ionic polymer membrane micro-actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high modulus, sulfonated ionomer synthesized from 4,6-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N,N-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine and 4,4′-biphenol with bis(4-fluorophenyl)sulfone (DPA-PS:BP) is investigated for ionic polymer actuators. The uniqueness of DPA-PS:BP is that it can have a high ionic liquid (IL) uptake and consequently generates a high intrinsic strain response, which is >1.1% under 1.6 V while maintaining a high elastic modulus (i.e. 600 MPa for 65 vol% IL uptake). Moreover, such a high modulus of the active ionomer, originating from the highly aromatic backbone and side-chain-free structure, allows for the fabrication of free-standing thin film micro-actuators (down to 5 µm thickness) via the solution cast method and focused-ion-beam milling, which exhibits a much higher bending actuation, i.e. 43 µm tip displacement and 180 kPa blocking stress for a 200 µm long and 5 µm thick cantilever actuator, compared with the ionic actuators based on traditional ionomers such as Nafion, which has a much lower elastic modulus (50 MPa) and actuation strain. (paper)

  18. Interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates: A molecular simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yu Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to analyze orientations of sodium branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates molecules at nonane/water interface, which is helpful to design optimal surfactant structures to achieve ultralow interfacial tension (IFT. Through the two dimensional density profiles, monolayer collapses are found when surfactant concentration continues to increase. Thus the precise scope of monolayer is certain and orientation can be analyzed. Based on the simulated results, we verdict the interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates at the oil-water interface, and discuss the effect of hydrophobic tail structure on surfactant assignment. Bigger hydrophobic size can slow the change rate of surfactant occupied area as steric hindrance, and surfactant meta hydrophobic tails have a stronger tendency to stretch to the oil phase below the collapsed concentration. Furthermore, an interfacial model with reference to collapse, increasing steric hindrance and charge repulsive force between interfacial surfactant molecules, responsible for effecting of surfactant concentration and structure has been supposed.

  19. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. ► The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. ► We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO3H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  20. Synthetic approach of norbadione A: new preparation of alcohols from sulfones and boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthetic approach of norbadione A, a pigment from mushrooms related to pulvinic acids, was studied. This compound has the property to complex caesium and has shown an antioxidant activity. The first strategy, based on a double Suzuki-Miyaura coupling between a naphtho-lactone with two boron functions and two pulvinic moieties with a triflate was unsuccessful and has shown a deactivating effect of the lactone. Modifications aimed to inhibit the electro-attracting character of the lactone permitted to obtain a bis(coupled) product with a poor yield. A second approach based on a the cyclization of enol aryl-acetates was studied in order to build the pulvinic moiety in several steps. The important reaction of introduction of an alkyl-acetate from a triflate was realised by a palladium-mediated coupling. The cyclization attempts carried out using a naphthalenic compound allowed us to isolate a monocyclised product. A parallel study was to first build a tetronic moiety and then to construct the exocyclic double bond by a method developed in the laboratory for the preparation of an iodated pulvinic compound. Finally, a new preparation of alcohols from sulfones and boron compounds was developed. Two known reactions in the chemistry of boron were combined. The first one is the reaction between anions of sulfones and tri-alkyl-boranes, the second one is a thermal isomerization which places the boron atom in a terminal position. A new preparation of primary alcohols was thus carried out. (author)

  1. Radiation and storage-induced ageing of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, P.; Brack, N.; Hale, P. S.; Prissanaroon, W.; Welter, E.; Pigram, P. J.

    2005-04-01

    The effects of storage and exposure to X-rays on the surface chemistry of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For irradiation, different photon sources (lab source and synchrotron radiation) and energies (1.4-9 keV) were chosen. This covers an energy range of relevance for many X-ray based investigations (e.g. XPS or X-ray absorption spectroscopy) of PPy[DBSA], PPy-metal interfaces, and transition metals embedded into PPy. The DBSA doping level and the concentration ratio of sulfonate species are discussed as a function of storage and irradiation times, and links between both ageing parameters are given. New sulfur species are found to emerge upon repeated soft X-ray irradiation. Severe changes in the polaron/bipolaron structure of PPy[DBSA] during exposure to high energy (several keV) synchrotron radiation are observed, and the results are discussed in the light of photon absorption and photoelectron generation in the polymer surface.

  2. Radiation and storage-induced ageing of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of storage and exposure to X-rays on the surface chemistry of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For irradiation, different photon sources (lab source and synchrotron radiation) and energies (1.4-9 keV) were chosen. This covers an energy range of relevance for many X-ray based investigations (e.g. XPS or X-ray absorption spectroscopy) of PPy[DBSA], PPy-metal interfaces, and transition metals embedded into PPy. The DBSA doping level and the concentration ratio of sulfonate species are discussed as a function of storage and irradiation times, and links between both ageing parameters are given. New sulfur species are found to emerge upon repeated soft X-ray irradiation. Severe changes in the polaron/bipolaron structure of PPy[DBSA] during exposure to high energy (several keV) synchrotron radiation are observed, and the results are discussed in the light of photon absorption and photoelectron generation in the polymer surface

  3. Radiation and storage-induced ageing of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kappen@latrobe.edu.au; Brack, N. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086 (Australia); Hale, P.S. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086 (Australia); Prissanaroon, W.; Welter, E. [Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Pigram, P.J. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086 (Australia)

    2005-04-30

    The effects of storage and exposure to X-rays on the surface chemistry of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For irradiation, different photon sources (lab source and synchrotron radiation) and energies (1.4-9 keV) were chosen. This covers an energy range of relevance for many X-ray based investigations (e.g. XPS or X-ray absorption spectroscopy) of PPy[DBSA], PPy-metal interfaces, and transition metals embedded into PPy. The DBSA doping level and the concentration ratio of sulfonate species are discussed as a function of storage and irradiation times, and links between both ageing parameters are given. New sulfur species are found to emerge upon repeated soft X-ray irradiation. Severe changes in the polaron/bipolaron structure of PPy[DBSA] during exposure to high energy (several keV) synchrotron radiation are observed, and the results are discussed in the light of photon absorption and photoelectron generation in the polymer surface.

  4. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordoghli, Bessem [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Khiari, Ramzi, E-mail: khiari_ramzi2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Sakli, Faouzi [Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur [LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO{sub 3}H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  5. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g-1 of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t0), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  6. Aqueous preparation of polyethylene glycol/sulfonated graphene phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report an aqueous preparation technique of PEG/graphene phase change composite. • Hydrophilic sulfonated graphene (SG) nanosheets were synthesized. • Large increase in thermal conductivity is attained at low SG loading. • High latent heat is retained due to the low filler loading. • Affinity between SG and PEG contributes to the enhanced thermal performance. - Abstract: A polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sulfonated graphene (SG) phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance was prepared by solution processing in aqueous medium. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of SG to PEG could lead to a four times higher increase in thermal conductivity and a slight decrease in the phase change enthalpy, which is attributed to the formation of efficient thermal conductive network within the PEG matrix relevant to the excellent thermal property and unique 2-dimensional morphology of graphene as well as strong interface affinity between PEG matrix and SG nanosheets. The aqueous preparation technique is expected to pioneer a new way to prepare environment friendly organic phase change materials, and the production of PEG/SG composites is potentially scalable due to the facile fabricating process

  7. Design, synthesis and physical properties of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene)/poly(thiourea-azo-sulfone) blends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayesha Kausar

    2014-06-01

    A new aromatic azo-polymer, poly(thiourea-azo-sulfone), has been synthesized using 1-(4-thiocarbamoylaminophenylsulfonylphenyl)thiourea and diazonium salt solution. Conducting and thermally stable rubbery blends of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) triblock copolymer and poly(thiourea-azo-sulfone) (PTAS) were produced by solution blending technique. PTAS possessed fine solubility in polar solvents and high molar mass 63 × 103 g moL-1. Microscopic analysis on SBS/PTAS blends revealed good adhesion between the two polymers without macro phase separation. Electrical conductivity measurement recommended that blending of SBS with 60% PTAS was sufficiently conducting 1.43 S cm-1. A relationship between PTAS loading and thermal stability of blends was observed. With the increasing PTAS content, 10% gravimetric loss was increased from 481 to 497 °C, while glass transition improved from 123 to 136 °C (better than neat SBS but lower than PTAS). The blends also established higher tensile strength (52.40–59.96 MPa) relative to SBS. Fine balance of properties renders new SBS/PTAS, potential engineering plastics for a number of aerospace relevance.

  8. Membranes of polyindene sulfonated and PVA for use as polymer electrolyte; Membranas mistas de poli(indeno) sulfonado e PVA para uso como eletrolito polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loser, N.; Silva, B.B.R. da; Brum, F.J.B.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Escola de Engenharia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on developing polymer poly electrolytes for fuel cell PEM and aims to evaluate the efficiency of sulfonated polyindene as A polymer electrolyte in blends with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For this, polyindene synthesized in the lab was functionalized with sulfonic groups (-SO{sub 3}H), using as sulfonation agent acetyl sulfate in 1,2-dichloroethane. The membranes of sulfonated polyindene (SPInd) and PVA were prepared in aqueous medium, using glutaraldehyde as a PVA cross linker. The membranes SPInd/PVA were evaluated on the content of sulfonic groups, ion exchange capacity (IEC), degree of swelling in water and thermal stability (TGA). Electrochemical impedance analysis was used for ionic conductivity evaluation and DMA for the mechanical strength of the membranes. Preliminary results show that the membranes showed ion exchange capacity about 3.2 m equiv/g and degree of swelling in water of 550%. (author)

  9. Large-scale samples of sulfonates for laboratory studies in tertiary oil recovery: preparation and related studies. Quarterly report, August--October 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmberg, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Activities are reported in a project which is to provide samples and information that will contribute to the resolution of current questions/problems in the nature and supply of oil recovery sulfonates. In exploring and evaluating feed stocks and reaction conditions, about 15 synthetic sulfonates have been prepared. The group is an expanded prototype of the sulfonates to be made as large-scale samples. These prototype samples have been used to evaluate methods of formulating and characterizing the sulfonates as oil recovery agents. A method of determining the equivalent weight of sulfonates has been developed with this group of prototype samples. A problem in interpreting and applying mass spectrometric analyses of alkylates has been resolved with this procedure. The feedstocks for the preparation of alkylate are on hand. The resolution of the equivalent weight question has confirmed the original estimates of distillation ranges, etc.

  10. Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 μg L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  12. Las narcodemocracias andinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier DABÈNE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los países de América Latina están afectados en diferentes aspectos por el tráfico de drogas. En especial, en los países andinos, esta actividad ha condicionado de manera decisiva el tipo de régimen democrático iniciado en algún caso en la década de 1980, como Perú o Bolivia, o el régimen colombiano. El autor califica a estos regímenes como narcodemocracias por los efectos del tráfico de drogas no sólo en el orden social y económico, que analiza de forma profunda, sino por la politización del narcotráfico. Las respuestas de las democracias han sido bien distintas en los tres casos analizados, afectando, sin embargo, en todos ellos, a la gobernabilidad de las mismas y a su legitimidad.ABSTRACT: Latin American countries are affected by narcotrafico in different aspects. Particularly, in Andean countries, this activity has deeply conditioned the type of democratic regime installed in some cases in the eighties, as Perou and Bolivia, or the colombian regimen. The author characterizes these regimes as narcodemocracias by effects of narcotrafico in them, not only in social and economic arenas, but also by the politization of narcotrafico. Responses of democracies have been very different in these cases analyzed in the article. Nevertheless, in all of them, governability and legitmity of democracy are affected.

