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Sample records for alkaline pulping processes

  1. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TIMBER ALKALINE PULPING PROCESS IN PRESENCE OF SALTS OF SOME METALS HAVING MIXED VALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Process of alkaline pulping in the presence of salts of some metals having mixed valence has been simulated on the basis of the executed investigations. The paper reveals that optimization of alkaline (sulphate) pulping depends on chemical nature and metal and its amount which is introduced in the form of salt.

  2. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TIMBER ALKALINE PULPING PROCESS IN PRESENCE OF SALTS OF SOME METALS HAVING MIXED VALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of alkaline pulping in the presence of salts of some metals having mixed valence has been simulated on the basis of the executed investigations. The paper reveals that optimization of alkaline (sulphate pulping depends on chemical nature and metal and its amount which is introduced in the form of salt.

  3. USING A MEMBRANE FILTRATION PROCESS TO CONCENTRATE THE EFFLUENT FROM ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a multi-effect evaporation system to concentrate the effluent from alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP plants is known to require a high energy consumption. In order to improve the situation, a polyethersulfone membrane was used to concentrate the effluent of APMP plants beforehand. An orthogonal experimental design was applied and a mathematical model was established to optimize the filtration parameters. An estimation of potential energy and water savings from this new concentration process was developed. The optimal filtration conditions obtained were: molecular weight cut-off at 10,000 Dalton, trans-membrane pressure at 3 bar, feed temperature at 50oC, cross-flow velocity at 420 rpm, and volume reduction factor at 0.93. The average permeate flux under these conditions was 45.31 l/m2.h. The total solids content was increased from 14.74 g/l in the feed to 95.04 g/l in the concentrate. The permeate had low total solid contents of 8.75 g/l, Chemical Oxygen Demand of 6696 mg/l, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand of 4383 mg/l. Such qualities would allow the permeate to be reused in the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process. With this new concentration process, about 4840.6 kwh energy can be saved and 23.3 m3 effluent discharge can be reduced for each ton of pulp produced.

  4. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  5. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. PMID:26722808

  6. Suitability of Sudanese Cotton Stalks for Alkaline Pulping with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman Khider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fibre characteristics and chemical composition of Gossypium Hirsutum, Sudanese cotton stalks were assessed for their suitability for papermaking. Soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ and ASAM (alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone- methanol cookings were carried out with different alkali charges and pulps with acceptable to good yields and mechanical properties were obtained. ASAM pulping gave the best results in yields, degree of delignification, mechanical pulp properties. AS-AQ pulping cooking with ratio (70: 30 as NaOH: Na2SO3 gave better results compared to (60: 40 ratio.

  7. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  8. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  9. APPLICATION OF ALKALINE SULFITE PULPING ON CORN STALKS

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    Ahmad Jahan Latibari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline sulfite pulping of corn stalks was investigated to produce supplementary pulp for corrugating board manufacture. Three pulping temperatures (125, 145, and 165°C and five active alkali charges (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18% were used. Cooking time at 30 minutes, Na2SO3/ NaOH ratio at 50:50, and liquor to residue ratio of 8:1 were kept constant. The highest total yield (61.9% was reached applying the treatment combination of 125°C and 10% active alkali, and the lowest total yield (42.5% was related to 165°C and 16% chemical. The influence of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratios was studied applying different ratios (30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 at constant time and temperature of 30 minutes and 145°C respectively and 14 and 16% active alkali. Pulping condition; 16% active alkali, 30 minutes time, 145°C pulping temperature and varying ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide were selected for pulp strength evaluation. The results of handsheet evaluation indicated that 16% active alkali, 30 minutes pulping at 145ºC and sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratio of 50:50 is the optimum pulping condition for corn stalks. Tear, tensile, and burst indices and breaking length of this pulp were measured as 10.53 mN.m2g-1, 62.4 N.mg-1, 3.80 kPa.m2g-1, and 6.07 km, respectively.

  10. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre hemp stem can be used for textile and specialty paper purposes. The inner part consists of hemp woody core, which resembles hardwood and might be processed similarly for paper pulp. Literature data a...

  11. Characterisation of mechanical pulp fines from alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan

    2012-09-01

    EFB (empty fruit bunch) was subjected to alkaline peroxide pulping for generation of fibrous mass as raw material for the making of pulp-based products. During refining, co-produced fines were collected by fractionation on square-mesh screens of 200-, 250-, 300- and 400- mesh sizes, placed at the refining discharge by order of increasing mesh. Each set of the produced paper was incorporated with 12% fines for microscopic analysis. It appears that sheared vessel elements and fibrils were predominant and they make up the mass rendering collapsibility of cell wall for good product formation. The study acknowledged the form of fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and worthy of utilization for reduction of total suspended solid.

