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Sample records for alkaline spring system

  1. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2008-10-01

    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  2. Geochemistry and microbial ecology in alkaline hot springs of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea.

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    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Amend, Jan P

    2014-07-01

    The availability of microbiological and geochemical data from island-based and high-arsenic hydrothermal systems is limited. Here, the microbial diversity in island-based hot springs on Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea) was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Waramung and Kapkai are alkaline springs high in sulfide and arsenic, related hydrologically to previously described hydrothermal vents in nearby Tutum Bay. Enrichments were carried out at 24 conditions with varying temperature (45, 80 °C), pH (6.5, 8.5), terminal electron acceptors (O2, SO4 (2-), S(0), NO3 (-)), and electron donors (organic carbon, H2, As(III)). Growth was observed in 20 of 72 tubes, with media targeting heterotrophic metabolisms the most successful. 16S ribosomal RNA gene surveys of environmental samples revealed representatives in 15 bacterial phyla and 8 archaeal orders. While the Kapkai 4 bacterial clone library is primarily made up of Thermodesulfobacteria (74%), no bacterial taxon represents a majority in the Kapkai 3 and Waramung samples (40% Proteobacteria and 39% Aquificae, respectively). Deinococcus/Thermus and Thermotogae are observed in all samples. The Thermococcales dominate the archaeal clone libraries (65-85%). Thermoproteales, Desulfurococcales, and uncultured Eury- and Crenarchaeota make up the remaining archaeal taxonomic diversity. The culturing and phylogenetic results are consistent with the geochemistry of the alkaline, saline, and sulfide-rich fluids. When compared to other alkaline, island-based, high-arsenic, or shallow-sea hydrothermal communities, the Ambitle Island archaeal communities are unique in geochemical conditions, and in taxonomic diversity, richness, and evenness.

  3. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

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    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59-0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs.

  4. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs.

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    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and "Bison Pool," using various (13)C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest (13)C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. (13)C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10-30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. (13)C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at "Bison Pool" and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of (13)C-formate occurred only at very low rates at "Bison Pool" and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. (13)C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with (13)C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained by

  5. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

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    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  6. Why and How Life is Driven into Being at Ancient Submarine Alkaline Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The disequilibria between volcanic CO2 plus NO dissolved in acidulous oceans, as against the H2 plus CH4 exhaling through hot alkaline springs on the ocean floors of young wet rocky worlds, cannot be relaxed, much less put to useful biological work, through mere geochemical reactions. Instead their dissipation must be coupled to the production of essential thermodynamically 'up-hill' products. A metabolic pathway, involving disequilibria converting nano-engines, is the only way to achieve such tasks as fixing the otherwise intractable CO2. Indeed, hydrogenating CO2 is life's contribution to entropy generation in the Universe. Long-lived alkaline springs could have supplied the low entropy nourishment in the form of H2 as electrons and CH4 as a carbon source, while the CO2, nitrate, photolytic Fe3+ and Mn4+ in the earliest ocean could have accepted the waste electrons, i.e., the 'breathing' [1]. But what of life's first boundaries? These could be generated spontaneously at the vent, where natural precipitates of iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides would have acted as precipitate membranes, separating the reduced alkaline hydrothermal fluid from the acidulous carbonic ocean, thus imposing steep redox and protonic (ambient pmf) gradients with the potential to drive otherwise endergonic reactions such as the reduction of CO2 to formate or CO, and the oxidation of CH4 to methyl and formyl entities. In turn, the CO and the methyl group reacted to form acetate. Acetate was then hydrogenated and carbonated to pyruvate. However, these endergonic reactions could not progress by catalysis or mass action chemistry as often assumed. They would have required natural processors acting as nanoengines to couple the endergonic driven processes to appropriate exergonic driving reactions. This is what the nano-engines do in life. These mechanochemical 'engines' are protein complexes that are each precisely tuned to the specific driving and driven disequilibria pairs being converted. They

  7. Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from alkaline hot springs.

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    Ming, Hong; Duan, Yan-Yan; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Li, Shuai; Zhou, En-Min; Huang, Jian-Rong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 78023T and YIM 78058, were isolated from samples collected from two alkaline hot springs in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The novel isolates were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic ovoid- to coccoid-shaped and non-spore-forming. Strain YIM 78023T grew at 20-60 ºC and pH 6.0-9.0 with optimal growth observed at 40-50 ºC and pH 8.0, while strain YIM 78058 grew at 25-60 ºC and pH 6.0-10.0 with optimal growth at 45-50 ºC and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated these two isolates within the family Acetobacteraceae with high sequence similarities to members of the genera Roseomonas and Belnapia (all sequence similarities <94.5 %). In addition to the above two genera, these strains also clustered with the genera Craurococcus and Paracraurococcus (having sequence similarities <93.3 %) in the phylogenetic tree, but with a distinct lineage within the family Acetobacteraceae. The major ubiquinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids observed were C18:1ω7c, summed feature 4 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C contents observed for strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 were 74.3 and 74.0 mol%, respectively. Morphological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results suggest that strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 are representatives of a novel species of a new genus within the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Crenalkalicoccus roseus is YIM 78023T (=JCM 19657T=KACC 17825T).

  8. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

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    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the "optical spring." The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

  9. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

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    Kara Bowen De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5 hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C. The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44°C and 63°C springs and a hyperthermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  10. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

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    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  11. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

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    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems.

  12. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  13. A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution is reported. In PtBromate-Alkaline solution system, two different types of electrochemical oscillations (Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ) can be observed. Type Ⅰ appears before hydrogen evolution and Type Ⅱ involves periodic hydrogen evolution. Type Ⅰ relates to the adsorption/desorption of the hydrogen on platinum electrode, and Type Ⅱ with periodic oscillation stems from the coupling of electrochemical reactions (the reduction of bromate and evolution hydrogen reaction) with mass transfer (diffusion and convection). More over, under the right conditions, the two types appear in different oscillatory modes, for example,simple periodical mode and mixed one, etc,, Crossed cycle in the cyclic voltammograms, which is the basiccharacteristics for electrochemical oscillatory systems, has also been observed as expected.

  14. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

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    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311-318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm. 51

  15. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

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    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring.

  16. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  17. Division-specific differences in bacterial community assembly of two alkaline hot spring ecosystems from Yellowstone National Park.

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    Weltzer, Michael L; Miller, Scott R

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental issue in ecology is whether communities are random assemblages or, alternatively, whether there are rules that determine which combinations of taxa can co-occur. For microbial systems, in particular, the question of whether taxonomic groups exhibit differences in community organization remains unresolved but is critical for our understanding of community structure and function. Here, we used presence-absence matrices derived from bar-coded pyrosequencing data to evaluate the assembly patterns of eight bacterial divisions distributed along two Yellowstone National Park hot spring outflow channels. Four divisions (Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides) exhibited less co-occurrence than expected by chance, with phototrophic taxa showing the strongest evidence for nonrandom community structure. We propose that both differences in environmental tolerance and competitive interactions within divisions contribute to these nonrandom assembly patterns. The higher degree of nonrandom structure observed for phototrophic taxa compared with the other divisions may be due in part to greater overlap in resource usage, as has been previously proposed for plant communities.

  18. Normal modes of a defected linear system of beaded springs

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    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Foulaadvand, M. Ebrahim; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Hassan; Mousavi, Amir Hossein

    2017-03-01

    A model of a one-dimensional mass-spring chain with mass or spring defects is investigated. With a mass defect, all oscillators except the central one have the same mass, and with a spring defect, all the springs except those connected to the central oscillator have the same stiffness constant. The motion is assumed to be one-dimensional and frictionless, and both ends of the chain are assumed to be fixed. The system vibrational modes are obtained analytically, and it is shown that if the defective mass is lighter than the others, then a high frequency mode appears in which the amplitudes decrease exponentially with the distance from the defect. In this sense, the mode is localized in space. If the defect mass is greater than the others, then there will be no localized mode and all modes are extended throughout the system. Analogously, for some values of the defective spring constant, there may be one or two localized modes. If the two defected spring constants are less than that of the others, there is no localized mode.

  19. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

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    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  20. Modeling Socio-technical Systems with AgentSpring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmieliauskas, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    AgentSpring is a new agent-based modeling framework especially suited to model and simulate complex socio-technical systems, such as energy markets or transport infrastructures. Common problems encountered when modeling and analyzing such systems are how to represent the variety of facts that descri

  1. Effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on some soil hydraulic properties and nutrient uptake by spring barley in an alkaline soil under greenhouse conditions

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    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on some soil hydraulic properties and nutrients uptake by spring barley, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized blocks design with four replications, using two mycorrhizl fungi including Glomus intraradices (GI and Glomus etunicatum (GE and non-mycorrhizal (control treatments, in an alkaline coarse-textured soil. Results showed that GE and GI significantly increased (P< 0.01 field capacity (FC water content by 24.7 and 12.6%, permanent wilting point (PWP water content by 20.1 and 11.1%, available water capacity (AWC by 27.1 and 13.3%, micropores by 14.1 and 5%, mesopores by 27.8 and 20.8% and decreased macropores by 17.3 and 9.5% and saturated hydraulic conductivity by 88.2 and 68.8% relative to the control, respectively. Also, GE and GI fungi significantly increased (P< 0.01 uptake of phosphorus in barely seeds by 44.1 and 20.3% and in stem by 181 and 50.6% and potassium in seeds by 290.8 and 167.9%, respectively. It is concluded that mycorrhizal symbiosis, as a biological and sustainable method, improved hydraulic and chemical quality of the alkaline coarse-textured soil.

  2. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

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    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (pLitopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  3. Management of the Spring Snowmelt Recession in Regulated Systems

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    Yarnell, S. M.; Lind, A.; Epke, G.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    In unregulated rivers in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, the spring snowmelt recession links high winter flows to low summer baseflow and is a consistent and predictable portion of the annual hydrograph. Consequently, it is an important resource to both riverine ecosystems and California's water supply. In regulated river systems where the spring snowmelt recession is often captured behind dams or diverted for hydropower, restoration of a more natural spring flow regime can provide distinct ecological benefits, such as breeding and migration cues for native species, increased habitat availability, and greater hydraulic habitat diversity. However, knowledge of how to create and manage an ecologically beneficial spring snowmelt recession in a regulated river system has been lacking. This study defined a methodology by which spring flow regimes can be modeled in regulated systems from the quantifiable characteristics of spring snowmelt recessions in unregulated rivers. Using fundamental flow components such as magnitude, timing, and rate of change, the spring snowmelt recession in eight unregulated rivers across the Sierra Nevada range was quantified to gain a better understanding of the predictability and variability across watersheds. The analysis found that unregulated Sierran systems behaved similarly with respect to seasonal patterns and flow recession shape (i.e., recession limb curvature), and thus flows could be modeled in a manner that mimics those predictable characteristics. Using this methodology that quantifies spring recession flows in terms of a daily percent decrease in flow, a series of flow recession scenarios were then created for application on a regulated Sierran river. Four scenarios, ranging from a slow natural recession to a short fast recession typically observed in regulated rivers following cessation of high flow spills, were evaluated within a 2D hydrodynamic model. The effects of the flows on suitable habitat for Foothill yellow

  4. Metagenomics of an alkaline hot spring in Galicia (Spain: microbial diversity analysis and screening for novel lipolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla eLópez-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH=8.2 located in Ourense (Spain. Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9,722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning approximately 18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The 6 most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum. Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library.Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 minutes at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5-8.

  5. Metagenomics of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Galicia (Spain): Microbial Diversity Analysis and Screening for Novel Lipolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Olalla; Knapik, Kamila; Cerdán, Maria-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH = 8.2) located in Ourense (Spain). Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning ~18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames) were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The six most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae, and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum.” Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases, and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library. Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 min at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5 to 8. PMID:26635759

  6. Vibration transmissibility characteristics of smart spring vibration isolation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪德; 朱如鹏; 陆凤霞; 鲍和云; 付秋菊

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the vibration transmissibility characteristics of the undamped and damped smart spring systems. The frequency response characteristics of them were analyzed by using the equivalent linearization technique, and the possible types of the system motion were distinguished by using the starting and ending frequencies. The influences of system parameters on the vibration transmissibility characteristics were discussed. The following conclusions may be drawn from the analysis results. The undamped smart spring system may simultaneously have one starting frequency and one ending frequency or only have one starting frequency, and the damped system may simultaneously have two starting frequencies and one ending frequency. There is an optimal control parameter to make the peak value of the vibration transmissibility curve of the system be minimum. When the mass ratio is far away from the stiffness ratio, the vibration transmissibility is small. The effect of the damping ratio on the system vibration transmissibility is significant while the control parameter is less than its optimal value. But the influence of the relative damping ratio on the vibration transmissibility is small.

  7. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  8. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT system under different water alkalinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Piérri

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m–3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L–1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH. It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05. The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05. The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m–3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L–1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  9. Single Spring Joint Element Based on the Mixed Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a FEM for reinforced concrete bond-slip problems, one important feature of the typical double spring joint element method is the selection of the normal stiffness, which may cause the mutual embedding problem and bring challenges to the calculation. In this paper, a novel single spring joint element method based on the mixed coordinate system is proposed to simulate the interaction of two materials. Instead of choosing the normal stiffness arbitrarily, the proposed method makes DOFs of two materials in the normal direction equal to ensure deformation compatibility. And its solid elements for the concrete are solved in global coordinate system, while the beam elements for the steel bar are solved in local coordinate system. In addition, the proposed method can also be applied to RC structures with irregular arrangements of steel bars. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach. Furthermore, the bond model is applied to RC beams with the description of the damage process.

  10. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  11. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  12. Engineering of quorum-sensing systems for improved production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, H; Koetje, EJ; Kiewiet, R; Kuipers, OP; Kolkman, M; van der Laan, J; Daskin, R; Ferrari, E; Bron, S

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Engineering of Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems of Bacillus subtilis and subsequent evaluation of the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular alkaline protease. Methods and Results: Addition of synthetic Phr pentapeptides to the growth medium, or overproduction of pre-Phr p

  13. Effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and system pH in semi-commercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    When operating water recirculating systems (RAS) with high make-up water flushing rates in locations that have low alkalinity in the raw water, such as Norway, knowledge about the required RAS alkalinity concentration is important. Flushing RAS with make-up water containing low alkalinity washes out...

  14. Coated magnetic particles in electrochemical systems: Synthesis, modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat

    Magnetic field effects on electrochemical reactions have been studied and shown to influence kinetics and dynamics. Recently, our group has introduced a novel method to establish magnetic field effects by incorporating inert, magnetic microparticles onto the electrode structure. This modification improved several electrochemical systems including modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and fuel cells. This dissertation describes the applicability of magnetic microparticles and the understanding of magnetic field effects in modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes. Magnetic effects are studied on electrodes that are coated with an ion exchange polymer that embeds chemically inert, commercial, magnetic microparticles. The flux (electrolysis current) of redox probe to the magnetically modified system is compared to a similar non-magnetic electrode. Flux enhancements of 60% are achieved at magnetically modified electrode as compared to non-magnetic controls. In addition to modifying electrode surfaces, the incorporation of magnetic microparticles into the electrode material itself establishes a 20% increase in flux. Possible magnetic field effects are evaluated. Study of samarium cobalt modified electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD electrodes further establish a magnetic effect on alkaline cathode performance. Magnetic modification improves alkaline battery performance in primary and secondary applications. The reaction mechanism is examined through voltammetric methods. This work also includes coating protocols to produce inert magnetic microparticles with high magnetic content. Magnetite powders are encapsulated in a polymer matrix by dispersion polymerization. Composite particles are examined in proton exchange membrane fuel cells to study carbon monoxide tolerance.

  15. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  16. Carbon nanotube torsional springs for regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanwei; Martin, Corbin; Lashmore, David; Schauer, Mark; Livermore, Carol

    2015-10-01

    The modeling and demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as energy-storing actuators for regenerative braking systems. An originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing incrementally until failure. The measured average extractable energy density values are 2.9 kJ kg-1  ±  1.2 kJ kg-1 and 3.4 kJ kg-1  ±  0.4 kJ kg-1 for 1-ply CNT yarns and 2-ply CNT yarns, respectively. Additionally, a regenerative braking system is demonstrated to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yarn’s twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking setup are on average 3.3 kJ kg-1 and 0.67 kW kg-1, respectively, with maximum measured values of up to 4.7 kJ kg-1 and 1.2 kW kg-1, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.2 kJ kg-1 and a 0.29 kW kg-1 mean power density are measured for CNT yarns in a more complex setup that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism.

  17. Alkaline Exchange Membrane (AEM) for High-Efficiency Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers and Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an alkaline exchange membrane (AEM)for use as a polymer electrolyte in both fuel cell and electrolyzer systems.  The ultimate goal in AEM development is...

  18. Fatigue Life Prediction of Multi Leaf Spring used in the Suspension System of Light Commercial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K.Aher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf spring is widely used in automobiles and one of the components of suspension system. It needs to have high fatigue life. As a general rule, the leaf spring is regarded as a safety component as failure could lead to severe accidents. The purpose of this paper is to predict the fatigue life of steel leaf spring along with analytical stress and deflection calculations. This present work describes static and fatigue analysis of a steel leaf spring of a light commercial vehicle (LCV. The dimensions of the leaf spring of a LCV are taken and are verified by design calculations. The non-linear static analysis of 2D model of the leaf spring is performed using NASTRAN solver and compared with analytical results. The preprocessing of the model is done by using HYPERMESH software. The stiffness of the leaf spring is studied by plotting load versus deflection curve for various load applications. The simulation results are compared with analytical results. The fatigue life of the leaf spring is predicted using MSC Fatigue software.

  19. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  20. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  1. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  2. Ocean-Based Alkalinity Enhancement: Mitigation Potential, Side Effects and the Fate of Added Alkalinity Assessed in an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M. F.; Ilyina, T.

    2014-12-01

    Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) has been proposed as a mean to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of this geo-engineering technology may sound promising, it poses environmental risks. Within the Priority Program "Climate Engineering" of the German Science Foundation (DFG), we investigate the mitigation potential of AOA to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification. We are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the ocean surface because it must stay in the upper ocean in order to increase the oceanic CO2 uptake. The mitigation potential, risks and the unintended consequences of this geo-engineering method are also exhaustively studied. These questions are tackled through the analysis of different alkalinity enhancement scenarios in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM) in a configuration based on the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Model scenarios are designed so that AOA is performed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentrations similar to values of the stabilization scenario RCP4.5, while fossil fuel CO2 emissions follow the pathway of the high-CO2 scenario RCP8.5. Alkalinity is added globally into the upper 12 meters of the ocean in different seasons and years. We found that on the time scale of relevance (i.e. from years to decades), season and location are key aspects to take into account in the implementation of AOA. This is because of inhomogeneous vertical mixing of added alkalinity due to the mixed layer depth which is established by the season. We also show that the rate of addition greatly determines impact and outcome of this geo-engineering method. Changes driven by the implementation of this method in the ocean biogeochemistry are also discussed. For instance, the associated changes in the carbon cycle, marine oxygen levels, saturation state of

  3. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  4. A New Voltammetric Enzyme Immunoassay System for the Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KuiJIAO; WeiSUN; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new voltammetric enzyme immunoassay system was invesigated based on p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) as the subsrate for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). PNPP is enzymatically hydrolyzed and the product p-nitrophenol (PNP) is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which can be oxidized at +1.02 V(vs.Ag/AgCl) on bare glass carbon electrode (GCE). The conditions for enzymatic reaction and electrochemical detection were studied. According to this method,ALP can be detected with a detection limit of 2.8×102 mU/L and a linear range of 4.0×102-1.0×106mU/L.

  5. A New Voltammetric Enzyme Immunoassay System for the Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new voltammetric enzyme immunoassay system was investigated based on p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) as the substrate for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). PNPP is enzymatically hydrolyzed and the product p-nitrophenol (PNP) is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which can be oxidized at +1.02 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) on bare glass carbon electrode (GCE). The conditions for enzymatic reaction and electrochemical detection were studied. According to this method, ALP can be detected with a detection limit of 2.8′102 mU/L and a linear range of 4.0′102 ~ 1.0′106 mU/L.

  6. Exploring copepod distribution patterns at three nested spatial scales in a spring system: habitat partitioning and potential for hydrological bioindication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stoch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In groundwater-fed springs, habitat characteristics are primarily determined by a complex combination of geomorphic features and physico-chemical parameters, while species assemblages are even more intricate. Springs host species either inhabiting the spring mouth, or colonizing spring habitats from the surface or from the aquifers which feed the springs. Groundwater species living in springs have been claimed as good candidates for identifying dual aquifer flowpaths or changes in groundwater pathways before reaching the spring outlets. However, the reliability of spring species as hydrological biotracers has not been widely investigated so far. Our study was aimed at analysing a large karstic spring system at three nested spatial scales in order: i to assess, at whole spring system scale, the presence of a groundwater divide separating two aquifers feeding two spring units within a single spring system, by combining isotope analyses, physico-chemistry, and copepod distribution patterns; ii to test, at vertical spring system scale, the effectiveness of copepods in discriminating surface and subsurface habitat patches within the complex mosaic spring environment; iii to explore, at local spring unit level, the relative role of hydrochemistry and sediment texture as describers of copepod distribution among microhabitats. The results obtained demonstrated the presence of a hierarchical spatial structure, interestingly reflected in significant differences in assemblage compositions. Copepod assemblages differed between the two contiguous spring units, which were clearly characterized by their hydrochemistry and by significant differences in the groundwater flowpaths and recharge areas, as derived by the isotope analyses. The biological results suggested that stygobiotic species seem to be related to the origin of groundwater, suggesting their potential role as hydrological biotracers. At vertical scale, assemblage composition in surface and

  7. Mathematical Model of the Geothermal Water Resources in the South Hot Spring System in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dongyan; Luo Yunju; Liu Xinrong

    2005-01-01

    The geothermal waters of south hot spring, small hot spring and Qiaokouba in Chongqing, are all part of the south hot spring geothermal water system. Exploitation has caused a decline in the water levels of the south and small hot springs, which have not flowed naturally for 15 years. Now, bores pump geothermal water to the springs. If the water level drops below the elevation of the rivers, river-water will replenish the geothermal water, destroying this resource. It is therefore an urgent task to model the geothermal water system, to enable sustainable development and continued use of the geothermal water in Qiaokouba. A numerical simulation of the geothermal water system was adopted and a quantitative study on the planning scheme was carried out. A mathematical model was set up to simulate the whole geothermal water system, based on data from the research sites. The model determined the maximum sustainable water yield in Qiaokouba and the two hot springs, and the south hot spring and small hot spring sustainable yields are 1 100 m3/d and 700 m3/d from 2006 to 2010, 1 300 m3/d and 1 000 m3/d from 2011 to 2015, and 1 500 m3/d and 1 200 m3/d from 2016 to 2036. The maximum exploitable yield is 3 300 m3/d from 2006 to 2036 in Qiaokouba. The model supplies a basis to adequately exploit and effectively protect the geothermal water resources, and to continue to develop the geothermal water as a tourist attraction in Chongqing.

  8. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple spring-mass systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusuf Yesilce; Oktay Demirdag; Seval Catal

    2008-08-01

    Structural elements supporting motors or engines are frequently seen in technological applications. The operation of a machine may introduce additional dynamic stresses on the beam. It is important, then, to know the natural frequencies of the coupled beam-mass system, in order to obtain a proper design of the structural elements. The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli–Euler single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and Bernoulli–Euler multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems are plenty, but on Timoshenko multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems is fewer. This paper aims at determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a Timoshenko multi-span beam. The model allows to analyse the influence of the shear effect and spring-mass systems on the dynamic behaviour of the beams by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT). The effects of attached spring-mass systems on the free vibration characteristics of the 1–4 span beams are studied. The natural frequencies of Timoshenko multi-span beam calculated by using secant method for non-trivial solution are compared with the natural frequencies of multi-span beam calculated by using Bernoulli–Euler Beam Theory (EBT) in literature; the mode shapes are presented in graphs.

  9. REDISTRIBUTION OF ALKALINE ELEMENTS IN ASSOCIATION WITH AQUEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Takuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yoneda, Shigekazu, E-mail: hidaka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: s-yoneda@kahaku.go.jp [Department of Science and Engineering, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba 305-0005 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    It is known that the Sayama meteorite (CM2) shows an extensive signature for aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body, and that most of the primary minerals in the chondrules are replaced with phyllosilicates as the result of the aqueous alteration. In this paper, it is confirmed from the observation of two-dimensional Raman spectra that a part of olivine in a chondrule collected from the Sayama chondrite is serperntinized. Ion microprobe analysis of the chondrule showed that alkaline elements such as Rb and Cs are heterogeneously redistributed in the chondrule. The result of higher Rb and Cs contents in serpentinized phases in the chondrule rather than in other parts suggested the selective adsorption of alkaline elements into the serpentine in association with early aqueous activity on the meteorite parent body. Furthermore Ba isotopic analysis provided variations of {sup 135}Ba/{sup 138}Ba and {sup 137}Ba/{sup 138}Ba in the chondrule. This result was consistent with our previous isotopic data suggesting isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct nuclide {sup 135}Cs in the Sayama meteorite, but the abundance of {sup 135}Cs in the solar system remains unclear because of large analytical uncertainties.

  10. Impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization on the carbon cycle and climate in Earth system simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miriam Ferrer; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2016-06-01

    Using the state-of-the-art emissions-driven Max Planck Institute Earth system model, we explore the impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) with a scenario based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) framework. Addition of 114 Pmol of alkalinity to the surface ocean stabilizes atmospheric CO2 concentration to RCP4.5 levels under RCP8.5 emissions. This scenario removes 940 GtC from the atmosphere and mitigates 1.5 K of global warming within this century. The climate adjusts to the lower CO2 concentration preventing the loss of sea ice and high sea level rise. Seawater pH and the carbonate saturation state (Ω) rise substantially above levels of the current decade. Pronounced differences in regional sensitivities to AOA are projected, with the Arctic Ocean and tropical oceans emerging as hot spots for biogeochemical changes induced by AOA. Thus, the CO2 mitigation potential of AOA comes at a price of an unprecedented ocean biogeochemistry perturbation with unknown ecological consequences.

  11. Long-range interacting many-body systems with alkaline-earth-metal atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, B; Yu, D; Singh, Y; Schreck, F; Bongs, K; Lesanovsky, I

    2013-04-01

    Alkaline-earth-metal atoms can exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, which are generated via the coherent exchange of photons on the (3)P(0) - (3)D(1) transition of the triplet manifold. In the case of bosonic strontium, which we discuss here, this transition has a wavelength of 2.6 μm and a dipole moment of 4.03 D, and there exists a magic wavelength permitting the creation of optical lattices that are identical for the states (3)P(0) and (3)D(1). This interaction enables the realization and study of mixtures of hard-core lattice bosons featuring long-range hopping, with tunable disorder and anisotropy. We derive the many-body master equation, investigate the dynamics of excitation transport, and analyze spectroscopic signatures stemming from coherent long-range interactions and collective dissipation. Our results show that lattice gases of alkaline-earth-metal atoms permit the creation of long-lived collective atomic states and constitute a simple and versatile platform for the exploration of many-body systems with long-range interactions. As such, they represent an alternative to current related efforts employing Rydberg gases, atoms with large magnetic moment, or polar molecules.

  12. Long-range interacting many-body systems with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Olmos, B; Singh, Y; Schreck, F; Bongs, K; Lesanovsky, I

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline-earth-metal atoms exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, which are generated via the coherent exchange of photons on the 3P_0-3D_1-transition of the triplet manifold. In case of bosonic strontium, which we discuss here, this transition has a wavelength of 2.7 \\mu m and a dipole moment of 2.46 Debye, and there exists a magic wavelength permitting the creation of optical lattices that are identical for the states 3P_0 and 3D_1. This interaction enables the realization and study of mixtures of hard-core lattice bosons featuring long-range hopping, with tuneable disorder and anisotropy. We derive the many-body Master equation, investigate the dynamics of excitation transport and analyze spectroscopic signatures stemming from coherent long-range interactions and collective dissipation. Our results show that lattice gases of alkaline-earth-metal atoms permit the creation of long-lived collective atomic states and constitute a simple and versatile platform for the exploration of many-body systems with lon...

  13. Equilibria and vibration of a buckled beam with attached masses or spring-mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Raymond H.; Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2016-09-01

    A buckled beam with immovable pinned ends is considered. Attached to the beam are either one concentrated mass, two concentrated masses, a spring-mass system (that could model a human, robot, or passive vibration absorber), or a horizontal rigid bar with two vertical end springs (a "bounce-pitch" system that could model an animal or a vehicle). In the theoretical analysis, the beam is modeled as an inextensible elastica. Equilibrium configurations are determined first. Then small free vibrations about equilibrium are examined, and the lowest frequencies and corresponding modes are computed. The effects of various parameters are investigated, such as the ratio of the span to the total arc length of the beam, the locations and weights of the attached masses and systems, and the stiffnesses of the springs. For the case of a single attached mass, experiments are conducted and the results are compared to the theoretical ones.

  14. Design Guidelines of a Spring-Damper System for Emergency Diesel Generator Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2007-05-15

    This guidelines described about the procedure of isolation system design for Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). First of all, a vibration concept including the ground vibration was described and vibration control system and seismic isolation system were considered. The behavior characteristics and design consideration of coil spring-viscose damper system were summarized. The material properties of foundation of EDG system and the ground were considered. A design load and seismic load for isolation system design were described and an analysis method was explained. Finally, a design example for an EDG in Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 5 and 6 was attached of Appendix. First of all, this design guideline can apply to design of a vibration and seismic isolation system for EDG system and the design example present a design procedure practically. Moreover, this design guideline can be used for isolation design of other rotational machines and other isolation system except spring-damper system.