  13. Las computadoras inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Rojo, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    Se habla de la inteligencia artificial como un campo de la ciencia de computación que tiene por objetivo construir computadoras capaces de hacerse cargo de tareas para cuya realización se supone que es necesario contar con cierto grado de “inteligencia”. Se explora el panorama tecnológico y de investigación, y se plantean algunas de las dificultades a enfrentar. Incluye obra fotográfica de Durruty de alba, Rigo Moreno y Pablo Araiza, reproducida en blanco y negro.

  14. Las pandillas transnacionales centroamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Vila, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    En Centroamérica las pandillas transnacionales han tomado relevancia en el en la región en la medida que fueron expandiendo sus redes por todo el territorio. Entre sus actividades se encuentran: los secuestros, la trata de personas, el sicariato y la distribución de drogas. En la actualidad debería ser prioridad para la región encontrar una solución a través del trabajo coordinando y compartiendo experiencias que resulten efectivas para la resolución de esta problematica. Estos nuevos actores...

  15. Las culturas no existen

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Feliu i Samuel-Lajeunesse

    2004-01-01

    Tras un somero recordatorio del hecho, a menudo olvidado, de que la cultura no es una realidad social sino tan solo un concepto, el artículo pretende argumentar en pro de la inexistencia de tal entidad (a pesar de las apariencias). La pregunta principal a la que se intenta responder es cual es el papel ideológico que tiene la idea de cultura, es decir ¿qué efectos de construcción de realidad genera? Para ello se realiza una crítica del concepto y de sus usos argumentando que tanto el concepto...

  16. Las carreras del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Piscoya Hermoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La primera década del siglo XXI ha estado signada por un énfasis en los estudiosde prospectiva, los mismos que, a partir de procesos de complejizacióny articulación de la sociedad planetaria como son la digitalización, el progresivodeterioro del medio ambiente, la necesidad del cambio de la matriz energéticay la globalización del mercado, han ensayado hipótesis para identificar lastendencias que se fortalecerán y profundizarán durante las próximas décadas.Desde el punto de vista metodológico, existen muchas maneras de clasificarlaspara conceptualizarlas y entenderlas mejor. Sin embargo, considerando lanaturaleza de esta edición nos proponemos enfocar directamente aquellas queestán estrechamente ligadas a la formación universitaria.Naturalmente, no pensamos que estamos ante tendencias inevitables en lamedida que epistemológicamente la creencia en leyes históricas deterministases insostenible y la práctica social nos muestra que la construcción del futuroes nuestra responsabilidad y siempre rebasa las mejores previsiones.

  17. Las promesas del imaginario Internet: las comunidades virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Vayreda i Duran, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    Este texto se propone encontrar una respuesta a la pregunta sobre la atracción que ejerce Internet indagando en las promesas que este dispositivo nos depara. Una de las promesas que goza de mayor popularidad es la posibilidad de crear comunidades virtuales. Esta se ha ido construyendo a lo largo de más de tres décadas de diseños técnicos, experiencias y proyectos comunitarios como las primeras y restringidas comunidades de informáticos Arpanet y Usenet, las populares BBs y, más recientemente,...

  18. Las promesas del imaginario Internet: Las comunidades virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Vayreda i Duran

    2004-01-01

    Este texto se propone encontrar una respuesta a la pregunta sobre la atracción que ejerce Internet indagando en las promesas que este dispositivo nos depara. Una de las promesas que goza de mayor popularidad es la posibilidad de crear comunidades virtuales. Esta se ha ido construyendo a lo largo de más de tres décadas de diseños técnicos, experiencias y proyectos comunitarios como las primeras y restringidas comunidades de informáticos Arpanet y Usenet, las populares BBs y, más recientemente,...

  19. Empresas excelentes entre las certificadas en las normas ISO 9000

    OpenAIRE

    Climent Serrano, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio entre las empresas certificadas en la norma ISO 9000 de la Comunidad Valenciana mediante una encuesta, con el objetivo de diferenciar los resultados sobre incremento de competitividad por la certificación en las normas ISO 9000, dependiendo de la involucración de las empresas en los sistemas de gestión de la calidad total, así como averiguar que factores inciden para que las empresas certificadas se impliquen en mayor medida en estos sistemas

  20. Las enfermedades de las plantas y su ciencia en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    BURITICÁ CÉSPEDES, PABLO

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: Dentro de los riegos naturales de la productividad, a la cual están sometidos, en el trópico, los cultivos agrícolas, las enfermedades de la plantas constituyen uno de los más evidentes, constantes y fatales, llegando a ser unas de las fuerzas de la naturaleza de mayor impacto en la agricultura. Históricamente las enfermedades de las plantas han influenciado, en variados y diversos aspectos, del desenvolvimiento de la humanidad y el progreso económico y social de cada país; el n...

  1. Las cruces del olvido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Les tragiques événements du « mars paraguayen » ont signifié la disparition de l’espoir en la transition démocratique dans laquelle le pays s’était engagé depuis presque une dizaine d’années. Renée Ferrer, poète, dramaturge, auteur de plusieurs recueils de contes et de deux romans, consigne alors le témoignage poétique de ce drame national dans le recueil Las cruces del olvido (2001. Elle a auparavant publié d’autres textes qui peuvent rentrer dans la catégorie de la poésie sociale : c’est le cas en particulier de Viaje a destiempo (1989 dédié aux victimes de la dictature. Las cruces del olvido, dès son paratexte, insiste sur la fonction de témoignage que l’auteur souhaite assigner à ses vers et sur le rôle que ceux-ci peuvent jouer dans la transmission d’une mémoire collective. La voix d’un jeune disparu de ce « mars paraguayen », le dédoublement qu’il subit et travers lequel il évoque son entrée dans la mort et son absence du monde des vivants, rendent possible l’écriture de cette expérience de l’indicible qu’est la disparition.Los trágicos acontecimientos del «marzo paraguayo» significaron la desaparición de la esperanza en la transición democrática que el país está viviendo desde unos diez años. Renée Ferrer, poeta, dramaturga, autora de varios libros de cuentos y de dos novelas, escribe entonces el testimonio poético de ese drama nacional en su poemario Las cruces del olvido (2001. Ya había publicado antes textos que se pueden considerar como poesía social: es el caso de Viaje a destiempo (1989 dedicado a las víctimas de la dictadura. Desde el texto apertural, Las cruces del olvido potencia la función de testimonio que la autora desea conceder a sus versos y el papel que éstos pueden desempeñar en la transmisión de una memoria colectiva. La voz de un joven desaparecido del «marzo paraguayo», el desdoblamiento que sufre y a través del cual evoca su entrada en la

  2. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  3. Two Novel Vaginal Microbicides (Polystyrene Sulfonate and Cellulose Sulfate) Inhibit Gardnerella vaginalis and Anaerobes Commonly Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Simoes, Jose A.; Citron, Diane M.; Aroutcheva, Alla; Anderson, Robert A.; Chany II, Calvin J.; Waller, Donald P.; Faro, Sebastian; Lourens J. D. Zaneveld

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report demonstrating the in vitro inhibitory activity of two novel microbicides (cellulose sulfate and polystyrene sulfonate) against bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria. Vaginal application of these microbicides not only may reduce the risk of acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infection-causing organisms but may also decrease the incidence of BV.

  4. The effects of water on the morphology and the swelling behavior of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.; Akkilic, N.; Nijmeijer, K.; Benes, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films swell excessively in water. The extent of water-induced swelling is shown to be correlated with the optical anisotropy of the films, due to two distinct phenomena. Firstly, the optical anisotropy is directly related to the amount of water taken up from

  5. Synthesis and properties of poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) and its copolymers for high temperature membrane electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen;

    2012-01-01

    Poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO2PBI) and its copolymers with poly[2,2′-p-(phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole] (pPBI), termed as Co-SO2PBI, were synthesized with varied feeding ratios of 4,4′-sulfonyldibenzoic acid (SDBA) to terephthalic acid (TPA). Incorporation of the stiff para-phenylene and...

  6. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. PMID:23280712

  7. PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

  8. Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In this paper, a lab-scale strategy is proposed for recycling poly (styrene-co-butadiene) waste by sulfonation with fuming sulfuric acid. Tests of the sulfonation strategy were carried out at various reaction conditions. The results show that 75°C and 2.5 h are the operating conditions that maximize the sulfonation level expressed as number of acid sites. The modified resin is tested as a heterogeneous catalyst in the first step (known as esterification) of biodiesel production from a mixture containing tallow fat and canola oil with 59% of free fatty acids. The preliminary results show that esterification can reach 91% conversion in the presence of the sulfonated polymeric catalyst compared with 67% conversion when the reaction is performed without catalyst. PMID:24098857

  9. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems. PMID:27389973

  10. Synthesis and properties of novel photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone) containing chalcone moiety in the main chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Pushan [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Lei [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Xiangdan, E-mail: xiangdanli@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, Myong-Hoon, E-mail: mhlee2@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Polymer/Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A series of novel photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PAESs) containing chalcone moiety in the main chain have been successfully synthesized. {yields} The photo-crosslinking of polymer film was carried out under UV irradiation without photoinitiator. {yields} The resulting polymers showed good thermal stability and excellent chemical stability after crosslinking. - Abstract: A new series of photosensitive poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing chalcone moiety in the main chain were synthesized from 4,4'-dihydroxychalcone (4DHC), 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone (DFDPS) and bisphenol A (BPA). This series of polymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, UV spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers were stable up to 400 deg. C, which indicates that the polymers possess good thermal properties. The polymers were found to be soluble in polar solvents and chlorinated solvents. However, the polymers were insoluble in hydrocarbons and in hydroxyl group-containing solvents. After the irradiation of UV light, the thin polymer film was crosslinked to give an insoluble film in the absence of a photoinitiator or sensitizers. The rate of photocrosslinking was also examined and discussed.

  11. Reaction kinetics of free fatty acids esterification in palm fatty acid distillate using coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Rochmadi, Wijaya, Karna; Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a new strategy of preparing novel carbon-based solid acids has been developed. In this research, the esterification reactions of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) with methanol, using coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst from biomass wastes as catalyst, were studied. In this study, the coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalysts were synthesized by sulfonating the coconut shell biochar using concentrated H2SO4. The kinetics of free fatty acid (FFA) esterification in PFAD using a coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst was also studied. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1-12:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of PFAD to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 12:1, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60°C. The proposed kinetic model shows a reversible second order reaction and represents all the experimental data satisfactorily, providing deeper insight into the kinetics of the reaction.

  12. Synthesis of naphthoxazinone derivatives using silica-bonded -sulfonic acid as catalyst under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Khodabakhsh Niknam; Parisa Abolpour

    2015-07-01

    Silica-bonded -sulfonic acid is employed as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of naphthoxazinone derivatives from the reaction of -naphthol, aromatic aldehydes and urea at 150°C under solvent-free conditions. The heterogeneous catalyst was recycled for five runs after the reaction of -naphthol, benzaldehyde and urea without losing its catalytic activity.

