Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) form the class of porous materials with the highest surface areas. This characteristic property combined with the variability of both building blocks, the inorganic node and the organic linker, makes many scientists dream of materials with very special chemical, electronic, optic and/or magnetic properties. For individual applications both building blocks, but also possibly in the framework embedded guests, play a crucial role. This work describes the synthe...
Campbell, Bernadette; Mark, Melvin M.
Evaluation theories can be tested in various ways. One approach, the experimental analogue study, is described and illustrated in this article. The approach is presented as a method worthy to use in the pursuit of what Alkin and others have called descriptive evaluation theory. Drawing on analogue studies conducted by the first author, we…
Dickson, Rumona; Tight, Malcolm; Saunders, Murray
This thesis presents a retrospective case study that critically examines the evaluations that were undertaken as part of a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for health care professionals. The case is the SEARCH Program, an innovative CPD programme, which was designed to promote the implementation of evidence based practice (EBP) within the existing health care system in Alberta, Canada. Two approaches from the ‘using’ branch of Alkin and Chrisite’s evaluation theory tree are...
Wolfgang H. Binder
Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.
Full Text Available Emission inventories of sixty-seven speciated non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC from on-road vehicles in China were estimated for the period of 1980–2005, using seven NMVOC emission profiles, which were summarized based on local and international measurements from published literatures dealing with specific vehicle categories running under particular modes.
Results show an exponential growth trend of China's historical emissions of alkanes, alkenes, alkines, aromatics and carbonyls during the period of 1980–2005, increasing from 63.9, 39.3, 6.9, 36.8 and 24.1 thousand tons, respectively, in 1980 to 2778.2, 1244.5, 178.7, 1351.7 and 406.0 thousand tons, respectively, in 2005, which coincided well with China's economic growth. Emission inventories of alkenes, aromatics and carbonyls were gridded at a high resolution of 40 km×40 km for air quality simulation and health risk evaluation, using the geographic information system (GIS methodology. Spatial distribution of speciated NMVOC emissions shows a clear difference in emission densities between developed eastern and relatively underdeveloped western and inland China. Besides, the appearance and expansion of high-emission areas was another notable characteristic of spatial distribution of speciated NMVOC emissions during the period.
Emission contributions of vehicle categories to speciated NMVOC groups showed annual variation, due to the variance in the provincial emissions and in the relative fractions of the seven emission profiles adopted at the provincial level. Highly reactive and toxic compounds accounted for high proportions of emissions of speciated NMVOC groups. The most abundant compounds were isopentane, pentane and butane from alkanes; ethene, propene, 2-methyl-2-butene and ethyne from alkenes and alkines; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m,p-xylene (BTEX and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene from aromatics and formaldehyde, acetaldehyde
Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver
The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Análisis inferencial de las potencialidades de promoción de absorción de una familia de 1-O-alquil gliceroles Inferable analysis related to promotion of the absorption potentialities from 1-O-alkyl glycerol family
Miguel Francisco Bilbao Díaz
interpretation in terms of contribution of 1-O-alkyl glycerols functional groups of. From this analysis we established inferred interpretations on the theoretical potentials of this family for its prospective evaluation as promoting agents of class I absorption. This computer-assisted in silico screening approach allowed us to call for that 1-O-alkin glycerols, particularly in the 1-O-hexadecyl glycerol, and 1-O-octadecil glycerol, are excellent candidates to demonstrate its high promotion capacity according to in vivo studies, which have gained percentage high levels of bioavailability (> 90 . We conclude that according a discriminating analysis, all family members had potentials for gastrointestinal absorption.
Drei-Photonen-Anregung gegraftet. Um die Grafting-Effizienz zu erhöhen und die benötigten Energien zu senken, entwickelten wir eine Serie neuer 2PA-aktiver Fluoraryl-Azide die 'push-pull'-Strukturen beinhalten. Gewünschte Funktionalitäten wie Alken- und Alkin-Gruppen wurden in den terminalen Amino-Gruppen eingeführt um eine Postmodifikation nach dem Zwei-Photonen-Photografting zu ermöglichen. (author)