  12. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 μm, and 7.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  13. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  14. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  15. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  16. POTENTIAL OF FINES AS REINFORCING FIBRES IN ALKALINE PEROXIDE PULP OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul H. Kamaludin,; Arniza Ghazali,; Wan Daud Wanrosli

    2012-01-01

    Pulp from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) of oil palm empty fruit bunch, EFB, was fractionated with varying mesh-size screens to examine the effects imposed by size-specific fines on the produced pulp network. Occurring mainly as a result of refining, fines elements with dimensions almost resembling EFB fibres were the long tube-like tapered vessels from the arrays of adjoined cell walls detached along the perforation lines. These fibrillated vessel elements constituting the P...

  17. Desilication of spent liquors derived from alkaline pulping of non-wood plant fibres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology. Addendum. Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-22

    Removal of silica from spent liquors of alkaline non-wood plant fiber pulping. When using non-wood annual plant as raw material for pulping a considerable amount of silica (SiO2) is carried into the process, which prohibits recycling of the quick lime to the causticizing process. The desilication of the black liquor requires steam boiler flue gas as the only reagent. Precipitated matter is separated from the liquor by means of conventional mechanical systems.

  18. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  19. Sequential Synergy of Alkaline Peroxide Treatment and Refining in Co-generating Filler for Pulp Web Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Arniza Ghazali; Nurul Hasanah Kamaludin; Mohd Ridzuan Hafiz Mohd Zukeri; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Rushdan Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Desired pulp-based product properties can be achieved by addition of filler in the pulp network. In exploring this, fines co-generated upon refining the alkaline peroxide treated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were collected based on their passage and retention capacities when subjected to varying mesh-sizes stainless-steel square mesh wires. Pulp network incorporating fines produced from the synergy of low alkaline peroxide (AP) and low energy refining effects shows that blending 12% of ...

  20. POTENTIAL OF FINES AS REINFORCING FIBRES IN ALKALINE PEROXIDE PULP OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul H. Kamaludin,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulp from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP of oil palm empty fruit bunch, EFB, was fractionated with varying mesh-size screens to examine the effects imposed by size-specific fines on the produced pulp network. Occurring mainly as a result of refining, fines elements with dimensions almost resembling EFB fibres were the long tube-like tapered vessels from the arrays of adjoined cell walls detached along the perforation lines. These fibrillated vessel elements constituting the P250/R300 fines fraction improved pulp network strength by gluing onto multiple fibres. More profound strength enhancement was promoted by the segments of the fibrillated vessel elements constituted in the P300/R400 fines fraction. With reduced dimensions, these elements enhanced pulp network strength by filling the micro-voids in the pulp network. By eliminating gaps that would otherwise interrupt inter-fiber bonding, 12% P300/R400 fines fraction enhanced the EFB APMP pulp network tensile strength by 100%.

  1. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%). PMID:18226892

  2. Comparative evaluation of different hemicelluloses isolation processes integrated with alkaline cooking - HemiEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixta, H.; Testova, L.; Rauhala, T. (and others) (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Forest Products Technology, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    HemiEx is a project focusing on the selective extraction of hemicelluloses from hardwood species in connection with alkaline pulping and study of different chemical aspects of the process. The project scope includes investigation of hemicelluloses isolation methods i.e. water prehydrolysis and alkaline pre-extraction prior to and novel solvents extraction subsequent to alkaline pulping. The sugar fraction of the extracts is then separated from other wood degradation products by means of membrane separation technology before it is converted to furanic compounds and xylose-based food additives. As regards pulp production, both dissolving and paper pulps are aimed at. The effect of pretreatment conditions on papermaking properties of pulp will also be investigated. (orig.)

  3. Comparative evaluation of different hemicelluloses isolation processes integrated with alkaline cooking - HemiEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixta, H.; Testova, L.; Rauhala, T. (and others) (Aalto Univ. School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Forest Products Technology)

    2010-10-15

    HemiEx is a project focusing on the selective extraction of hemicelluloses from hardwood species in connection with alkaline pulping and study of different chemical aspects of the process. The project scope includes investigation of hemicelluloses isolation methods i.e. water prehydrolysis and alkaline pre-extraction prior to and subsequent to alkaline pulping. The sugar fraction of the extracts is then separated from other wood degradation products by means of membrane separation technology before it is converted to furanic compounds and xylose-based food additives. As regards pulp production, both dissolving and paper pulps are aimed at. The effect of pretreatment conditions on papermaking properties of pulp will also be investigated. (orig.)