  13. Comparative study of the addition compounds between lanthanides methane sulfonates (III) and aromatic amino-oxides as ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this thesis is to further develop the studies on the preparation and characterization of addition compounds obtained from the reaction of lanthanide methane sulfonates and aromatic amino oxides as ligands, pyridine-N-oxides as the picoline-N-oxides (2-pic NO, 3-pic NO and 4-picNO) in order to make a comparative study. (author)

  14. Sulfonation of 17β-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfonation of 17β-estradiol (E2) by human liver and recombinant sulfotransferases is influenced by environmental contaminants such as hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), which are potent inhibitors, and the therapeutic drug, celecoxib, which affects positional sulfonation of E2. In some locations, the aquatic environment is contaminated by PCBs, OH-PCBs and widely used therapeutic drugs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sulfonation kinetics of E2 in liver cytosol from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); to examine the effect of OH-PCBs on E2 sulfonation; and to determine if celecoxib altered the position of E2 sulfonation, as it does with human liver cytosol. E2 was converted to both 3- and 17-sulfates by catfish liver cytosol. At E2 concentrations below 1μM, formation of E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S) predominated, but substrate inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Rates of E2-3-S formation at different E2 concentrations were fit to a substrate inhibition model, with K'm and V'max values of 0.40+/-0.10μM and 91.0+/-4.7pmol/min/mg protein, respectively and Ki of 1.08+/-0.09μM. The formation of E2-17-S fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the concentration range 25nM to 2.5μM, with Km and Vmax values of 1.07+/-0.23μM and 25.7+/-4.43pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The efficiency (Vmax/Km) of formation of E2-3-S was 9.8-fold higher than that of E2-17-S. Several OH-PCBs inhibited E2 3-sulfonation, measured at an E2 concentration of 1nM. Of those tested, the most potent inhibitor was 4'-OH-CB79, with two chlorine atoms flanking the OH group (IC50: 94nM). The inhibition of estrogen sulfonation by OH-PCBs may disrupt the endocrine system and thus contribute to the known toxic effects of these compounds. Celecoxib did not stimulate E2-17-S formation, as is the case with human liver cytosol, but did inhibit the formation of E2-3-S (IC50: 44μM) and to a lesser extent, E2-17-S (IC50: >160μM), suggesting the

  15. Temperature effect on gas phase alkylbenzene dealkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealkylation of ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene by radiolytically formed 2H3+ ions has been studied in the gaseous phase as a function of the irradiation temperature. The extent of the reaction, which increases with the temperature follows the order ethylbenzene -1 between the activation energies for dealkylation of ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene, and of ethylbenzene and propylbenzene, respectively. (author)

  16. Preservar las empresas de familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas Caicedo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo de vida de las empresas de familia es usualmente corto por muchas razones. Entre las más frecuentes podemos considerar la marcada ignorancia acerca de los mecanismos adecuados para la solución de los conflictos, y este es el más común de los temas. La lucha por el poder, por la propiedad y la competencia en el cuidado de las realizaciones personales genera fricciones frecuentes entre los miembros de una familia. Las actitudes y las respuestas de tipo emocional que por lo general se dan en la solución de problemas en esta clase de organizaciones muchas veces deriva en la polarización y ruptura definitiva de las relaciones.

  17. Las habilidades comunicativas en las carreras de las Ciencias de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Tejera Concepcion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: las habilidades como componentes cognitivo-instrumentales de la actuación del sujeto, han sido ampliamente estudiadas en el ámbito pedagógico para fortalecer la didáctica específica de las Ciencias de la Salud y de esta forma enseñar a los estudiantes a establecer una adecuada comunicación. Objetivo: definir las habilidades comunicativas que pueden ser tratadas mediante el sistema de conocimientos de las asignaturas y las actividades preprofesionalizantes en los estudiantes de las carreras de las Ciencias de la Salud. Métodos: del nivel teórico: histórico-lógico, inductivo-deductivo, analítico- sintético, sistémico-estructural, y la modelación; del nivel empírico: análisis de documentos, reunión con los grupos de discusión, observación, encuesta a profesores, triangulación de resultados y criterio de expertos; del nivel estadístico: análisis porcentual y método Delphi. Resultados: se definieron las habilidades comunicativas: para la expresión, habilidades para la observación y habilidades para la relación empática, para ser desarrolladas mediante el carácter sistémico e integrador de los contenidos de las asignaturas y la práctica pre-profesionalizante en las carreras de las Ciencias de la Salud. Conclusiones: las habilidades comunicativas son imprescindibles para el desempeño del futuro profesional de la Salud, es necesario que se puedan desarrollar en los estudiantes mediante la integración entre el sistema de asignaturas, los contenidos y las actividades preprofesionalizantes derivado de cada situación presentada en la práctica pedagógica y docente-asistencial.

  18. Las escalas territoriales del envejecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Puga González, Mª Dolores; Abellán García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El envejecimiento de la población española es uno de los cambios demográficos más importantes del siglo XX. El estudio de las diferentes escalas territoriales del proceso aporta nuevas dimensiones a su conocimiento. La escala inframunicipal es especialmente útil. La escala del hogar descubre cómo y con quién viven las personas mayores, cómo se organizan las redes y solidaridades familiares. El estudio de las formas de convivencia es un instrumento de alto valor predictivo de ne...

  19. Historia de las Relaciones Públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Xifra i Triadú, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Este número recoge, junto a las contribuciones abiertas, las de una llamada dedicada a la historia de las relaciones públicas. Una de las últimas tendencias de la investigación académica en relaciones pública ha sido el auge de los estudios históricos, lo que ha generado un cuerpo doctrinal historiográfico y, en menor medida, de teoría histórica de la disciplina. Este giro historiográfico tiene esponsable: el profesor de la Universidad de Bournemouth, ...

  20. Las Gramináceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo Emilio

    1939-08-01

    Full Text Available Las gramináceas son plantas conocidas desde la antigüedad más remota. Tan importantes son las gramináceas desde el punto de vista bromatológico, que los hombres pueden ser clasificados en comedores de trigo, de arroz, de maíz, de mijo, de sorgo, de tocusso, de tef, etc. El área de distribución de las gramíneas es inmensa: se las encuentra desde las orillas del mar y en las aguas dulces, hasta las nieves perpetuas; sólo en las aguas saladas desconocidas. En punto de tamaño, las hay desde unos centímetros hasta nuestra guadua gigantesca, de treinta y más metros de altura. Dicha distribución se halla en relación con el clima, pero también es influida por los hábitos de los pueblos, por la civilización, por el comercio o por otras circunstancias.

  1. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuang; Hang, Nan; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders. PMID:27175331

  2. Physicochemical study of poly(ether ether ketone) electrolyte membranes sulfonated with mixtures of fuming sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid for direct methanol fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) have been prepared as a potential membrane material for proton exchange membrane by sulfonation process using mixtures of (15-30% concentration) fuming sulfuric acid and (95-98%) concentrated sulfuric acid as the sulfonating agent. The sulfonation process was conducted at room temperature by varying the acid ratio and reaction time. The produced membranes were then characterized by evaluating the ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, thermal stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability as a function of degree of sulfonation. The proton conductivity of the sulfonated PEEK membranes with various DS was within the magnitude of 10-3 and 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature and the methanol permeability was in the range of 3.45 x 10-7 to 2.73 x 10-6 cm2 s-1. The overall membrane performance of the SPEEK membrane with 80% DS was six times higher than Nafion membrane. In conclusion, the SPEEK membrane produced was acceptable and stable enough within the temperature range of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application

  3. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuang; Hang, Nan; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders. PMID:27175331

  4. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders.

  5. Improving the Efficacy of Conventional Therapy by Adding Andrographolide Sulfonate in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Herb-derived compound andrographolide sulfonate (called Xiyanping injection recommended control measure for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD by the Ministry of Health (China during the 2010 epidemic. However, there is a lack of good quality evidence directly comparing the efficacy of Andrographolide Sulfonate combination therapy with conventional therapy. Methods. 230 patients were randomly assigned to 7–10 days of Andrographolide Sulfonate 5–10 mg/Kg/day and conventional therapy, or conventional therapy alone. Results. The major complications occurred less often after Andrographolide Sulfonate (2.6% versus 12.1%; risk difference [RD], 0.94; 95% CI, 0.28–1.61; P=0.006. Median fever clearance times were 96 hours (CI, 80 to 126 for conventional therapy recipients and 48 hours (CI, 36 to 54 for Andrographolide Sulfonate combination-treated patients (χ2=16.57, P<0.001. The two groups did not differ in terms of HFMD-cause mortality (P=1.00 and duration of hospitalization (P=0.70. There was one death in conventional therapy group. No important adverse event was found in Andrographolide Sulfonate combination therapy group. Conclusions. The addition of Andrographolide Sulfonate to conventional therapy reduced the occurrence of major complications, fever clearance time, and the healing time of typical skin or oral mucosa lesions in children with severe HFMD.

  6. Effect of Sulfonation of SEBS Copolymer on the physicochemical properties of Proton Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Realpe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, proton exchange membranes were prepared using SEBS copolymer, for application in a fuel cell. The SEBS copolymer was modified with the addition of a TiO2 load to prepare sulfonated and unmodified membranes. The sulfonated–loaded membrane exhibited higher values of water absorption (16% and ion exchange capacity (1.13 meq/g due to a significant increase in porosity, which increased the surface area and facilitated the ion exchange phenomenon by the formation of complexes between the sulfuric acid and TiO2; however, the low stability of the membrane prevented the applications of impedance and mechanical testing. The membranes were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, to check the modification of the SEBS; however, there were no bands that will determine the presence of TiO2 in the copolymer.

  7. Selective Preparation of Furfural from Xylose over Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Sba-15 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were prepared using the co-condensation and grafting methods, respectively, and their catalytic performance in the dehydration of xylose to furfural was examined. SBA-15-SO3H(C prepared by the co-condensation method showed 92–95% xylose conversion and 74% furfural selectivity, and 68–70% furfural yield under the given reaction conditions. The deactivation and regeneration of the SBA-15-SO3H(C catalyst for the dehydration of xylose was also investigated. The results indicate that the used and regeneration catalysts retained the SBA-15 mesoporous structure, and the S content of SBA-15-SO3H(C almost did not change. The deactivation of the catalysts is proposed to be associated with the accumulation of byproducts, which is caused by the loss reaction of furfural. After regeneration by H2O2, the catalytic activity of the catalyst almost recovered.

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant

  9. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez;

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...... based on pure PBI as a reference point, the composite membranes were characterized with respect to spectroscopic and physicochemical properties. After doping with phosphoric acid, the composite membranes showed considerably improved ex situ proton conductivity under anhydrous as well as under fully...... humidified conditions in the 120-180°C temperature range. The conductivity improvements were also confirmed by in situ fuel cell tests at 160°C and further supported by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data based on the operating membrane electrode assemblies, demonstrating the technical...

  10. Improved Performance of Sulfonated Polyarylene Ethers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Xing; J. Kerres; F. Sch(o)nberger

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The proton exchange membrane (PEM) is one of key components in fuel cell system. Its properties are very important in determining PEMFC performance. The membranes presently used in fuel cell are perfluorosulfonic polymers, such as Nafion(R) from Dupont. Although they have high proton conductivity and excellent chemical stability, their too high production cast and methanol permeability lead to failure of fuel cell application. Therefore, various partially fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes are under development for PEMFC application since one decade. In the middle of non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s display high thermal stability, good mechanical properties and exceptional resistance to oxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis. They have been regarded as well-suited proton exchange membrane candidates for fuel cells.

  11. Reaction of nitrite ion with hydroxylamine-N-sulfonate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblath, S.B.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.; Chang, S.G.

    1983-02-16

    The reaction between nitrite ion and hydroxylamine-N-sulfonate (HAMS) has been investigated in aqueous solutions; nitrous oxide and sulfate ions are the major products. The reaction kinetics exhibit first-order dependence on nitrite ion, second-order dependence on hydrogen ion in the pH region of 4-5, and between zero- and first-order dependence on HAMS, depending on the concentration. An activation energy of 30 kJ/mol was determined for the reaction in the temperature range of 10-40/sup 0/C. The ionic strength dependence was studied in the range of 0.2-1.5 M. Oxalate, tartrate, and phthalate buffer systems were found to enhance the rate of reaction to varying degrees. An empirical rate law and the determined rate constants are reported. The results are examined in terms of a mechanism that consists of the nitrosation of HAMS, followed by a decomposition into products.