  15. Anharmonic Oscillations of a Spring-Magnet System inside a Magnetic Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear oscillations of a simple spring-magnet system that oscillates in the magnetic field of an inductive coil excited with a dc current. Using the relations for the interaction of a coil and a magnet we obtain the motion equation of the system. The relative strengths of the terms of this equation can be adjusted easily by…

  16. Investigation of oscillations of the elastic bodies with joined a mass-spring-damper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, L. U.

    2016-11-01

    The problem of free oscillations of elastic systems joined with a simple mechanical system consisting of mass, springs and dampers is considered. The differential equation is obtained. The solution of the received equation is based on series. The oscillation of rectangular plate is considered.

  17. Synthesis of optical spring potentials in optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Slatyer, Harry J; Cho, Young-Wook; Buchler, Ben C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to tailor the potential experienced by a moveable end mirror in a cavity optomechanical system by specifying the spectral properties of the input field. We show that by engineering the power spectral density of the cavity input field a desired force function can be approximated, with the accuracy of the approximation limited only by the linewidth of the cavity. The very general technique presented here could have applications in many kinds of optomechanical systems, particularly those used for sensing and metrology. We demonstrate the method by applying it to improve the sensitivity of a particular gravity measurement.

  18. The plumbing system of the Pagosa thermal Springs, Colorado: Application of geologically constrained geophysical inversion and data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Cuttler, S.; Karaoulis, M.; Zhou, J.; Raynolds, B.; Batzle, M.

    2015-06-01

    Fault and fracture networks usually provide the plumbing for movement of hydrothermal fluids in geothermal fields. The Big Springs of Pagosa Springs in Colorado is known as the deepest geothermal hot springs in the world. However, little is known about the plumbing system of this hot spring, especially regarding the position of the reservoir (if any) or the position of the major tectonic faults controlling the flow of the thermal water in this area. The Mancos shale, a Cretaceous shale, dominates many of the surface expressions around the springs and impede an easy recognition of the fault network. We use three geophysical methods (DC resistivity, self-potential, and seismic) to image the faults in this area, most of which are not recognized in the geologic fault map of the region. Results from these surveys indicate that the hot Springs (the Big Spring and a warm spring located 1.8 km further south) are located at the intersection of the Victoire Fault, a major normal crustal fault, and two north-northeast trending faults (Fault A and B). Self-potential and DC resistivity tomographies can be combined and a set of joint attributes defined to determine the localization of the flow of hot water associated with the Eight Miles Mesa Fault, a second major tectonic feature responsible for the occurrence of warm springs further West and South from the Big Springs of Pagosa Springs.

  19. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K;

    2014-01-01

    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...

  20. A piezoelectric spring-mass system as a low-frequency energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongping; Hu, Lin; Yang, Jiashi; Wang, Hairen; Chen, Xuedong

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new structure consisting of a piezoelectric spring-mass system as a low-frequency piezoelectric energy harvester. A theoretical model is developed for the system from the theory of piezoelectricity. An analysis is performed to demonstrate the low-frequency nature of the system. Other basic characteristics of the energy harvester, including the output power, voltage, and efficiency, are also calculated and examined.

  1. Damage Evaluation of Critical Components of Tilted Support Spring Nonlinear System under a Rectangular Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionless nonlinear dynamical equations of a tilted support spring nonlinear packaging system with critical components were obtained under a rectangular pulse. To evaluate the damage characteristics of shocks to packaged products with critical components, a concept of the damage boundary surface was presented and applied to a titled support spring system, with the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, the dimensionless critical velocity, and the frequency parameter ratio of the system taken as the three basic parameters. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the frequency parameter ratio, the mass ratio, the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration, the angle of the system, and the damping ratio on the damage boundary surface of critical components were discussed. It was demonstrated that with the increase of the frequency parameter ratio, the decrease of the angle, and/or the increase of the mass ratio, the safety zone of critical components can be broadened, and increasing the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration or the damping ratio may lead to a decrease of the damage zone for critical components. The results may lead to a thorough understanding of the design principles for the tilted support spring nonlinear system.

  2. Chemical reactivity of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid in heterogeneous alkaline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M. A.; Loon, L. R. Van

    2009-05-15

    Cellulose degradation under alkaline conditions is of relevance for the mobility of many radionuclides in the near-field of a cementitious repository for radioactive waste, because metal-binding degradation products may be formed. Among these, {alpha}- isosaccharinic acid ({alpha}-ISA) is the strongest complexant. The prediction of the equilibrium concentration of {alpha}-ISA in cement pore water is therefore an important step in the assessment of the influence of cellulose degradation products on the speciation of radionuclides in such environments. The present report focuses on possible chemical transformation reactions of {alpha}-ISA in heterogeneous alkaline model systems containing either Ca(OH){sub 2} or crushed hardened cement paste. The transformation reactions were monitored by measuring the concentration of {alpha}-ISA by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of reaction products by high performance ion exclusion chromatography. The overall loss of organic species from solution was monitored by measuring the concentration of non-purgeable organic carbon. The reactions were examined in diluted and compacted suspensions, at either 25 {sup o}C or 90 {sup o}C, and under anaerobic atmospheres obtained by various methods. It was found that {alpha}-ISA was transformed under all conditions tested to some extent. Reaction products, such as glycolate, formate, lactate and acetate, all compounds with less complexing strength than {alpha}-ISA, were detected. The amount of reaction products identified by the chromatographic technique applied was {approx} 50 % of the amount of {alpha}-ISA reacted. Sorption of {alpha}-ISA to Ca(OH){sub 2} contributed only to a minor extent to the loss of {alpha}-ISA from the solution phase. As the most important conclusion of the present work it was demonstrated that the presence of oxidising agents had a distinctive influence on the turnover of {alpha}-ISA. Under aerobic conditions {alpha}-ISA was

  3. Temporal and Seasonal Variations of the Hot Spring Basin Hydrothermal System, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Jaworowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Yellowstone National Park’s hydrothermal systems and establishing hydrothermal baselines are the main goals of an ongoing collaborative effort between Yellowstone National Park’s Geology program and Utah State University’s Remote Sensing Services Laboratory. During the first years of this research effort, improvements were made in image acquisition, processing and calibration. In 2007, a broad-band, forward looking infrared (FLIR camera (8–12 microns provided reliable airborne images for a hydrothermal baseline of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. From 2008 to 2011, night-time, airborne thermal infrared image acquisitions during September yielded temperature maps that established the temporal variability of the hydrothermal system. A March 2012 airborne image acquisition provided an initial assessment of seasonal variability. The consistent, high-spatial resolution imagery (~1 m demonstrates that the technique is robust and repeatable for generating corrected (atmosphere and emissivity and calibrated temperature maps of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Atmospheric conditions before and at flight-time determine the usefulness of the thermal infrared imagery for geohydrologic applications, such as hydrothermal monitoring. Although these ground-surface temperature maps are easily understood, quantification of radiative heat from the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system is an estimate of the system’s total energy output. Area is a key parameter for calculating the hydrothermal system’s heat output. Preliminary heat calculations suggest a radiative heat output of ~56 MW to 62 MW for the central Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Challenges still remain in removing the latent solar component within the calibrated, atmospherically adjusted, and emissivity corrected night-time imagery.

  4. 508.58 MHz synchronous universal counter for beam control system of SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Hara, M; Hori, T; Kawashima, Y; Ohashi, Y; Ohshima, T; Tani, N; Yonehara, H

    1999-01-01

    A synchronous universal counter was developed for beam handling and monitoring in SPring-8. It works at 508.58 MHz radio frequency and has a 30-bit width. Its two main features are a dividing function with an arbitrary positive integer and a digital delay function with a time interval over 2 s. The counter numbers all of the RF buckets of the SPring-8 storage ring from 0 to 2435. Successful installation of the counter and a signal transmission system with a low time jitters provided precise beam injection into a targeted RF bucket and furthermore into the RF buckets previously filled for addition. As an application, it can be used as a programmable digital delay module to give a reference timing for synchrotron light experiments. It can be adopted in most accelerators operated throughout the world to achieve easy beam injection. The design, performance and applications of the counter and a precise signal transmission system are described. (author)

  5. Alkaline Phosphatase Assay for Freshwater Sediments: Application to Perturbed Sediment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Gary S.; Puziss, Marla; Silver, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis-phosphatase assay was modified for use in freshwater sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that the recovery of purified alkaline phosphatase activity was 100% efficient in sterile freshwater sediments when optimized incubation and sonication conditions were used. Field studies of diverse freshwater sediments demonstrated the potential use of this assay for determining stream perturbation. Significant correlations between phosphatase and total viable cell counts, as well as adenosine triphosphate biomass, suggested that alkaline phosphatase activity has utility as an indicator of microbial population density and biomass in freshwater sediments. PMID:16345464

  6. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  7. Non-linear mass-spring system for large soft tissue deformations modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Implant placement under soft tissues operation is described. In this operation tissues can reach such deformations that nonlinear properties are appeared. A mass-spring model modification for modeling nonlinear tissue operation is developed. A method for creating elasticity module using splines is described. For Poisson ratio different stiffness for different types of springs in cubic grid is used. For stiffness finding an equation system that described material tension is solved. The model is verified with quadratic sample tension experiment. These tests show that sample tension under external forces is equal to defined nonlinear elasticity module. The accuracy of Poisson ratio modeling is thirty five percent that is better the results of available ratio modeling method.

  8. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  9. A sequential injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2004-08-01

    A sequential injection methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples is proposed. A single manifold is used for the determination of the three analytes, and the same protocol sequence allows the sequential determination of calcium and magnesium (the sum corresponds to the water hardness). The determination of both metals is based on their reaction with cresolphtalein complexone; mutual interference is minimized by using 8-hydroxyquinoline for the determination of calcium and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for the determination of magnesium. Alkalinity determination is based on a reaction with acetic acid, and corresponding color change of Bromcresol Green. Working ranges of 0.5 - 5 mg dm(-3) for Ca, 0.5 - 10 mg dm(-3) for Mg, and 10 - 100 mg HCO3- dm(-3), for alkalinity have been achieved. The results for water samples were comparable to those of the reference methods and to a certified reference water sample. RSDs lower than 5% were obtained, a low reagent consumption and a reduced volume of effluent have been accomplished. The determination rate for calcium and magnesium is 80 h(-1), corresponding to 40 h(-1) per element, while 65 determinations of alkalinity per hour could be carried out.

  10. Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from cyanobacterial mats of Alla hot springs (Barguzin Valley, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Kalashnikov, Alexander M; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Barhutova, Darima D; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline hydrotherms of the Baikal rift zone are unique systems to study the diversity of thermophilic bacteria. In this study, we present data on the phototrophic bacterial community of cyanobacterial mats from the alkaline Alla hot spring. Using a clonal analysis approach, this study evaluated the species diversity, the proportion of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs and their distribution between various areas of the spring. Novel group-specific PCR primers were designed and applied to detect representatives of the Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus genera in mat samples. For the first time, the presence of Roseiflexus-like bacteria was detected in the Baikal rift zone.

  11. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  12. The effect of various long-term tillage systems on soil properties and spring barley yield

    OpenAIRE

    MALECKA, Irena; Blecharczyk, Andrzej; SAWINSKA, Zuzanna; DOBRZENIECKI, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This study, performed on a soil that is classified as Albic Luvisols that developed on loamy sands overlying loamy material (1.4% organic matter and pH 6.5), concerns the impact of tillage systems on soil properties and the yield of spring barley. The experiment design included 3 tillage systems: conventional tillage, reduced tillage, and no-tillage. Continuous cultivation for 7 consecutive years by reduced tillage and no-tillage led to changes in the physical properties of the surface soil l...

  13. Application of the OA system based on Struts + Spring + Hibernate%Struts+Spring+Hibernate在OA系统开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凯霞; 程耕国

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Struts,Hibernate和Spring三个开源框架及它们对MVC设计模式的实现,通过分析各个开源架构关键技术的基本特征,阐述了如何更好地将三者整合起来构建一个结构清晰、低藕合度、易于扩展的J2EE分层架构.最后给出了该架构在OA系统开发中的应用实例,在实践中体现出MVC设计模式与Struts+ Spring+ Hibernate架构的高效和结构清晰的优点,同时也为开发管理信息系统提供了理论指导.%This paper introduces the Struts,Hibermate and Spring,three open sources of MVC framework and their realization of design patterns. By analyzing the basic characteristics of key technologies of the various open-source framework, it expounds how to integrate the three structures to construct a clear, low degree of lotus, easy to expand J2EE layered structure. Finally it gives application examples of the structure in OA system development. In practice the advantages of efficiency and clarity in MVC design patterns and Struts + Spring + Hibernate architecture are realized. And also for the development of management information system it provides theoretical guidance.

  14. High frequency analysis of a plate carrying a concentrated nonlinear spring-mass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Dowell, Earl

    2016-09-01

    Examining the behavior of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom undergoing random excitation at high frequency often requires substantial computation. These requirements are even more stringent for nonlinear systems. One approach for describing linear systems, Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA), has been extended to nonlinear systems in this paper. A prototypical system, namely a thin plate carrying a concentrated hardening cubic spring-mass, is explored. The study focuses on the response of three principal variables to random, frequency-bounded excitation: the displacement of the mounting location of the discrete spring-mass, the relative displacement of the discrete mass to this mounting location, and the absolute displacement of the discrete mass. The results indicate that extending AMA to nonlinear systems for input frequency bands containing a large number of modes is feasible. Several advantageous properties of nonlinear AMA are found, and an additional reduced frequency-domain modal method, Dominance-Reduced Classical Modal Analysis (DRCMA), is proposed that is intermediate in accuracy and the cost of computation between AMA and Classical Modal Analysis (CMA).

  15. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  16. The 2007 North Atlantic spring bloom in operational analysis from the TOPAZ system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samuelsen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analyses from the TOPAZ (Towards an Operational Prediction system for the North Atlantic European coastal Zones North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean model was coupled to an ecosystem model, NORWECOM (Norwegian Ecological Model System, and the TOPAZ-NORWECOM coupled model was run throughout the spring and summer of 2007. The ecosystem model was run online, restarting from analyzed physical fields (result after data assimilation every 7 days. Biological variables were not assimilated in the model. The forecast was compared to remotely sensed chlorophyll and in-situ data. The impact of physical data assimilation on the ecosystem model was determined by comparing the results to those from a model without assimilation of physical data. The regions of focus are the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The results show that the model reproduces a realistic annual cycle, but the chlorophyll concentrations tend to be too low during winter and spring and too high during summer. Surface nutrients on the other hand are generally too low throughout the year. Assimilation of physical variables does not affect the results from the ecosystem model significantly. The differences between the weekly mean values of chlorophyll are normally within 5–10% during the summer months, and the maximum difference of ~20% occurs in the Arctic, also during summer. Special attention was paid to the nutrient input from the North Atlantic to the Nordic Seas and the impact of ice-assimilation on the ecosystem. The ice-assimilation increased the phytoplankton concentration: because there was less ice in the assimilation run, this increased both the

  17. Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Kira E.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists from the South West Florida Management District (SWFWMD) acquired and analyzed over 20 years of seasonally-sampled hydrochemical data from five first-order-magnitude (springs that discharge 2.83 m3 s-1 or more) coastal springs located in west-central Florida. These data were subsequently obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for further analyses and interpretation. The spring study sites (Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, Kings Bay, Rainbow, and Weeki Wachee), which are fed by the Floridan Aquifer system and discharge into the Gulf of Mexico were investigated to identify temporal and spatial trends of pH, alkalinity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 flux.

  18. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  19. Alkaline earth metal thioindates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Ivlieva, V.I.; Filatenko, L.A.; Zajtsev, B.E.; Kaziev, G.Z.; Sarabiya, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    Alkaline earth metal thioindates of MIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ composition were synthesized by interaction of alkaline earth metal oxoindates with hydrogen sulfide during heating. Investigation into the compounds by X-ray analysis showed that calcium compound crystallizes in cubic crystal system and strontium and barium compounds in rhombic crystal system. Lattice parameters and the number of formula units were determined. Thioindates of M/sub 3/In/sub 2/S/sub 6/ composition were synthesized, their individuality was shown.

  20. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  1. Which one of the two common reporter systems is more suitable for chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay: alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Liu, Lie; Zhang, Hongquan; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase are the most commonly used reporter systems in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Which one, therefore, would be better when establishing a CLEIA method for a new target substance? There was no standard answer. In this study, both reporters were compared systematically including luminescence kinetics, conjugation methods, optimal condition and detection performance, using two common drugs, SD-methoxy-pyrimidine and enrofloxacin, as determination objects. The results revealed that there was much difference between the luminescence kinetics of the two systems. However, there was little difference between these systems when detecting the same substance, including in optimal conditions and determination of performance. Both reporters were suitable for establishing chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. Therefore, the choice of alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase as the reporter system in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays depends on availability. Conversely, these two report systems could be applied in simultaneous analysis of multicomponents due to their different optical behaviors and similar performances. But attention should be paid to conjugation method and coating buffer, which affected the luminescent intensity of different determination targets.

  2. Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.

    2013-09-01

    We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.

  3. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  5. Free Vibrations of a Reddy-Bickford Multi-Span Beam Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yesilce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural elements supporting motors or engines are frequently seen in technological applications. The operation of machine may introduce additional dynamic stresses on the beam. It is important, then, to know the natural frequencies of the coupled beam-mass system, in order to obtain a proper design of the structural elements. The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems are plenty, but the free vibration analysis of Reddy-Bickford multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems has not been investigated by any of the studies in open literature so far. This paper aims at determining the exact solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of Reddy-Bickford beams. The model allows analyzing the influence of the shear effect and spring-mass systems on the dynamic behavior of the beams by using Reddy-Bickford Beam Theory (RBT. The effects of attached spring-mass systems on the free vibration characteristics of the 1–4 span beams are studied. The natural frequencies of Reddy-Bickford single-span and multi-span beams calculated by using the numerical assembly technique and the secant method are compared with the natural frequencies of single-span and multi-span beams calculated by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT; the mode shapes are presented in graphs.

  6. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  7. Control of Wind-Induced Vibration of Transmission Tower-Line System by Using a Spring Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-voltage power transmission tower-line system, which is a high flexible structure, is very susceptible to the wind-induced vibrations. This paper proposes the utilization of the internal resonance feature of the spring pendulum to reduce the wind-induced vibration of a transmission tower. The kinetic expression of the spring pendulum system is obtained through Lagrangian equation. The condition of the internal resonance is verified to be λ = 2, in which λ is the ratio of the spring mode frequency over the pendulum mode frequency. A 55 m tower in the Liaoning province is established in SAP2000 to numerically verify the effectiveness of the proposed device. The spring pendulum is modeled using Link element. The wind speed history is generated based on Kaimal spectrum using harmonic superposition method. Results show that, (1 compared with the suspended mass pendulum, the spring pendulum absorbs more energy and reduces the oscillation more effectively and (2 the vibration control performance of the proposed spring pendulum improves as the external wind load increases.

  8. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  9. Health status of five spring barley cultivars cultivated under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baturo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare health status of harvested grain of spring barley cv. Rudzik, Rodos, Start and Maresi cultivated in organic system and cv. Damazy grown in an organic farm. Analyses showed that prevalent pathogen on grain was Bipolaris sorokiniana isolated from 48% of grains. Fungi from genus of Fusarium were obtained less numerously, from 27% of grains and were represented mainly by F. poae and F. avenaceum. Microscopic analysis of F. poae was confirmed by PCR analysis. All cultivars were intensively diseased by B. sorokiniana, thus it is impossible to show a cultivar especially recommended for this system, where B. sorokiniana can be serious problem. However cv. Damazy showed relatively the lowest infestation by B. sorokiniana and it also was not more intensively diseased by Fusarium spp. It is very important in nutrition aspect because these fungi can be dangerous for both human and animal health due to their abilities to produce mycotoxins.

  10. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  11. Development of micro-tomography system for materials science at SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Hoshinio, Masato; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Mashita, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    A new micro-tomography system for materials science has been developed at BL20B2 in SPring-8. The system enables us to do stretching, press and twist of materials with a translation stage and two precise rotation stages arranged opposite to each other. Each deformation can be operated with constant moving rate. The maximum load is about 2 kN because of the hardness of the precision stages. The X-ray image detector consists of visible light conversion system and sCMOS camera. The effective pixel size is variable by changing a tandem lens between 2.7 μm/pixel to 13.2 μm /pixel discretely. As a demonstration of the system, a viscoelastic object was imaged. The experimental conditions are follows, X-ray energy: 25 keV, exposure time: 5 msec, number of projections: 900, single scan time: 7.5 sec, pixel size: 13.2 μm /pixel and field of view: 27.0 mm x 3.9 mm. The stretching rate was 1 μm /sec to 5 μm /sec. A metastable state such as tensile loading of viscoelastic materials is possible with this system.

  12. Research on System Access Control Based on Spring Security ACL%基于Spring Security ACL的系统访问控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝日

    2011-01-01

    Spring Security ACL is an access control security framework, it can control all kinds of resource authority. This article introduces the concept and mechanism of Spring Security ACL, at the same time describes the implementation and process of Spring Security ACL security framework by example.%Spring Security ACL是一个权限访问控制框架,主要用采控制各种资源的访问权限.本文讲述Spring Security ACL的机制原理和理论研究,同时也通过一个简单的权限控制实现的例子演示Spring Security ACL的安全框架的实现方法和过程.

  13. Theoretical modelling of a beam with attached spring-mass-damper system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmirul Mohd Rozlan Syaiful

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are always undesirable, wasting energy besides producing noise. In this case, beams which are prominent component in most engineering having no exemption from the vibration effect when imposed by dynamic loading. One of the approach to attenuate vibration of a structure is by having a spring-mass-damper (SMD system or typically known as vibration neutralizer attached to the vibrating structure. This method is more promising as it does not contribute significant additional energy to the structure. The work presented in this paper describes the frequency response (FRF of a simply supported beam with an attached SMD system. A mathematical model of a beam was at first developed in the study which was further derived to include the attachment of SMD system. In order to transform the derived equations into a form of graph that can be analysed, Matlab® software was used. The outcome from Matlab® shows that the attachment of SMD onto beam attenuates its vibration significantly. The result also displays a good resemblance FRF when compared with numerical finite element analysis of Ansys®. It is expected that the theoretical derivation demonstrated in this paper provide a helpful reference to future researchers who endeavour to find equations of a simply supported beam with an attached SMD system as well as for a vibration control study.

  14. Modeling of dynamic characteristics of a nonlinear oscillatory system with a magnetic spring. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Bondar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A passive magnetic vibration isolator (a magnetic spring with cylindrical magnets is considered. A mathematical model is developed to calculate magnetic spring magnetic field and force. Numerical calculation of the vibration isolator magnetic field via a 3-D finite element method is performed. Experimental results presented prove adequacy of the computational data.

  15. Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Purinergic Transmission in the Central Nervous System During Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP is one of the four isozymes in humans and mice that have the capacity to hydrolyze phosphate groups from a wide spectrum of physiological substrates. Among these, TNAP degrades substrates implicated in neurotransmission. Transgenic mice lacking TNAP activity display the characteristic skeletal and dental phenotype of infantile hypophosphatasia, as well as spontaneous epileptic seizures and die around 10 days after birth. This physiopathology, linked to the expression pattern of TNAP in the central nervous system (CNS during embryonic stages, suggests an important role for TNAP in neuronal development and synaptic function, situating it as a good target to be explored for the treatment of neurological diseases. In this review, we will focus mainly on the role that TNAP plays as an ectonucleotidase in CNS regulating the levels of extracellular ATP and consequently purinergic signaling.

  16. Application of a spring-dashpot system to clinical lung tumor motion data

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerley, E J; Wilson, P L; Berbeco, R I; Meyer, J

    2012-01-01

    A spring-dashpot system based on the Voigt model was developed to model the correlation between abdominal respiratory motion and tumor motion during lung radiotherapy. The model was applied to clinical data comprising 52 treatment beams from 10 patients, treated on the Mitsubishi Real-Time Radiation Therapy system, Sapporo, Japan. In Stage 1, model parameters were optimized for individual patients and beams to determine reference values and to investigate how well the model can describe the data. In Stage 2, for each patient the optimal parameters determined for a single beam were applied to data from other beams to investigate whether a beam-specific set of model parameters is sufficient to model tumor motion over a course of treatment. In Stage 1 the baseline root mean square (RMS) residual error for all individually-optimized beam data was 0.90 plus or minus 0.40 mm. In Stage 2, patient-specific model parameters based on a single beam were found to model the tumor position closely, even for irregular beam ...

  17. Characterization and function analysis of a Halo-alkaline-adaptable Trk K~+ uptake system in Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO YongHao; XUE YanFen; LIU Jun; WANG QuanHui; MA YanHe

    2009-01-01

    By functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants defective in potassium (K~+) uptake, two genes that are required for K~+ uptake in halo-alkaliphilic Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10 were cloned. These two genes, Aa-trkA (1337 bp) and Aa-trkH (1452 bp), were adjacent on the A. amylolytica N10 chromosome and transcribed in opposite directions. Complementation experiments revealed that Aa-TrkA and Aa-TrkH from A. amylolytica strain N10 restored the ability to grow at low K~+ concentration in E. coli △trkA and △trkG △trkH strains, respectively. In addition, Aa-TrkAH supported the growth of an E. coli △sapD strain, indicating that the ATP-binding protein TrkE was dispensable for the Trk system of A. amylolytica strain N10. The net K~+ uptake was detected at different pH levels and the critical NaCl concentration indicated that Aa-TrkAH is an alkaline-adaptable and partially halo-adaptable K~+ transporter. Kinetics determined by heterogeneous K~+ transport experiments with an E. coli △trkA strain revealed that Aa-TrkAH has an alkaline pH optimum close to 8.5 or higher. Site-directed mutagenesis of Aa-TrkH showed that Phe103 and Ser229 play certain key roles in K~+ selection and transportation. The molecular chaperones groES-groEL and tig promoted Aa-TrkH and Aa-TrkA overexpression in vitro.

  18. Characterization and function analysis of a Halo-alkaline-adaptable Trk K~+ uptake system in Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants defective in potassium (K+) uptake, two genes that are required for K+ uptake in halo-alkaliphilic Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10 were cloned. These two genes, Aa-trkA (1337 bp) and Aa-trkH (1452 bp), were adjacent on the A. amylolytica N10 chromosome and transcribed in opposite directions. Complementation experiments revealed that Aa-TrkA and Aa-TrkH from A. amylolytica strain N10 restored the ability to grow at low K+ concentration in E. coli △trkA and △trkG △trkH strains, respectively. In addition, Aa-TrkAH supported the growth of an E. coli △sapD strain, indicating that the ATP-binding protein TrkE was dispensable for the Trk system of A. amylolytica strain N10. The net K+ uptake was detected at different pH levels and the critical NaCl concentration indicated that Aa-TrkAH is an alkaline-adaptable and partially halo-adaptable K+ transporter. Kinetics determined by heterogeneous K+ transport experiments with an E. coli △trkA strain revealed that Aa-TrkAH has an alkaline pH optimum close to 8.5 or higher. Site-directed mutagenesis of Aa-TrkH showed that Phe103 and Ser229 play certain key roles in K+ selection and transportation. The molecular chaperones groES-groEL and tig promoted Aa-TrkH and Aa-TrkA overexpression in vitro.

  19. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  20. Models of Formation and Activity of Spring Mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani System, Eastern Tunisia: Implications for the Habitability of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhoucine Essefi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early to the islet (“island” stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common

  1. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  2. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  3. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  4. Free Vibrations of a Reddy-Bickford Multi-Span Beam Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Yesilce

    2011-01-01

    The structural elements supporting motors or engines are frequently seen in technological applications. The operation of machine may introduce additional dynamic stresses on the beam. It is important, then, to know the natural frequencies of the coupled beam-mass system, in order to obtain a proper design of the structural elements. The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and multi-span be...

  5. Colombeau algebra as a mathematical tool for investigating step load and step deformation of systems of nonlinear springs and dashpots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Vít; Řehoř, Martin; Tůma, Karel

    2017-02-01

    The response of mechanical systems composed of springs and dashpots to a step input is of eminent interest in the applications. If the system is formed by linear elements, then its response is governed by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. In the linear case, the mathematical method of choice for the analysis of the response is the classical theory of distributions. However, if the system contains nonlinear elements, then the classical theory of distributions is of no use, since it is strictly limited to the linear setting. Consequently, a question arises whether it is even possible or reasonable to study the response of nonlinear systems to step inputs. The answer is positive. A mathematical theory that can handle the challenge is the so-called Colombeau algebra. Building on the abstract result by Průša and Rajagopal (Int J Non-Linear Mech 81:207-221, 2016), we show how to use the theory in the analysis of response of nonlinear spring-dashpot and spring-dashpot-mass systems.

