makers with information (Alkin, 1969; Stufflebeam et. al ., 1971, Borich, G. & Jemelka, R.P., 1982). Alkin (1969) views evaluation as the process of...this program evaluation model. 773 CIPP Program Evaluation Model The Phi Delta Kappa Commission on Evaluation ( Stufflebeam et. al., 1971) developed the
Campbell, Bernadette; Mark, Melvin M.
Evaluation theories can be tested in various ways. One approach, the experimental analogue study, is described and illustrated in this article. The approach is presented as a method worthy to use in the pursuit of what Alkin and others have called descriptive evaluation theory. Drawing on analogue studies conducted by the first author, we…
Entering the global competition era, people need strategies to master foreign language. The objective of the evaluation on the foreign language development program in IHBS Junior High School (JHS) is to determine effectiveness of the program process and identify the problems that emerge. The evaluation model used is the CSE-UCLA which was initiated by Alkin. The evaluation was accomplished in several phases, namely: assessment program, planning program, implementation program, improvement pro...
Wolfgang H. Binder
Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.
Ma, Haiping; Wu, Yanqiang; Feng, Jian’gang; Xu, Rong; Wu, Shayi; Wang, Qian
Based on the GPS data in the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the velocity field and the extension change rate of baseline between stations are analyzed. The crustal movement characteristics and their dynamic changes in this region are discussed. The result indicates that the baseline in the regions demonstrates an overall characteristic of shrinking in the NE direction and extending in the NW direction; The extrusion of Bayan Har Block in SE direction since 2009 has amplified obviously, which leads to the enhancement of correlated movement in SE direction in the NW side of Longmenshan Fault. In addition, Tianzhu empty regions and the area near the epicenter of Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake in 2016 are right in the boundary of this differentiated movement. Recently, a certain amount of strain energy might have been accumulated in the nearby area of the northern margin of Alkin Fault Zone, west boundary of Erdos Block and west to105°N on Northern Xiqinling Fault. The seismic risk in the west and east section of the intersecting area between Bayan Har Block and Qaidam Block is high. The west section of Northern Xiqinling Fault belongs to the inner ring of clockwise vortex and possesses medium-strong seismic risk.
Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver
The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
D'Ostie-Racine, Léna; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry
Program evaluation is widely recognized in the international humanitarian sector as a means to make interventions and policies more evidence based, equitable, and accountable. Yet, little is known about the way humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) actually use evaluations. The current qualitative evaluation employed an instrumental case study design to examine evaluation use (EU) by a humanitarian NGO based in Burkina Faso. This organization developed an evaluation strategy in 2008 to document the implementation and effects of its maternal and child healthcare user fee exemption program. Program evaluations have been undertaken ever since, and the present study examined the discourses of evaluation partners in 2009 (n = 15) and 2011 (n = 17). Semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview were conducted to identify instances of EU over time. Alkin and Taut's (Stud Educ Eval 29:1-12, 2003) conceptualization of EU was used as the basis for thematic qualitative analyses of the different forms of EU identified by stakeholders of the exemption program in the two data collection periods. Results demonstrated that stakeholders began to understand and value the utility of program evaluations once they were exposed to evaluation findings and then progressively used evaluations over time. EU was manifested in a variety of ways, including instrumental and conceptual use of evaluation processes and findings, as well as the persuasive use of findings. Such EU supported planning, decision-making, program practices, evaluation capacity, and advocacy. The study sheds light on the many ways evaluations can be used by different actors in the humanitarian sector. Conceptualizations of EU are also critically discussed.
Full Text Available Zeynep Alkin,1 Irfan Perente,1 Abdullah Ozkaya,1 Dilek Alp,1 Alper Agca,1 Ebru Demet Aygit,1 Selcuk Korkmaz,2 Ahmet Taylan Yazici,1 Ahmet Demirok1 1Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Hacettepe University Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Ankara, Turkey Purpose: To compare the efficacy of low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT and PDT with half-dose verteporfin in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Patients and methods: The medical records of 64 eyes from 60 patients with chronic CSC were retrospectively reviewed; 36 eyes received low-fluence PDT (25 J/cm2 and 28 eyes received half-dose verteporfin PDT (3 mg/m2. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eyes with complete resolution of subretinal fluid. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness, and the proportion of eyes that showed an increase of ≥5 letters in BCVA at the last visit. Results: The mean follow-up period was12.5±4.3 months and 13.1±4 months in the low-fluence group and half-dose group, respectively (P=0.568. Thirty-three eyes (91.6% in the low-fluence group and 26 eyes (92.8% in the half-dose verteporfin group showed complete resolution of subretinal fluid (P=0.703. BCVA increased by a mean of 7.4 letters and 4.8 letters in the low-fluence group and half-dose group, respectively (P=0.336. Seventeen eyes (52.8% in the low-fluence group and 14 eyes (50% in the half-dose group experienced a gain of ≥5 letters in BCVA (P=0.825. In the low-fluence and half-dose verteporfin group, the mean baseline central foveal thickness was 351±90 µm and 341±96 µm, and significantly decreased to 188±61 µm and 181±47 µm, respectively (P<0.01. Conclusion: Both treatments resulted in complete subretinal fluid resolution in most of the eyes, with significantly better visual acuity outcomes compared to baseline at the last visit. Keywords: low-fluence, half
曾元顯 Yuen-Hsien Tseng
the evaluation methods, the studies conducted by Chen, Weiss, and Rossi are identified as newer ones than those by Cook and Compbell, which coincides with the fact shown in the evaluation theory tree (a sort of topical tree organized by Marvin Alkin, an experienced expert in the field. Besides, with this topic trend analysis, it is also found that the number of papers dealing with the major research topics seems to be decreasing. However, all these results need to be interpreted by domain experts to reveal their true meanings. The methodology presented in this research may be applied not only to improve the efficiency of content analysis, but also to facilitate regular tracing of topic evolution, to spot the positions of important researchers in the field, and therefore to provide relevant clues or materials for further studies.