  12. Nanoscale Distribution of Sulfonic Acid Groups Determines Structure and Binding of Water in Nafion Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiao; Bonn, Mischa; Parekh, Sapun H; Domke, Katrin F

    2016-03-14

    The connection between the nanoscale structure of two chemically equivalent, yet morphologically distinct Nafion fuel-cell membranes and their macroscopic chemical properties is demonstrated. Quantification of the chemical interactions between water and Nafion reveals that extruded membranes have smaller water channels with a reduced sulfonic acid head group density compared to dispersion-cast membranes. As a result, a disproportionally large amount of non-bulk water molecules exists in extruded membranes, which also exhibit larger proton conductivity and larger water mobility compared to cast membranes. The differences in the physicochemical properties of the membranes, that is, the chemical constitution of the water channels and the local water structure, and the accompanying differences in macroscopic water and proton transport suggest that the chemistry of nanoscale channels is an important, yet largely overlooked parameter that influences the functionality of fuel-cell membranes. PMID:26895211

  13. Synthesis and Lanthanide Coordination Chemistry of Phosphine Oxide Decorated Dibenzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene Sulfone Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Ouizem, Sabrina [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Dickie, D. A. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Cramer, Roger E. [University of Hawaii; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Podair, Julien [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Syntheses for new ligands based upon dibenzothiophene and dibenzothiophene sulfone platforms, decorated with phosphine oxide and methylphosphine oxide donor groups, are described. Coordination chem. of 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene (8) , 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (9) and 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (10) with lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO3) 3 (H2O) n is outlined, and crystal structure detns. reveal a range of chelation interactions on Ln(III) ions. The HNO3 dependence of the solvent extn. performance of 9 and 10 in 1, 2- dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) is described and compared against the extn. behavior of related dibenzofuran ligands (2, 3; R = Ph) and n- octyl(phenyl) - N, N- diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (4) measured under identical conditions.

  14. Effects of atomic oxygen irradiation on the surface properties of phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effects of low earth orbit environment on the surface properties of polymers, phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (PES-C) blocks were irradiated by atomic oxygen in a ground-based simulation system. The surface properties of the pristine and irradiated blocks were studied by attenuated total-reflection FTIR (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that atomic oxygen irradiation induced the destruction of PES-C molecular chains, including the scission and oxidation of PES-C molecular chains, as evidenced by FTIR and XPS results. The scission of PES-C molecular chains decreased the relative concentration of C in the surface, while the oxidation increased the relative concentration of O in the surface. The changes in surface chemical structure and composition also changed the surface morphology of the block, which shifted from smooth structure before irradiation to 'carpet-like' structure after irradiation

  15. Cluster Morphology-Polymer Dynamics Correlations in Sulfonated Polystyrene Melts: Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-04-01

    Reaching exceptionally long times up to 500 ns in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations studies, we have attained a fundamental molecular understanding of the correlation of ionomer clusters structure and multiscale dynamics, providing new insight into one critical, long-standing challenge in ionic polymer physics. The cluster structure in melts of sulfonated polystyrene with Na+ and Mg2 + counterions are resolved and correlated with the dynamics on multiple length and time scales extracted from measurements of the dynamic structure factor and shear rheology. We find that as the morphology of the ionic clusters changes from ladderlike for Na+ to disordered structures for Mg2 + , the dynamic structure factor is affected on the length scale corresponding to the ionic clusters. Rheology studies show that the viscosity for Mg2 + melts is higher than for Na+ ones for all shear rates, which is well correlated with the larger ionic clusters' size for the Mg2 + melts.

  16. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    equilibrium constant (Keq.) and maximum surface coverage (Γmax) were determined based on the model. In general, the ionomer showed stronger adsorption for MWCNTs (Keq. = 21 − 377 depending on treatment) comparing to Vulcan (Keq. = 18), and slightly lower monolayer coverage. The interaction was found to be...... strongly affected by surface composition, morphology, porosity and oxygen containing functional groups, which are varied with purification and functionalization treatments. The modification of the surface properties was also studied with HR-TEM, BET, porosity measurement, EDXS, XPS, Raman and TG. The......The interaction between high surface area nano-carbon catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acid (Nafion®) ionomer was studied 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F-NMR). The method was developed and improved for more...

  17. Effects of atomic oxygen irradiation on the surface properties of phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei Xianqiang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18, Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18, Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang Qihua [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18, Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: Wangqh@lzb.ac.cn; Sun Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18, Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To study the effects of low earth orbit environment on the surface properties of polymers, phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (PES-C) blocks were irradiated by atomic oxygen in a ground-based simulation system. The surface properties of the pristine and irradiated blocks were studied by attenuated total-reflection FTIR (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that atomic oxygen irradiation induced the destruction of PES-C molecular chains, including the scission and oxidation of PES-C molecular chains, as evidenced by FTIR and XPS results. The scission of PES-C molecular chains decreased the relative concentration of C in the surface, while the oxidation increased the relative concentration of O in the surface. The changes in surface chemical structure and composition also changed the surface morphology of the block, which shifted from smooth structure before irradiation to 'carpet-like' structure after irradiation.

  18. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... present in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment...... mutants were analyzed in spikes classified according to their ontogenetic relationship. The frequency with which two spikes segregated identical mutants was determined by pairwise comparisons of all spikes in each plant. In this way the frequency of mutant cluster sharing between spikes and spike groups...

  19. Synthesis and detection of N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate in marketplace heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Daniel J; Ye, Hongping; Dunn, Jamie D; Kolinski, Richard E; Long, Dianna S; Phatak, Nisarga L; Ghasriani, Houman; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F; Keire, David A

    2015-12-01

    N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (NS-OSCS), recently reported as a potential threat to the heparin supply, was prepared along with its intermediate derivatives. All compounds were spiked into marketplace heparin and subjected to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) identification assays for heparin (proton nuclear magnetic resonance [(1)H NMR], chromatographic identity, % galactosamine [%GalN], anti-factor IIa potency, and anti-factor Xa/IIa ratio). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strong-anionic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) method resolved NS-OSCS from heparin and OSCS and had a limit of detection of 0.26% (w/w) NS-OSCS. The %GalN test was sensitive to the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin. Therefore, current USP heparin monograph tests (i.e., SAX-HPLC and %GalN) detect the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin. PMID:26278168

  20. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  1. Regeneration of carbon containing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate--Cyclic regeneration with steam in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umehara, T.; Smith, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    Cyclic regeneration of activated carbon containing adsorbed sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS) was studied in fluidized beds at 1119 K and 101.3 kPa. Optimum restorationof adsorption capacity (97.2% per cycle) resulted when gasification with 21.5% steam was continued for 200 s. At that time, about 85% of the DBS added to the carbon during the adsorption process had been removed. Because of the adsorbed inorganic residue from DBS, these results are somewhat different from earlier studies with the sucrose-carbon system. With sucrose, maximum restoration of adsorption capacity was achieved when a weight equivalent to 100% of the adsorbed sucrose was removed by thermal decomposition and steam gasification.

  2. Comparison of gene expression methods to identify genes responsive to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyue; Jones, Paul D; Decoen, Wim; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2005-01-01

    Genome-wide expression techniques are being increasingly used to assess the effects of environmental contaminants. Oligonucleotide or cDNA microarray methods make possible the screening of large numbers of known sequences for a given model species, while differential display analysis makes possible analysis of the expression of all the genes from any species. We report a comparison of two currently popular methods for genome-wide expression analysis in rat hepatoma cells treated with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. The two analyses provided 'complimentary' information. Approximately 5% of the 8000 genes analyzed by the GeneChip array, were altered by a factor of three or greater. Differential display results were more difficult to interpret, since multiple gene products were present in most gel bands so a probabilistic approach was used to determine which pathways were affected. The mechanistic interpretation derived from these two methods was in agreement, both showing similar alterations in a specific set of genes. PMID:21783471

  3. Studies on anhydrous proton conducting membranes based on imidazole derivatives and sulfonated polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhydrous proton conducting membranes based on sulfonated polyimide (sPI) and imidazole derivatives were prepared. The acid-base composite membranes show a good chemical oxidation stability and high thermal stability. The addition of imidazole derivatives in sPIs can improve the chemical oxidation stability of the composite membranes enormously, and even much better than that of pure sPI. The proton conductivity of a typical sPI/xUI(2-undecylimidazole) composite membrane can reach 10-3 S cm-1 at 180 deg. C under the anhydrous condition. The proton conductivity of the acid-base composite membranes increases significantly with increasing content of UI. Moreover, UI in sPI/xUI composite membrane is difficult to be brought out by the vapor due to the existence of long hydrophobic moiety, which will improve the stability and lifetime of the membranes in the fuel cells

  4. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5′bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10 wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes based on pure PBI as a reference point, the composite membranes were characterized with respect to spectroscopic and physicochemical properties. After doping with phosphoric acid, the composite membranes showed considerably improved ex situ proton conductivity under anhydrous as well as under fully humidified conditions in the 120-180 °C temperature range. The conductivity improvements were also confirmed by in situ fuel cell tests at 160 °C and further supported by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data based on the operating membrane electrode assemblies, demonstrating the technical feasibility of the novel electrolyte materials

  5. Evaluation of sodium lignin sulfonate as draw solute in forward osmosis for desert restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2014-03-01

    Sodium lignin sulfonate (NaLS), an abundant waste product of paper manufacturing, can be used in desert restoration. Combined with water and applied on arid land, NaLS has been shown to stabilize sand and provide a medium for plant growth. Here, we demonstrate that NaLS is an efficient draw solute in forward osmosis (FO) to extract water from impaired sources. The osmotic pressure of a 600. g. NaLS/kg water solution is 78. bar (7.8 MPa) as measured by freezing point depression. The FO performance using NaLS draw solute was evaluated with commercial FO membranes under various test conditions. The effects of draw solute concentration, feed salinity and membrane orientation were systematically investigated. Potential ways to optimize the process, e.g. combining fertilizer draw solutes and NaLS, are proposed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Proton-Conducting Sulfonated Ionomers by Chemical Modification and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller

    of the influence of ion exchange capacity (IEC) on water sorption and proton conductivity. There appears to be a narrow IEC-window where the water percolation increases tremendously from being very low to where severe swelling occurs, and the proton conductivity proportionally with it. In another...... is dedicated to a partially fluorinated system that is based on a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-containing backbone with fully sulfonated PS grafts. To counteract the dimensional change upon water contact that is a result of the increased IEC, the ionomer is blended with a high molecular weight...... PVDF, which contributes to the conservation of mechanical stability. The morphology of these blends is affected by the PVDF content. At 25 vol% ionomer macro-phase-separation occurs, while a 40 vol% ionomer content on top of the macro-phase-separation develops a repetitive patten of ion-rich domains in...

  7. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83library the largest homogeneous collection of stellar spectra covering the entire NIR domain. We also re-calibrated in flux and wavelength the two existing optical stellar libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  8. Las Meninas transmedial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    2001-01-01

    choses (1996/7) that a medium would be capable of uniting the model, the author (artist) and the viewer as one – with the appearance on the market of the first portable video apparatus (camera and recorder) and via the feedback-based ‘closed-circuit’ relationship between the recording and the...... reproduction apparatus. Foucault’s theory of the model-like quality of the classical representation in Las Meniñas shares its discoursive framework with a host of art-historical literature on this painting. To cease to distinguish between questions of meaning and those of representation, as Svetlana Alpers...... historiography. One way forward might consist in extending the range of the ‘sample’, both to take in specific media and to cross their borders – and in taking seriously such artistic practice as founds on reproduction technology, doing them justice in our investigations. Meanwhile, trans-media interpretations...