  6. Variable structure pantograph mechanism with spring suspension system for comprehensive upper-limb haptic movement training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Perry, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous haptic devices have been developed for upper-limb neurorehabilitation, but their widespread use has been largely impeded because of complexity and cost. Here, we describe a variable structure pantograph mechanism combined with a spring suspension system that produces a versatile rehabilitation robot, called Universal Haptic Pantograph, for movement training of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. The variable structure is a 5-degree-of-freedom (DOF mechanism composed of 7 joints, 11 joint axes, and 3 configurable joint locks that reduce the number of system DOFs to between 0 and 3. The resulting device has eight operational modes: Arm, Wrist, ISO (isometric 1, ISO 2, Reach, Lift 1, Lift 2, and Steer. The combination of available work spaces (reachable areas shows a high suitability for movement training of most upper-limb activities of daily living. The mechanism, driven by series elastic actuators, performs similarly in all operational modes, with a single control scheme and set of gains. Thus, a single device with minimal setup changes can be used to treat a variety of upper-limb impairments that commonly afflict veterans with stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other direct trauma to the arm. With appropriately selected design parameters, the developed multimode haptic device significantly reduces the costs of robotic hardware for full-arm rehabilitation while performing similarly to that of single-mode haptic devices. We conducted case studies with three patients with stroke who underwent clinical training using the developed mechanism in Arm, Wrist, and/or Reach operational modes. We assessed outcomes using Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores showing that upper-limb ability improved significantly following training sessions.

  7. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  8. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  9. Approach to prevent locking in a spring-damper system by adaptive load redistribution with auxiliary kinematic guidance elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehb, Christopher M.; Platz, Roland; Melz, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    In many applications, kinematic structures are used to enable and disable degrees of freedom. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for a defined movement. In most cases, a spring-damper system determines the kinetic properties of the movement. However, unexpected high load peaks may lead to maximum displacements and maybe to locking. Thus, a hard clash between two rigid components may occur, causing acceleration peaks. This may have harmful effects for the whole system. For example a hard landing of an aircraft can result in locking the landing gear and thus damage the entire aircraft. In this paper, the potential of adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a spring-damper system to prevent locking is investigated numerically. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in case of overloading the spring-damper system and thus to absorb some of the impact energy. To estimate the potential of the load redistribution in the spring-damper system, a numerical model of a two-mass oscillator is used, similar to a quarter-car-model. In numerical calculations, the reduction of the acceleration peaks of the masses with the adaptive approach is compared to the Acceleration peaks without the approach, or, respectively, when locking is not prevented. In addition, the required force of the adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements is calculated as a function of the masses of the system and the drop height, or, respectively, the impact energy.

  10. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  11. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  12. Isotope hydrology of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system; a coupled system of crater lake and hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.; Rouwet, D.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic 1982 eruption of El Chichón (>1.5 km3 of erupted material) opened the upper hundred meters of the existing volcano-hydrothermal system. In the new formed 200m-deep crater a large shallow crater lake and numerous hot springs were formed. The lake existence and its salinity depend on the precipitation (~4000 mm/y) as well as a group of geyser-like neutral saline springs (source of Cl and SO4) and hydrothermal steam vents discharging into the lake (source of SO4). The chemistry of these “Soap Pool” (SP) springs evolved from >13,000 ppm of Cl in 1995 to ~2000-3000 ppm of Cl in 2006. Since 2006, this Cl-concentration in SP waters is constant. Similar concentrations of Cl are observed in most flank hot springs located at altitudes of ~ 600 m asl, 2-3 km from the crater. Therefore, it can be suggested that the flank springs, crater lake and crater hot springs are manifestations of the upper, relatively shallow volcano-hydrothermal system developed beneath the crater in the volcano edifice. Water isotopic composition of all types of thermal and fresh waters including fumarolic steam condensates (>100 samples collected in 1995-2010) allow to classify and distinguish different processes of shallow mixing, boiling, evaporation and water-rock isotope exchange. All spring waters from the upper system have meteoric origin, with the isotopic composition plotting close to the meteoric water line. Crater waters are strongly evolved due to shallow boiling and loss of steam. Isotopic composition of water from the lower, deep hydrothermal system is characterized by a significant positive oxygen isotopic shift and a strong Cl-d18O linear correlation. Waters from numerous cold springs that drain pyroclastic deposits demonstrate a clear negative oxygen shift. Some problems related to water isotopic composition are still remain unresolved: (1) we cannot find any traces of the infiltrated isotopically heavy lake waters, i.e., the seepage from the lake at the volcano

  13. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  14. The KineSpring® Knee Implant System: an implantable joint-unloading prosthesis for treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford AG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anton G Clifford,1 Stefan M Gabriel,1 Mary O’Connell,1 David Lowe,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block31Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in adults. Therapies intended to unload the medial knee compartment have yielded unsatisfactory results due to low patient compliance with conservative treatments and high complication rates with surgical options. There is no widely available joint-unloading treatment for medial knee OA that offers clinically important symptom alleviation, low complication risk, and high patient acceptance. The KineSpring® Knee Implant System (Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA is a first-of-its-kind, implantable, extra-articular, extra-capsular prosthesis intended to alleviate knee OA-related symptoms by reducing medial knee compartment loading while overcoming the limitations of traditional joint-unloading therapies. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent prosthesis durability, substantial reductions in medial compartment and total joint loads, and clinically important improvements in OA-related pain and function. The purpose of this report is to describe the KineSpring System, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The KineSpring System has potential to bridge the gap between ineffective conservative treatments and irreversible surgical interventions for medial compartment knee OA.Keywords: KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, prosthesis

  15. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  16. An undergraduate study of harmonic and parametric motion of a simple mass-spring system from motion waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a mass vertically appended to a spring, worldwide used as initiating experiment in a physics undergraduate laboratory, shows generally a complex behaviour owing to the simultaneous action of gravitational, elastic and torsional forces. Moreover, since the friction force, caused by air against the mass movement, has not a simple dependence on the velocity, a further difficulty is added to the study of the motion. The article presents a path to manage the complexity of the experiment maintaining the objective of treating and enlightening the physics of the harmonic motion via the mass-spring experiment. The system is firstly approached as a harmonic oscillator. The notable deviation from that simple dynamics, in particular the parametric oscillation behaviour observed along the lab work, is briefly discussed and modeled at that conjunction. The approach to the parametric behavior is done via the analysis of the motion waveforms.

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... output to input ratio, willow performed better than other biomasses. On the basis of carbohydrate content of straw, the equivalent dry matter of alfalfa and willow would be requiring higher. The environmental impacts of the selected biomasses in biorefinery therefore would differ based on the conversion......The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...

  18. Sub-glacial Origin of the Hot Springs Bay Valley hydrothermal System, Akutan, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, P. L.; Tobin, B.; Knapp, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal energy in Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV) on Akutan Island, Alaska, has revealed a rich hydrothermal history, including what appears to be a stage of peak activity during a significant glacial period. Alteration mineralogy observed in 754 m of drill core recovered from the outflow zone is dominated by chlorite and includes minor smectite clays, a suite of zeolite species and several moderately high-temperature hydrothermal minerals (epidote/clinozoisite, prehnite, adularia and wairakite). The latter minerals each have minimum formation temperatures exceeding 200 oC, and fluid inclusion results in related calcite crystals indicate temperatures of formation to be as high as 275 oC, some 100 oC hotter than the modern boiling point with depth (BPD) curve at that depth (>62 m). In order to maintain liquid temperatures this high, the pressure during mineralization must have been substantially greater (~680 bar), a pressure change equivalent to erosion of ~280 m of rock (ρ=2.5 g/cm3). Although glacial erosion rates are too low (0.034 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003) for this amount of erosion to occur in a single glaciation, glacial melting and ablation are substantially more rapid (~100 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003; Person et al., 2012). Thus, a more probable scenario than pure erosion is that peak hydrothermal conditions occurred during a large glacial event, with the added pressure from the overlying ice allowing the high temperature minerals to form closer to the ground surface. Subsequent melting of the ice eroded upper tributary valleys and upper levels of the originally smectite-rich alteration assemblage, explaining the paucity of swelling clays in the region. We present mineralogical, fluid inclusion and geochronologic evidence to support these conclusions, and discuss the general implications of sub-glacial hydrothermal system formation and geothermal resource potential. References: Bekele, E., Rostron, B. and Person, M. (2003) Fluid pressure

  19. Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becthel Jacobs Company LLC

    2002-11-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) is an active manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that is located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. Building 9201-2 was one of the first process buildings constructed at the Y-12 Complex. Construction involved relocating and straightening of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) channel, adding large quantities of fill material to level areas along the creek, and pumping of concrete into sinkholes and solution cavities present within the limestone bedrock. Flow from a large natural spring designated as ''Big Spring'' on the original 1943 Stone & Webster Building 9201-2 Field Sketch FS6003 was captured and directed to UEFPC through a drainpipe designated Outfall 51. The building was used from 1953 to 1955 for pilot plant operations for an industrial process that involved the use of large quantities of elemental mercury. Past operations at the Y-12 Complex led to the release of mercury to the environment. Significant environmental media at the site were contaminated by accidental releases of mercury from the building process facilities piping and sumps associated with Y-12 Complex mercury handling facilities. Releases to the soil surrounding the buildings have resulted in significant levels of mercury in these areas of contamination, which is ultimately transported to UEFPC, its streambed, and off-site. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations prime contractor responsible for conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Complex. In order to mitigate the mercury being released to UEFPC, the Big Spring Water Treatment System will be designed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. This facility will treat the combined flow from Big Spring feeding Outfall 51 and the inflow now being processed at the East End Mercury Treatment System (EEMTS). Both discharge to

  20. Characteristics and dynamic response of 3-D component base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kazunari; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Seismic Emergency Information System Research Team, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated against various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the design specification of the base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs, dynamic characteristics, dynamic response against natural seismic motion and results of dynamic response analysis considering the various characteristics of isolation devices. (author)

  1. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B.; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Ault, Toby R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Gross, John E.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. national parks are already at the extreme warm end of their historical temperature distributions. With rapidly warming conditions, park resource management will be enhanced by information on seasonality of climate that supports adjustments in the timing of activities such as treating invasive species, operating visitor facilities, and scheduling climate-related events (e.g., flower festivals and fall leaf-viewing). Seasonal changes in vegetation, such as pollen, seed, and fruit production, are important drivers of ecological processes in parks, and phenology has thus been identified as a key indicator for park monitoring. Phenology is also one of the most proximate biological responses to climate change. Here, we use estimates of start of spring based on climatically modeled dates of first leaf and first bloom derived from indicator plant species to evaluate the recent timing of spring onset (past 10–30 yr) in each U.S. natural resource park relative to its historical range of variability across the past 112 yr (1901–2012). Of the 276 high latitude to subtropical parks examined, spring is advancing in approximately three-quarters of parks (76%), and 53% of parks are experiencing “extreme” early springs that exceed 95% of historical conditions. Our results demonstrate how changes in climate seasonality are important for understanding ecological responses to climate change, and further how spatial variability in effects of climate change necessitates different approaches to management. We discuss how our results inform climate change adaptation challenges and opportunities facing parks, with implications for other protected areas, by exploring consequences for resource management and planning.

  2. The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stille, L.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Wicke, B.; Singh, R.; Singh, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the p

  3. Circulation patterns and geothermometry of some Italian spring systems by sulfate isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortecci, G. (Univ. of Pisa, Italy); Bertrami, R.; Ceccarelli, A.; Campbell, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates and waters in springs emerging in the Monti Vulsini and Monti Sabatini areas (Latium, Italy) have been applied to the evaluation of the hydrological situation and temperature conditions at depth. These areas belong to the pre-Apennine belt of geothermal interest, where an intense volcanic activity of Quaternary age occurred. Using results of studies on other Italian geothermal fields and the interpretation of the available geological, geophysical, and geochemical data, a model was advanced for the hydrology of this area.

  4. Alkaline ceramidase 3 deficiency aggravates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice by hyperactivating the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Xu, R; Snider, A J; Schrandt, J; Li, Y; Bialkowska, A B; Li, M; Zhou, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M; Yang, V W; Mao, C

    2016-03-03

    Increasing studies suggest that ceramides differing in acyl chain length and/or degree of unsaturation have distinct roles in mediating biological responses. However, still much remains unclear about regulation and role of distinct ceramide species in the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3) mediates the immune response by regulating the levels of C18:1-ceramide in cells of the innate immune system and that Acer3 deficiency aggravates colitis in a murine model by augmenting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid and colonic epithelial cells (CECs). According to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, ACER3 is downregulated in immune cells in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent inducer of the innate immune response. Consistent with these data, we demonstrated that LPS downregulated both Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity while elevating C(18:1)-ceramide, a substrate of Acer3, in murine immune cells or CECs. Knocking out Acer3 enhanced the elevation of C(18:1)-ceramide and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and CECs in response to LPS challenge. Similar to Acer3 knockout, treatment with C(18:1)-ceramide, but not C18:0-ceramide, potentiated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. In the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, Acer3 deficiency augmented colitis-associated elevation of colonic C(18:1)-ceramide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acer3 deficiency aggravated diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss and mortality. Pathological analyses revealed that Acer3 deficiency augmented colonic shortening, immune cell infiltration, colonic epithelial damage and systemic inflammation. Acer3 deficiency also aggravated colonic dysplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that Acer3 has an important anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cellular or tissue C(18

  5. Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

  6. The parametric spring-mass system, its connection with non-linear optics, and an approach for undergraduate students

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco; Vercellati, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The spring-mass system studied in undergraduate physics laboratories may exhibit complex dynamics due to the simultaneous action of gravitational and elastic forces in addition to air friction. In the first part of this paper, we describe a laboratory experiment aimed at beginner students which also gives those with a more advanced background an opportunity to explore more complex aspects of the motions involved. If students are not given predefined apparatus but are allowed instead to design their own set-up for the experiment, they may also learn something about the thought processes and experimental procedures used in physics. In the second part of this paper, we present a systematic study of the parametric behavior of the system because teachers have to master its dynamics. The non-linear interaction between the vertical and the pendular oscillations in a vertical spring-mass system depends on the ratio between the frequencies of the two motions and on the motion's excitation. Systematic experimental inve...

  7. Impact of snow darkening via dust, black carbon, and organic carbon on boreal spring climate in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Koster, Randal D.; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2015-06-01

    Dust, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) aerosols, when deposited onto snow, are known to reduce the albedo of the snow (i.e., snow darkening effect (SDE)). Here using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) with aerosol tracers and a state-of-the-art snow darkening module (GOddard SnoW Impurity Module: GOSWIM) for the land surface, we examine the role of SDE on climate in the boreal spring snowmelt season. SDE is found to produce significant surface warming (over 15 W m-2) over broad areas in midlatitudes, with dust being the most important contributor to the warming in central Asia and the western Himalayas and with BC having larger impact in the Europe, eastern Himalayas, East Asia, and North America. The contribution of OC to the warming is generally low but still significant mainly over southeastern Siberia, northeastern East Asia, and western Canada (~19% of the total solar visible absorption by these snow impurities). The simulations suggest that SDE strengthens the boreal spring water cycle in East Asia through water recycling and moisture advection from the ocean and contributes to the maintenance of dry conditions in parts of a region spanning Europe to central Asia, partially through feedback on the model's background climatology. Overall, our study suggests that the existence of SDE in the Earth system associated with dust, BC, and OC contributes significantly to enhanced surface warming over continents in northern hemisphere midlatitudes during boreal spring, raising the surface skin temperature by approximately 3-6 K near the snowline.

  8. Alkaline phosphatase activity: new assay for the Reflotron system. Results of the evaluation in eight clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G; Dominick, H C; Hellmann, D; Klauke, R; Möckesch, M; Stekel, H; von Schenck, H; Kraft, M; Nagel, R; Hänseler, E

    2001-01-01

    A new reagent carrier, Reflotron ALP, has been developed for the Reflotron system, allowing easy and rapid measurement (in less than 3 minutes) of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in capillary blood, venous blood, heparinized plasma or serum. The evaluation of the analytical performance of the assay was carried out at eight clinical laboratories. The study of the imprecision using the measurements in human samples resulted in coefficients of variation ranging from 1.3% to 4.6% (within-run) and from 3.2% to 4.0% (day-to-day). The analytical specificity of the Reflotron ALP assay agrees well with ALP methods using a N-methyl-D-glucamine buffer solution. The calibration of the Reflotron ALP assay, however, is related to the reference intervals for ALP methods using a diethanolamine buffer solution. Method comparisons were performed with the ALP method on Hitachi instruments using diethanolamine buffer. Reflotron ALP measurements in blood and plasma in 157 randomly selected split samples showed excellent agreement (slope: 0.99; intercept: 0.7 U/l; median bias: 2.3%; median difference from the comparison method: -0.3%). Specimens from pregnant women and adolescents were excluded from this study. Differing values were obtained in a method comparison using 48 samples containing predominantly the ALP bone isoform (slope: 0.81; intercept: 31.5 U/l; median bias: 5.7%; median difference from the comparison method: -12.2%). Regression analysis of the results from 21 sera with prevailing placental ALP gave a slope of 1.51, and an intercept of -41.1 U/l (median bias: 8.6%; median difference from the comparison method: 35.6%). Reflotron ALP was compared with three different wet chemistry procedures using different buffer compounds: N-methyl-D-glucamine or diethanolamine or 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol. In samples containing predominantly ALP isoforms not of liver origin, the measurements with N-methyl-D-glucamine buffer gave the best fit with respect to Reflotron. In an

  9. The regulators of yeast PHO system participate in the transcriptional regulation of G1 cyclin under alkaline stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Masafumi

    2015-03-01

    The yeast Pho85 kinase oversees whether environmental conditions are favourable for cell growth and enables yeast cells to express only genes that are appropriate for the conditions. Alkaline stress perturbs transport of molecules across the plasma membrane that is vital for cell survival. Progression through the cell cycle is halted until the cells can adapt to the stress conditions. I found that Pho85 is required for CLN2 expression and that overproduction of the transcription factors Pho4, Rim101 and Crz1, all targets of Pho85, inhibited CLN2 expression. CLN2 expression in the absence of Pho85 could be recovered only when all the three transcription factors were deleted. Whi5, a functional homologue of the mammalian Rb protein, represses CLN2 expression and is inactivated when phosphorylated by either of the CDK-cyclin complexes, Cdc28-Cln3 or Pho85-Pcl9. Under alkaline conditions, the absence of Whi5 caused an increase in CLN2 expression but failed to do so when Pho85 was also absent, or when Pho4 was overproduced. The expression level of CLN2 in a Δpho85 Δpho4 Δrim101 Δcrz1 quadruple mutant was stimulated when the Whi5 activity was repressed by overproduction of Pho85-Pcl9. These results indicate that Whi5 is also under control of alkaline stress. The inhibitory function of Whi5 on CLN2 is dependent on Rpd3 HDAC, and the absence of Rpd3 could also suppress the inhibitory effect of Pho4 overproduction. Based on these findings, a model is presented in which Pho85 and Pho4 functions in CLN2 regulation under alkaline conditions.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ∼130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (∼160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  11. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  12. Development of high spatial resolution X-ray CT system at BL47XU in SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Uesugi, K; Yagi, N; Tsuchiyama, A; Nakano, T

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution, micrometer range, X-ray CT system has been developed at SPring-8. The experiments were performed at the undulator beam line BL47XU. An 'in-vacuum type' undulator is employed as an X-ray source, and the X-rays are monochromatized with a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. High precision rotation stage with air bearing was used for sample rotation. The transmitted images were obtained with a two-dimensional image detector, which consists of a single crystal phosphor screen (Lu sub 2 SiO sub 5 : Ce), an objective lens and a cooled CCD camera. In this system the smallest effective pixel size was set to 0.5 mu mx0.5 mu m. As a result of the experiments, three-dimensional images of a few micrometer-order texture has been successfully obtained with the developed CT system.

  13. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  14. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Birkved, Morten; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-05-15

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100), Eutrophication Potential (EP), Non-Renewable Energy (NRE) use, Agricultural Land Occupation (ALO), Potential Freshwater Ecotoxicity (PFWTox) and Soil quality. With regard to the methods, soil organic carbon (SOC) change related to the land occupation was calculated based on the net carbon input to the soil. Freshwater ecotoxicity was calculated using the comparative toxicity units of the active ingredients and their average emission distribution fractions to air and freshwater. Soil quality was based on the change in the SOC stock estimated during the land use transformation and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy output to input ratio, willow performed better than other biomasses. On the basis of carbohydrate content of straw, the equivalent dry matter of alfalfa and willow would be requiring higher. The environmental impacts of the selected biomasses in biorefinery therefore would differ based on the conversion efficiency, e.g. of the carbohydrates in the related biorefinery processes.

  15. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study.

  16. 基于 ExtjsSpring MVC 的 Web 系统开发架构的研究与实现%Research and Realization of Web System Development Architecture Based on Extjs and Spring MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2013-01-01

      为降低 Web 应用开发的复杂性和难度,文中作者深入分析了当前主流的 Web 系统开源框架 Spring MVC 和 RIA 技术 Extjs,从 Web 应用的表现层入手,提出了一种高效整合二者的方法,搭建出基于 Spring MVC + Extjs 的 Web 系统开发架构,降低层次耦合程度,引入 AJAX 模式,使服务器和浏览器之间的交互更为高效。通过对该框架的使用,降低代码的耦合性,减少开发周期,为 Web 系统的开发提供便利,另外,使用 ExtJs,也优化用户的使用体验。最后,以实例代码验证该方法的实用性。%In order to reduce the complexity and difficulty of the Web application development,deeply analyzed the current mainstream Web system framework for Spring MVC and RIA Extjs. From Web application presentation layer proceed with,put forward a kind of effi-cient integration of the two methods,structures Web system development framework based on Spring MVC + Extjs,lower level coupling degree,introduced the AJAX pattern,so that the interaction between browser and server is more efficient. Through the use of frame,re-duce the coupling of the code,decrease the development cycle,for the development of Web system provide convenience,in addition,the use of Extjs,also optimize the user experience. Finally,with examples of code verify the practicality of this method.

  17. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  18. Detection and quality of previously undetermined Floridan aquifer system discharge to the St. Johns River, Jacksonville, to Green Cove Springs, northeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Potentiometric surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer show two depressions around the St. Johns River frm the city of Jacksonville south toward Green Cove Springs. These depressions, depending on their locations, are the result of withdrawals from agricultural, industrial, domestic and public-supply wells, diffuse upward leakage, and discharge from springs. Submerged springs that discharge into the St. Johns River between Jacksonville and Green Cove Springs have been thought to exist, but locating and evaluating these springs had not been attempted before this investigation. Thermal infrared imagery, seismic reflection, and numerous interviews with local residents were used to locate springs. An airborne thermal infrared survey was conducted along a section of the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida during February 1992 to detect possible sources of ground-water discharge to the river. An infrared image displayed one thermal anomaly in the St. Johns River which is associated with a previously unknown spring discharge from the Floridan aquifer system. Thermal anomalies also were observed at six locations where municipal facilities discharge treated wastewater to the river. Results of seismic reflection surveys indicate the presence of collapse and other karst features underlying the St. Johns River. These features indicate that the surficial deposits and the Hawthorn Formation that underlie the river probably do not consist of continuous beds. The collapse or deformation of the Hawthorn Formation or the presence of permeable sediment of localized extent could create zones of relatively high vertical leakance. This could provide a more direct hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the river. Water samples collected from the only submerged spring in the St. Johns River within the Jacksonville-Green Cove Springs reach indicate that the source of the water is the Floridan aquifer system. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were 12 and 340

  19. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    . Furthermore, the durability of the silicon carbide is reduced already by small amount of alkaline components in the flue gas. This report is an effort to identify areas for continued research activities. The work is primarily based on conclusions drawn from published articles. The areas in which further studied are most needed are: description of the corroding environment, studies of the mechanism of corrosion and evaluation and development of bonding systems or sintering methods. Two categories of material which can be of special interest due to the inertness of the crystals are different types of mullite and spinel.

  20. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  1. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  2. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  4. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  5. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carpenter, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brandon, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zavala, Bernie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  6. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  7. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  8. Response of a coastal hydrogeological system to a rapid decline in sea level; the case of Zuqim springs - The largest discharge area along the Dead Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Avihu; Yechieli, Yoseph; Galili, Udi

    2016-05-01

    The almost instantaneous response of a natural on-shore groundwater system to an extremely rapid drop in the level of an adjacent lake is described in this study. The study is focused on the Zuqim (Feshcha) spring complex located on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which exhibits a drop of tens of meters in its water level over the last few decades. In this exceptional "field lab", fluctuations and trends in the flow regime are recognized, as well as the contemporaneous geochemical variations. Lithological facies variations have a pronounced effect on the underground flow regime. The following main processes were recognized: (a) slight shifting of the long-standing springs eastward, following the retreating shore; (b) extension of the hydrologic system southward without significant change in the total discharge of the entire spring complex. The new seepages are characterized by high variability in salinity; and (c) continuous refreshing of the spring water as a result of prolonged flushing of old trapped brines. The water of the Zuqim springs lie on mixing lines between two local brine types and diluted brine of the Lisan Lake - the precursor of the Dead Sea. Based on our findings, future development processes in the spring complex are predicted, which is essential because of their impact on the endemic ecosystem that relies on this water. In addition, continuation of the rapid drop in lake level is expected to cause intensification of erosional processes, such as deepening of flow gullies. Shifting of the entire hydrological system southward and migration along with the retreating shore is also expected to continue, as well as the continuous decrease in the water salinity.

  9. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Demonstration of a light-redirecting skylight system at the Palm Springs Chamber of Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.S.; Beltran, L.O.; Selkowitz, S.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lau, H.; Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison, San Dimas, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a demonstration project to provide a comprehensive energy upgrade to a 294 m{sup 2} (3168 ft{sup 2}) commercial building, an advanced skylight design was developed using optical light control materials and geometry to provide daylight to two adjoining offices. The skylight system was developed using outdoor physical model tests and simulation tools Limited on-site measurements and occupant polls were conducted. Market issues were addressed. The skylight systems were found to improve lighting quality and to control excessive daylight illuminance levels compared to a conventional diffusing bubble skylight. Daylighting principles developed in earlier work for vertical glazing systems (light shelves and light pipes) were shown to be applicable in skylight designs at full-scale.

  11. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective: Water and nitrogen effects on spring wheat in a semi-arid environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.; Keating, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Systems approaches can help to evaluate and improve the agronomic and economic viability of nitrogen application in the frequently water-limited environments. This requires a sound understanding of crop physiological processes and well tested simulation models. Thus, this experiment on spring wheat

  12. Rotor-bearing system integrated with shape memory alloy springs for ensuring adaptable dynamics and damping enhancement-Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    Helical pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) springs are integrated into a dynamic system consisting of a rigid rotor supported by passive magnetic bearings. The aim is to determine the utility of SMAs for vibration attenuation via their mechanical hysteresis, and for adaptation of the dynamic ...

  13. Defense Systems Management Review. Volume 3, Number 2, Spring 1980. Managing the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    private sector. For example, a firm may want to minimize layoffs and/or to sus- tain no more than 20 percent unused production capacity. These goals may...times as large as that of the proposed national-level system. The National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration ( NASA ), with holdings of more than

  14. Approximate Analysis of Two-Mass–Spring Systems and Buckling of a Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S.S.; Barari, Amin; Ganji, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    Max–Min Approach (MMA) is applied to obtain an approximate solution of three practical cases in terms of a nonlinear oscillation system. After finding maximal and minimal solution thresholds of a nonlinear problem, an approximate solution of the nonlinear equation can be easily achieved using He ...

  15. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  16. Significantly enhancing recombinant alkaline amylase production in Bacillus subtilis by integration of a novel mutagenesis-screening strategy with systems-level fermentation optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Alkaline amylase has significant potential for applications in the textile, paper and detergent industries, however, low yield of which cannot meet the requirement of industrial application. In this work, a novel ARTP mutagenesis-screening method and fermentation optimization strategies were used to significantly improve the expression level of recombinant alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168. Results The activity of alkaline amylase in mutant B. subtilis 168 mut-16# strain was 1.34...

  17. New x-ray pink-beam profile monitor system for the SPring-8 beamline front-end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sunao; Kudo, Togo; Sano, Mutsumi; Watanabe, Atsuo; Tajiri, Hiroo

    2016-08-01

    A new beam profile monitoring system for the small X-ray beam exiting from the SPring-8 front-end was developed and tested at BL13XU. This system is intended as a screen monitor and also as a position monitor even at beam currents of 100 mA by using photoluminescence of a chemical vapor deposition-grown diamond film. To cope with the challenge that the spatial distribution of the photoluminescence in the vertical direction is too flat to detect the beam centroid within a limited narrow aperture, a filter was installed that absorbs the fundamental harmonic concentrated in the beam center, which resulted in "de-flattening" of the vertical distribution. For the measurement, the filter crossed the photon beam vertically at high speed to withstand the intense heat flux of the undulator pink-beam. A transient thermal analysis, which can simulate the movement of the irradiation position with time, was conducted to determine the appropriate configuration and the required moving speed of the filter to avoid accidental melting. In a demonstration experiment, the vertically separated beam profile could be successfully observed for a 0.8 × 0.8 mm2 beam shaped by an XY slit and with a fundamental energy of 18.48 keV. The vertical beam centroid could be detected with a resolution of less than 0.1 mm.