  9. Las cosas del quehacer

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio C. Staude

    2010-01-01

    El psicoanálisis es una praxis y no una práctica especulativa que solo busca afianzar un saber. Esta praxis encuentra su eje central en la noción de acto que es la invitación —y el sostén— a una experiencia y no a la acumulación de información. Ese acto da cuenta del tiempo de un pasaje, y el artículo destaca dos: el del momento inaugural del psicoanálisis y el de la función del psicoanalista en el devenir del análisis. A ambas las une la responsabilidad ...

  10. Poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Choi, Jisun; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kumar, Vinod; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • PEEK-g-PVBSA, a polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by a radiation grafting technique. • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), an aromatic hydrocarbon polymer was used as a grafting backbone film. • The water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the membranes were evaluated. • PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes show considerably lower methanol permeability compared to a Nafion membrane. -- Abstract: In this study, an aromatic hydrocarbon based polymer electrolyte membrane, poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK-g-PVBSA), has been prepared by the simultaneous irradiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a PEEK film and subsequent sulfonation. Each chemical conversion was monitored by FT-IR and SEM–EDX instruments. The physicochemical properties including IEC, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also investigated and found that the values of these properties increase with the increase of degree of grafting. It was observed that the IEC values of the prepared PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes with 32%, 58%, and 80% DOG values were 0.50, 1.05, and 1.22 meq/g while the water uptakes were 14%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. The proton conductivities (0.0272–0.0721 S/cm at 70 °C) were found to be somewhat lower than Nafion 212 (0.126 S/cm at 70 °C) at a relative humidity of 90%. However, the prepared membranes showed a considerably lower methanol permeability (0.61–1.92 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s) compared to a Nafion 212 membrane (5.37 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s)

  11. Sulfonated polystyrene magnetic nanobeads coupled with immunochromatographic strip for clenbuterol determination in pork muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kesheng; Guo, Liang; Xu, Wei; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Guomao; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wan, Yiqun

    2014-11-01

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction method (MSPE) was developed to pre-concentrate and cleanup clenbuterol (CLE) from pork muscle. Novel sulfonated polystyrene magnetic nanobeads (spMNBs) were synthesized via a one-pot emulsion copolymerization method by using divinylbenzene, styrene, and sodium styrene sulfonate in the presence of oleic acid-modified and 10-undecylenic acid-modified magnetic ferrofluid. The resulting spMNBs exhibited high adsorption efficiency for CLE and for 10 other common beta-adrenergic agonists, namely, brombuterol, ractopamine, tulobuterol, bambuterol, cimbuterol, mabuterol, clorprenaline, penbutolol, salbutamol, and cimaterol. The adsorption behavior of the spMNBs for CLE was described by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.41 mg/g. Under the optimized parameters, the extraction of CLE from 0.5 g of pork muscle required 25mg of the spMNBs at a shortened adsorption time (0.5 min). The proposed MSPE was coupled with colloidal gold nanoparticle-based immunochromatographic assay (MSPE-AuNPIA) for the quantitative detection of CLE residue in pork muscle. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the pork muscle were 0.10 and 0.24 ng/g, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day assay recoveries at three CLE spiked concentrations ranged from 92.5% to 98.1%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.2% to 13.0%. The results of MSPE-AuNPIA were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CLE values obtained with MSPE-AuNPIA agreed with those obtained with LC-MS/MS. PMID:25127616

  12. Dynamic interfacial tension behavior of alkyl amino sulfonate in crude oil-brine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhao Hua; Luo, Yue [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    2013-09-15

    The compatibility of surfactants, a series of alkyl amino sulfonate containing various the length of alkyl chain (dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl and octadecyl, developed in our laboratory), with formation water matching the Xinjiang Oil Field reservoir water and the dynamic interfacial tensions (DIT) behaviors between the crude oil and the formation water for a number of alkaline flooding systems were measured. These surfactants are found to be well compatible with formation water up to 0.10g L{sup -1} surfactant concentration, especially Dodec-AS and Tetradec-AS show a good compatibility with formation water over the full range of surfactant concentration investigated (0.01-0.20g L{sup -1}). All surfactants exhibit the dynamic interfacial tension behavior, and can reach and maintain low interfacial tension at very low concentration. The time for reaching the equilibrium DIT (DIT{sub eq}) is longer for surfactant with stronger lipophilicity, e.g. octadecyl-AS. It is interestingly found that the ratio value between DIT{sub eq} and the tension at crude oil/reservoir water interface in the absence of surfactant is in the range of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} mN m{sup -1}, accordingly based on which and the previous results, four surfactants individually or with other additives together may become potent candidates for enhanced oil recovery. Fortunately, the alkyl amino sulfonate combinational systems without alkali designed by our group can reduce the interfacial tension even to 10{sup -4} mN m{sup -1} at very low surfactant concentration. These surfactants or their systems have characteristic of 'Green', in addition to the excellent salt-tolerance and the less expensive cost for enhanced oil recovery, and therefore they are good oil-displacing reagents for enhanced oil recovery. (orig.)

  13. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Glass Substrate with α-Alumina-g-Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Composite Abrasive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Hong; BU Naijing; ZHANG Zefang; CHEN Ruling

    2010-01-01

    Abrasive is the one of key influencing factors during chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) process. Currently, α-Alumina (α-Al2O3) particle, as a kind of abrasive, has been widely used in CMP slurries, but their high hardness and poor dispersion stability often lead to more surface defects. After being polished with composite particles, the surface defects of work pieces decrease obviously. So the composite particles as abrasives in slurry have been paid more attention. In order to reduce defect caused by pure α-Al2O3 abrasive, α-alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid (α-Al2O3-g-PSS) composite abrasive was prepared by surface graft polymerization. The composition, structure and morphology of the product were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy(TOF-SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. The results show that polystyrene sulfonic acid grafts onto α-Al2O3, and has well dispersibility. Then, the chemical mechanical polishing performances of the composite abrasive on glass substrate were investigated with a SPEEDFAM-16B-4M CMP machine. Atomic force microscopy(AFM) images indicate that the average roughness of the polished glass substrate surface can be decreased from 0.835 nm for pure α-Al2O3 abrasive to 0.583 nm for prepared α-Al2O3-g-PSS core-shell abrasive. The research provides a new and effect way to improve the surface qualities during CMP.

  14. Meso- and macroporous sulfonated starch solid acid catalyst for esterification of palm fatty acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Lokman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst was successfully developed from starch. The catalyst was prepared by a significant two-step process; the initial step was incomplete carbonization of starch (ICS at 400 °C for 12 h and consequently followed by sulfonation process using concentrated H2SO4 to produce sulfonated-incomplete carbonized starch (ICS-SO3H. The characterization of the ICS-SO3H catalyst was done for chemical and physical properties such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, surface area analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM. BET results showed the structure of ICS-SO3H consists of meso- and macro-porous properties, which allowed high density of the SO3H group attached on its carbon networks. The catalytic activity of ICS-SO3H catalyst was determined by analyzing the catalyst performance to esterify palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD and sequentially produced methyl ester. The maximum free fatty acid (FFA conversion and FAME yield were as high as 94.6% and 90.4%, respectively, at 75 °C using 10:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio and 2 wt.% of catalyst within 3 h. The catalyst has sufficient potential to recycle up to 6 reactions without reactivation step and any remarkable loss of catalytic activity. It revealed that the heterogeneous ICS-SO3H catalyst exhibits high stability, reusability and catalytic activity.

  15. Poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PEEK-g-PVBSA, a polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by a radiation grafting technique. • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), an aromatic hydrocarbon polymer was used as a grafting backbone film. • The water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the membranes were evaluated. • PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes show considerably lower methanol permeability compared to a Nafion membrane. -- Abstract: In this study, an aromatic hydrocarbon based polymer electrolyte membrane, poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK-g-PVBSA), has been prepared by the simultaneous irradiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a PEEK film and subsequent sulfonation. Each chemical conversion was monitored by FT-IR and SEM–EDX instruments. The physicochemical properties including IEC, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also investigated and found that the values of these properties increase with the increase of degree of grafting. It was observed that the IEC values of the prepared PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes with 32%, 58%, and 80% DOG values were 0.50, 1.05, and 1.22 meq/g while the water uptakes were 14%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. The proton conductivities (0.0272–0.0721 S/cm at 70 °C) were found to be somewhat lower than Nafion 212 (0.126 S/cm at 70 °C) at a relative humidity of 90%. However, the prepared membranes showed a considerably lower methanol permeability (0.61–1.92 × 10−7 cm2/s) compared to a Nafion 212 membrane (5.37 × 10−7 cm2/s)

  16. Study on Novel HIGEE Technology for Synthesis of Overbased Petroleum Sulfonate Detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Lailong; Zhang Youlin; Bai Shengjun; Qian Zheng; Wu Wei; Chu Guangwen

    2006-01-01

    An innovative idea was proposed to prepare the overbased nano-sized calcium carbonate-calcium petroleum sulfonate in-situ the HIGEE reactor. The test sample prepared by this technology could meet the requirement of the industry standard SH0042-91 for the first-grade product on a par with similar overseas product. The test results obtained upon observation under microscope after freezing etching of specimen revealed that the crystal size of colloidal calcium sulfonate was in the range of 10-30 nm with an average size of 20 nm. The size of the detergent additive was uniform with good transmittance and fluidity. The HIGEE technology possesses five specific features as shown below: Firstly, the carbonation reaction is completed in one step with the reaction time reduced by more than 50% as compared to traditional batch reactor process along with enhanced reaction efficiency, good operability of the process and stabilized product quality. Secondly,ammonia emitted from the reaction is used as the co- promoter without the need for adding ammonia and water as promoters to simplify the promoter system along with effective and strong coupling of reactions. Thirdly, the utilization rate of Ca(OH)2 and CO2 is increased by 15% and 30%, respectively, with product yield increased by 15%, and calcium residue decreased by 65%. Fourthly, the HIGEE technology is environmental benign because of gasoline is used in this technology instead of toxic toluene and xylene. Fifthly, the dimension of HIGEE reactor is reduced by above two-thirds. The success in development of this new technology will offer new ideas and technology platform for the synthesis of metal detergent additive to lubricating oils in China.

  17. A verapamil electrochemical sensor based on magnetic mobile crystalline material-41 grafted by sulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H was characterized with TEM and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of verapamil. The results indicated that Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H-CPE facilitate the determination of verapamil with good sensitivity. Highlights: ► Electrooxidation of verapamil was performed using Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H-CPE. ► Modified electrode shows many advantages as a verapamil sensor. ► Excellent electrocatalytic activity was obtained for verapamil oxidation. ► The response of the modified electrode is linear over the entire 50–160 and 160–350 nM. -- Abstract: Magnetic (Fe2O3) mobile crystalline material-41 (MCM-41) grafted by sulfonic acid (Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H) was prepared and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltametry (SQWV) used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of verapamil at the sulfonic acid functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica, which was modified through carbon paste electrode (Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H-CPE). The Fe2O3-MCM-41-SO3H-CPE showed better performance for the electrochemical oxidation of verapamil, when compared with bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and Fe2O3-MCM-41-CPE. The experimental conditions influencing the determination of verapamil were optimized and under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to verapamil concentration in the range of 50–160 and 160–350 nmol dm−3, while the detection limit was 41 nmol dm−3 (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine verapamil in human serum, yielding satisfactory results. The spiked recoveries were in the range of (94.5–104.1%)

  18. Las TIC como fuente de ventaja competitiva en las PYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernando Moncada Niño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde su aparición, las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC se han convertido en un recurso fundamental de las empresas para competir en la mayoría de las industrias, generalizando el planteamiento de que son fuente de ventaja competitiva. Pero realmente, ¿cuándo las TIC son fuente potencial de ventaja competitiva para las pymes? ¿Bajo qué condiciones se logra que contribuyan a generar valor y mejorar su posición competitiva? ¿Qué características deben cumplir para alcanzar y sustentar la Ventaja Competitiva? Este documento basado en la Teoría de los Recursos y Capacidades (TRC responde estas preguntas y presenta al análisis de recurso Valioso, Raro, Inimitable y Organización (VRIO como herramienta para la determinación del potencial y valor que las TIC pueden alcanzar en las pymes y cómo pueden contribuir a que la empresa alcance ventajas competitivas sostenibles, en complemento de sus recursos y capacidades organizacionales.

  19. Las TIC como fuente de ventaja competitiva en las PYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernando Moncada Niño

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde su aparición, las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC se han convertido en un recurso fundamental de las empresas para competir en la mayoría de las industrias, generalizando el planteamiento de que son fuente de ventaja competitiva. Pero realmente, ¿cuándo las TIC son fuente potencial de ventaja competitiva para las pymes? ¿Bajo qué condiciones se logra que contribuyan a generar valor y mejorar su posición competitiva? ¿Qué características deben cumplir para alcanzar y sustentar la Ventaja Competitiva? Este documento basado en la Teoría de los Recursos y Capacidades (TRC responde estas preguntas y presenta al análisis de recurso Valioso, Raro, Inimitable y Organización (VRIO como herramienta para la determinación del potencial y valor que las TIC pueden alcanzar en las pymes y cómo pueden contribuir a que la empresa alcance ventajas competitivas sostenibles, en complemento de sus recursos y capacidades organizacionales.

  20. De la fraternidad de las artes: las imágenes y las palabras

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Martine

    2004-01-01

    Se distinguen naturalmente las imágenes y las palabras como pertenecientes a universos diferentes: de un lado, aquel de las palabras, del Verbo, del pensamiento, de la creación literaria o de la información; del otro, aquel de las imágenes, del sueño, de la emoción, de la seducción o de la manipulación mediática. En la película titulada The passenger, (en francés Profession reporter), en 1974, el cineasta Michelangelo Antonioni hace decir a uno de sus personajes, traficante de armas, al di...

  1. LAS COCINAS DEL INFIERNO. LA VISUALIDAD DE LAS MUJERES EN LAS CALDERAS DE PEDRO BOTERO

    OpenAIRE

    Zuriaga Senent, Vicent Francesc

    2013-01-01

    Casi todas las religiones nos hablan del infierno como lugar en el que las almas son torturadas eternamente. El judaísmo lo llama Gehena, la mitología clásica Tártaro y Hades, las religiones paganas Inframundo, y la tradición cristiana castellana Las calderas de Pedro Botero. Los profetas del Antiguo Testamento narran con claridad los tormentos del infierno y Dante en La Divina Comedia nos lo relata con una visión particular. La literatura y el arte nos ofrecen abundancia de imáge...

  2. The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its copper alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Amin, Mohammed A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Moussa, S.O. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: sherif_m74@yahoo.com; Ellithy, Abdallah S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-12-20

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its two copper alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of Al (Al-2.5% Cu and Al-7.0% Cu) alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution carried out in different concentrations of linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an anionic surfactant (LAS) and temperature range from 10 to 60 deg. C. The data revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing surfactant concentration and time of immersion, and decreases with solution temperature. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of LAS adsorbed film on the electrode surface. The surfactant acted mainly as cathodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency of the surfactant is observed at concentration around its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The inhibition occurs through adsorption of the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of the corrosion process, which tested by UV-spectroscopy. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of aluminum and Al-7.0% Cu was studied by ac-impedance, and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. The adsorption isotherm is described by Temkin adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic functions for activation and adsorption process were determined.

  3. Seguridad de las aplicaciones web

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Conferencia "Seguridad de las aplicaciones web" impartida en las III Jornadas Informáticas - UTE 2016 en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingeniería e Industrias de la Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial (Quito, Ecuador) el 5 de julio de 2016.

  4. Seguridad de las aplicaciones web

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Conferencia "Seguridad de las aplicaciones web" impartida en las III Jornadas Informáticas - UTE 2016 en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingeniería e Industrias de la Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial (Quito, Ecuador) el 5 de julio de 2016.

  5. Las aventuras con el autoscopio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Florencio Ramírez Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se inspira en el famoso personaje Harry Potter para hacer un análisis entre la filosofía y las neurociencias, específicamente sobre las condiciones funcionales que hacen posible filosofar.

  6. Las redes sociales entre las TICS y la decadencia moral

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz; Antonio Francisco Díaz García

    2013-01-01

    La paradoja de las redes sociales en las organizaciones es que constituyen un medio muy importante de formación, capacitación, actualización, información y comunicación, pero también representan un síntoma de decadencia cultural, porque con ellas se han facilitado los procesos de desinformación incontrolados y de distribución de información maliciosa, con la cual se agrede a las personas. El abuso en cuanto a subir información de manera indiscriminada lleva a presentar comportamientos cínicos...

  7. Las historias que se cuentan en las empresas

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Esquius, Lluís

    2008-01-01

    En las organizaciones conviven dos formas de pensamiento, el analítico y el narrativo. Ambas formas son complementarias y útiles pero tienen finalidades distintas. El primero busca el conocimiento fiable, el segundo dotar de significado a las experiencias cotidianas. En este artículo se plantean los fundamentos del pensamiento narrativo y de su resultado, las historias que nos explicamos y explicamos para dar sentido a nuestra experiencia. También se comentan algunos de los usos más...

  8. LAS DECISIONES FINANCIERAS EN LAS GERENCIAS DE LAS PYMES ESTUDIO DE CASO - SAN JUAN PASTO - COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Toro Diaz; Kristian David Rosas Estrada

    2012-01-01

    El nuevo escenario de la economía impone retos de competitividad ineludibles para las empresas productoras de bienes y servicios, es por lo tanto fundamental desarrollar mecanismos y estrategias de productividad en todas las funciones de la organización.

  9. Covalently bonded sulfonic acid magnetic graphene oxide: Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H as a powerful hybrid catalyst for synthesis of indazolophthalazinetriones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustkhah, Esmail; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-09-15

    Multistep synthesis of covalently sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide was achieved by starting from Hummer's method to produce graphene oxide (GO) from chemical oxidation of graphite. Then, GO nanosheets were applied to support Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@GO) using co-precipitation method in the presence of GO sheets. This strategy led to formation of uniform particles of Fe3O4 on the surface of GO sheets. Then, it was sulfonated (Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H) through modification with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and subsequent oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In comparison, the covalently bonded propyl sulfonic acid groups were more prevailing rather to sulfonic acids of GO itself. The proposed catalyst was more active and recyclable at least for 11 runs. PMID:27309948

  10. A study of the efficiency and the problem of sulfonation of several condensing reagents and their mechanisms for the chemical synthesis of deoxyoligoribonucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, A. K.; Jay, E

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies and problems of sulfonation of several condensing reagents for deoxyoligoribonucleotide synthesis have been studied. While 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TPSC1) gave very low yield and slow rate of coupling, the new 1:3 mixture of TPSC1 and tetrazole afforded excellent yield and extremely fast rate of reaction with the lowest rate of sulfonation. The difference and advantages of this mixture over triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl tetrazole (TPSTe) and mesitylenesulfony...

  11. Sulfonate groups grafted on Ti6Al4V favor MC3T3-E1 cell performance in serum free medium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena; Migonney, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Ten years ago, we synthesized "bioactive model polymers" bearing sulfonate groups and proposed a mechanism of their modulation effect at different steps of the cell response. Then, we set up the grafting of polymers bearing sulfonate on Ti6Al4V surfaces by a grafting "from" technique making sure of the creation of covalent bonds between the grafted polymer and the Ti6Al4V surface. We have checked and confirmed the positive effect of grafted sulfonate groups on the osteoblastic cell response in vivo and in vitro but we did not elucidate the mechanism. The aim of this basic work consists first in investigating the role of sulfonate groups in the presence and in the absence of proteins at early stages of the osteointegration process on poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted Ti6Al4V surfaces, in vitro. To understand the role of poly(NaSS) grafted chains on osteoblast-like cell response and to confirm/elucidate the importance of fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins in the culture medium, MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto poly(NaSS) grafted and non-grafted Ti6Al4V surfaces. Cultures were carried out in a complete (10% FBS) and in a non-complete medium (without FBS). Cell viability assay, cell attachment number and cell adhesion strength were followed up to 3days of culture. The presence of proteins enhanced cell growth and development whatever the surface and the presence of sulfonate groups enhanced the cell attachment even in the absence of proteins, which suggests and confirms that the sulfonate groups can modify the activity of cells such as the secretion of binding proteins. Statistical differences were found in the attachment strength tests on poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted surfaces and showed that the sulfonate groups play an important role in the cell resistance to shear stress. PMID:24863216

  12. 共聚物 PDA 的磺化工艺研究%The Study of Sulfonation Process of Copolymers PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 谢燕; 尚伟

    2014-01-01

    在水溶液聚合的条件下,利用磺甲基化原理,对共聚物PDA进行磺化改性,全面探讨影响磺化后产物相对分子质量的因素,对比分析磺化前后产品红外谱图。实验表明,磺化改性的较佳条件为:磺化温度为60℃、 n ( AM )砄n ( HCHO )砄n(Na2SO3)=1砄0.5砄1、磺化时间为4 h、磺化反应pH为8,合成SPDA分子量为4.39×105。%Under the conditions with solution polymerization , with the principal of sulfomethylation , PDA was modified by sulfonated.The factor influenced the relative molecular mass of sulfonated product was comprehensively studied , comparing the IR of product that sulfonated with the IR of product that after sulfonated.The result showed the sulfonated modified for better conditions were that sulfonation temperature was 60℃, n(AM):n(HCHO):n(Na2SO3)=1:0.5:1, sulfonated time was 4 h, sulfonation reaction pH was 8, and the relative molecular mass of SPDA was 4.39 ×105.

  13. A STUDY ON THE DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PHOTOCROSSLINKING PRODUCTS FORMED BY CYCLIZED POLYISOPRENE-DIAZIDE SYSTEM UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALKYL BENZENE SULFONIC ACIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Junlian; SUN Meng

    1989-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of photocrosslinking products formed by cyclized polyisoprene-diazide system under the influence of the different alkyl benzene sulfonic acids was studied. The effects ofalkyl chain length and the concentration of alkyl benzene sulfonic acids on the rate of degradation reaction were discussed. It was found that in the initial stage of degradation, the cyclicity ratio and the average fused ring number did not change considerably, but the percentage of uncyclized parts content varied significantly. The suitable mechanism was supposed.