  18. 基于Struts+Spring+Hibernate的高校学生管理系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of university student management system based on Struts+Spring+Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烨; 王伯槐

    2011-01-01

    The Student Management System plays the most important role in the student management affairs in university.We have explored the theory and technologies of student management systems. Based on the analysis of the system requirements the actual of school, B/S development modules and layer structures were employed in implementing the system.The system was classified into representation layer,WEB layer,logic layer (business logic interface and business logic implementation class),data layer by utilizing Java EE framework technology struts+spring+hibernate),we have implemented the corresponding functions of student management system and conducted relevant tests. The results indicated that the system's feasibility and effectiveness achieved the desired goals. Its applications in realities have reduced the workload of the managers and improved the efficiencies.%在高校的日常工作中,学生管理系统占有举足轻重的地位.通过对学生管理系统相关理论技术进行深入研究,充分系统需求分析的基础上,结合学校的实际情况,采用B/S开发模式的多层体系方法,应用轻量级的Java EE框架技术(Struts+Spring+Hibernate),将系统划分为表示层、业务逻辑层、数据持久层,详细设计并实现了学生管理系统的相应功能,并进行了相关测试.测试结果表明系统的可行性和有效性达到了预期的目标,其应用能有效减少管理者的工作量、提高学生管理的工作效率.

  19. Spring-Based Helmet System Support Prototype to Address Aircrew Neck Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopter aircrew are known to have extremely high incidence of chronic, debilitating neck pain. Fischer et al...2013) identified that unbalanced moments due to head-borne equipment (i.e. helmet with NVG ) were a particular concern since the current solution was...to add more weight (battery pack and counterweight (CW)) as a counterbalancing force. Three concepts were proposed to improve the helmet- NVG system

  20. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF ULTRASONIC OSCILLATORY SYSTEM FOR HARDENING OF SPRING PLATE BILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tomilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various schemes of ultrasonic oscillatory system are developed: with a «force nonsensitive» support, with a «force sensitive» support, with the deforming steel balls in bulk. Results of the ultrasonic treatment showed that hardening of a surface of the samples took place when the vibration amplitude of a radiator exceeds a certain level. The level of hardening increases with increase in amplitude of fluctuations of a radiator. Higher level of hardening is registered when the surface is treated by steel balls.

  2. Oxygen isotope systematics in an evolving geothermal system: Coso Hot Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, Thomas M.; Bowman, John R.; Moore, Joseph N.; Valley, John W.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; McCulloch, Jesse M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen isotope and clay mineralogy studies have been made on whole rock samples and feldspar separates from three wells along the high temperature West Flank of the Coso geothermal system, California. The reservoir rocks have experienced variable 18O/16O depletion, with δ18O values ranging from primary values of + 7.5‰ down to - 4.6‰. Spatial patterns of clay mineral distributions in the three wells are not closely correlated with the distributions expected from measured, pre-production temperature profiles, but do correlate with spatial patterns of 18O/16O depletion, indicating that the stability of clay minerals in the three wells is a function of fluid-rock interaction in addition to temperature. Detailed δ18O measurements in the three wells identify a limited number of localized intervals of extensive 18O/16O depletion. These intervals document localized zones of higher permeability in the geothermal system that have experienced significant fluid infiltration, water-rock interaction and oxygen isotopic exchange with the geothermal fluids. The local zones of maximum 18O/16O depletion in each well correspond closely with current hot water production zones. Most feldspar separates have measured δ18O values too high to have completely attained oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium with the reservoir fluid at pre-production temperatures. In general, the lower the δ18O value of the feldspar, the closer the feldspar approaches exchange equilibrium with the geothermal fluid. This correlation suggests that fracture-induced increases in permeability increase both fluid infiltration and the surface area of the host rock exposed to geothermal fluid, promoting fluid-rock interaction and oxygen isotope exchange. The two most 18O/16O-depleted feldspar samples have δ18O values too low to be in exchange equilibrium with the pre-production reservoir fluid at pre-production temperatures. These discrepancies suggest that the reservoir fluid in the West Flank of the Coso

  3. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  4. Simulation of flow processes in a large scale karst system with an integrated catchment model (Mike She) - Identification of relevant parameters influencing spring discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Sauter, Martin; Geyer, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    SummaryIn a complex environment such as karst systems, it is difficult to assess the relative contribution of the different components of the system to the hydrological system response, i.e. spring discharge. Not only is the saturated zone highly heterogeneous due to the presence of highly permeable conduits, but also the recharge processes. The latter are composed of rapid recharge components through shafts and solution channels and diffuse matrix infiltration, generating a highly complex, spatially and temporally variable input signal. The presented study reveals the importance of the compartments vegetation, soils, saturated zone and unsaturated zone. Therefore, the entire water cycle in the catchment area Gallusquelle spring (Southwest Germany) is modelled over a period of 10 years using the integrated hydrological modelling system Mike She by DHI (2007). Sensitivity analyses show that a few individual parameters, varied within physically plausible ranges, play an important role in reshaping the recessions and peaks of the recharge functions and consequently the spring discharge. Vegetation parameters especially the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the root depth as well as empirical parameters in the relationship of Kristensen and Jensen highly influence evapotranspiration, transpiration to evaporation ratios and recharge respectively. In the unsaturated zone, the type of the soil (mainly the hydraulic conductivity at saturation in the water retention and hydraulic retention curves) has an effect on the infiltration/evapotranspiration and recharge functions. Additionally in the unsaturated karst, the saturated moisture content is considered as a highly indicative parameter as it significantly affects the peaks and recessions of the recharge curve. At the level of the saturated zone the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix and highly conductive zone representing the conduit are dominant parameters influencing the spring response. Other intermediate significant

  5. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  6. MOTIONS STUDY OF A SINGLE CYLINDER HIGH SPEED SPARK IGNITION LINIER ENGINE WITH SPRING SYSTEM AS RETURN CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z.M. Fathallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder two stroke spark ignition conventional engine have been modified to linier engine with spring mechanism. Before develop the design of linear engine is necessary to analysis of motion. Although principle of combustion process in combustion chamber is the same in fact the oscillation movement is different. Simulation technique has been adopted to study both linear and conventional engine. 3D engines model have been simulate of the motion. Due to simulate both engines, three different tools have been used. Solid works has been used to design, assembly and motion analysis of engine models. However, pressure dynamics have been simulating by GT-Power. Spread sheet has been used to optimize geometry of spring. Spring force and friction force are including components of dynamic and gas dynamic models. Three results have been conducted such as comparison in basic motion (displacement, velocity and acceleration between conventional and linear engine, effect spring design on motion of piston movement and effect friction of piston ring and journal bearing on the motion characteristics of linear engine. The simulation shows clear different motion characteristics between conventional and linear engine. The effect of spring design on motion characteristics is very strong. The friction between ring piston with cylinder liner and journal bearing with rod influenced of piston movement. However, it need modified the design of spring mechanism.

  7. Numerical modeling of tides in the Great Bay Estuarine System: dynamical balance and spring-neap residual modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. W.; Bilgili, A.; Lynch, D. R.

    2003-05-01

    The Great Bay Estuarine System, in New Hampshire, USA, has been the focus area for an attempt to develop a robust finite element method model for estuarine hydrodynamics. Past studies used a nonlinear, time stepping, kinematic model with limited success (Ip et al. Advances in fluid mechanics III, WIT, Southampton (2000) 569; Bilgili et al. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 107 (2002); Ertürk et al. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 47 (1998) 119). We add dynamic physics (that is, local accelerations) for deep-water areas and keep kinematic physics (that is, without local and advective accelerations), with the inclusion of a porous medium beneath the open channel, for shallow and dewatering areas. The choice of which physics set to apply is made on an elemental depth dependent basis. The addition of the local acceleration terms for deep-water areas is seen to greatly improve accuracy in matching of tidal phasing over previous studies. Simulations involving M 2/M 4/M 6 tidal constituents result in strong agreement to observed data from the 1975 Great Bay field program (Swift & Brown, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 17 (1983) 297), in terms of both tidal heights and cross-section averaged velocities. Comparisons with 10 tidal elevation observation stations and four cross-section averaged current transects show good agreement, displaying average normalized root mean square misfit values of 0.08 and 0.25, respectively. Study of the simulated momentum balance shows the size of the contributions from acceleration terms to be on the order of a third the size of the contributions from the pressure gradient and bottom stress terms. Although relatively small, they are observed to peak at the crucial time of tidal reversal. Application of the model for long-term simulation using an M 2/N 2/S 2 forcing shows the ability to realistically capture the spring-neap cycle. The tidally rectified flow is generally described as a constant spatial pattern with overall amplitude modulation following the

  8. Modeling Car-Following Dynamics During the Starting and Stopping Process Based on a Spring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 杨少辉; 初连禹

    2004-01-01

    Car-following models describe how one vehicle follows the preceding vehicles. In order to better model and explain car-following dynamics, this paper categorizes the state of a traveling vehicle into three sub-processes: the starting (acceleration) process, the car-following process, and the stopping (deceleration) process. The starting process primarily involves vehicle acceleration behavior. The stopping process involves not only car-following behavior but also deceleration behavior. This paper regards both the stopping process and the starting process as spring systems. The car-following dynamics during the starting process and the stopping process is modeled in this paper. The parameters of the proposed models, which are represented in the form of trigonometric functions, possess explicit physical meaning and definitive ranges. We have calibrated the model of the starting process using data from the Traffic Engineering Handbook, and obtained reasonable results. Compared with traditional stimulus-response car-following models, this model can better explain traffic flow phenomena and driver behavior theory.

  9. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch II: Biological response of Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall and Coccinella septempunctata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four systems of organic farming of spring vetsch on Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae and Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae population density and the toxicity of several products on predatory insects were studied. The variants were: Control (without using any biological products; combined treatment with Polyversum (biological foliar fertilizer and Biofa (biological plant growth regulator; treatment with NeemAzal T/S (biological insecticide, a.i. azadirachtin and treatment with a combination of NeemAzal with Polyversum and Biofa. Variant V was a conventional farming system in which a combination of Nurelle D (synthetic insecticide, Masterblend (foliar fertilizer and Flordimex 420 (growth regulator was used as a standard treatment. In the organic farming system that included treatment of plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal (azadirachtin, the reduction in A. intermedius abundance was 20.7% when it was applied alone and 24.6 % in combination with the organic products Polyversum and Biofa. NeemAzal achieved a lower reduction in the counts of predatory ladybirds C. septempunctata, from 14.9% (alone to 21.9% (combination. The biological insecticide, applied alone or in combination, was mostly harmless and rarely harmful to A. intermedius. NeemAzal manifested harmlessness to C. septempunctata as its toxic action did not exceed 25%. An analysis of variance regarding product toxicity to A. intermedius and C. septempunctata demonstrated that the type of treatment (the application of insecticides alone or in combination had the strongest effect on product toxicity. Тhe use of neem-based insecticides can be a substantial contribution towards preservation of biodiversity in ecosystems.

  10. Naked-eye sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) based on a horseradish peroxidase catalytic colorimetric system with Cu(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongmin; Sun, Yue; Lin, Lin; Shi, Chunjun; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-10-07

    In this paper, a novel colorimetric method for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) was designed based on a Cu(2+)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-3,3',5,5'-tetra-methylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. In the presence of ALP, l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) could be hydrolyzed to ascorbic acid which could reduce Cu(2+) to Cu(+) to inhibit the enzymatic activity of HRP in the colorimetric system. The change in absorbance was found to be proportional to the ALP concentration with a linear detection range and a limit of detection of 5.4 mU mL(-1). In the presence of PPi, because Cu(2+) was chelated by PPi, the conversion of Cu(ii) by AA was effectively inhibited. The color of the HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with Cu(2+) showed blue. The HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with the Cu(2+) colorimetric system could also detect PPi with a satisfying result. In summary, this method possesses sensitivity, reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness without labelling and separation and the use of a colorimetric method is more in line with the requirements of on-site detection and green chemistry.

  11. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  12. The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes-Amazon system: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; West, A. Joshua; Clark, Kathryn E.; Paris, Guillaume; Bouchez, Julien; Ponton, Camilo; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between chemical weathering fluxes and denudation rates suggests that tectonic activity can force variations in atmospheric pCO2 by modulating weathering fluxes. However, the effect of weathering on pCO2 is not solely determined by the total mass flux. Instead, the effect of weathering on pCO2 also depends upon the balance between 1) alkalinity generation by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and 2) sulfuric acid generation by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In this study, we explore how the balance between acid and alkalinity generation varies with tectonic uplift to better understand the links between tectonics and the long-term carbon cycle. To trace weathering reactions across the transition from the Peruvian Andes to the Amazonian foreland basin, we measured a suite of elemental concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Si, Li, SO4, and Cl) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr and δ34S) on both dissolved and solid phase samples. Using an inverse model, we quantitatively link systematic changes in solute geochemistry with elevation to downstream declines in sulfuric acid weathering as well as the proportion of cations sourced from silicates. With a new carbonate-system framework, we show that weathering in the Andes Mountains is a CO2 source whereas foreland weathering is a CO2 sink. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectation that the ratio of sulfide oxidation to silicate weathering increases with increasing erosion. Altogether, our results suggest that the effect of tectonically-enhanced weathering on atmospheric pCO2 is strongly modulated by sulfide mineral oxidation.

  13. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  14. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive control of the flutter instability on a two-degrees-of-freedom system with pseudoelastic shape-memory alloy springs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malher A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A passive control of aeroelastic instabilities on a two-degrees-of-freedom (dofs system is considered here using shape memory alloys (SMA springs in their pseudo-elastic regime. SMA present a solid-solid phase change that allow them to face strong deformations (∼ 10%; in the pseudo-elastic regime, an hysteresis loop appears in the stress-strain relationship which in turn gives rise to an important amount of dissipated energy. This property makes the SMA a natural candidate for damping undesired vibrations in a passive manner. A 2-dofs system is here used to model the classical flutter instability of a wing section in an uniform flow. The SMA spring is selected on the pitch mode in order to dissipate energy of the predominant motion. A simple model for the SMA hysteresis loop is introduced, allowing for a quantitative study of the important parameters to optimize in view of an experimental design.

  16. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  17. FOA-SUB underwater vehicle system: A brief description of the system and its state, Spring 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, G.; Stensson, G.

    1984-03-01

    An unmanned propeller-driven vehicle system, with power supplied from ashore by an electrical cable, was built. After testing, it was used as a tool in underwater applications, and subsystems were rebuilt and completed. Capacity of the data program for operation and control of the vehicle are reported. The hydro-acoustic precision navigation system is outlined.

  18. Alkaline electrolyzer and V2G system DIgSILENT models for demand response analysis in future distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    about the future control and operation of the power system. A widespread idea to face these challenges is to have a flexible demand easily adjustable to the system variations. Electrothermal loads, electric vehicles and hydrogen generation are among the most mentioned technologies capable to respond...... levels were considered: 20 kV for the electrolyzer grid connection and 0.4 kV for the plug-in electric vehicle. Simulation results illustrate the simplicity and manageability of the presented models....

  19. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  20. Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Fazal Yazdan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Saleem Ud Din

    2014-01-01

    A ifeld experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements:zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen&no splitting, N0S0);2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1);3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2);4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3);and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efifciency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efifciency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.

  1. Bridging the osteoarthritis treatment gap with the KineSpring Knee Implant System: early evidence in 100 patients with 1-year minimum follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J London,1 Jon Smith,2 Larry E Miller,3,4 Jon E Block4 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harrogate District Foundation Trust, Harrogate, UK; 2The Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Yorkshire, UK; 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Arden, NC, USA; 4The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Almost 4 million Americans are within the knee osteoarthritis (OA treatment gap, the period from unsuccessful exhaustion of conservative treatment to major surgical intervention. New treatment alternatives for symptomatic knee OA are greatly needed. The purpose of this report was to assess outcomes of a joint-unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System in patients with symptomatic medial knee OA. A total of 100 patients enrolled in three clinical trials were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All devices were successfully implanted and activated, with no operative complications. Knee pain severity improved 60% (P < 0.001 at 1 year, with 76% of patients reporting a minimum 30% improvement in pain severity. All Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC subscores significantly improved at 1 year, with a 56% improvement in pain, 57% improvement in function, and a 39% improvement in stiffness (all P < 0.001. The percentage of patients experiencing a minimum 20% improvement in WOMAC subscores was 74% for pain, 83% for function, and 67% for stiffness. During follow-up, six (6% patients required additional surgery, including four total knee arthroplasties and two high tibial osteotomies. The KineSpring System effectively bridges the treatment gap between failed conservative care and surgical joint-modifying procedures. Keywords: implant, KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, unloading

  2. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  3. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  4. Characteristics and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Seismic Emergency Information System Research Team, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program of the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, i.e., improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two kinds of base isolation test systems with different characteristic were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Another system which consists of multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated three-dimensional dynamic behavior and effect of base isolation against various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the design specification of the base isolation system which consists of multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs, static and dynamic characteristics, analysis model based on the characteristics, results of shaking table test and the dynamic response analysis (author)

  5. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  6. Application of delay nitrogen spring system in stamping dies for automobiles%延时氮气弹簧在汽车冲模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝顺

    2015-01-01

    The working principle of delay nitrogen spring system and its application in stamping dies for automobiles were presented in details. The local impact of nitrogen spring on the part in the return stroke of machine tool slider is effectively controlled, in which the nitrogen spring does not springback or has just a little springback and delayed return. The application protects the product and extends the die service life.%详细介绍了延时氮气弹簧系统的工作原理及在汽车冲模中的应用,机床滑块回程时氮气弹簧对制件的局部冲击进行有效控制,使氮气弹簧不回弹或者微小回弹,延时回程,具有保护制件及延长模具使用寿命的作用。

  7. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  9. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  10. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  11. Shaking table test and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer rubber bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fujimoto, Shigeru [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated under various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the results of the shaking table tests and dynamic response analysis. (author)

  12. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  13. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  14. Design of the On-line Detecting System for the Total Alkalinity in Boiler Water%锅炉水总碱度在线检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宏康; 郁燕东; 吉训生; 贾云龙

    2013-01-01

    以流动注射分析系统为核心、LabVIEW为软件开发平台,设计了锅炉水总碱度在线检测系统.通过LabVIEW平台,实时采集流动注射分析系统中由pH电极测得的电压值并对采集到的信号进行分析和处理.根据流动注射分析峰的面积与锅炉水总碱度对数之间的线性关系,通过计算得到锅炉水的总碱度.运行测试结果表明,该系统测量精度高、可扩展性强、操作简单、人机界面友好,可在线、实时、有效、快速地测定锅炉水总碱度.%The on-line detecting system for total alkalinity in boiler water is designed with flow injection analysis (FIA) system as the core and LabVIEW as software developing platform.The voltage values that measured by the pH electrode in FIA system are acquired in real time through the LabVIEW platform,and the acquired signals are analyzed and processed.In accordance with the linear relationship between the peak area of FIA and the logarithm of the total alkalinity in boiler water,the total alkalinity in boiler water can be determined.The test result shows that the system features high precision,good extensibility,simply operation and user-friendly interface; it implements online,effective and rapid measurement in real time for the total alkalinity in boiler water.

  15. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  16. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  17. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  18. Air Spring Simulation of Commercial Truck Cab Suspension System%商用车驾驶室悬置系统空气弹簧仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鑫; 姜迪; 王忠校

    2014-01-01

    采用试验数据与仿真分析相结合的方法,通过试验曲线反求空气弹簧的内部特性,同时结合高度调节阀的流量压力控制,可形成系统的实时闭环反馈;将空气弹簧平面模型与某商用车驾驶室悬置系统的3D多体模型进行联合仿真,结果表明,随机路面载荷下的试验与仿真曲线在时域及频域内吻合度较高,可以实时模拟空气弹簧的外输出特性。%By the combination of test data and simulation analysis, the internal characteristic of air spring can be reversed by test curve. And by adapting height control valve to regulate the flow pressure, the real-time closed-loop feedback system is formed. Air spring planar model and 3D cab suspension system MBS model of a commercial vehicle are used for the co-simulation, the results show that comparison curves between test and simulation under random road load in the time and frequency domain achieve a high fitting degree. And real-time simulation on the output characteristics of the air spring can be made.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding: Buffering at intermediate alkaline pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The alkaline flooding process involves injecting alkaline agents into the reservoir to produce more oil than is produced through conventional waterflooding. The interaction of the alkali in the flood water with the naturally occurring acids in the reservoir oil results in in-situ formation of soaps, which are partially responsible for lowering IFT and improving oil recovery. The extent to which IFT is lowered depends on the specific oil and injection water properties. Numerous investigators have attempted to clarify the relationship between system chemical composition and IFT. An experimental investigation of buffered alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine the influence of various species present on interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of pH and ionic strength. IFT was found to go through an ultralow minimum in certain pH ranges. This synergism results from simultaneous adsorption of un-ionized and ionized acid species on the interface.

  20. On the Usefulness of Radioactive Hot Springs in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J. C.; Bywaters, K. F.; Magnuson, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic characterization of the radiation environment, water temperatures, and microbial systems of Worswick Hot Springs, as a model for future characterization of polar hot spring environments.

  1. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  2. Experimental study on interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a mass–spring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a three-mass chain connected with elastic springs, a pair of masses is designed to have an effective negative mass, and it interacts with the third positive one as if an equivalent two-mass chain. The dynamics of the equivalent two-mass chain shows that the two bodies may be self-accelerated in same direction when the effective mass becomes negative, the experiment is also conducted to demonstrate this type of motion. We further show that the energy principle (Hamilton’s principle is applicable if the energy of the negative mass unit is properly characterized. The result may be relevant to composite with cells of effective negative mass, their interaction with matrix may lead to more richer unexpected macroscopic responses.

  3. Spring summer cycling of DOC, DON and inorganic N in a highly seasonal system encompassing the Northeast Water Polynya, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Annelie; Lara, Ruben; Kattner, Gerhard

    2001-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nutrient concentrations were determined in samples from an area encompassing the Northeast Water Polynya from June to August 1993. In June, still ice-covered polynya area surface waters (PySW) had significantly higher ( p<0.05) DOC concentrations (110 μM, n=68) than surface water outside the polynya area (96 μM, n=6). Melting ice and ice algae are suggested as DOC sources. DOC concentrations found in this study are consistent with other studies showing higher DOC concentrations in the Arctic than in other ocean areas. As the productive season progressed, DOC concentrations in Polynya surface water (PySW) decreased ( p<0.05) from 110 to 105 μM, while DON concentrations increased ( p<0.05) from 5.6 to 6.1 μM, causing a significant decrease ( p<0.05) in the C : N ratios of DOM from spring (C : N ratio 20) to summer (C : N ratio 17). We found a significant ( p<0.05) decrease in the DOM C : N ratio in all water masses within the polynya area as the productive season progressed. DON was the largest fraction of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in PySW and surface waters outside the polynya area. TDN was calculated as the sum of DON, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. DON increased ( p<0.05) from 62% to 73% of TDN in PySW from spring to summer, a result of increasing DON concentrations and decreasing inorganic nitrogen concentrations over the productive season. The seasonal accumulation of DON and the corresponding decrease in nitrate concentrations in waters with primary production indicate that it is important to take the DON pool into account when estimating export production from nitrate concentration decreases in surface waters. PySW TDN concentrations decreased ( p<0.05) from 9.1 ( n=61) to 8.6 μM ( n=60) from spring (May 25 through June 19) to summer (July 1 through July 27). The seasonal decrease in surface water TDN concentrations corresponded to increases in TDN

  4. 印尼热泉中产嗜热碱性蛋白酶菌株筛选及酶学性质研究%Screening and Characterization of a Crude Thermophilic Alkaline Protease From an Isolated Strain of Brevibacillus PBI in Indonesia's Hot Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 林学政; 黄晓航; 郑立; ZILDA Dewi Seswita

    2012-01-01

    采用MSM寡营养培养基从印度尼西亚Pantai cermin,Kalianda和Banyuwedang三个地区的热泉水样、泥样以及沉积物样品中分离获得细菌菌株,通过检测蛋白酶产生透明圈和福林酚蛋白酶活性测j定相结合的方法,从中筛选出1株产嗜热蛋白酶的菌株PBI,该菌株经初步鉴定为短杆菌属(Brevibacillus),并对其酶学性质进行了研究.结果表明,菌株PBI产蛋白酶的最适酶活温度为60℃,最适pH值为8.0~9.0,具有较好的热稳定性和pH稳定性.60℃时酶的半衰期为30 min,70℃条件下20 min仍保持46.1%的酶活,该酶在pH值为5.0~9.0范围的缓冲液中酶活相对稳定.其产嗜热蛋白酶的酶活力最高可达到60.53 U/mL,在100℃条件下仍能保留26.37%的相对酶活.Fe2+,Fe3+,Cu2+和Zn2+对嗜热蛋白酶活性具有明显的抑制作用.该嗜热蛋白酶对EDTA敏感,苯甲基磺酰氟(PMSF)、亮抑酶肽(Leupeptin)、苄眯(Benzamidine)和胃蛋白酶抑制剂(Pepstain A)对该嗜热蛋白酶都有一定的抑制作用,说明其酶活性受到丝氨酸、半胱氨酸残基的影响.结果表明,该菌株是1株具有进一步改造利用价值的产蛋白酶菌株.%Thertnophilic bacteria strains were isolated from water samples, soil samples and sediment samples of three Indonesia's hot spring area (Pantai cermin, Kalianda and Banyu wedang) by using MSM oligo-medium. A strain of bacterium! by detecting hydrolysis halos of protease and its activity. The protease belonged to thermophilic alkaline protease, which showed high-temperature stability and pH stability. In addition, the results revealed that the optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 8. 0~9. 0 for protease activity, respectively. The enzyme activity decreased faintly at 60℃ for 10 min, the enzyme stability declined with increasing temperature, the enzyme half-life is 30min at 60 °C , enzyme activity remained 46. 1 % at 70 °C for 20 min, the enzyme activity was relatively stable in the

  5. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  6. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  7. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  8. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  9. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  10. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  11. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  12. Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  13. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  14. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  15. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  16. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  17. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAND RACES OF THE SPRING SOFT WHEAT GROWN IN THE ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr KONVALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certified parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks. Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.

  19. Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium β-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n = 3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of β-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

  20. Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium β-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20 propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianu Calin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n = 3-20. In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of β-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20 propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios.

  1. Design and Realization of Information Communication Platform System Based on Struts+Spring+Hibernate Framework%基于Struts+Spring+Hibernate框架的信息交流平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵少卡

    2009-01-01

    以开发信息交流平台系统为背景,对基于MVC模式的Struts框架、Hibernate的ORM机制和对持久对象持久化的管理以及Spring IOC(控制反转)技术进行了探讨,整合这三种框架:表现层使用Struts;业务层使用Spring;持久层使用Hibernate进行系统的开发.此外,结合具体的实例对系统的实现作了详细的说明,验证了实现方法的可行性.

  2. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  3. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  4. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  5. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    water with low [Ca2+] and [HCO3-] precipitated smaller quantities of calcite and required longer flow distances to achieve CaCO3 supersaturation (e.g. Hot Creek). Spring water discharge volumes were controlled mainly by seasonal to millennial fluctuations in meteoric precipitation. Modern spring systems are characterized by reduced discharge volumes, channeled flow, and minimal calcite precipitation. Currently, spring water does not precipitate calcite where it flows into streams prior to achieving critical CaCO 3 supersaturation (e.g. Fall Creek).

  6. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  7. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  8. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  9. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  10. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  11. Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.

    2016-09-01

    In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.

  12. 非贵金属催化碱性硫离子-空气燃料电池%Alkaline sulfide-air fuel cell system using non-noble metal catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永茂; 张志艳; 程艳坤; 李永真; 张贺

    2014-01-01

    The alkaline sulfide-air fuel cell system was assembled using alkaline sulfide solution as anode fuel and activated carbon as anodic catalyst. The electrochemical behavior of alkaline sulfide was investigated in a three-electrode system and the effects of concentration of sulfide ion,operation temperature on open circuit potential(OCP)and discharge platform were studied. The OCP of anode was rather negative and stable. Through single fuel cell test,a maximum power density of 11mW/cm2 was obtained at 0.24V with current density of 46mA/cm2,demonstrating excellent electrochemical performance for energy conversion. The alkaline sulfide-air fuel cell exhibited promising perspective due to its research potential and application value.%以碱性硫离子电解液作为阳极燃料构建了硫离子-氧气燃料电池体系,采用粉末活性炭材料制备了涂膏电极,将碱性硫化钠溶液作为阳极燃料,通过建立电化学三电极模型对电极在碱性硫离子溶液中的放电性能进行研究,主要考察了硫离子浓度、体系温度对开路电位以及放电平台的影响。电极在碱性硫离子溶液中具有较负的开路电位和稳定的放电平台;通过单体电池测试在0.24V 电压下获得11mW/cm2的最大功率密度,此时电池的电流密度为46mA/cm2,证明碱性硫离子燃料电池在阳极不使用贵金属催化剂的情况下表现出良好的放电性能,是一种具有潜在研究价值和广泛应用前景的电化学体系。

  13. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chung Lin

    Full Text Available Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation age was 62 (14 years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.01. Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels.

  14. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  15. Quantum mechanical study of molecular collisions at ultra-low energy: applications to alkali and alkaline-earth systems; Etude quantique de collisions moleculaires a ultra-basse energie: applications aux alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quemener, G

    2006-10-15

    In order to investigate the collisional processes which occur during the formation of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates, a time-independent quantum mechanical formalism, based on hyperspherical coordinates, has been applied to the study of atom-diatom dynamics at ultra-low energies. We present theoretical results for three alkali systems, each composed of lithium, sodium or potassium atoms, and for an alkaline-earth system composed of calcium atoms. We also study dynamics at large and positive atom-atom scattering length. Evidence for the suppression of inelastic processes in a fermionic system is given, as well as a linear relation between the atom-diatom scattering length and the atom-atom scattering length. (author)

  16. Structure-guided systems-level engineering of oxidation-prone methionine residues in catalytic domain of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for significant improvement of both oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yang

    Full Text Available High oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency are required for the alkaline α-amylases to keep the enzymatic performance under the harsh conditions in detergent industries. In this work, we attempted to significantly improve both the oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica by engineering the five oxidation-prone methionine residues around the catalytic domain via a systematic approach. Specifically, based on the tertiary structure analysis, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247 and Met 317 were individually substituted with oxidation-resistant threonine, isoleucine and alaline, respectively. Among the created 15 mutants, 7 mutants M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T and M317I showed significantly enhanced oxidative stability or catalytic efficiency. In previous work, we found that the replacement of M247 with leucine could significantly improve the oxidative stability. Thus, these 8 positive mutants (M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T, M247L and M317I were used to conduct the second round of combinational mutations. Among the constructed 85 mutants (25 two-point mutants, 36 three-point mutants, 16 four-point mutants and 8 five-point mutants, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I showed a 5.4-fold increase in oxidative stability and a 3.0-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, the specific activity, alkaline stability and thermal stability of this mutant were also increased. The increase of salt bridge and hydrogen bonds around the catalytic domain contributed to the significantly improved catalytic efficiency and stability, as revealed by the three-dimensional structure model of wild-type alkaline α-amylase and its mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I. With the significantly improved oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I has a great potential as a detergent additive, and this structure-guided systems

  17. Control Effect of Regulating pH and Alkalinity on Iron Release in Drinking Water Distribution System%调节pH值和碱度对给水管网铁释放的控制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米子龙; 张晓健; 王洋; 陈超; 顾军农

    2012-01-01

    The control effect of regulating pH and alkalinity on iron release in the drinking water distribution system was investigated. Experiments using the pipe section simulation reactor found that the iron release rate, turbidity and color decreased significantly with increasing pH and alkalinity. Specifically, after increasing pH from 7.6 to 8.2 for 15 d, the iron release rate, turbidity and color decreased by 47% , 54% and 46% , respectively. Meanwhile, increasing alkalinity from 135 mg/L to 260 mg/L (calculated as CaCO3) for 15 d, the iron release rate, turbidity and color decreased by 50% , 58% and 52% , respectively. The cost-effectiveness of regulating pH and alkalinity to control iron release in drinking water was evaluated. The results showed that the cost of regulating pH of finished water was appropriate. This method can be used as an emergency water treatment technology for red water control.%利用管段模拟反应器,定量分析了调节pH值和调节碱度技术对给水管网铁释放的控制作用.研究发现,提高pH值和增加碱度均可使管网铁释放速率、浊度和色度明显降低.调节pH值从7.6增加至8.2,15 d后管网铁释放速率降低了47%,浊度降低了54%,色度降低了46%;调节碱度从135 mg/L增加至260 mg/L(以CaCO3计),15 d后管网铁释放速率降低了50%,浊度降低了58%,色度降低了52%.对比评价了调节pH值和调节碱度技术的经济性,结果表明;调节出厂水pH值控制管网铁释放的经济成本适宜,可作为突发性管网“黄水”问题的应急控制技术.

  18. Structure-guided systems-level engineering of oxidation-prone methionine residues in catalytic domain of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for significant improvement of both oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    High oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency are required for the alkaline α-amylases to keep the enzymatic performance under the harsh conditions in detergent industries. In this work, we attempted to significantly improve both the oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica by engineering the five oxidation-prone methionine residues around the catalytic domain via a systematic approach. Specifically, based on the tertiary structure analysis, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247 and Met 317) were individually substituted with oxidation-resistant threonine, isoleucine and alaline, respectively. Among the created 15 mutants, 7 mutants M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T and M317I showed significantly enhanced oxidative stability or catalytic efficiency. In previous work, we found that the replacement of M247 with leucine could significantly improve the oxidative stability. Thus, these 8 positive mutants (M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T, M247L and M317I) were used to conduct the second round of combinational mutations. Among the constructed 85 mutants (25 two-point mutants, 36 three-point mutants, 16 four-point mutants and 8 five-point mutants), the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I showed a 5.4-fold increase in oxidative stability and a 3.0-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, the specific activity, alkaline stability and thermal stability of this mutant were also increased. The increase of salt bridge and hydrogen bonds around the catalytic domain contributed to the significantly improved catalytic efficiency and stability, as revealed by the three-dimensional structure model of wild-type alkaline α-amylase and its mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I. With the significantly improved oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I has a great potential as a detergent additive, and this structure-guided systems engineering

  19. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  20. High-frequency effects in 1D spring-mass systems with strongly non-linear inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Snaeland, S.O.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2010-01-01

    -like systems with embedded non-linear parts, where the masses interact with a limited set of neighbour masses. The presented analytical and numerical results show that the effective properties for LF wave propagation can be altered by establishing HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain......This work generalises the possibilities to change the effective material or structural properties for low frequency (LF) wave propagation, by using high-frequency (HF) external excitation combined with strong non-linear and non-local material behaviour. The effects are demonstrated on 1D chain....... The changes affect the effective stiffness and damping of the system....

  1. Design and development of a MLS based compact active suspension system, featuring air spring and energy harvesting capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an novel Magnetic Lead Screw based active suspension system for passenger vehicles, using a new MLS topology. The design is based on performance specifications found from ISO road profiles, with a maximum harvested energy approach. By integrating...

  2. An example of polygenetic geomorphologic development (Karst-Glacial-Tectonics on Munzur Mountains: Kepir Cave-Elbaba spring karstic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Çılğın

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at the intersection of a karstic plateau basin in the Munzur Mountain range and a low-lying karstic discharge area in the Ovacık Plain. The mountain range extends east to west and the glacial plain runs parallel in similar direction. The research area is an excellent microcosm of a polygenic morphological karst system. The mountain terrain visible today is dramatic barren landscape and the by-product of multiple, interrelated processes, such as glaciations, karstification and tectonics. The insurgence waters cut into the sediment, gain velocity, and then disappear into a seven meter high by seven meter wide swallow hole cave entrance at 2600m. In the past, pre-Pleistocene dolines had helped transform this area into an icefield landscape. When glaciation period ended, karstic process revived again during Holocene and Kepir Cave has operated as a swallow hole again. The main factors of change can be attributed to glaciations in Pleistocene and intensified karstification during the Holocene. The thick stacking limestone or massif provides the geologic structure for underground drainage and the formation of what may be a significant and deep cave system. The cave system appears to be developing vertically along a prominent fault that is visible just inside the swallow hole entrance. The resurgence, Elbaba, must be related to the Ovacık Fault extending at the northern edge of Ovacık Plain. This karstic system continues to develop as an active system fed by significant snow and rain waters.

  3. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  4. Estimating nitrate concentrations in groundwater at selected wells and springs in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 2002-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater from the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands in southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Alabama is affected by elevated nitrate concentrations as a result of the vulnerability of the aquifer, irrigation water-supply development, and intensive agricultural land use. The region relies primarily on groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking-water and irrigation supply. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water are a concern because infants under 6 months of age who drink water containing nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen can become seriously ill with blue baby syndrome. In response to concerns about water quality in domestic wells and in springs in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection funded a study in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to examine water quality in groundwater and springs that provide base flow to the Chipola River. A three-dimensional, steady-state, regional-scale groundwater-flow model and two local-scale models were used in conjunction with particle tracking to identify travel times and areas contributing recharge to six groundwater sites—three long-term monitor wells (CP-18A, CP-21A, and RF-41) and three springs (Jackson Blue Spring, Baltzell Springs Group, and Sandbag Spring) in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin. Estimated nitrate input to groundwater at land surface, based on previous studies of nitrogen fertilizer sales and atmospheric nitrate deposition data, were used in the advective transport models for the period 2002 to 2050. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples collected from the six sites during 1993 to 2007 and groundwater age tracer data were used to calibrate the transport aspect of the simulations

  5. Conference on Hamiltonian Systems and Celestial Mechanics 2014 & Workshop on Virus Dynamics and Evolution : Extended Abstracts Spring 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Cors, Josep; Llibre, Jaume; Korobeinikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The two parts of the present volume contain extended conference abstracts corresponding to selected talks given by participants at the "Conference on Hamiltonian Systems and Celestial Mechanics 2014" (HAMSYS2014) (15 abstracts) and at the "Workshop on Virus Dynamics and Evolution" (12 abstracts), both held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona from June 2nd to 6th, 2014, and from June 23th to 27th, 2014, respectively. Most of them are brief articles, containing preliminary presentations of new results not yet published in regular research journals. The articles are the result of a direct collaboration between active researchers in the area after working in a dynamic and productive atmosphere. The first part is about Central Configurations, Periodic Orbits and Hamiltonian Systems with applications to Celestial Mechanics – a very modern and active field of research. The second part is dedicated to mathematical methods applied to viral dynamics and evolution. Mathematical modelling of biologi...

  6. Research and Development of the Injection Mould Quotation System Based on Spring+Struts+Hibernate%基于Spring+Struts+Hibernate注塑模具报价系统的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志明; 王天擎

    2010-01-01

    开源框架技术在J2EE平台中大量运用,增加了J2EE平台应用软件的开发效率.文章探讨整合了Spring+Struts+Hibernate轻量级的J2EE平台和技术,讨论了注塑模具报价系统的算法功能,设计与实现基于SSH注塑模具报价系统,该系统使用方便、计算准确,可维护性、可扩展性、健壮性好.

  7. Effects of Parental Dietary Exposure to GMRice TT51 on the Male Reproductive System of Rat Off spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Er Hui; YU Zhou; JIA Xu Dong; ZHANG Wen Zhong; andXU Hai Bin

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluatethehealth effects of parental dietary exposure to GM rice TT51 on the male reproductive system of rat offspring. MethodsRice-based diets, containing 60% ordinary grocery rice, MingHui63, or TT51 by weight, were given to parental rats (15 males/30 females each group) for 70 days prior mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, eightmale offspringratswere randomly selected at each group and fed with dietscorrespondent to their parents’ for 70 days. The effects of exposure to TT51 on male reproductive system of offspring rats were assessed through sperm parameters, testicular function enzyme activities, serumhormones (FSH, LH, and testosterone levels), testis histopathological examination, and the relativeexpression levels of selected genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis. ResultsNo significant differences were observed in body weight, food intake, organ/body weights, serum hormone, sperm parameters, testis function enzyme ACP, LDH, and SDH activities, testis histopathological changes, and relative mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R, FSH-R, LH-R, and AR along the HPT axis. ConclusionThe resultsof this studydemonstrate that parental dietary exposure to TT51 reveals no significant differences on the reproductive system of male offspring rats compared with MingHui63 and control.

  8. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  9. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  10. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  11. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  12. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  13. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank;

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  14. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  15. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  16. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  17. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  18. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif; Estudio geoquimico de los procesos de interaccion agua-roca sobre sistemas goetermales de aguas alcalinas en granitoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Uague, E.; Auque Sanz, L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  19. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  20. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B

    1993-02-01

    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  1. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  2. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  3. In situ expression of genes involved in carbon concentrating expression of genes involved in carbon concentratingmechanisms in hot spring cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    The photosynthetic microbial mat in the effluent channel of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring) in Yellowstone National Park experiences extreme diel fluctuations in physicochemical parameters. During the day, photosynthesis causes the oxygen concentration within the mat to rise to highly...

  4. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Castenholz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis, and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  5. 基于 Struts+Spring的动态概率选课系统设计%Design of Dynamic Probability Course Selection System Based on Struts+Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the problems of the current institute. NET platform course selection system: the current course selection system uses the algorithms of the first come the first service, a large number of students to select courses will make the server load increase, the result will lead to denial service. Analyzing stratified volunteer, based on neural network characteristics and college course selection system its own characteristics, a dynamic real-time probabilistic algorithm solving a class selection lottery fairness issues is proposed. The course selection system platform uses J2EE Struts framework and Spring technolosy, which uses the structure of MVC not only to achieve the function module and the display module separation, but also to increase application scalability, portability and reusability of components. Object-oriented analysis with UML and modeling ideas optimizes the elective systern, enhances the efficiency of system operation, and achieves good elective management functions.%分析当前学院的.NET平台的选修课系统存在的问题:选课系统采用先到先服务的算法,当学生大量选课时会导致服务器负载加重,产生拒绝服务的现象.在分析多志愿分级处理算法、基于神经网络选课系统的特点和学院自身特点的基础上,提出以动态概率实时抽签算法解决学生选课公平性问题,选课系统采用J2EE平台的Struts框架和Spring技术,这种MVC系统结构的采用不仅实现功能模块和显示模块的分离,同时它还提高应用系统的可扩展性、可移植性和组件的可复用性.采用UML面向对象分析与建模的思想,实现本校选课系统的优化,提升系统运行的效率,并实现良好的选课管理的功能.

  6. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  7. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  8. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    including BoP. Investigation of cathodes revealed highly heterogeneous microstructures and 3D microstructure quantification methods were developed. Nanometre scale -Ni(OH)2 formation was identified on tested cathode surfaces and is considered a potential degradation mechanism that is not presently well......The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  9. Effect of Seasonality on Distribution of Macroalgae in a Stream System (Xin'an Spring)in Shanxi Province, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian-Fang Hu; Shu-Lian Xie

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the seasonal distribution of macroalgae in a stream system in Shanxi Province, north China,was undertaken from July 2004 to April 2005. The relative abundance and percentage cover of macroalgae,and several environmental factors were monitored along a 20-m stretch at each of four sites, at intervals of approximately three months (one sampling per season). Several stream conditions were relatively constant over the sampling period (pH, maximum width and maximum depth), whereas others exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern (water temperature and specific conductance), and some fluctuated with no discernable seasonal pattern (current velocity and dissolved oxygen). Forty-two species of macroalgae were found, with a predominance of Chlorophyta (26 species, 61.9%). Rhodophyta and Charophyta represented the smallest proportion (1 species each, 2.38%). Six macroalgae species were the most widespread,occurring in all four sampling sites. Twelve species were found at only one site each. In terms of seasonality,eight species occurred throughout the year, whereas 16 species were found in only one season each. The macroalgal community at Xin'an Spring was species rich relative to other streams. Species richness per sampling site was negatively correlated with pH. Principal component analysis revealed that no single variable had much influence on the macroalgal seasonal dynamics. We calculated Sorensen similarity indices to compare our study with other continent-wide surveys of stream macroalgae, but the similarity indices were all very low. This study also shows that macroalgae in different locations have significant reproductive isolation.

  10. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  11. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  12. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  13. Studies of community structure and seasonal dynamics of planktonic copepods in saline-alkaline ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen; DONG Shuanglin

    2005-01-01

    Species abundance and seasonal succession of copepods in aline-alkaline ponds were studied in Zhaodian Fish Farm, Gaoqing County, Shandong Province, from 5 April 1997 to 1 September 1998. The results indicated that in the conditions of salinity ranging from 1.36 to 20 g/L, total alkalinity changing from 2.4 to 7.2 mmol/L and pH 8-9, zooplankton in saline-alkaline ponds was composed of freshwater salt-tolerated species or halophile species, some of which are halobiont species and usually occurs in freshwater In our study, copepods were predominant in many fish-culture ponds and all control ponds without fishes in spring, late autumn and early winter Dominant species of copepods were Sinocalanus tenellus, Cyclops vicinus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis. The biomass of copepods in the control ponds without fishes was higher than that of the fish-culture ponds. ponds.

  14. ADVANCES IN THE MODEL OF CYLINDRICAL ALKALINE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of a systematic investigation on the modeling of cylindrical alkaline cells is presented.Initial analysis utilizes thermodynamic and kinetic information to predict alkaline cell performance under low discharge rates.Subsequent modling has taken into consideration detailed information on the chemistry of electrode reactions,mass tranport of dissolved species,physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte and solid phases,and internal geonetry of cell systems.The model is capable of predicting alkaline cell performance under a variety of dicharge conditions.The model also provides information regarding internal cell changes during discharge.The model is the basis of a rational approach for the optimal design of cells.

  15. Experimental demonstration of coupled optical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N. A.; Barr, B. W.; Bell, A.; Graef, C.; Hild, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Leavey, S. S.; Macarthur, J.; Sorazu, B.; Wright, J.; Strain, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Optical rigidity will play an important role in improving the sensitivity of future generations of gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, which employ high laser power in order to reach and exceed the standard quantum limit. Several experiments have demonstrated the combined effect of two optical springs on a single system for very low-weight mirror masses or membranes. In this paper we investigate the complex interactions between multiple optical springs and the surrounding apparatus in a system of comparable dynamics to a large-scale GW detector. Using three 100 g mirrors to form a coupled cavity system capable of sustaining two or more optical springs, we demonstrate a number of different regimes of opto-mechanical rigidity and measurement techniques. Our measurements reveal couplings between each optical spring and the control loops that can affect both the achievable increase in sensitivity and the stability of the system. Hence this work establishes a better understanding of the realisation of these techniques and paves the way to their application in future GW observatories, such as upgrades to Advanced LIGO.

  16. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  17. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Volume 55 of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology is dedicated to the study of the brain. The symposium was subdivided into four major sections. Papers were presented in Molecular Mechanisms for Signalling; Neural Development; Sensory and Motor Systems; and Cognitive Neuroscience. Individual papers from the symposium are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  18. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  19. Estimated spring inflow to the Frenchglen area of Malheur NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are four spring systems that contribute flow to the Frenchglen or P Ranch Area of Malheur NWR. One of these systems flows into the Blitzen River and the other...

  20. Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Major radioactive mineral springs are probably related to deep zones of active metamorphism in areas of orogenic tectonism. The most common precipitate is travertine, a chemically precipitated rock composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, but also containing other minerals. The mineral springs are surface manifestations of hydrothermal conduit systems which extend downward many kilometers to hot source rocks. Conduits are kept open by fluid pressure exerted by carbon dioxide-charged waters rising to the surface propelled by heat and gas (CO2 and steam) pressure. On reaching the surface, the dissolved carbon dioxide is released from solution, and calcium carbonate is precipitated. Springs also contain sulfur species (for example, H2S and HS-), and radon, helium and methane as entrained or dissolved gases. The HS- ion can react to form hydrogen sulfide gas, sulfate salts, and native sulfur. Chemical salts and native sulfur precipitate at the surface. The sulfur may partly oxidize to produce detectable sulfur dioxide gas. Radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, radon-222, radium-228, and radon-220, and other daughter products of uranium-238 and thorium-232. Uranium and thorium are not present in economically significant amounts in most radioactive spring precipitates. Most radium is coprecipitated at the surface with barite. Barite (barium sulfate) forms in the barium-containing spring water as a product of the oxidation of sulfur species to sulfate ions. The relatively insoluble barium sulfate precipitates and removes much of the radium from solution. Radium coprecipitates to a lesser extent with manganese-barium- and iron-oxy hydroxides. R-mode factor analysis of abundances of elements suggests that 65 percent of the variance of the different elements is affected by seven factors interpreted as follows: (1) Silica and silicate contamination and precipitation; (2) Carbonate travertine precipitation; (3) Radium coprecipitation; (4) Evaporite precipitation

  1. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  2. Microscopic Examination of Distribution and Phenotypic Properties of Phylogenetically Diverse Chloroflexaceae-Related Bacteria in Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Bateson, Mary M.; Vandieken, V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, distribution, and phenotypes of uncultivated Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park). By applying a directed PCR approach, molecular cloning, and sequence analysis of 16S......-scale distribution. FISH was combined with oxygen microelectrode measurements, microscope spectrometry, and microautoradiography to examine their microenvironment, pigmentation, and carbon source usage. Abundant type C-related, filamentous bacteria were found to flourish within the cyanobacterium-dominated, highly...

  3. Microscopic examination of distribution and phenotypic properties of phylogenetically diverse Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M; Vandieken, Verona

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, distribution, and phenotypes of uncultivated Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park). By applying a directed PCR approach, molecular cloning, and sequence analysis of 16S......-scale distribution. FISH was combined with oxygen microelectrode measurements, microscope spectrometry, and microautoradiography to examine their microenvironment, pigmentation, and carbon source usage. Abundant type C-related, filamentous bacteria were found to flourish within the cyanobacterium-dominated, highly...

  4. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  5. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures and pressures. To perform measurements under high pressure and at elevated temperatures it was necessary to build a measurement system around an autoclave which could stand high temperatures up to 250 °C and pressures up to 200 bar...... as well as extremely caustic environments. Based on a literature study to identify resistant materials for these conditions, Inconel 600 was selected among the metals which are available for autoclave construction. An initial single atmosphere high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build...... comprising this autoclave. A second high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build based on experiences from the first setup in order to perform automatized measurements. The conductivity of aqueous KOH at elevated temperatures and high concentrations was investigated using the van der Pauw method...

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Effects of Reduced Discharge onThermal Habitat of Pedersen Warm Springs Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary report to study the potential impacts of possible flow reductions in thermal spring systems located in the Warm Springs area of Moapa Valley NWR on the...

  7. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  8. Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eHeadd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not necessarily geographic proximity to other springs. We examined the bacterial diversity of seven springs to test the hypothesis that occurrence of taxonomically similar microbes, important to the sulfur cycle, at each spring is controlled by geochemistry. Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. Among the putative sulfide-oxidizing groups (Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, up to 83% of the sequences from geochemically similar springs clustered together. Abundant populations of Hydrogenimonas-like or Sulfurovum-like spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with abundant Thiothrix and Thiofaba spp. (Gammaproteobacteria, but Arcobacter-like and Sulfurimonas spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with less abundant gammaproteobacterial populations. These distribution patterns confirmed that geochemistry rather than biogeography regulates bacterial dominance at each spring. Potential biogeographic controls were related to paleogeologic sedimentation patterns that could control long-term microbial transport mechanisms that link surface and subsurface environments. Knowing the composition of a core sulfidic spring microbial community could provide a way to monitor diversity changes if a system is threatened by anthropogenic processes or

  9. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Miller-Coleman

    Full Text Available Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes. PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1 wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB, Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C

  10. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ross, Christian A; Shock, Everett L; Williams, Amanda J; Hartnett, Hilairy E; McDonald, Austin I; Havig, Jeff R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM) trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to

  11. Optimal damping matching for shock absorber of vehicle leaf spring suspension system%车辆钢板弹簧悬架系统减振器最佳阻尼匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长城; 潘礼军; 于曰伟; 赵雷雷

    2016-01-01

    阻尼匹配是制约钢板弹簧悬架系统减振器设计的关键问题。根据1/4车辆二自由度行驶振动模型,利用随机振动理论,建立了悬架系统最优阻尼比及悬架动挠度和振动速度均方根值数学模型。在此基础上,通过分析、处理钢板弹簧加载-卸载试验所测得的载荷及变形数组数据,建立了在实际行驶工况下的钢板弹簧等效阻尼数学模型;根据悬架系统最优阻尼比及钢板弹簧的等效阻尼,得到了所需匹配减振器在悬架系统中应承担的最佳阻尼比;利用平安比及双向比,建立了钢板弹簧悬架系统最佳阻尼匹配减振器的速度特性,并通过仿真分析和实车行驶平顺性试验验证了钢板弹簧悬架系统减振器最佳阻尼匹配设计方法的正确性及有效性,利用该设计方法匹配减振器后的车身垂直振动加速度均方根值与传统经验法相比降低了6.72%,能够有效改善车辆的乘坐舒适性。该研究可为钢板弹簧悬架系统减振器的设计提供参考。%Damping matching is the key problem of shock absorber design for leaf spring suspension system, and there is no optimal matching theory to resolve this problem at present, which seriously restricts the improvement of ride comfort and driving safety. So, in order to make the leaf spring suspension system achieve the optimal damping matching so that the vehicle has good ride comfort and driving safety, in this paper, based on the quarter vehicle model and random vibration theory, taking the minimum of body vertical vibration acceleration as the target, a mathematical model of optimal damping ratio of suspension based on ride comfort was established; taking the minimum of wheel dynamic load as the target, a mathematical model of optimal damping ratio of suspension based on driving safety was established; then, according to the golden section, a mathematical model of optimal damping ratio of suspension based on

  12. Greater temporal changes of sediment microbial community than its waterborne counterpart in Tengchong hot springs, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Huang, Liuqin

    2014-12-19

    Temporal variation in geochemistry can cause changes in microbial community structure and diversity. Here we studied temporal changes of microbial communities in Tengchong hot springs of Yunnan Province, China in response to geochemical variations by using microbial and geochemical data collected in January, June and August of 2011. Greater temporal variations were observed in individual taxa than at the whole community structure level. Water and sediment communities exhibited different temporal variation patterns. Water communities were largely stable across three sampling times and dominated by similar microbial lineages: Hydrogenobaculum in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Sulfolobus in high-temperature acidic springs, and Hydrogenobacter in high-temperature circumneutral to alkaline springs. Sediment communities were more diverse and responsive to changing physicochemical conditions. Most of the sediment communities in January and June were similar to those in waters. However, the August sediment community was more diverse and contained more anaerobic heterotrophs than the January and June: Desulfurella and Acidicaldus in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Ignisphaera and Desulfurococcus in high-temperature acidic springs, the candidate division OP1 and Fervidobacterium in alkaline springs, and Thermus and GAL35 in neutral springs. Temporal variations in physicochemical parameters including temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon may have triggered the observed microbial community shifts.

  13. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  14. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  15. Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....

  16. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M. [EURESYS, Rome (Italy); Pace, S. [Salerno Univ., Salerno (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia; Mancini, A. [ORIM S.r.l., Piediripa, MC (Italy); Tripodi, P. [Stanford Research Institut International, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA).

  17. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  18. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant m

  19. Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

  20. The natural shock absorption of the leg spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio

    2013-01-04

    When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.

  1. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  2. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  3. When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Frölicher, T. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Rodgers, K. B.; Slater, R. D.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We use a large initial condition suite of simulations (30 runs) with an Earth system model to assess the detectability of biogeochemical impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the marine alkalinity distribution from decadally repeated hydrographic measurements such as those produced by the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Detection of these impacts is complicated by alkalinity changes from variability and long-term trends in freshwater and organic matter cycling and ocean circulation. In our ensemble simulation, variability in freshwater cycling generates large changes in alkalinity that obscure the changes of interest and prevent the attribution of observed alkalinity redistribution to OA. These complications from freshwater cycling can be mostly avoided through salinity normalization of alkalinity. With the salinity-normalized alkalinity, modeled OA impacts are broadly detectable in the surface of the subtropical gyres by 2030. Discrepancies between this finding and the finding of an earlier analysis suggest that these estimates are strongly sensitive to the patterns of calcium carbonate export simulated by the model. OA impacts are detectable later in the subpolar and equatorial regions due to slower responses of alkalinity to OA in these regions and greater seasonal equatorial alkalinity variability. OA impacts are detectable later at depth despite lower variability due to smaller rates of change and consistent measurement uncertainty.

  4. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  5. The catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2008-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli and bovine and chicken intestines. The activity of enzyme dimers and tetramers was determined. The activity of the dimer was three or four times higher than that of the tetramer. The maximum activity and affinity for 4-nitrophenylphosphate was observed for the bacterial alkaline phosphatase ( K M = 1.7 × 10-5 M, V max = 1800 μmol/(min mg of protein) for dimers and V max = 420 μmol/(min mg of protein) for tetramers). The Michaelis constants were equal for two animal phosphatases in various buffer media (pH 8.5) ((3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4 M). Five buffer systems were investigated: tris, carbonate, hepes, borate, and glycine buffers, and the lowest catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases at equal pH was observed in the borate buffer (for enzyme from bovine intestine, V max = 80 μmol/(min mg of protein)). Cu2+ cations formed a complex with tris-(oxymethyl)-aminomethane ( tris-HCl buffer) and inhibited the intestine alkaline phosphatases by a noncompetitive mechanism.

  6. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Principle, challenges, and recent progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have been recognized as a significant power source in future energy systems based on hydrogen. The current PEMFC technology features the employment of acidic polymer electrolytes which, albeit superior to electrolyte solutions, have intrinsically limited the catalysts to noble metals, fundamentally preventing PEMFC from widespread deployment. An effective solution to this problem is to develop fuel cells based on alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEFC), which not only enable the use of non-precious metal catalysts but also avoid the carbonate-precipitate issue which has been troubling the conventional alkaline fuel cells (AFC). This feature article introduces the principle of APEFC, the challenges, and our research progress, and focuses on strategies for developing key materials, including high-performance alkaline polyelectrolytes and stable non-precious metal catalysts. For alkaline polymer electrolytes, high ionic conductivity and satisfactory mechanical property are difficult to be balanced, therefore polymer cross-linking is an ultimate strategy. For non-precious metal catalysts, it is urgent to improve the catalytic activity and stability. New materials, such as transition-metal complexes, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, and metal carbides, would become applicable in APEFC.

  7. Curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Renhe; Wang Yanmin; Zhang Baoping

    2014-01-01

    To study the curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester, three esters were chosen to react with three systems - alkaline phenolic resin, potassium hydroxide aqueous solution containing phenol, and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The variations of pH, heat release and gel pH during the reactions were monitored and measured. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal gravity analysis (TG) techniques were used to characterize the curing reaction. It was found that organic ester is only partial y hydrolyzed and resin can be cured through organic ester hydrolysis process as wel as the reaction with redundant organic ester. The sequential curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin cured by organic ester was identified as fol ows: a portion of organic ester is firstly hydrolyzed owing to the effect of the strong alkaline; the gel is then formed after the pH decreases to about 10.8-10.88, meanwhile, the redundant organic ester (i.e. non-hydrolysis ester) starts the curing reaction with the resin. It has also been found that the curing rate depends on the hydrolysis velocity of organic ester. The faster the hydrolysis speed of the ester, the faster the curing rate of the resin.