  14. Las multitudes y las revoluciones de nuestro tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harold Biervliet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el motivo de las multitudes y las revoluciones de nuestro tiempo. Primeramente, se discuten las diferencias entre los conceptos de multitud y masa. Así, podemos considerar las revoluciones como acontecimientos de cambios sociales, económicos y políticos, provenientes de las clases baja y media de la sociedad. El meollo de este artículo refiere a la dignidad humana articulada a la contracción de los Estados de bienestar. Los ciudadanos están reflejando un desencanto hacia la clase política y una frustración con respecto al empeoramiento de las condiciones económicas y sociales. Podemos observar los casos de indignados en Grecia, España y Portugal pero también en los países árabes. De esta misma manera, las revoluciones de las multitudes siguen avanzando por medio de las demostraciones públicas y protestas sobre los espacios geográficos. Finalmente, las dinámicas de cambio a través de las revoluciones árabes son una cuestión compleja debido al círculo vicioso entre la tendencia autoritaria y la islámica. This article examines the reason of multitudes and revolutions in our time. First of all, it discusses the difference between the concept of multitude and mass. Consequently, revolutions can be considered as social, economic, and political events of changes, which come from the low and middle classes of the society. This article refers to the human dignity articulated with the contraction of Welfare states. Citizens are reflecting disenchantment towards the political class and frustration regarding the deterioration of social and economic conditions. We can observe angry people in Greece, Spain, and Portugal but also in Arabian countries. In this same way, revolutions of multitudes continue by means of public demonstrations and protests on geographical spaces. Finally, the dynamics of change through Arabian Revolutions are a complex matter due to the vicious circle between the authoritarian or Islamic

  15. Unificar las ciencias del deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Natàlia Balagué Serre; Carlota Torrents Martín

    2013-01-01

    El deporte no es solo un fenómeno social de nuestro mundo, sino que también es un campo privilegiado para el estudio del comportamiento social y humano. Durante las últimas décadas, se ha producido un enorme crecimiento y especialización de las ciencias del deporte y el lema del 18º Congreso del European College of Sport Sciences (ECSS) “Unificar las ciencias del deporte” representa desafiar este proceso de fragmentación. El lema conlleva un cambio de la especialización a la integración, de u...

  16. Impactos sobre las zonas costeras

    OpenAIRE

    Centrero Uceda, Antonio; Sánchez-Arcilla Conejo, Agustín; Zazo Cardeña , Caridad; Bardají Azcárate, Teresa; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Goy Goy, José Luis; Jiménez, J. A.; C. Mösso; Rivas , V.

    2005-01-01

    Los principales problemas del cambio climático en las zonas costeras se relacionan con potenciales cambios en la frecuencia y/o intensidad de las tormentas asi coma con el posible ascenso del nivel media del mar (NMM). En cuanto al nivel del mar, las previsiones del IPCC para fin de siglo se han ido reduciendo según disponía de datas mas fiables desde 50-90 cm (IPCC 1998) a 1 3-68 cm (IPCC 2001). Los valores de INQUA (International Union for the Study of Quaternary Sea-Level Ch...

  17. Unificar las ciencias del deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natàlia Balagué Serre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El deporte no es solo un fenómeno social de nuestro mundo, sino que también es un campo privilegiado para el estudio del comportamiento social y humano. Durante las últimas décadas, se ha producido un enorme crecimiento y especialización de las ciencias del deporte y el lema del 18º Congreso del European College of Sport Sciences (ECSS “Unificar las ciencias del deporte” representa desafiar este proceso de fragmentación. El lema conlleva un cambio de la especialización a la integración, de una concepción de los sistemas vivos basada en la teoría de la información y la ingeniería a una de base biológica, de la investigación multidisciplinaria a la transdisciplinaria. Pero aparece una pregunta: ¿es posible integrar las áreas fragmentadas y facilitar la transferencia de los principios explicativos teóricos, técnicas y perspectivas metodológicas entre disciplinas? En el marco de las contribuciones hechas en el congreso, este artículo tiene como objetivo introducir enfoques científicos ya extendidos en los ámbitos de la física, la química, la biología (incluyendo las ómicas y las ciencias sociales, y que centradas en las interacciones dinámicas complejas de los componentes sistémicos (proteínas, células, organismos, grupos, sociedades, revelan principios explicativos generales que contribuyen a la unificación del conocimiento. Intentamos animar a las personas interesadas en las ciencias del deporte a percibir nuevas formas de investigación y a complementar, sin sustituirlos, los enfoques dominantes, con la esperanza de que ir de las partes al todo y del todo a las partes ayudará a los científicos a reconocer los caminos más adecuados.

  18. Los problemas de las gimnasias

    OpenAIRE

    Bulus Rossini, Viviana; Husson, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo se propone sintetizar las principales ideas de las ponencias presentadas en la Mesa de Trabajo “Los problemas de las Gimnasias” que se desarrolló en el marco del 9° Congreso Argentino y 4° Latinoamericano de Educación Física y Ciencias realizado en la Universidad Nacional de La Plata en junio de 2011. Todas ellas coinciden en pensar a la Gimnasia como parte fundamental de una Educación Corporal que se proponga transmitir aquellos saberes corporales culturalmente significativos q...

  19. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY ON ADSORPTION OF AROMATIC SULFONIC ACIDS ONTO MACROPOROUS WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Long; Quan-xing Zhang; Ai-min Li; Jin-long Chen

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of three aromatic sulfonic acid compounds, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, ptoluenesulfonic acid and p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, from aqueous solutions by macroporous weak base anion exchanger within the temperature range of 293 K-313 K were obtained. Several isotherm equations were correlated with the equilibrium data, and the experimental data was found to fit the three-parameter Redlich-Peterson equation best within the entire range of concentrations. The study showed that the hydrophobicity of solute has distinct influence on adsorption capacity of the anion exchanger for the aromatic sulfonic acid. Moreover, estimations of the isosteric enthalpy, free energy,and entropy change of adsorption were also reported. The positive isosteric enthalpy and entropy change for adsorption indicate an endothermic and entropy driven process in the present study.

  20. Chemical mechanical polishing of hard disk substrate with {alpha}-alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid composite abrasive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Hong, E-mail: hong_lei2005@yahoo.com.c [Research Center of Nano-science and Nano-technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Bu Naijing; Chen Ruling; Hao Ping [Research Center of Nano-science and Nano-technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Neng Sima; Tu Xifu; Yuen Kwok [Shenzhen Kaifa Magnetic Recording Co., LTD, Shenzhen, 518035 (China)

    2010-05-03

    {alpha}-Alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-g-PSS) composite abrasive was prepared by surface activation, graft polymerization and sulfonation, successively. The composition, dispersibility and morphology of the product were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of the composite abrasive on hard disk substrate with nickel-phosphorous plating were investigated. The microscopy images of the polished surfaces show that {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-g-PSS composite abrasive results in improved CMP and post-CMP cleaning performances than pure {alpha}-alumina abrasive under the same testing conditions.

  1. Production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated-glucose solid acid catalyst:Characterization and optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim M Lokman; Umer Rashid; Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2015-01-01

    A palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been used for biodiesel production. An efficient sulfonated-glucose acid catalyst (SGAC) was prepared by sulfonation to catalyze the esterification reaction. The effect of three variables i.e. methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time, on the yield of PFAD esters was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum reaction conditions were:12.2:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, 2.9%catalyst concentration and 134 min of time as predicted by the RSM. The reaction under the optimum conditions resulted in 94.5%of the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion with 92.4%of the FAME yield. The properties of the PFAD esters were determined according to biodiesel standards.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Silica and Its Application for the Esterification of Ethanol and Maleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsam, Rajkumar; Usmani, Ghayas

    2016-04-01

    The surface of commercially available silica gel, 60-200 mesh size, was modified with sulfonic acid through surface activation, grafting of 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, oxidation and acidification of 3-Mercaptopropylsilica. Sulfonic Acid Functionalization of Silica (SAFS) was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Acid-base titration was used to estimate the cation exchange capacity of the SAFS. Catalytic activity of SAFS was judged for the esterification of ethanol with maleic acid. An effect of different process parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, speed of agitation and temperature were studied and optimized by Box Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Quadratic model developed by BBD-RSM reasonably satisfied an experimental and predicted values with correlation coefficient value R2 = 0.9504.

  3. Effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of sulfonated poly-(styrene acrylic acid) (PSAA-S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, G.W.; Becker, E.B.; Silva, L.; Naspolini, A.M.; Consenso, E.C.; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M.A., E-mail: glau_bn@hotmail.co [University of Extreme South of Santa Catarina Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Silveira, F.Z. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Polymers with special properties have been increasingly applied in the development of technological devices. For example, polymeric materials with special electric properties, such as sulfonated poly-(styrene-acrylic acid) - PSAA-S, are of great interest for showing different conductivities depending on the environment where they are applied. The special properties of PSAA are obtained only after sulfonation step in acidic media. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, through a statistical experimental factorial planning. The samples of PSAA-S were submitted to FT-IR and DRX tests. The results showed that the temperature and the time of exposition are significant factors in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, considering that the crystal lattices created during the polymerization are damaged by the action of time and temperature at which the polymer is exposed. (author)

  4. Development and characterization of acid-doped polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone blend polymer electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasiotis, C.; Li, Qingfeng; Deimede, V.;

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric membranes from blends of sulfonated polysulfones (SPSF) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid were developed as potential high-temperature polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The water uptake and acid doping of these polymeric...... was found to be higher than 10/sup -2/ S cm/sup -1/. Much improvement in the mechanical strength is observed for the blend polymer membranes, especially at higher temperatures. Preliminary work has demonstrated the feasibility of these polymeric membranes for fuel-cell applications...... membranes were investigated. Ionic conductivity of the membranes was measured in relation to temperature, acid doping level, sulfonation degree of SPSF, relative humidity, and blend composition. The conductivity of SPSF was of the order of 10/sup -3/ S cm/sup -1/. In the case of blends of PBI and SPSF it...

  5. Serum albumin as a probe for testing the selectivity of irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors: The case of vinyl sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, Luca; Colombo, Simone; Mazzolari, Angelica; Vistoli, Giulio; Carini, Marina

    2016-05-30

    Vinyl sulfones are used for drug design of irreversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases since they are able to alkylate cysteine thiols inside the catalytic pocket of this class of enzymes. Some authors have reported the lack of reactivity towards glutathione as sufficient evidence of the selectivity of such a mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate that some simple molecules containing a vinyl sulfone moiety are not thiol-specific alkylants since they react with some albumin nucleophiles including side chains of Cys34 and His146. Such side-reactions are not desirable for any drug candidate since they limit serum stability, bioavailability and they possibly trigger toxicity mechanisms. In silico predictions, indicate that the compounds tested share similar structural features with reported inhibitors of cysteine proteases, as well as similar poses around the main albumin nucleophiles. Altogether, the data suggest that albumin is better than glutathione for the setup of early in vitro tests probing the selectivity of cysteine protease inhibitors. PMID:26970985

  6. La intangibilidad de las acciones privadas de las personas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Maldonado Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos acercarnos a una garantía que —siguiendo cierta doctrina— hemos llamado: intangibilidad de las acciones privadas de las personas. Desde una visión que busca ser omnicomprensiva, se analizan las fuentes de las que mana la privacidad y, posteriormente, su contenido y alcances. Sobre todo, se analiza el problema de los límites de la injerencia y regulación estatal, partiendo de una posición que niega las visiones comunitaristas. En general, se trata de conceptualizar a la garantía planteada desde el punto de vista de la libertad, el derecho y las virtudes humanas, los derechos de terceros y la moral pública; concretando su vinculación con otros derechos relacionados con la privacidad. La idea central del presente trabajo consiste en demostrar la transversalidad de la garantía señalada, implicando —en ese proceso— cuestiones trascendentes para la filosofía del derecho, la teoría del derecho y, por supuesto, para el estudio del derecho de los derechos humanos. 