  8. Alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant%船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜文俊; 何琳; 施亮

    2015-01-01

    对船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题进行了系统研究。通过建立控制响应计算模型、多目标对中控制模型,提出了对中可控性分析方法,使得控制系统能够根据不同工作情况自主调整控制系统工作参数,以保持良好的对中控制收敛性能,并通过实验验证了该方法的可行性。该方法已应用于某型船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统,成功实现了气囊柔性支撑状态下的推进装置高效隔振。%The alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant was studied systematically.The controllability analysis was carried out through establishing a control response calculation model and a multi-object alignment control model.The control system was made to adjust control capability parameters automatically and to manifest good alignment control astringency.Experiment results confirmed the feasibility of the method.The method has been used in an air spring vibration isolation system and has realized a high vibration isolation effect triumphantly on a ship propulsive plant mounted on flexible air springs.

  9. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of Damt thermal springs, Yemen Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M. [Sana' a University, Yemen Republic (Yemen). Dept. of Geology; Chandrasekharam, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Earth Sciences; C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy); Minissale, A. [C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Damt thermal springs (40-45{sup o}C), flowing through travertine deposits, belong to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type of water, and have higher pCO{sub 2} (from -1.18 to -0.58 = PCO{sub 2} from 0.07 to 0.26 atm) relative to cold Ca-SO{sub 4}-(Cl) groundwaters. The cold waters have pCO{sub 2} ranging from -1.86 to -2.50 (= PCO{sub 2} from 0.014 to 0.0035 atm). The chemical composition of the cold springs is controlled by evaporate deposits present in the Tawilah sandstone and Amran limestone formations, while simple crustal dissolution, coupled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluid-rock interaction control the chemical signature of the hot spring waters. The temperature of the feeding system, based on the K{sup 2}/Mg geothermometer, varies between 80 and 120{sup o}C. Damt thermal springs appear to be related to a 10,000 year-old volcanic activity that led to the appearance of several craters in the area. (author)

  11. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  12. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  13. Association of alkaline phosphatase phenotypes with arthritides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritides, a symmetrical polyarticular disease of the bone are a heterogenous group of disorders in which hereditary and environmental factors in combination with an altered immune response appear to play a causative and pathogenic role in its occurrence. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP is an enzyme found in all tissues, with particularly high concentrations of ALP observed in the liver, bile ducts, placenta, and bone.Alkaline phosphatase is an orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of organic esters at alkaline pH, indicating that alkaline phosphatase is involved in fundamental biological processes.1 The present study envisages on identifying the specific electromorphic association of alkaline phosphatase with arthritides. Phenotyping of serum samples was carried out by PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis following Davies (19642 protocol on 41 juvenile arthritis, 150 rheumatoid arthritis and 100 osteo arthritis apart from, 25 normal children and 100 adult healthy subjects. Phenotyping of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increase in preponderance of p+ and p++ phenotypes in juvenile, rheumatoid and osteo arthritic patients. However a significant association of these phenotypes was observed only with rheumatoid arthritis condition (c2:17.46. Similarly, a significant increase of p+ phenotypes in female rheumatoid arthritis patients was observed (c2:14.973, suggesting that the decrease in p° (tissue non specific synthesis/secretion of alkaline phosphatase could be associated with decreased mineralization and ossification process in arthritis condition.

  14. Alkaline solution neutralization capacity of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-10-01

    Alkaline eluate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residue deposited in landfill alkalizes waste and soil layers. From the viewpoint of accelerating stability and preventing heavy metal elution, pH of the landfill layer (waste and daily cover soil) should be controlled. On the other hand, pH of leachate from existing MSW landfill sites is usually approximately neutral. One of the reasons is that daily cover soil can neutralize alkaline solution containing Ca(2+) as cation. However, in landfill layer where various types of wastes and reactions should be taken into consideration, the ability to neutralize alkaline solutions other than Ca(OH)(2) by soil should be evaluated. In this study, the neutralization capacities of various types of soils were measured using Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH solutions. Each soil used in this study showed approximately the same capacity to neutralize both alkaline solutions of Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH. The cation exchange capacity was less than 30% of the maximum alkali neutralization capacity obtained by the titration test. The mechanism of neutralization by the pH-dependent charge can explain the same neutralization capacities of the soils. Although further investigation on the neutralization capacity of the soils for alkaline substances other than NaOH is required, daily cover soil could serve as a buffer zone for alkaline leachates containing Ca(OH)(2) or other alkaline substances.

  15. Development of High-precision Torque Test System of Coil Spring on Car Seat Belt%高精度汽车安全带卷簧扭矩测试系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利钢; 冯浩; 汪用瑜; 于盛睿

    2011-01-01

    为方便、准确地测试汽车安全带卷簧的扭矩性能,以高性能数据采集卡 PCI-8602 为核心开发了系统硬件;以 VC6.0 为开发环境,采用 MFC 多文档-视图结构和多线程技术设计了人机交互、数据采集与控制等软件功能模块;对软件功能和系统精度进行了实测.结果表明,测试精度达到 0.001 N·m;测试系统满足汽车安全带卷簧扭矩测试的要求.%To test torque performance of coil spring on car seat belt correctly and conveniently, system hardware is developed based on.high performance data acquisition card of PCI-8602.Software function modules which include interactive module, data acquisition and control module etc., are developed with technique of document-view architecture based on MFC and multithreading technique in VC6.0 development environments.At last, software function and system precision are tested.The test results show that precision of torque test system is up to 0.001 N · m.The developed software satisfy test requirement of coil spring of car seat belt.

  16. Carbon budget in East China Sea in spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Tsunghung; Wanninkhof, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.; Hung, Jiajang [NSYSU, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Millero, F.J. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry]|[Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Results of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements made in the East China Sea (ECS) during a geochemical expedition of KEEP (Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes) program in May of 1996 show that ECS is a CO{sub 2} sink during the spring season. The mean difference of fCO{sub 2} (fugacity of CO{sub 2}) between the atmosphere and surface water is calculated to be 28 {mu}atm, and the resulting net CO{sub 2} invasion flux is 2.1 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, which gives about 0.03 GtC/yr of CO{sub 2} uptake in this continental shelf in spring. This study supports the notion that the shelf regions can be a significant CO{sub 2} sink. The riverine alkalinity, which discharges into ECS, is estimated to be 1,743 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} on the basis of a linear relationship between TA and salinity. The observed salinity-normalized alkalinity in ECS is higher than that in the open sea, and this excess alkalinity is estimated to be 42 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}. With the known rate of the Changjiang discharge, this excess TA gives a mean residence time of 1.2 years for the continental shelf water in the ECS. The DIC in the ECS is also found to be higher than that in the open sea. This excess DIC is estimated to be about 76 {+-} 70 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}, which is equal to a net carbon input to ECS of 3.9 {+-} 3.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Based on the riverine alkalinity input, the equivalent riverine carbon flux from Changjiang discharge is estimated to be about 1.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. With net CO{sub 2} invasion flux of 2.1 {+-} 2.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, the remaining 0 {+-} 4.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} could come from remineralization of organic matter derived from biological pump in the shelf or terrestrial sources. Although this preliminary carbon budget implies that gas exchange and riverine input are the main sources of excess carbon in ECS, the contribution of biological carbon flux can not be ruled out because of the large uncertainty

  17. Advances in spring development and technologies; Fortschritte in der Federntechnik. Stand der Technik und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Plitzko, M. [VDFJ Verband der Deutschen Federnindustrie (Germany); Savaidis, G. [Aristoteles Univ. Thessaloniki, Institut fuer Maschinenelemente und Konstruktionslehre (Greece); Wanke, K.

    2003-07-01

    Spring elements and spring systems, applied in constructions for engines and vehicles, are reviewed with regard to their progress in the last decade, their state of the art and the tendencies in the near future. The progress in development of the different metal springs as well as the gas-, air- and rubber springs continued to the technical functions with less weight and in consideration of the cost aspects. (orig.)

  18. Temporal Geochemistry Data from Five Springs in the Cement Creek Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal data from five springs in the Cement Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado provide seasonal geochemical data for further research in the formation of ferricretes. In addition, these data can be used to help understand the ground-water flow system. The resulting data demonstrate the difficulty in gathering reliable seasonal data from springs, show the unique geochemistry of each spring due to local geology, and provide seasonal trends in geochemistry for Tiger Iron Spring.

  19. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  20. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  1. Reports of the AAAI 2010 Spring Symposia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, is pleased to present the 2010 Spring Symposium Series, to be held Monday through Wednesday, March 22–24, 2010 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia are Artificial Intelligence for Development; Cognitive Shape Processing; Educational Robotics and Beyond: Design and Evaluation; Embedded Reasoning: Intelligence in Embedded Systems Intellige...

  2. Dynamical behavior of disordered spring networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yucht, M. G.; Sheinman, M.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamical rheology of spring networks with a percolation model constructed by bond dilution in a two-dimensional triangular lattice. Hydrodynamic interactions are implemented by a Stokesian viscous coupling between the network nodes and a uniformly deforming liquid. Our simulations show that in a critical connectivity regime, these systems display weak power law rheology in which the complex shear modulus scales with frequency as G^* ~ (i * omega)^Delta where Delta = 0.41, in dis...

  3. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  4. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  5. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (pAlkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit.

  6. 77 FR 60179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding, Listing of the Spring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... and Harris, Jr. 1963, p. 17) into the aquifer system. In urban settings, percolation of rainwater to... rule. The spring pygmy sunfish no longer occurs at two of the three spring systems in which it historically was found, and faces a variety of threats in the Beaverdam Spring/Creek System, the only...

  7. Simulation of a mass-spring model for global deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong CUI; Aiguo SONG; Juan WU

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses a largely open problem in haptic simulation and rendering:contact force and deformation modeling for haptic simulation of a discrete globe mass-spring model,especially for global deforma-tion.The mass-spring system is composed of nodes connected with radially distributed springs.We tackle the problem using the theory of virtual work,and relations between the virtual force and nodal displacements are analyzed to obtain elastic deformations.The global deformation is controlled by the total nodal deformations based on a force equation at each node.The simulation results verify the efficiency of the contact force and deformation model with reasonable realism.

  8. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...... a discrepancy with full-scale measurements exists, but worse is that no tendency in the measurement trend is captured. An important source of high frequency springing excitation is undoubtedly missing. The full-scale measurements that are presented in the thesis and have been used for the validation are unique...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...

  9. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  10. Geochemical characteristics of modern hot springs from northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张景荣; 胡桂兴; 杨帆; 许祖鸣

    1995-01-01

    The studies of chemical compositions of modern hot spring water and gases,isotopiccompositions of H2O,He,Ar,CH4,CO2 in northwest Hunan show that the chemical characteristics of springwater are markedly different,which indicates the difference of background value of country rocks and the dif-ference of the effect of water-rock reaction.The geothermal systems in the studied regions are middle-hightemperature geothermal systems.The distributions of springs are controlled by the press and press-shearfaults that do not dissect deeply to the mantle.The hot spring water is of meteoric water.The origin of ma-terials in the hot springs is correlated with the sedimentary rocks.

  11. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  12. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    and pressures. Two measurement systems were built to perform measurements under high pressures and at elevated temperatures of up to 95 bar and 250 °C, respectively. The conductivity of aqueous KOH and aqueous KOH immobilized in a porous SrTiO3 structure were investigated at elevated temperatures and high...... the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... concentrations of the electrolyte using the van der Pauw method in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Conductivity values as high as 2.9 S cm-1 for 45 wt% KOH aqueous KOH and 0.84 S cm-1 for the immobilized KOH of the same concentration were measured at 200 °C. Porous SrTiO3 was used...

  13. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costarrosa, L. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Calvino-Casilda, V. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrera-Escudero, S. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Duran-Valle, C.J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Martin-Aranda, R.M. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es

    2006-06-30

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation.

  14. Shock Characteristics of Tilted Support Spring System with Critical Components under the Action of Semi-sinusoid Pulse%半正弦脉冲激励下斜支承系统易损件冲击特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安军

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamical equations of tilted support spring system with critical components were established under the action of semi-sinusoidal pulse, and the equations were solved using Runge-Kulla method. The shock response characteristics of the critical components were obtained and analyzed. To evaluate the shock, a new concept of shock response spectra was proposed. The ratio of the maximum shock response acceleration of the critical components to the peak pulse acceleration and the dimensionless pulse duration were employed as the basic parameters of the shock response spectra. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the peak pulse acceleration, the dimensionless pulse duration, the angle of the tilted support spring and the frequency ratio of the system on the shock response were discussed. It is shown that the effects of the angle of the tilted support spring and the frequency ratio of the system are particularly noticeable. By increasing frequency ratio of the system, the maximum shock response acceleration of the critical components can be obviously decreased, while the peak of the shock response of the critical components can be decreased by increasing mass ratio at low frequency ratio.%以考虑易损件的斜支承弹簧系统为研究对象,建立系统几何非线性动力学方程,利用龙格-库塔法对易损件冲击响应特性进行数值分析.以易损件加速度响应峰值与脉冲激励幅值之比为易损件在半正弦波脉冲激励作用下的响应指标,无量纲脉冲激励时间作为变量,构建易损件的冲击响应谱.通过数值分析讨论脉冲激励幅值、脉冲激励时间、系统支承角以及频率比等对易损件冲击响应的影响规律.研究表明,系统支撑角、频率比等对易损件冲击响应影响显著,增加频率比可使易损件加速度响应峰值明显降低,低频率比条件下增大质量比可抑制易损件加速度响应峰值.

  15. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  16. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... Soda Springs in Caribou County, Idaho. The new 115-kV single-circuit BPA transmission line would...

  17. Water-free Alkaline Polymer-inorganic Acid Complexes with High Conductivity at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.V.Chervakov; M.V.Andriianova; V.V.Riabenko; A.V.Markevich; E.M.Shembel; D.Meshri

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recently increased interest is shown to proton conducting materials based on the alkaline polymer-inorganic acid complexes that is caused by a possibility of their application as the high-temperature electrolyte systems for various electrochemical devices (fuel cells,sensors,lithium power sources etc.).Complexes of inorganic acids with the alkaline polymers (polybenzimidazoles[1],polyvinylpyridines[2]) are characterized by high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures (up to 10-2 Ω-1·cm-1) a...

  18. A nearly on-axis spectroscopic system for simultaneously measuring UV-visible absorption and X-ray diffraction in the SPring-8 structural genomics beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Kimura, Tetsunari; Nishida, Takuma; Tosha, Takehiko; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ueno, Go; Murakami, Hironori; Ago, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ogura, Takashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Kubo, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is useful for probing the electronic and structural changes of protein active sites, and thus the on-line combination of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analysis is increasingly being applied. Herein, a novel absorption spectrometer was developed at SPring-8 BL26B2 with a nearly on-axis geometry between the X-ray and optical axes. A small prism mirror was placed near the X-ray beamstop to pass the light only 2° off the X-ray beam, enabling spectroscopic analysis of the X-ray-exposed volume of a crystal during X-ray diffraction data collection. The spectrometer was applied to NO reductase, a heme enzyme that catalyzes NO reduction to N2O. Radiation damage to the heme was monitored in real time during X-ray irradiation by evaluating the absorption spectral changes. Moreover, NO binding to the heme was probed via caged NO photolysis with UV light, demonstrating the extended capability of the spectrometer for intermediate analysis.

  19. The photoprotective role of spermidine in tomato seedlings under salinity-alkalinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lipan; Xiang, Lixia; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus.

  20. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of

  1. ANISOTROPY DETERMINATIONS IN EXCHANGE SPRING MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEWIS,L.H.; HARLAND,C.L.

    2002-08-18

    Ferromagnetic nanocomposites, or ''exchange spring'' magnets, possess a nanoscaled microstructure that allows intergrain magnetic exchange forces to couple the constituent grains and alter the system's effective magnetic anisotropies. While the effects of the anisotropy alterations are clearly seen in macroscopic magnetic measurement, it is extremely difficult to determine the detailed effects of the system's exchange coupling, such as the interphase exchange length, the inherent domain wall widths or the effective anisotropies of the system. Clarification of these materials parameters may be obtained from the ''micromagnetic'' phenomenological model, where the assumption of magnetic reversal initiating in the magnetically-soft regions of the exchange-spring maqet is explicitly included. This approach differs from that typically applied by other researchers and allows a quantitative estimate of the effective anisotropies of an exchange spring system. Hysteresis loops measured on well-characterized nanocomposite alloys based on the composition Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B + {alpha}-Fe at temperatures above the spin reorientation temperature were analyzed within the framework of the micromagnetic phenomenological model. Preliminary results indicate that the effective anisotropy constant in the material is intermediate to that of bulk {alpha}-Fe and bulk Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and increases with decreasing temperature. These results strongly support the idea that magnetic reversal in nanocomposite systems initiates in the lower-anisotropy regions of the system, and that the soft-phase regions become exchange-hardened by virtue of their proximity to the magnetically-hard regions.

  2. Region 9 Springs (SDWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  3. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  4. Uptake of arsenic by alkaline soils near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Amid P; Theis, Thomas L; Murarka, Ishwar P; Naithani, Pratibha; Babaeivelni, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    The attenuation of arsenic in groundwater near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities was evaluated by determining the uptake of arsenic from ash leachates by surrounding alkaline soils. Ten different alkaline soils near a retired coal fly ash impoundment were used in this study with pH ranging from 7.6 to 9.0, while representative coal fly ash samples from two different locations in the coal fly ash impoundment were used to produce two alkaline ash leachates with pH 7.4 and 8.2. The arsenic found in the ash leachates was present as arsenate [As(V)]. Adsorption isotherm experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption parameters required for predicting the uptake of arsenic from the ash leachates. For all soils and leachates, the adsorption of arsenic followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicative of the favorable adsorption of arsenic from leachates onto all soils. The uptake of arsenic was evaluated as a function of ash leachate characteristics and the soil components. The uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates, which occurred mainly as calcium hydrogen arsenate, increased with increasing clay fraction of soil and with increasing soil organic matter of the alkaline soils. Appreciable uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates with different pH and arsenic concentration was observed for the alkaline soils, thus attenuating the contamination of groundwater downstream of the retired coal fly ash impoundment.

  5. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  6. Orthodontic springs and auxiliary appliances: assessment of magnetic field interactions associated with 1.5 T and 3 T magnetic resonance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, J.; Priest, A.N.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schulze, D. [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Kahl-Nieke, B.; Klocke, A. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthodontics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate magnetic field interactions at 1.5 and 3 T for 20 orthodontic devices used for fixed orthodontic therapy. Twenty springs and auxiliary parts made from varying ferromagnetic alloys were tested for magnetic field interactions in the static magnetic field at 1.5 and 3 T. Magnetic translational force F{sub z} (in millinewtons) was evaluated by determining the deflection angle {beta} [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standard test method)]. Magnetic-field-induced rotational force F{sub rot} was qualitatively determined using a five-point scale. {beta} was found to be >45 in 13(15) devices at 1.5(3) T and translational force F{sub z} exceeded gravitational force F{sub g} on the particular object [F{sub z} 10.17-261.4 mN (10.72-566.4 mN) at 1.5(3) T]. F{sub z} was found to be up to 24.1(47.5)-fold higher than F{sub g} at 1.5(3) T. Corresponding to this, F{sub rot} on the objects was shown to be high at both field strengths ({>=} +3). Three objects (at 1.5 T) and one object (at 3 T) showed deflection angles <45 , but F{sub rot} was found to be {>=} +3 at both field strengths. For the remaining objects, {beta} was below 45 and torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. Of 20 objects investigated for magnetic field interactions at 1.5(3) T, 13(15) were unsafe in magnetic resonance (MR), based on the ASTM criteria of F{sub z}. The implications of these results for orthodontic patients undergoing MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  8. Chapter A6. Section 6.6. Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2002-01-01

    Alkalinity (determined on a filtered sample) and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) (determined on a whole-water sample) are measures of the ability of a water sample to neutralize strong acid. Alkalinity and ANC provide information on the suitability of water for uses such as irrigation, determining the efficiency of wastewater processes, determining the presence of contamination by anthropogenic wastes, and maintaining ecosystem health. In addition, alkalinity is used to gain insights on the chemical evolution of an aqueous system. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the USGS field protocols for alkalinity/ANC determination using either the inflection-point or Gran function plot methods, including calculation of carbonate species, and provides guidance on equipment selection.

  9. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  10. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  11. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  12. Some durability aspects of hybrid alkaline cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatello S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended cements that contain a high content of fly ash and a low content of Portland cement typically suffer from low early strength development and long setting times. Recently, one method of overcoming these problems has been to use an alkali activator to enhance the reactivity of fly ash particles at early ages. Such cements can be grouped under the generic term “hybrid alkaline cements”, where both cement clinker and fly ash, encouraged by the presence of alkalis, are expected to contribute to cementitious gel formation. The work presented here examines some of the durability aspects of high fly ash content hybrid alkaline cement. Specifically, the aspects investigated were: exposure at high temperatures (up to 1000°C, resistance to immersion in aggressive solutions and susceptibility to the alkali aggregate reaction. All tests were repeated with a commercially available sulfate resistant Portland cement for comparison. When exposed to high temperatures, the hybrid alkaline cement showed strikingly different behaviour compared to the control Portland cement, showing fewer micro-cracks and maintaining residual compressive strengths at least equal to original strengths. Beyond 700°C, the hybrid alkaline cement began to sinter, which resulted in shrinkage of around 5% and a 100% increase in residual compressive strengths. No such sintering event was noted in the control Portland cement, which showed a drastic loss in residual compressive strengths upon heating. In immersion tests, the hybrid alkaline cement possessed excellent resistance to sulfate and seawater attack, similar to the control sulfate resistant cement. Both cements were however severely degraded by immersion in 0.1M HCl for 90 days. Both binders complied with the accelerated alkali-aggregate test but when this test was extended, the hybrid alkaline binder showed much greater dimensional stability. Possible reasons for the differences in durability behaviour in both cements

  13. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  15. Initial characterization of carbon flows through microbial communities in Beowulf spring, an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-12-01

    Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive

  16. The Model of Educational Reconstruction--A Powerful Strategy to Teach for Conceptual Development in Physical Geography: The Case of Water Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Kienzler, Peter M.; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Springs are an important hydrological concept because springs form an interface between underground and surface sub-systems of the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, springs are important suppliers of drinking water but are at risk today due to numerous anthropogenic interferences. The general knowledge of springs and their formation is usually…

  17. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  18. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  19. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  20. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  1. Variable Transport of Fluorescent Tracers to Springs of Mantled Karst in the Great Valley of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, T. M.; Brookhart, A.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.; Feeney, T. P.

    2006-05-01

    Karst springs of south-central Pennsylvania support productive wild fisheries, trout hatcheries, and water supplies, and typically exhibit characteristics of diffuse flow systems. Dye traces are not documented for the region, resulting in uncertainty in both groundwater flow and in potential for runoff contamination. Surface drainages in this part of the Great Valley include the Yellow Breeches and Conodoguinet creeks, each flowing east and north to the Susquehanna. Big Spring, the focus of this study, flows at an average of 868 l/s and northward across the Great Valley to the Conodoguinet. Temperature is relatively constant at 10-11 degrees C, with turbidity typically released fluorescein (FL) into a losing reach of the Yellow Breeches, 5.2 km to the south, and sulphorhodamine-B (SRB) to a sinkhole in a failing detention basin 8.9 km to the west of Big Spring. SRB traveled to Big Spring within 3.5 days, parallel with geologic strike. West and East source springs of Big Spring responded differently, with a clear SRB peak in the west spring (316 ppt), and less distinct SRB peak occurring in the smaller east spring. Fl did not cross the valley from the Yellow Breeches watershed, but rather was weakly detected one month later 9.5 km to the east at springs of Huntsdale state fish hatchery. Neither dye was detected in springs bracketing Big Spring to the west and east, including a second contributing east spring that serves as water supply. Major springs are fed by separate, regional flow systems along strike, and may receive rapid, regional transport of surface runoff from sinkholes where the colluvial mantle thins. Background fluorescence of spring and well waters is also being analyzed, with particular focus on organic acids from forested source waters and human or animal waste from valley sources.

  2. 不同碱度精炼渣系对弹簧钢夹杂物的影响%Effect of refining slag system with different basicities on the inclusion in spring steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 孙宜强; 罗德信; 鲁修宇

    2013-01-01

    大颗粒不变形夹杂物是造成弹簧钢疲劳失效的主要原因.为了优化高级别弹簧钢55SiCr中夹杂物的组成、形态与分布,采用两次LF炉进站精炼方式,并在二次精炼过程中设计了两种不同碱度的渣系,通过氧氮分析仪、电子探针等检测手段对比分析两种工艺下钢中全氧含量、夹杂物尺寸与成分.结果表明,低碱度精炼渣使弹簧钢夹杂物成分趋近于Al2O3-SiO2-CaO系统中低熔点塑性化区间,但不利于大颗粒夹杂物的控制与消除;高碱度精炼渣使夹杂物的平均尺寸更小,分布更均匀,但夹杂物中Al2O3含量偏高;高碱度精炼渣有利于钢液的深脱氧,钢的洁净度更高,但需注意连铸过程中钢液的氧化.%The existence of non-deformable inclusions with large size is one of the major factors that cause the fatigue failure of spring steel.To optimize the composition,morphology and distribution of inclusions in high grade spring steel 55SiCr,two LF refining processes were carried out when two kinds of refining slag system with different basicities were designed and employed in steel making process.Total oxygen content,the size and composition of inclusions in spring steel were analyzed with oxygen-nitrogen analyzer and EPMA.It is concluded that refining slag with lower basicity makes the composition of inclusions in spring steel approaching to the plastifying zone with low melting points in ternary system of Al2O3-SiO2-CaO,but is unfavourable for the removal and control of inclusions with larger size.The slag with higher basicity contributes to the formation of inclusions with smaller and even size,but increases Al2O3 content in inclusions.Refining slag with higher basicity is beneficial for deeply-deoxidation to achieve high purity steel,at the same time,reoxidation of molten steel during continuous casting process should be prevented.

  3. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  4. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  5. Spring distributions and relationships with land cover and hydrogeologic strata in a karst landscape in Winona County, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.A.; Vondracek, B.

    2010-01-01

    Karst aquifers are important groundwater resources, but are vulnerable to contamination due to relatively rapid subsurface transport. Springs, points where the landscape and water table intersect and cold groundwater discharges, link aquifer systems with land surfaces and water bodies. As such, in many regions, they are critical to the viability of lakes, streams and cold-water fish communities. An understanding of where springs are located is important to watershed, fishery and environmental management efforts in karst regions. To better understand spatial distribution of springs and as a potential method for identifying variables that characterize locations of springs for improved land and watershed management, a nearest-neighbor analysis and a discriminant function analysis (DFA) of springs were conducted in Winona County, Minnesota USA, a karst landscape. Nearestneighbor analysis examined the spatial spring distribution. Twenty-two variables describing the locations of springs were analyzed to ascertain their ability to discriminate correct aquifer unit or bedrock unit classification for each spring. Springs were clumped with the highest densities in the lowest elevations. Springs were correctly assigned to aquifer units and bedrock units with eight and 11 landscape variables, respectively. Forest land cover was the only land cover type contributing to spring discrimination. Consideration of upland human activities, particularly in forested areas, on spring discharge along with a better understanding of characteristics describing spring locations could lead to better management activities that locate and protect springs and their important contributions to regional ecohydrology. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Automatic Generation of Setup for CNC Spring Coiler Based on Case-based Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KU Xiangchen; WANG Runxiao; LI Jishun; WANG Dongbo

    2006-01-01

    When producing special-shape spring in CNC spring coiler, the setup of the coiler is often a manual work using a trial-and-error method. As a result, the setup of coiler consumes so much time and becomes the bottleneck of the spring production process. In order to cope with this situation, this paper proposes an automatic generation system of setup for CNC spring coiler using case-based reasoning (CBR). The core of the study contains: (1) integrated reasoning model of CBR system;(2) spatial shape describe of special-shape spring based on feature;(3) coiling case representation using shape feature matrix; and (4) case similarity measure algorithm. The automatic generation system has implemented with C++ Builder 6.0 and is helpful in improving the automaticity and efficiency of spring coiler.

  7. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.

    2015-02-01

    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  8. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löcken F.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into ”mechanical language” enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  9. Contrasting magmatic signatures in the Rairakhol and Koraput alkaline complexes, Eastern Ghats belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; M Basei

    2010-04-01

    The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ensemble in the interior segments of the Eastern Ghats belt could not possibly be related to the rift-system, assumed for the western margin of the Eastern Ghats belt. Koraput complex was emplaced in a pull-apart structure, dominated by magmatic fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated alkaline complex, compatible with an alkalibasalt series. Rairakhol complex, on the other hand, shows dominantly solid-state deformation fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated calc-alkaline suite. Isotopic data for the Koraput complex indicate ca. 917 Ma alkaline magmatism from a depleted mantle source and postcrystalline thermal overprint at ca. 745 Ma, also recorded from sheared metapelitic country rocks. The calc-alkaline magmatism of the Rairakhol complex occurred around 938 Ma, from an enriched mantle source, closely following Grenvillian granulite facies imprint in the charnockitic country rocks.

  10. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  11. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  12. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    -solids concentration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in excess irrigation water draining from the agricultural fields are about 1,700 mg/L higher than the concentrations in the Virgin River water that is currently (2014) used for irrigation that contains inflow from Dixie Hot Springs; this increase results from evaporative concentration and dissolution of mineral salts in the irrigated agricultural fields. The water samples collected from drains downgradient from the irrigated areas are assumed to include the dissolution of all available minerals precipitated in the soil during the previous irrigation season. Based on this assumption, a change to more dilute irrigation water will not dissolve additional minerals and increase the dissolved-solids load in the drain discharge. Following the hypothetical reduction of salts from Dixie Hot Springs, which would result in more dilute Virgin River irrigation water than is currently used, the dissolution of minerals left in the soil from the previous irrigation season would result in a net increase in dissolved-solids concentrations in the drain discharge, but this increase should only last one irrigation season. After one (or several) seasons of irrigating with more dilute irrigation water, mineral precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution beneath the agricultural fields should be greatly reduced, leading to a reduction in dissolved-solids load to the Virgin River below the agricultural drains. A mass-balance model was used to predict changes in the dissolved-solids load in the Virgin River if the salt discharging from Dixie Hot Springs were reduced or removed. Assuming that 33.4 or 26.7 ft3/s of water seeps from the Virgin River to the groundwater system upstream of the Virgin River Gorge Narrows, the immediate hypothetical reduction in dissolved-solids load in the Virgin River at Littlefield, Arizona is estimated to be 67,700 or 71,500 ton/yr, respectively. The decrease in dissolved-solids load in seepage from the Virgin River to the

  13. 表面活性剂从碱性氰化液中萃取金的微观机理研究(Ⅰ):萃取体系的优化%The Micromechanism of Extracting Gold from Alkaline Cyanide Solution with Surfactants(Ⅰ):The Optimization of Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建民; 李奇伟; 陈景

    2001-01-01

    系统研究了含氧、含磷、含氮及含硫类萃取剂分别在水相中加入及不加入典型表面活性剂的2种情况下,对Au(CN)-2的萃取性能,优选出了适宜的萃取体系。%Extracting gold with extractants containing oxgen,phosphorus,nitrogan or suphur from alkaline cyanide solution with or without typical surfactants has been extensively studied.The optimum extraction system is also given in the present paper.

  14. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  15. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  16. DESIGN OF COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON JSF,SPRING AND HIBERNATE%基于JSF、Spring和Hibernate的技术资料综合管理系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海燕; 王卫东

    2012-01-01

    技术资料在设备系统中具有重要的位置,为管理技术资料,并能从中快速地找到所需的各种信息,通过对技术资料管理的分析与研究,运用JSF、Spring和Hibernate 集成框架技术,以Oracle 作为后台数据库,设计并实现了基于B/S多层架构模式的技术资料管理系统.该系统实现了技术资料数字化管理和全文搜索,大大提高了设备维护工作的效率.%Technical data plays an important role in equipment system. In order to manage the technical data and to find out any useful information rapidly, We designed and implemented an integrated management system for technical data which is based on B/S N-tier model by analysing and studying technical data management, applying the integrated framework technology of JSF, Spring and Hibernate, and taking Oracle as the background database. This system has achieved technical data management digitization and full text research, and greatly improved the efficiency of equipment maintenance.

  17. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  18. Development of a pressurized bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Edgar A. de Godoi Rodrigues; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Rapelli, Rubia; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/ IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada], Email: nevesjr@unicamp.br; Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo F.P. [Hydrogen Technology (HyTron), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the actual development status of a bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer with maximum production capacity of 1 m3/h of hydrogen and controlled by a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), which also interfaces the electrolytic system with operators and other equipment, such as gas storage tanks, fuel cells and photovoltaic panels. The project also includes the construction of an electrolysis test bench to record electrical parameters (cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte potentials), the amount of produced gases and gas quality determined by gas chromatography. (author)

  19. Site-based data curation based on hot spring geobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carole L.; Thomer, Andrea K.; Baker, Karen S.; Wickett, Karen M.; Hendrix, Christie L.; Rodman, Ann; Sigler, Stacey; Fouke, Bruce W.

    2017-01-01

    Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites. PMID:28253269

  20. Top 5 Spring Festival Customs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2016-01-01

    The Spring Festival is the largest and most important festival in China.It is the first day of the lunar calendar~1 and usually occurs somewhere between January30 and February 20,heralding~2 the beginning of spring,thus it is known as the Spring Festival.1.Spring Couplets On the Chinese New Year,families in China decorate their front doors with poetic couplets

  1. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  2. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.;

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  3. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  4. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  5. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  6. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  7. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  8. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  9. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  10. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  11. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  12. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  13. Ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with alkaline elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiren; Piao, Jingyuan; Xin, Guozhong; Lu, Yunhao; Ao, Zhimin; Bao, Nina; Ding, Jun; Li, Sean; Yi, Jiabao

    We have observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in ZnO doped with alkaline elements Using first-principles calculations we found the magnetization in these systems is originated from the O2p hole states around Zn vacancies. Calculations indicate that the formation energy of Zn vacancies alone is rather high while further investigation indicates the formation can be much stabilized by the alkaline dopants in the form of defect complexes. By calculating the formation energy of concerned defects and complexes, we found the role of the dopants that under a certain doping concentration: Zn vacancy, substitutional and interstitial dopants can form a defect complex, which can lower formation energy, therefore stabilizing Zn vacancies. Moreover K dopants have shown unique functions on the ferromagnetism since the substitutional K can induce magnetic moments to the system by forming partial zinc vacancy via lattice distortion. Hence K doped ZnO can be magnetic at low doping concentrations. Experimentally, Li, Na doped ZnO films and K doped ZnO nanorods with different doping levels are synthesized, RTFM can be observed in all these systems. The magnetization is found to be greatly influenced by the doping concentrations. The experimental results have shown good consistence with our theoretical calculations. Our studies can inspire the defect induced ferromagnetism as a new route for the fabrication of new diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  14. [Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathological pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K H; Zaki, I; Sobolewski, K

    1981-01-01

    The activities of leucocyte alkaline phosphatase were determined in 511 patients with normal and pathological pregnancy. Mean values were compared and the enzyme followed up, and the conclusion was drawn that leucocyte alkaline phosphatase was no safe indicator of foetal condition. No direct relationship were found to exist between leucocyte alkaline phosphatase, total oestrogens, HSAP, HLAP, HPL, and oxytocinase.

  15. The Application of Mitsubishi PLC and Servo for Spring Sorting Machine Control System%三菱PLC与伺服在弹簧锁片分拣机控制系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲盛坤; 王银成; 高东东; 高振旨

    2012-01-01

    PLC和伺服定位系统在工业控制中正得到广泛的应用。文中介绍了在弹簧锁片分拣机中,以三菱Q系列PLC和定位模块QD75MHl相结合,应用于转盘的定位,锁片的自动分拣装配,自动供料和自动出料的运行控制中。整机系统具有自动化程度高、运行稳定、定位精度高,并且易于操作。%PLC and servo positioning system are widely used in industrial control. This paper introduces in the spring sorting machine, with mitsubishi Q series of PLC and positioning QD75MH1 module combination, used in the wheel positioning, lock piece of automatic sorting assembly, automatic material feeding and automatic discharging operating control. The system has a high degree of automation, stable operation, higher precision, and easy to operate

  16. Alkaline phosphatase expression during relapse after orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing of osteoblast activities during bone formation will be accompanied with the increasing expression of alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP. ALP can be obtained from clear fluid excreted by gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Bone turnover, especially bone formation process, can be monitored through the expression of ALP secreted by GCF during orthodontic treatment. Thus, retention period is an important period that can be monitored through the level of bone metabolism around teeth. Purpose: This research were aimed to determine the relation of distance change caused by tooth relapse and ALP activities in gingival crevicular fluid after orthodontic; and to determine ALP as a potential biomarker of bone formation during retention period. Methods: Lower incisors of 25 guinea pigs were moved 3 mm to the distally by using open coil spring. Those relapse distance were measured and the gingival crevicular fluid was taken by using paper points to evaluate ALP levels on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 respectivelly by using a spectrophotometer (405 nm. t-test and ANOVA test were conducted to determine the difference of ALP activities among the time intervals. The correlation regression analysis was conducted to determine the relation of distance change caused by the relapse tooth movement and ALP activities. Results: The greatest relapse movement was occurred on day 3 after open coil spring was removed. There was significant difference of the average of distance decrease among groups A1-A5 (p<0.05. It was also known that ALP level was increased on day 3, but there was no significant difference of the average level of ALP among groups A1-A5 (p>0.05. Finally, based on the results of correlation analysis between the ALP level decreasing and the relapse distance on both right and left of mesial and distal sides, it is known that there was no relation between those two variables (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that relapse after orthodontic

  17. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Cuthbert

    Full Text Available Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma. However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  18. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  19. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Faghihi; M.K. Tavassoly

    2011-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states ofanother system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω √1+ μα+α the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence or trequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized tlamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed.

  20. Using geochemistry to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in Central Arizona, USA: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a unique natural spring located in a sinkhole surrounded by travertine. Montezuma Well is managed by the National Park Service, and groundwater development in the area is a potential threat to the water source for Montezuma Well. This research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) indicate that groundwater in the recharge area has flowed through surficial basalts with subsequent contact with the underlying Permian aged sandstones and the deeper, karstic, Mississippian Redwall Limestone. The distinctive geochemistry in Montezuma Well and nearby Soda Springs (higher concentrations of alkalinity, As, B, Cl, and Li) is coincident with added carbon dioxide and mantle-sourced He. The geochemistry and isotopic data from Montezuma Well and Soda Springs allow for the separation of groundwater samples into four categories: (1) upgradient, (2) deep groundwater with carbon dioxide, (3) shallow Verde Formation, and (4) mixing zone. δ18O and δD values, along with noble gas recharge elevation data, indicate that the higher elevation areas to the north and east of Montezuma Well are the groundwater recharge zones for Montezuma Well and most of the groundwater in this portion of the Verde Valley. Adjusted groundwater age dating using likely 14C and δ13C sources indicate an age for Montezuma Well and Soda Springs groundwaters at 5,400–13,300 years, while shallow groundwater in the Verde Formation appears to be older (18,900). Based on water chemistry and isotopic evidence, groundwater flow to Montezuma Well is consistent with a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow by (1) recharge in higher elevation basalts to the north and east of Montezuma Well, (2) movement through the upgradient Permian and Mississippian units, especially the Redwall Limestone, and (3) contact with a basalt dike/fracture system that provides a mechanism for groundwater to flow to the surface

  1. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  2. Passive base isolation with superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Han; Song, Gangbing

    2014-06-01

    Seismic isolation of structures such as multi-story buildings, nuclear reactors, bridges, and liquid storage tanks should be designed to preserve structural integrity. By implementing seismic isolation technology, the deformation of superstructures can be dramatically reduced, consequently helping to protect their safety as well. In this paper, an innovative type of passive base isolation system, which is mainly composed of superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs, is developed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, a two-story experimental steel frame model is constructed, and two superelastic SMA helical springs are thermo-mechanically built in the laboratory. To describe the nonlinear mechanical properties of the superelastic SMA helical springs under reciprocating load, a phenomenological model is presented in terms of a series of tensile tests. Afterwards, a numerical model of the two-story frame with the suggested isolation system is set up to simulate the response of the isolated frame subjected to an earthquake. Both the experimental and the numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed base isolation system can remarkably suppress structural vibrations and has improved isolation effects when compared with a steel spring isolation system. Due to the capabilities of energy dissipation as well as fully re-centering, it is very applicable to utilize the suggested isolation system in base isolated structures to resist earthquakes.

  3. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  4. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  5. Prevention of ARD through stabilization of waste rock with alkaline by-products : results from a meso-scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M.; Allard, B. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L.; Karlsson, S. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Bergskraft Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Mine waste can be mixed with alkaline materials to neutralize and increase the immobilization of trace elements. An impermeable layer can also be created if the alkaline additions react with the waste to form hardpans. Alkaline injection processes have been used in the western United States, where approximately 2 to 3.5 million tonnes of mine tailings have been limed with calcite, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), and calcium oxide (CaO). In this study, stabilization experiments were conducted to simulate conditions where weathered mine waste was mixed with various alkaline materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions for preventing the oxidation of mine waste isolating surfaces. The alkaline materials included fly ash, lime mud, green liquor dregs, and lime kiln dust. The mine waste and alkaline materials were layered in barrels. Expanded clay aggregates were used to minimize the risk of clogging. Results of the experiments showed that the pH in the alkaline-treated systems increased between 1.3 and 27 pH units when compared with untreated reference samples. The increased pH resulted in a decrease in trace element concentrations of approximately 96 percent. The samples containing fly ash performed better than other systems. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Extreme environments in the critical zone: Linking acidification hazard of acid sulfate soils in mound spring discharge zones to groundwater evolution and mantle degassing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Paul; Gotch, Travis; Love, Andrew; Raven, Mark; Priestley, Stacey; Grocke, Sonia

    2016-10-15

    A decrease in flow from the iconic travertine mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in South Australia has led to the oxidation of hypersulfidic soils and extreme soil acidification, impacting their unique groundwater dependent ecosystems. The build-up of pyrite in these systems occurred over millennia by the discharge of deep artesian sulfate-containing groundwaters through organic-rich subaqueous soils. Rare iron and aluminium hydroxysulfate minerals form thick efflorescences due to high evaporation rates in this arid zone environment, and the oxidised soils pose a significant risk to local aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The distribution of extreme acidification hazard is controlled by regional variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. Geochemical processes fractionate acidity and alkalinity into separate parts of the discharge zone allowing potentially extreme environments to form locally. Differences in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer along flow pathways towards the spring discharge zone are related to a range of processes including mineral dissolution and redox reactions, which in turn are strongly influenced by degassing of the mantle along deep crustal fractures. There is thus a connection between shallow critical zone ecosystems and deep crustal/mantle processes which ultimately control the formation of hypersulfidic soils and the potential for extreme geochemical environments.

  7. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  8. Controlled intracellular proteolysis during postpartal involution of the uterus: characterization and regulation of an alkaline proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M; Hoechst, M; Afting, E G

    1981-01-01

    The postpartal involution of the uterus is predominantly due to cellular hypotrophy. This implies an intracellular proteolytic system which must be carefully controlled pre and post partum. We have characterized and partially purified a proteinase with an alkaline pH-optimum of activity and a proteinase inhibitor protein which inhibits this proteinase very strongly. The alkaline proteinase copurifies with the actomyosin complex of the uterine myometrium and degrades the actomyosin complex with a concomitant loss of its myosin-ATPase activity. The alkaline proteinase is a very labile enzyme, markedly sensitive to SH-group modifying agents and has very high molecular weight at the present state of purification. This proteolytic enzyme could specifically be separated from the main components of the actomyosin complex by extraction with low ionic strength phosphate buffers. The proteinase inhibitor protein may control the activity of this alkaline proteinase during pregnancy and involution. The inhibitor protein raises 15-fold during pregnancy, possibly blocks important steps of intracellular proteolysis and permits organ growth. The dramatic fall of the inhibitor protein activity after parturition, which precedes the loss of weight, could release the proteolytic system, including the alkaline proteinase, and permits controlled intracellular degradation.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SPONTANEOUS NOCTURNALEPISODES OF ALKALINIZATION AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUSFUNCTION ON FD PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the spontaneous nocturnal episodes of alkalinization and the autonomic nerve system function and vagal function. Methods 24-hour intragastric pH was measured and auto nomic and vagal function was measured with the time domain analyses of heart rate variability in 20 patients with functional dyspepsia but without diseases of the cardiovascular system. Results 13 of 20 had the nocturnal episodes of alkalinization. The total 24-hour SDNN and rMSSD were normal in 20 subjects with FD. There was no significant dif ference (P >0. 05) in the comparison of the total SDNN and rMSSD of the 2 groups with alkalinization and without alkalinization. The 2 groups both had higher PNN50s in the nocturnal time, and there was no significant difference (P >0. 05). Conclusion The results suggest that the total autonomic nerve function and vagal function of patients with FD are normal, vagal activities of the 2 groups are both increased in the nocturnal period. The reason for the nocturnal episodes of alkalinization is not a decrease of vagal activity with a subsequent decrease of secretion.

  10. Synthesis of Zeolites by Alkaline Activation of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In terms of mineral transformation, and chemical composition of acid-soluble component as a function of reaction time, the effect of alkaline solution on zeolite-like fly ash was studied by employing fly ash and NaOH solution as starting materials. When fly ash and 1€? 0mol/L NaOH solution were processed at 100℃ for 24h with 1:10 W/S rat io in a relatively closed system, powder XRD patterns of resulting pro ducts indicated the formation of various zeolites. Zeolite P crystalli zed early at low alkaline concentration, which was replaced then by ze olites X and A. At high concentration, hydroxy sodalite was the only n ew phase. Quartz, in fly ash and NaOH solution system, gradually disso lved, and mullite, however, remained stable. It was concluded that, wi th Al/Si and Na/Si finally reaching equilibrium in molar ratio, compos ition of starting mixtures affects the crystallization of zeolite from fly ash.

  11. Local vs. Regional Groundwater Flow Delineation from Stable Isotopes at Western North America Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E; Boldt, Elizabeth M; Junghans, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    The recharge location for many springs is unknown because they can be sourced from proximal, shallow, atmospheric sources or long-traveled, deep, regional aquifers. The stable isotope ((18) O and (2) H) geochemistry of springs water can provide cost-effective indications of relative flow path distance without the expense of drilling boreholes, conducting geophysical studies, or building groundwater flow models. Locally sourced springs generally have an isotopic signature similar to local precipitation for that region and elevation. Springs with a very different isotopic composition than local meteoric inputs likely have non-local recharge, representing a regional source. We tested this local vs. regional flow derived hypothesis with data from a new, large springs isotopic database from studies across Western North America in Arizona, Nevada, and Alberta. The combination of location-specific precipitation data with stable isotopic groundwater data provides an effective method for flow path determination at springs. We found springs in Arizona issue from a mix of regional and local recharge sources. These springs have a weak elevation trend across 1588 m of elevation where higher elevation springs are only slightly more depleted than low elevation springs with a δ(18) O variation of 5.9‰. Springs sampled in Nevada showed a strong elevation-isotope relationship with high-elevation sites discharging depleted waters and lower elevation springs issuing enriched waters; only a 2.6‰ difference exists in (18) O values over an elevation range of more than 1500 m. Alberta's springs are mostly sourced from local flow systems and show a moderate elevation trend of 1200 m, but the largest range in δ(18) O, 7.1‰.

  12. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  13. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  14. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  15. Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SOFIAH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yulistyarini T, Sofiah S (2011 Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 229-234. A Seruk spring is one of the springs in Batu city which has water debit less than 1 liter per second. Land use changes of Seruk spring recharge area was occured in 2001. Recharge area of Seruk Spring consists of anthropogenic forest, eucalypts plantation, bamboo forest, pines plantation, horticulture and housing. The aim of this research was to valuing the quality of vegetation which supported ground water recharge in Seruk spring. Quality of vegetation were determined by vegetation structure, diversity, the thickness of litter and C-stock of each land use systems. Forests, eucalypts plantation and bamboo forests had almost same quality of vegetation.

  16. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline

  17. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  18. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji

    2014-05-01

    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  19. 基于弹簧阻尼系统的人体外骨骼背架结构研究%Research of exoskeleton back frame based on spring-damp system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘放; 程文明; 邬钱涌

    2013-01-01

    The spring-damp system is applied to the exoskele-ton back frame for better reducing vibration and impacting from the connection of back frame and exoskeleton hip structure. Do multi-load steps' analysis for exoskeleton back frame in human body bending movement which is made by PPS and loaded 60 kg payload has been carried out. The finite element model is established by rigid-flexible coupling method. The back frame can absolutely fit all performance parameters'requirements of statics from stress values, deformations and distributions of the result.%在人体外骨背架结构中引入弹簧阻尼系统,使背架结构与外骨骼髋部结构的连接具有更好的减震和缓冲作用.以PPS材料制作的背架结构为研究对象,60 kg为负重载荷,创新性地利用刚柔耦合方式对背架结构弹簧阻尼系统有限元模型进行处理,并进行人体支撑弯曲运动多载荷步分析,获得各工况应力值、变形量及分布图.经分析得,背架结构完全满足静力学各项性能参数要求.

  20. Damage Evaluation of Tilted Support Spring System with Critical Components under the Action of Rectangular Pulse%矩形脉冲激励下斜支承系统易损件的破损评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宁宁; 陈安军

    2014-01-01

    以考虑易损件的斜支承系统为研究对象,建立矩形脉冲激励下系统无量纲非线性冲击动力学方程。以脉冲激励幅值与易损件加速度响应峰值之比作为系统无量纲临界加速度,临界加速度与无量纲脉冲时间乘积为系统无量纲临界速度,引入系统支承角或频率比或质量比,构建斜支承系统易损件破损边界曲面。利用龙格-库塔数值分析方法求解方程,分析讨论频率比、质量比、支承角等因素对易损件破损边界的影响。研究表明,增大频率比、减小系统支承角、增大质量比等可增加易损件安全区域;随无量纲脉冲激励幅值增加,易损件破损区域减小。研究结论为斜支承系统的设计提供理论依据。%The dimensionless nonlinear dynamic equations of tilted support spring system with critical components under the action of rectangular pulse are established. To evaluate damage characteristics of the critical components, a concept of damage boundary surface is proposed. The ratio of the peak pulse acceleration to the maximum shock response acceleration of the critical components is regarded as the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, and the product of the dimensionless critical acceleration and the dimensionless pulse duration is regarded as the dimensionless critical velocity. The angle of the tilted support, frequency ratio and mass ratio of the system are introduced as three parameters to construct the damage boundary surface for the tilted support system. Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the equations numerically. The influences of frequency ratio, mass ratio, and the tilted angle of the system on the damage boundary surface of the critical components are discussed. The results demonstrate that increasing the frequency ratio, decreasing the angle of the tilted support or increasing the mass ratio can enlarge the safety zone of the critical components, and with the increase

  1. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Ana M. Pelacho; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilizati...

  2. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO

  4. Conditions in the deeper parts of the hot spring systems of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. [Proposed aquifer at depth of 2 to 4 km. , at 340 to 370/sup 0/C, and containing about 1,000 ppM NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    It is suggested that beneath Yellowstone thermal systems there is a large aquifer at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometers which contains a relatively homogeneous body of water at 340 to 370/sup 0/C containing about 1,000 ppM NaCl. This aquifer may be controlled entirely or in part by solution or fracture permeability that transects rock types. Water flows upwards from the deep aquifer along available fractures, losing steam in the process, and into more shallow aquifers that in turn feed the geyser and hot spring systems. In these shallow systems, it is diluted, reacts with rocks and fluids, and loses more steam to produce the varied hot spring waters of the Park. The deposition of silica at the bottom of the system and increased convection at near-critical temperatures will limit the maximum temperatures and depth of circulation of dilute high temperature thermal waters such as those of Yellowstone.

  5. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  6. The HISH-alliance and the Arab spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandan, Salem Ben Souhail

    , in terms of relative strength, as being essential in understanding the alliance. It then goes on to look at what the Arab-spring has so far meant for the different actors and how this has impacted the alliance. It is argued that the ability of the non-state armed entities, Hezbollah and Hamas...... within the global community, due to the current systemic situation and the Arab-spring. In short, the paper aims to establish a correlation between the international and regional changes, the newly found autonomy of the non-state entities and the decreasing capabilities of the states, in order...

  7. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-03-07

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  8. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  9. Acquisition Review Quarterly: Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    industry desire, it will go a long way toward meeting that goal. 225 Acquisition Review Quarterly-Spring 1997 LUz 0 8~ EE 00 Z,0 E- E. 0r 0 Z0 C LL z V...it is fication, and disposal of weapons and appropriate to refer to previous publica - other systems, supplies, or services to sat- tions in this

  10. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  11. Hydration of Hybrid Alkaline Cement Containing a Very Large Proportion of Fly Ash: A Descriptive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Garcia-Lodeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid alkaline fly ash cements, a new generation of binders, hydration, is characterized by features found in both ordinary portland cement (OPC hydration and the alkali activation of fly ash (AAFA. Hybrid alkaline fly ash cements typically have a high fly ash (70 wt % to 80 wt % and low clinker (20 wt % to 30 wt % content. The clinker component favors curing at ambient temperature. A hydration mechanism is proposed based on the authors’ research on these hybrid binders over the last five years. The mechanisms for OPC hydration and FA alkaline activation are summarized by way of reference. In hybrid systems, fly ash activity is visible at very early ages, when two types of gel are formed: C–S–H from the OPC and N–A–S–H from the fly ash. In their mutual presence, these gels tend to evolve, respectively, into C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H. The use of activators with different degrees of alkalinity has a direct impact on reaction kinetics but does not modify the main final products, a mixture of C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H gels. The proportion of each gel in the mix does, however, depend on the alkalinity generated in the medium.

  12. Principles and Materials Aspects of Direct Alkaline Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Hao Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs have attracted increasing interest over the past decade because of their favourable reaction kinetics in alkaline media, higher energy densities achievable and the easy handling of the liquid fuels. In this review, principles and mechanisms of DAAFCs in alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction are discussed. Despite the high energy densities available during the oxidation of polycarbon alcohols they are difficult to oxidise. Apart from methanol, the complete oxidation of other polycarbon alcohols to CO2 has not been achieved with current catalysts. Different types of catalysts, from conventional precious metal catalyst of Pt and Pt alloys to other lower cost Pd, Au and Ag metal catalysts are compared. Non precious metal catalysts, and lanthanum, strontium oxides and perovskite-type oxides are also discussed. Membranes like the ones used as polymer electrolytes and developed for DAAFCs are reviewed. Unlike conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells, anion exchange membranes are used in present DAAFCs. Fuel cell performance with DAAFCs using different alcohols, catalysts and membranes, as well as operating parameters are summarised. In order to improve the power output of the DAAFCs, further developments in catalysts, membrane materials and fuel cell systems are essential.

  13. Dissolution of Uranium Oxides Under Alkaline Oxidizing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.C.; Peper, S.M.; Douglas, M.; Ziegelgruber, K.L. [PNNL, PO Box 999, MS P8-08, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Understanding the dissolution of uranium oxides is critical for designing and optimizing next-generation spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing methods. Bench scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimal dissolution parameters for size-fractionated aliquots of UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders in aqueous peroxide-carbonate solutions. Experimental parameters included; peroxide and carbonate concentrations, and temperature. Solution pH was varied with ammonium hydroxide. We will present details of the dissolution experiment set-up as well as information on the kinetics of dissolution of the various U-oxides as a function of the above variables. We will also discuss efforts to characterize solution and solid-state complexes in peroxide-carbonate systems. This study will demonstrate the applicability of peroxide-containing alkaline solutions for effectively dissolving SNF, and will enhance the current level of understanding of actinide behavior in peroxide-containing alkaline solutions. (authors)

  14. Potential control flotation of galena in strong alkaline media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帼华; 胡岳华; 邱冠周; 王晖; 王淀佐

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of galena in collectorless and collector flotation systems, particularly in strong alkaline media, was studied. The results show that, with pH value higher than 12.5 and potentials below 0.17 V, the oxidation products of galena are elemental sulfur and HPbO-2. Elemental sulfur was present on the mineral surface in excess of oxidized lead species due to dissolution of HPbO-2, which is beneficial to the flotation of galena. Under the same conditions, sphalerite and pyrite were depressed as a result of significant surface oxidation. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) was found to be the most suitable collector for galena flotation in strongly alkaline media. The very potential produced hydrophobic PbD2-the surface reaction product of DDTC with galena, is 0 to 0.2 V. Meantime DDTC can depress the surface over-oxidation of galena. Investigations also indicate that, in the range of -0.9 V to 0.6 V, hydrophobic PbD2 can be firmly adsorbed on galena.

  15. Degradation modes of alkaline fuel cells and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomantschger, Klaus; Findlay, Robert; Hanson, Michael; Kordesch, Karl; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    The performance and life-limiting parameters of multilayer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded carbon air cathodes and hydrogen anodes, developed at the Institute for Hydrogen Systems (IHS) for use in low temperature alkaline electrolyte fuel cells (AFC) and batteries, were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy spectroscopy (XES), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), microcalorimetry and intrusion porosimetry techniques in conjunction with electrochemical testing methods were used to characterize electrode components, electrodes and alkaline fuel cells. The lifetime of air cathodes is mainly limited by carbon corrosion and structural degradation, while that of hydrogen anodes is frequently limited by electrocatalyst problems and structural degradation. The PTFE binder was also found to degrade in both the cathodes and the anodes. The internal resistance, which was found to generally increase in AFCs in particular between the cathode and the current collector, can be minimized by the proper choice of materials. Temperature cycling of AFCs may result in mechanical problems; however, these problems can be overcome by using AFC components with compatible thermal expansion coefficients.