  7. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin GAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  8. Crystal structure of tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalenium (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Mathieu; Allain, Magali; Mézière, Cécile; Pop, Flavia; Giffard, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Electro-oxidation of tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalene (TMTTF) in the presence of the chiral anion (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate (S-camphSO3 (-)) in tetra-hydro-furan/water medium afforded a 1/1 salt formulated as TMTTF·S-camphSO3·2H2O or 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di-thiole radical ion (1+) [(1S)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methane-sulfonate dihydrate, C10H12S4 (+)·C10H15O4S(-)·2H2O. In this salt, two independent TMTTF units are present but, in both cases, the observed bond lengths and especially the central C=C distance [1.392 (6) and 1.378 (6) Å] are in agreement with a complete oxidation of TMTTF which is thus present as TMTTF (.) (+) radical cations. These cations form one-dimensional stacks in which they are associated two by two, forming dimers with short [3.472 (1) to 3.554 (2) Å] S⋯S contacts. The two S-camphSO3 anions present also form stacks and are connected with each other via the water mol-ecules with many O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds ranging from 1.86 (3) to 2.15 (4) Å; the O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network can be described as being constituted of C 2 (2)(6) chains bearing R 3 (3)(11) lateral rings. On the other hand, the columns of cations and anions are connected through C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a system expanding in three directions; finally, the result is a three-dimensional network of O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279858

  9. Clinical Efficacy of Andrographolide Sulfonate in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is Dependent upon Inhibition of Neutrophil Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Xu, Wenjun; Liang, Lianchun; Li, Junhong; Ding, Xiaorong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Jianhua; Lv, Aiping; Li, Xiuhui

    2015-08-01

    Andrographolide sulfonate treatment has been shown to improve clinical severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) efficacies when combined with conventional therapy. However, the mechanisms for its therapeutic effects remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether andrographolide sulfonate exerts its efficacy by acting on neutrophil activation. We obtained serial plasma samples at two time points (before and after 5 days of therapy) from 28 HFMD patients who received conventional therapy and 18 patients who received combination therapy (andrographolide sulfonate plus conventional therapy). Then, we measured plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO), S100A8/A9, histone, and inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, we examined if andrographolide sulfonate had direct effects on neutrophil activation in vitro. We observed that MPO and S100A8/A9 levels were markedly elevated in the HFMD patients before clinical treatment. At 5 days post-medication, the MPO, S100A8/A9, histone, and interleukin-6 levels were markedly lower in the combination therapy group compared with the conventional therapy group. In vitro studies showed that andrographolide sulfonate inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophil activation, demonstrated by the decreased production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines. These data indicate that neutrophil activation modulation by andrographolide sulfonate may be a critical determinant for its clinical HFMD treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25960284

  10. Toward 5 V Li-Ion Batteries: Quantum Chemical Calculation and Electrochemical Characterization of Sulfone-Based High-Voltage Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhou, Hang; Bai, Ying; Wang, Huali; Wu, Chuan

    2015-07-15

    In seeking new sulfone-based electrolytes to meet the demand of 5 V lithium-ion batteries, we have combined the theoretical quantum chemistry calculation and electrochemical characterization to explore several sulfone/cosolvent systems. Tetramethylene sulfone (TMS), dimethyl sulfite (DMS), and diethyl sulfite (DES) were used as solvents, and three kinds of lithium salts including LiBOB, LiTFSI, and LiPF6 were added into TMS/DMS [1:1, (v)] and TMS/DES [1:1, (v)] to form high-voltage electrolyte composites, respectively. All of these electrolytes display wide electrochemical windows of more than 5.4 V, with the high electrolyte conductivities being more than 3 mS/cm at room temperature. It is indicated that to achieve the best ionic conductivity in TMS/DMS cosolvent, the optimized concentrations of lithium salts LiBOB, LiTFSI, and LiPF6 were 0.8, 1, and 1 M, respectively. Furthermore, the vibrational changes of the molecular functional groups in the cosolvents were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is found that lithium salts show strong interaction with the main functional sulfone groups and sulfonic acid ester group, thus playing a vital role in the enhancement of the ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of the solvent system. These sulfone-based solvents with high electrochemical stability are expected to become a new generation of a high-voltage organic electrolytic liquid system for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26087246

  11. New pathway for degradation of sulfonated azo dyes by microbial peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Streptomyces chromofuscus.

    OpenAIRE

    Goszczynski, S; Paszczynski, A; Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Crawford, R L; Crawford, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Pathways for the degradation of 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-azobenzene-4'-sulfonic acid (I) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonamide (II) by the manganese peroxidase and ligninase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by the peroxidase of Streptomyces chromofuscus have been proposed. Twelve metabolic products were found, and their mechanisms of formation were explained. Preliminary oxidative activation of the dyes resulted in the formation of cationic species, making the molecules vulnerable ...

  12. Association of Osteoarthritis With Serum Levels of the Environmental Contaminants Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in a Large Appalachian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Kim E.; Ducatman, Alan M.; Luster, Michael I; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the link between these compounds and OA remains unknown. In this study, the authors investigated the association of OA with PFOA and PFOS in a population of 49,432 adults from 6 PFOA-contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley (2005–2006). Participants c...

  13. Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adult...

  14. Enhancing the grain size of organic halide perovskites by sulfonate-carbon nanotube incorporation in high performance perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Tan, Licheng; Fu, Qingxia; Chen, Lie; Ji, Ting; Hu, Xiaotian; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-14

    The grain size of perovskites was enhanced and the grain boundary was filled with sulfonate carbon nanotubes (s-CNTs) during the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite precursor solution spin-coating process with the incorporation of s-CNTs. The performance of s-CNT incorporated perovskite solar cells remarkably increased from 10.3% to 15.1% (best) compared with pristine CNT incorporated perovskite solar cells. PMID:26940646

  15. Anion-controlled assembly of silver-di(aminophenyl)sulfone coordination polymers: Syntheses, crystal structures, and solid state luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five silver coordination polymers, namely, ([Ag(3,3′-daps)2]·BF4)n (1), ([Ag(3,3′-daps)2]·NO3)n (2), [Ag(3,3′-daps)(CF3SO3)]n (3), ([Ag(4,4′-daps)]·CF3SO3)n (4), and ([Ag(4,4′-daps)]·ClO4)n (5) (3,3′-daps=di(3′-aminodiphenyl)sulfone, and 4,4′-daps=di(4′-aminodiphenyl)sulfone) have been synthesized and structural characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 displays a 1D ladder-like chain with four-connected Ag ions and bridged 3,3′-daps. Complex 2 shows other 1D ladder chain modified by tentacles. Complex 3 is a 2D layer structure with both Ag ions and 3,3′-daps are 3-connected nodes. Complex 4 is another 1D ladder chain with three-connected Ag ions and 4,4′-daps. Complex 5 shows a 2D 44-sql net with Ag ions and 4,4′-daps as 4-connected nodes. Moreover, their solid state luminescence and thermal stabilities also have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Pictogram: Synthetic procedures of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers. We reported the synthetic procedures, structure, and luminescence property of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers based on two novel di(aminophenyl)sulfone V-shaped ligands. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Five new silver coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • Two novel designed V-shaped di(aminophenyl)sulfone ligands were first introduced to coordination chemistry. • Anions play important roles in determining the five silver coordination polymers. • The structural diversity and photoluminescence property were also discussed

  16. Ag nanoparticle/melamine sulfonic acid supported on silica gel as an efficient catalytic system for synthesis of dihydropyrimidinthiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parya Nasehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-thiones were synthesized in the presence of Ag nanoparticle/melamine sulfonic acid (MSA supported on silica gel. The reactionwas carried out at 110 oC for 20 min under solvent free conditions. This method hassome advantages such as good yield, mild reaction conditions, ease of operation and work up, short reaction time and high product purity.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly(Phenylene Containing a Non-Planar Structure and Dibenzoyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyoun Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers for application as sulfonated polyphenylene membranes were prepared by nickel-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene (BCD and 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene (DCBP. Conjugated cis/trans isomer (BCD had a non-planar conformation containing four peripheral aromatic rings that facilitate the formation of π–π interactions. 1,4-Dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene was synthesized from the oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Friedel-Crafts reaction with benzene. DCBP monomer had good reactivity in polymerization affecting the activity of benzophenone as an electron-withdrawing group. The polyphenylene was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid. These polymers without any ether linkages on the polymer backbone were protected from nucleophilic attack by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxide anion, and radicals generated by polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC operation systems. The mole fraction of the sulfonic acid groups was controlled by varying the mole ratio of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene in the copolymer. In comparison with Nafion 211® membrane, these SBCDCBP membranes showed ion exchange capacity (IEC ranging from 1.04 to 2.07 meq./g, water uptake from 36.5% to 69.4%, proton conductivity from 58.7 to 101.9 mS/cm, and high thermal stability.

  18. Enhancement of proton conductivity of chitosan membrane enabled by sulfonated graphene oxide under both hydrated and anhydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahua; Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Haoqin; Ma, Chuanming; Liu, Jindun; Cao, Shaokui; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) nanosheets with controllable sulfonic acid group loading are synthesized via the facile distillation-precipitation polymerization, and then incorporated into chitosan (CS) matrix to prepare nanohybrid membranes. The microstructure and physicochemical properties of the resulting membranes are extensively investigated. Compared with CS control and GO-filled membranes, SGO-filled membranes attain enhanced thermal and mechanical stabilities due to the strong electrostatic attractions between -SO3H of SGO and -NH2 of CS, which inhibit the mobility of CS chains. Additionally, the inhibited mobility reduces the area swellings of SGO-filled membranes, reinforcing their structural stabilities. The incorporation of SGO generates acid-base pairs along CS-SGO interface, which work as facile proton-hoping sites and thus construct continuous and wide proton transfer pathways, yielding enhanced proton conductivities under both hydrated and anhydrous conditions. Meanwhile, the conductivity can be elevated by increasing the sulfonic acid group loading and content of SGO. Particularly, incorporating 2.0% S4GO can afford the nanohybrid membrane a 122.5% increase in hydrated conductivity and a 90.7% increase in anhydrous conductivity when compared with CS control membrane. The superior conduction properties then offered a significant enhancement in H2/O2 cell performances to the nanohybrid membranes, guaranteeing them to be promising proton exchange membranes.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membrane based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pu, Hongting; Chang, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A new series of organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared using sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole (SPIBIs) and glycidyl ether of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (G-POSS). SPIBIs were synthesized using 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (APBIA) and 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2‧-disulfonic acid (ODADS). The organic-inorganic cross-linked membranes can be prepared by SPIBIs with G-POSS by a thermal treatment process. The cross-linking density of the membranes was evaluated by gel fractions. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the cross-linked organic-inorganic membranes were intensively investigated. All the cross-linked membranes exhibit high cross-linking density for the gel fraction higher than 70%. Compared to pristine membranes (SPIBIs) and membranes without benzimidazole groups (SPI), the anti-free-radical oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The anti-free-oxidative stability of SPIBI-100-P (cross-linked SPIBI membrane with 100% degree of sulfonation) is nearly four-fold higher than that of SPIBI-100. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes ranges from 10-3 S cm-1 to 10-2 S cm-1 depending both on the degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPIBI and temperature.

  20. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis oil: sulfonic-ionic liquid-catalyzed esterification of a two-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Elsheikh, Yasir; Hassan Akhtar, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to the IL than the single sulfonic chain in MSIMHSO4. Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12 : 1, and 150 °C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min. A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6 : 1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 °C for 50 min. This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts. PMID:24987736