  16. Prebiotic Synthesis of Protobiopolymers Under Alkaline Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A.; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH4. At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  17. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  18. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Peacock, Joseph P; Huang, Qiuyuan; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenjun; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of

  19. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  20. Orogenic potassic mafic magmatism, a product of alkaline-peraluminous mixing ? Variscan 'calc-alkaline' rocks from the Central Iberian and Ossa Morena Zones, Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarrow, Jane H.; Cambeses, Aitor; Bea, Fernando; Montero, Pilar; Molina, José F.; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Orogenic magmatic rocks provide information about mantle and crust melt-generation and -interaction processes. In this context, minor potassic mafic stocks which are formed of enriched mantle and crustal components and are common as late-orogenic intrusions in granitic plutons give insight into the timing of new crust formation and crustal recycling. Potassic mafic stocks are prevalent, albeit low volume, constituents of granite batholiths all through the European Variscan (350-280 Ma). In the Central Iberia Zone, Spanish Central System, crustal-melt, S-type, granitoid plutons are intruded by minor concomitant ultramafic-intermediate appinitic-vaugneritic stocks. Notwithstanding their whole-rock calc-alkaline composition, the stocks apparently did not have a subduction-related origin. Recent studies have attributed their genesis to mixing of alkaline mantle and peraluminous crustal melts. Their primary alkaline character, as indicated by amphibole and biotite mineral chemistry data, points, rather, towards an extension-related genesis. In the Ossa Morena Zone, south of the Central Iberian Zone, the igneous rocks also have a whole-rock calc-alkaline composition which has been considered to be the result of northward subduction of the South Portuguese Zone. Nevertheless, identification of a 'sill' of significant volume of mafic magma in the middle crust, the ´IBERSEIS reflective body', in a seismic profile across the Ossa Morena and South Portuguese Zones has cast doubt upon the calc-alkaline magmatism-subduction model; leading, instead, to the magmatism being attributed to intra-orogenic extension related to a mantle plume active from 340 Ma to 330 Ma. The aim here, then, is to reinvestigate the petrogenesis and age of the calc-alkaline rocks of the Ossa Morena Zone to determine their tectonomagmatic context be it subduction-, plume- or extension-related, and establish what they may reveal about mantle-crust interactions. Focussing, initially, on the Valencia del

  1. Development of a Composite Leaf Spring for a Light Commercial Vehicle (Tata Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Rai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present time the main issue of automobile industry are weight reduction. The automobile industry has looking for any implementation or modification to reduce the weight of the vehicle. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobile as it accounts for 10% to 20% of the unsprung weight. The introduction of composite leaf spring made of glass fiber rein forced plastic (GFRP has made it to possible to reduce the weight of spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity and stiffness. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel spring. This work deals with the replacement of multi-leaf steel spring with mono composite leaf spring for the LCV. Suspension system in an automobile determines the riding comfort of passengers and the amount of damage to the vehicle. The main function of leaf spring assembly as suspension element is not only to support vertical load, but also to isolate road-induced vibrations. the behavior of leaf spring is complicated due to its clamping effects and inter-leaf contact etc. the objective of this paper is to replace the multi-leaf steel spring by mono composite leaf spring for the same load carrying capacity and stiffness. Since the composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to those of steel. It is possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity and stiffness. The design constraints were limiting stresses and displacement. Modeling and analysis of both the steel and composite leaf springs have been done using ANSYS software.

  2. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  3. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  4. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots.

  5. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Abbas, B.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Muyzer, G.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  7. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  8. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  9. Characterization of the hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Gerwig, Robert M.; Tate, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of Silver Springs, De Leon Spring, Gemini Springs, and Green Spring in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, were studied in 2004 to provide a better understanding of each spring and to compile data of potential use in future water-management decisions. Ground water that discharges from these and other north-central Florida springs originates from the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system, a karstic limestone aquifer that extends throughout most of the State's peninsula. This report summarizes data about flow, water chemistry, and aquatic communities, including benthic invertebrates, fishes, algae, and aquatic macrophytes collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, the St. Johns River Water Management District, and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection during 2004, as well as some previously collected data. Differences in water chemistry among these springs reflect local differences in water chemistry in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The three major springs sampled at the Silver Springs group (the Main Spring, Blue Grotto, and the Abyss) have similar proportions of cations and anions but vary in nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water from Gemini Springs and Green Spring has higher proportions of sodium and chloride than the Silver Springs group. Water from De Leon Spring also has higher proportions of sodium and chloride than the Silver Springs group but lower proportions of calcium and bicarbonate. Nitrate concentrations have increased over the period of record at all of the springs except Green Spring. Compounds commonly found in wastewater were found in all the springs sampled. The most commonly detected compound was the insect repellant N,N'-diethyl-methyl-toluamide (DEET), which was found in all the springs sampled except De Leon Spring. The pesticide atrazine and its degradate 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT) were detected in water

  10. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  11. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B

    1986-01-01

    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  12. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot spring microbial mats from a geothermal region in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Cristian; Drugă, Bogdan; Hegedus, Adriana; Sicora, Cosmin; Dragoş, Nicolae

    2013-05-01

    The diversity of archaea and bacteria was investigated in two slightly alkaline, mesophilic hot springs from the Western Plain of Romania. Phylogenetic analysis showed a low diversity of Archaea, only three Euryarchaeota taxa being detected: Methanomethylovorans thermophila, Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and Methanococcus aeolicus. Twelve major bacterial groups were identified, both springs being dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. While at the phylum/class-level the microbial mats share a similar biodiversity; at the species level the geothermal springs investigated seem to be colonized by specific consortia. The dominant taxa were filamentous heterocyst-containing Fischerella, at 45 °C and non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Geitlerinema, at 55 °C. Other bacterial taxa (Thauera sp., Methyloversatilis universalis, Pannonibacter phragmitetus, Polymorphum gilvum, Metallibacterium sp. and Spartobacteria) were observed for the first time in association with a geothermal habitat. Based on their bacterial diversity the two mats were clustered together with other similar habitats from Europe and part of Asia, most likely the water temperature playing a major role in the formation of specific microbial communities that colonize the investigated thermal springs.

  13. Cyanobacterial diversity in the hot spring, pelagic and benthic habitats of a tropical soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadheech, Pawan K; Glöckner, Gernot; Casper, Peter; Kotut, Kiplagat; Mazzoni, Camila Junqueira; Mbedi, Susan; Krienitz, Lothar

    2013-08-01

    Hot springs and saline-alkaline lakes of East Africa are extreme habitats regarding temperature, or salinity and pH, respectively. This study examines whether divergent habitats of Lake Bogoria, Kenya, impacts cyanobacterial community structure. Samples from the hot springs, pelagic zone and sediment were analysed by light microscopy, multilocus 454-amplicons sequencing and metagenomics to compare the cyanobacterial diversity. Most of the phylogenetic lineages of Cyanobacteria occurred exclusively in the Bogoria hot springs suggesting a high degree of endemism. The prevalent phylotypes were mainly members of the Oscillatoriales (Leptolyngbya, Spirulina, Oscillatoria-like and Planktothricoides). The Chroococcales were represented by different clades of Synechococcus but not a single phylotype clustered with any of the lineages described earlier from different continents. In contrast, we found that the pelagic zone and the sediments were inhabited by only a few taxa, dominated by Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis. Arthrospira, the main food base of Lesser Flamingo, was detected in all three habitats by amplicons pyrosequencing, indicating its resilience and key role as a primary producer. Despite the close connection between the three habitats studied, the cyanobacterial communities in the hot springs and lake differed considerably, suggesting that they are unable to adapt to the extreme conditions of the neighbouring habitat.

  14. Alignment control straegy for an air spring mounting system of marine propulsion engine%船舶主机气囊隔振技术对中控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜文俊; 何琳

    2012-01-01

    Alignment control strategy was studied to ensure shaft alignment precision when an air spring was used in marine propulsion engine vibration isolation.A model of alignment response analysis was presented.Pseudo-sensitivity analysis method was put forward to solve the difficulty of gaining accurate input parameters.An alignment control strategy was proposed based on a pseudo-sensitivity matrix.Using this control strategy,the control system had high alignment control precision,good dynamic performance and uniform load distribution under multi-object and strong coupling condition.%针对气囊隔振器应用于船舶主机低频隔振面临的如何保证轴系对中精度技术难题,开展其对中控制策略研究.建立了对中状态响应特性分析模型,为解决该分析模型计算输入参数难以精确获取的问题,提出一种伪灵敏度分析方法.基于控制对象伪灵敏度矩阵,研究出可行的对中控制策略.应用该控制策略可使得控制系统在多目标、强耦合条件下,以良好的动态工作性能实现高精度对中控制,并保持装置承载力的均匀分配.

  15. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Spring tube braces for seismic isolation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, V.; Yuksel, Ercan; Gokce, T.; Sahin, F.

    2017-01-01

    A new low-cost seismic isolation system based on spring tube bracings has been proposed and studied at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Multiple compression-type springs are positioned in a special cylindrical tube to obtain a symmetrical response in tension and compression-type axial loading. An isolation floor, which consists of pin-ended steel columns and spring tube bracings, is constructed at the foundation level or any intermediate level of the building. An experimental campaign with three stages was completed to evaluate the capability of the system. First, the behavior of the spring tubes subjected to axial displacement reversals with varying frequencies was determined. In the second phase, the isolation floor was assessed in the quasi-static tests. Finally, a ¼ scaled 3D steel frame was tested on the shake table using actual acceleration records. The transmitted acceleration to the floor levels is greatly diminished because of the isolation story, which effects longer period and higher damping. There are no stability and self-centering problems in the isolation floor.

  17. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  18. Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Compression Ignition Vehicles: An Experimental Investigation of Solar Alkaline Water Electrolysis for Improving Diesel Combustion and a Solar Charging System for Reducing Auxiliary Engine Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Garry Inocentes

    Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic electricity can be applied towards aspiration of hydrogen-oxygen-steam gas produced through alkaline electrolysis and reductions in auxiliary alternator load for reducing hydrocarbon emissions in low nitrogen oxide indirect-injection compression-ignition engines. Aspiration of 0.516 ± 0.007 liters-per-minute of gas produced through alkaline electrolysis of potassium-hydroxide 2wt.% improves full-load performance; however, part-load performance decreases due to auto-ignition of aspirated gas prior to top-dead center. Alternator load reductions offer improved part-load and full-load performance with practical limitations resulting from accessory electrical loads. In an additive approach, solar electrolysis can electrochemically convert solar photovoltaic electricity into a gas comprised of stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen gas. Aspiration of this hydrogen-oxygen gas enhances combustion properties decreasing emissions and increased combustion efficiency in light-duty diesel vehicles. The 316L stainless steel (SS) electrolyser plates are arranged with two anodes and three cathodes space with four bipolar plates delineating four stacks in parallel with five cells per stack. The electrolyser was tested using potassium hydroxide 2 wt.% and hydronium 3wt.% at measured voltage and current inputs. The flow rate output from the reservoir cell was measured in parallel with the V and I inputs producing a regression model correlating current input to flow rate. KOH 2 wt.% produced 0.005 LPM/W, while H9O44 3 wt.% produced less at 0.00126 LPM/W. In a subtractive approach, solar energy can be used to charge a larger energy storage device, as is with plug-in electric vehicles, in order to alleviate the engine of the mechanical load placed upon it by the vehicles electrical accessories through the alternator. Solar electrolysis can improve part-load emissions and full-load performance. The average solar-to-battery efficiency based on the OEM rated

  19. Army Communicator. Volume 31, Number 2, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    see Army Commu- nicator article titled HF Combat Net Radio Lesson Learned Again, by David M. Fiedler , Spring 2004). Integrating more communications...year- round,” said Drew. According to Fred Porzio, project leader for this effort with PM DCATS’ Product Manager, Defense Wide Transmission Systems, the...Army Communicator 49 singling out Fred Porzio, the project lead for PM DWTS; Greg Parks, who designed the system for prime contractor Eaton/Powerware

  20. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  1. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  2. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  3. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  4. Structural diversity of alkaline-earth 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra; Ramanan, Arunachalam

    2017-03-01

    Exploration of the structural landscape of the system containing divalent alkaline-earth metal ion (Mg, Ca and Sr) with the rigid 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (TDC) under varying solvothermal condition (DMF, DMA and DEF) yielded five new crystals: [Mg(TDC) (DEF)2(H2O)1/2] (1), [Ca(TDC) (DMA)] (2), [Ca(TDC) (DMA) (H2O)] (3), [Sr(TDC) (DMA)] (4) and [Sr(TDC) (DMA) (H2O)] (5) and two known solids. Single crystal structures of all the solids are characteristic of extended coordination interaction between metal and carboxylate ions. While the smaller magnesium ion crystallized into a 2D coordination polymer, the larger calcium and strontium compounds resulted into the growth of 3D metal organic frameworks. All the solids show blue emission arising from intra ligand charge transfer.

  5. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Alkaline-Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser addressing the 3P1 level. For the 3P1 -->3S1 (688-nm) transition in strontium, the depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  6. Development of Hydrogen Electrodes for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín

    will be needed. Producing hydrogen via water electrolysis using surplus, low cost, power from renewables offers the possibility of increased production capacity and load management with no greenhouse emissions. Hydrogen is a valuable energy carrier, which is able to contribute to various forms of energy, such as......, production of electricity via fuel cells, fuel for internal combustion engines or gas turbines, or as a raw material for the production of synthetic fuels via Sabatier or Fischer - Tropsch process. In some situations it may be suitable to simply inject hydrogen into the existing natural gas based...... infrastructure. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is the current standard (stat of the art) for industrial large-scale water electrolysis systems. One of the main criteria for industrial AWE is efficient and durable electrodes. The aim of the present PhD study was to develop electrode materials for hydrogen...

  7. Distribution map of hot springs in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, K.

    1975-01-01

    This map (scale 1:2,000,000) provides the distribution and locations of hot springs in Japan. A hot spring is defined as hot water, mineral water, vapor or other gases (excluding natural gases containing hydrocarbons as the major component) issuing from underground at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C or higher and/or containing substances listed on the map in specific concentrations. Springs are classified according to their chemical composition. Each class of spring is assigned one of five different symbols (per class) according to its temperature. Where appropriate, the geologic age of the spring location is identified. A comprehensive place name index is provided in both Japanese and English transliteration. The map is also isothermically graduated in HFU and references are given for descriptive textual materials that may be used as supplements.

  8. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    . Water Information System, National Master Plan Directorate. Jordan. Hamdan I., Wiegand B., Toll M., Sauter M. (2016) Spring response to precipitation events using δ 18O and δ 2H in the Tanour catchment, NW-Jordan. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies journal. Accepted GIEH-2015-0139. Hamdan, I.~in preparation.~Characterization of groundwater flow and vulnerability assessment of karstic aquifer - A case study from Tanour and Rasoun spring catchment (Ajloun, NW-Jordan).~Ph.D. Thesis, University of Göttingen, Germany.

  9. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  10. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  11. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  12. Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Designing Spring Brake Orthosis – Part I: Spring Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Huq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring brake orthosis (SBO concentrates purely on the knee to generate the swing phase of the paraplegic gait with the required hip flexion occurring passively as a consequence of the ipsilateral knee flexion, generated by releasing the torsion spring mounted at the knee joint. Electrical stimulation then drives the knee back to full extension, as well as restores the spring potential energy. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA and its variant multi-objective GA (MOGA is used to perform the search operation for the ‘best’ spring parameters for the SBO spring mounted on an average sized subject simulated in the sagittal plane. Conventional torsion spring is tested against constant torque type spring in terms of swing duration as, based on first principles, it is hypothesized that constant torque spring would be able to produce slower SBO swing phase as might be preferred in assisted paraplegic gait. In line with the hypothesis, it is found that it is not possible to delay the occurrence of the flexion peak of the SBO swing phase further than its occurrence in the natural gait. The use of conventional torsion spring causes the swing knee flexion peak to appear rather faster than that of the natural gait, resulting in a potentially faster swing phase and hence gait cycle. The constant torque type spring on the other hand is able to stretch duration of the swing phase to some extent, rendering it the preferable spring type in SBO.

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  14. Acylglucuronide in alkaline conditions: migration vs. hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meo, Florent; Steel, Michele; Nicolas, Picard; Marquet, Pierre; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This work rationalizes the glucuronidation process (one of the reactions of the phase II metabolism) for drugs having a carboxylic acid moiety. At this stage, acylglucuronides (AG) metabolites are produced, that have largely been reported in the literature for various drugs (e.g., mycophenolic acid (MPA), diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylacetic acids). The competition between migration and hydrolysis is rationalized by adequate quantum calculations, combing MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) methods. At the molecular scale, the former process is a real rotation of the drug around the glucuconic acid. This chemical-engine provides four different metabolites with various toxicities. Migration definitely appears feasible under alkaline conditions, making proton release from the OH groups. The latter reaction (hydrolysis) releases the free drug, so the competition is of crucial importance to tackle drug action and elimination. From the theoretical data, both migration and hydrolysis appear kinetically and thermodynamically favored, respectively.

  15. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  16. Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation.

  17. A Rotating Pendulum Linked by an Oblique Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Qing-Jie; HAN Ning; TIAN Rui-Lan

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a novel model which comprises a rotating pendulum linked by an oblique spring pinned to its rigid support.This model provides a cylindrical dynamical system with both smooth and discontinuous regimes depending on the value of a system parameter and also the dynamics transient relying on the coupling strength between the pendulum and the linked spring.The presented system behaves with both standard (smooth) and nonstandard (discontinuous) nonlinear dynamics of equilibrium bifurcations and the periodic patterns when it is unperturbed.Complicated resonant structures of period, quasi-period and stochastic phenomena are presented for the system with unique harmonic perturbation.The chaotic behavior of the system perturbed by both viscous-damping and external excitations is aiso demonstrated.%H'f present ;I novel model wbkh compriaes n rotating pendulum liiiknl by as oblbpie spring pinned to its rigid .support. This model provides n ryliiulncal dynamical system with both smooth and discontinuous regimes depending an the ralue of a Obtsm parameter and afao the dyaamka transient relying on the coupling strength between thependohm ?nd tiefMed spring. The presented m>1'-:I; bOami nii/I Wh standanJ (sanootij mid iHWsrondard frfi> rt.nr in no u, I imn/iucaj- rfvnamics of equilibrium MhmtWM and t&s partodlc palbtros wlien I( is uoperturbod. Omt/ifjcatcci rraonam rtrucniros of period, qiia-si-fn-rn-) mri rtedastfe pljpjioiiicua are presented for iJje s.vsteni ivitli tmfqtB! U,irmonic pemirbMiiin. The chai/tk bcAavftn ctf lln- m-I'iii perturbed by huth iriBcous-dampbig ,-wd external excitsttois is a&o Jumom,irHtnl.

  18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  19. On electrochemical devices using alkaline polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, L. [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) enable a compact assembly of fuel cells and electrolyzers, thereby increasing the space-specific conversion efficiency and avoiding electrolyte leakage. The most widely used SPE in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and chloro-alkali electrolyzers is Nafion. However, this strongly acidic polyelectrolyte allows only noble metals to be used as the catalysts in the electrochemical devices, which poses a problem in terms of price and resource limits. In principle, alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) should be used to eliminate the dependence on noble metal catalysts. The general structure of alkaline polymer electrolytes is a positively charged polymer, notably, a polymer chain attached with fixed cations such as quaternary ammonia group, and dissociated anion, OH-, to act as the charge carrier. This presentation described the challenges of developing APEs in terms of the chemical stability of quaternary ammonia group, the mobility of OH-, and high ionic concentration. The authors have been working on developing high-performance APEs since 2001. The most recent APEs were quaternary ammonia polysulfone (QAPS), which were found to be suitable for fuel cell and electrolyzer applications. The ionic conductivity was high and the crosslinked membrane had excellent mechanical strength, enabling operation at 90 degrees C. Non-precious metal catalysts were used in the APEs. For APE-based fuel cells (APEFC), chromium decorated nickel was used as the anode catalyst for hydrogen oxidation, and silver was used as the cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction. The preliminary performance of such an APEFC with non-Pt catalysts was found to be much better than that of traditional water electrolyzers using KOH solutions. 2 refs.

  20. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  1. Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D Tommy; Wang, Guiming; Yang, Zhiqiang; Fischer, Justin W

    2017-01-16

    Spring migration phenology of birds has advanced under warming climate. Migration timing of short-distance migrants is believed to be responsive to environmental changes primarily under exogenous control. However, understanding the ecological causes of the advancement in avian spring migration phenology is still a challenge due to the lack of long-term precise location data. We used 11 years of Global Positioning System relocation data to determine four different migration dates of the annual migration cycle of the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), a short-distance migrant. We also tested the hypothesis that increases in winter temperature and precipitation on the wintering grounds would advance pelican spring migration. Pelican spring departures and arrivals advanced steadily from 2002 to 2011. Spring departure timing exhibited high repeatability at the upper end of migration timing repeatability reported in literature. However, individual spring departure and arrival dates were not related to winter daily temperature, total winter precipitation, and detrended vegetation green-up dates indexed by the normalized difference vegetation index. Despite high repeatability, the observed between-year variation of spring departure dates was still sufficient for the advancement of spring departure timing.

  2. Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. Tommy; Wang, Guiming; Yang, Zhiqiang; Fischer, Justin W.

    2017-01-01

    Spring migration phenology of birds has advanced under warming climate. Migration timing of short-distance migrants is believed to be responsive to environmental changes primarily under exogenous control. However, understanding the ecological causes of the advancement in avian spring migration phenology is still a challenge due to the lack of long-term precise location data. We used 11 years of Global Positioning System relocation data to determine four different migration dates of the annual migration cycle of the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), a short-distance migrant. We also tested the hypothesis that increases in winter temperature and precipitation on the wintering grounds would advance pelican spring migration. Pelican spring departures and arrivals advanced steadily from 2002 to 2011. Spring departure timing exhibited high repeatability at the upper end of migration timing repeatability reported in literature. However, individual spring departure and arrival dates were not related to winter daily temperature, total winter precipitation, and detrended vegetation green-up dates indexed by the normalized difference vegetation index. Despite high repeatability, the observed between-year variation of spring departure dates was still sufficient for the advancement of spring departure timing.

  3. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness Effect of Primary Suspension Helical Springs on Railway Vehicle Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Thompson, D. J.; Zhou, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-09-01

    Helical springs within the primary suspension are critical components for isolating the whole vehicle system from vibration generated at the wheel/rail contact. As train speeds increase, the frequency region of excitation becomes larger, and a simplified static stiffness can no longer represent the real stiffness property in a vehicle dynamic model. Coil springs in particular exhibit strong internal resonances, which lead to high vibration amplitudes within the spring itself as well as degradation of the vibration isolation. In this paper, the dynamic stiffness matrix method is used to determine the dynamic stiffness of a helical spring from a vehicle primary suspension. Results are confirmed with a finite element analysis. Then the spring dynamic stiffness is included within a vehicle-track coupled dynamic model of a high speed train and the effect of the dynamic stiffening of the spring on the vehicle vibration is investigated. It is shown that, for frequencies above about 50 Hz, the dynamic stiffness of the helical spring changes sharply. Due to this effect, the vibration transmissibility increases considerably which results in poor vibration isolation of the primary suspension. Introducing a rubber layer in series with the coil spring can attenuate this effect.

  4. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  5. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Likens, G. E.; Utz, R.; Pace, M.; Grese, M.; Yepsen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km2. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These 3 variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  6. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  7. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  8. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mirhadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used in non-vital teeth as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plugs. Materials and Method: Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30 and two control groups (n=5. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05. The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05. Conclusion: An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH.

  9. The choice of low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells: Acidic - or alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, K.

    A comparison of the major types of hydrogen-oxygen (air) fuel cells is given. The criteria for the selection is the fuel availability, system performance, optimal cost and life expectancy in most suitable application areas. Special recommendations are given for designs of bipolar alkaline batteries for intermittent use in electric vehicles on the road, combining high conversion efficiency with long stand-by periods. Such batteries with liquid alkaline electrolytes will have to compete with matrix-type cells using improved acidic- or membrane-type cells. Hybrid systems will be discussed and their advantages from the economic point of view will be considered. In electric vehicles the combination with an advanced rechargeable battery system, like zinc-bromine, could be decisive for success. Unfortunately, there are not enough cost data available to compare the systems now.

  10. The mathematics of the total alkalinity-pH equation: pathway to robust and universal solution algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoven, G.

    2013-03-01

    The total alkalinity-pH equation, which relates total alkalinity and pH for a given set of total concentrations of the acid-base systems that contribute to total alkalinity in a given water sample, is reviewed and its mathematical properties established. We prove that the equation function is strictly monotone and always has exactly one positive root. Different commonly used approximations are discussed and compared. An original method to derive appropriate initial values for the iterative solution of the cubic polynomial equation based upon carbonate-borate-alkalinity is presented. We then review different methods that have been used to solve the total alkalinity-pH equation, with a main focus on biogeochemical models. The shortcomings and limitations of these methods are made out and discussed. We then present two variants of a new, robust and universally convergent algorithm to solve the total alkalinity-pH equation. This algorithm does not require any a priori knowledge of the solution. The iterative procedure is shown to converge from any starting value to the physical solution. The extra computational cost for the convergence security is only 10-15% compared to the fastest algorithm in our test series.

  11. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  12. Alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium cations for alkaline fuel cell membranes and ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M G; Kreuer, K D

    2015-02-01

    The alkaline stability of 26 different quaternary ammonium groups (QA) is investigated for temperatures up to 160 °C and NaOH concentrations up to 10 mol L(-1) with the aim to provide a basis for the selection of functional groups for hydroxide exchange membranes in alkaline fuel cells and of ionic-liquid cations stable in basic conditions. Most QAs exhibit unexpectedly high alkaline stability with the exception of aromatic cations. β-Protons are found to be far less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than previously suggested, whereas the presence of benzyl groups, nearby hetero-atoms, or other electron-withdrawing species promote degradation reactions significantly. Cyclic QAs proved to be exceptionally stable, with the piperidine-based 6-azonia-spiro[5.5]undecane featuring the highest half-life at the chosen conditions. Absolute and relative stabilities presented herein stand in contrast to literature data, the differences being ascribed to solvent effects on degradation.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  14. Thermal noise free opto-mechanics using strong optical springs

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Michael; Zhao, Chunnong; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Pan, Huang-Wei; Chao, Shiuh; Mitrofanov, Valery; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal noise generally greatly exceeds quantum noise in optomechanical devices unless the mechanical frequency is very high or the thermodynamic temperature is very low. This paper addresses the design concept for a novel optomechanical device capable of ultrahigh quality factors with negligible thermal noise. The proposed system consists of a minimally supported millimeter scale pendulum mounted in a Double End-Mirror Sloshing (DEMS) cavity that is topologically equivalent to a Membrane-in-the-Middle (MIM) cavity. The radiation pressure inside the high-finesse cavity allows for high optical stiffness, cancellation of terms which lead to unwanted negative damping and suppression of quantum radiation pressure noise. We solve for the optical spring dynamics of the system using the Hamiltonian, find the noise spectral density and show that stable optical trapping is possible. We also assess various loss mechanisms, one of the most important being the acceleration loss due to the optical spring. We show that pra...

  15. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  16. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  17. Relation between flow and temporal variations of nitrate and pesticides in two karst springs in northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two karst springs in the Mississippian Carbonate Aquifer of northern Alabama were sampled between March 1999 and March 2001 to characterize the variability in concentration of nitrate, pesticides, selected pesticide degradates, water temperature, and inorganic constituents. Water temperature and inorganic ion data for McGeehee Spring indicate that this spring represents a shallow flow system with a relatively short average ground-water residence time. Water issuing from the larger of the two springs, Meridianville Spring, maintained a constant temperature, and inorganic ion data indicate that this water represents a deeper flow system having a longer average ground-water residence time than McGeehee Spring. Although water-quality data indicate differing short-term responses to rainfall at the two springs, the seasonal variation of nitrate and pesticide concentrations generally is similar for the two springs. With the exception of pesticides detected at low concentrations, the coefficient of variation for most constituent concentrations was less than that of flow at both springs, with greater variability in concentration at McGeehee Spring. Degradates of the herbicides atrazine and fluometuron were detected at concentrations comparable to or greater than the parent pesticides. Decreases in concentration of the principal degradate of fluometuron from about July to November indicate that the degradation rate may decrease as fluometuron (demethylfluometuron) moves deeper into the soil after application. Data collected during the study show that from about November to March when recharge rates increase, nitrate and residual pesticides in the soil, unsaturated zone, and storage within the aquifer are transported to the spring discharges. Because of the increase in recharge, fluometuron loads discharged from the springs during the winter were comparable to loads discharged at the springs during the growing season. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  18. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done w

  19. The tillage effect on the soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatases (acid and alkaline are important in soils because these extracellular enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters to orthophosphate; thus they form an important link between biologically unavailable and mineral phosphorous. Phosphatase activity is sensitive to environmental perturbations such as organic amendments, tillage, waterlogging, compaction, fertilizer additions and thus it is often used as an environmental indicator of soil quality in riparian ecosystems. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of tillage systems on phosphatases activity in a field experiment carried out in Ezăreni farm. The phosphatase activitiy were determined at two depths (7-10 cm and 15-25cm layers of a chernozem soil submitted to conventional tillage (CT in a fertilised and unfertilised experiment. Monitoring soil alkaline phosphatase activity showed, generally, the same in fertilized soil profiles collected from both depths; the values being extremely close. In unfertilized soils, alkaline phosphatase activity is different only in soils that were exposed to unconventional work using disc harrows and 30cm tillage. Both works type (no tillage and conventional tillage cause an intense alkaline phosphatase activity in 7-10 cm soil profile. Acid phosphatase activity is highly fluctuating in both fertilized as well unfertilized soil, this enzyme being influenced by the performed works.

  20. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.