  4. Sequential Synergy of Alkaline Peroxide Treatment and Refining in Co-generating Filler for Pulp Web Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arniza Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desired pulp-based product properties can be achieved by addition of filler in the pulp network. In exploring this, fines co-generated upon refining the alkaline peroxide treated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were collected based on their passage and retention capacities when subjected to varying mesh-sizes stainless-steel square mesh wires. Pulp network incorporating fines produced from the synergy of low alkaline peroxide (AP and low energy refining effects shows that blending 12% of the 400-mesh fines (P300/R400 with the normal 200-mesh pulp fraction enhanced paper tensile strength by 100% due to their favourable dimensions. This defines the usefulness of fibrillar particles whose cell wall collapsibility increases the web density by increasing bonding ability and thus, strength of pulp-based products. Fines produced from more extreme synergy between alkaline peroxide and degree of refining, exhibit unique submicron fibrils and ‘nano-CGF’ also responsible for further augmentation of EFB alkaline peroxide pulp network. Whether from the simple (low-AP and low energy refining or the extreme synergy of AP and refining, the co-generated fines are apparently suitable materials for use as natural filler for augmentation of pulp network. Particularly for the simple AP and refining synergy, the introduced recovery and utilization of the co-generated filler (CGF was found to reduce 74% turbidity and this improvement will help reduce the complexity of whitewater generation in the pulping system.

  5. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Pértile; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; André da Costa; Maria Izabel Warmling

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a) changes in the physical and chemical properties of an a...

  6. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  7. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  8. Combination of mechanical, alkaline and enzymatic treatments to upgrade paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp with high reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Verma, Saurabh Kumar; Li, Jianguo; Ma, Xiaojuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-01-01

    A modified process consisting of an initial mechanical refining (R) followed by a low-alkali (5.5% NaOH) cold caustic extraction (CCE) and finally an endoglucanase (EG) treatment (R-5.5%CCE-EG) was investigated for upgrading paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp. Results showed that compared to the conventional process (9%CCE-EG), the modified process can decrease the alkali concentration (from 9% to 5.5%) to achieve a similar hemicelluloses removal while simultaneously enhancing the Fock reactivity (from 62.2% to 81.0%). The improved results were due to the fact that the mechanical refining resulted in favorable fiber morphological changes, including increased pore volume/size, water retention value and specific surface area. Consequently, the hemicelluloses removal was enhanced even under the subsequent low-alkali CCE condition. A synergic effect of refining, low alkali concentration and enzymatic activation was responsible for the higher reactivity of resulting dissolving pulp. PMID:26519697

  9. Microwave Measurements of Low Pulp Concentration in Papermaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shigeru

    1994-06-01

    A method of microwave measurements of low pulp concentrations in the papermaking process is developed using a coaxial cavity resonator with an inner slot antenna. We measure the attenuation of the resonant peak of the cavity resonator which is related to the pulp concentration. The pulp concentration up to 10.1% is measured, and then the linear relationship between the attenuation and low pulp concentrations down to 0.6% is determined. By this method, a low pulp concentration can be measured within the standard deviation of 0.03% by linear approximation.

  10. Evaluation of alkaline deconstruction processes for Brazilian new generation of eucalypt clones

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Gomes, Fernando José; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Milanez, Augusto; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; dos Santos Muguet, Marcelo Coelho; Ribas Batalha, Larisse Aparecida; Gomez Gouvêa, Adriana de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Wood utilization for pulp and paper and biorefinery applications requires some kind of mechanical and/or physical–chemical pretreatment. Among the chemical treatments the alkaline ones are the most used worldwide, although acid and solvent treatments have also being used. This paper deals with eucalypt wood deconstruction with alkaline processes including soda-AQ, soda-AQ-O2, soda-O2, and kraft. The kraft process is largely used by the pulp industry and is evaluated here only to serve as a re...

  11. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence. PMID:25085529

  12. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Quaiyyum

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita. Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. The soda-EDA process produced better pulp yield, kappa number, viscosity, and α-cellulose content as compared to the kraft process. Increasing EDA charge in the soda liquor increased pulping selectivity and α-cellulose content. Degraded cellulose (R18-R10 in soda-EDA pulp was lower than kraft pulp. But the bleachability of soda-EDA pulp was inferior as compared to kraft pulp in DED bleaching.

  13. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology. (author)

  14. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  15. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pértile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a changes in the physical and chemical properties of an acidic soil and (b pine tree development. The experiment was carried out in 2004 in Bocaina do Sul, Santa Catarina, consisting of the application of increasing dreg and lime rates to a Pinus taeda L. production area, on a Humic Cambisol, in a randomized block design with four replications and 10 x 10 m plots. The treatments consisted of levels of soil acidity amendments corresponding to the recommendations by the SMP method to reach pH 5.5 in the 0-20 cm layer, as follows: no soil amendment; dregs at 5.08 (1/4 SMP, 10.15 (1/2 SMP and 20.3 Mg ha-1 (1 SMP; and lime at 8.35 (1/2 SMP and 16.7 Mg ha-1 (1 SMP. Soil layers were sampled in 2010 for analyses of soil chemical and physical properties. The diameter at breast height of the 6.5 year old pine trees was also evaluated. Surface application of dregs improved soil chemical fertility by reducing acidity and increasing base saturation, similar to liming, especially in surface layers. Dregs, comparable to lime, reduced the degree of clay flocculation, but did not affect the soil physical quality. There was no effect of the amendments on increase in pine tree diameter. Thus, the alternative to raise the pH in forest soils to 5.5 with dregs is promising for the forestry sector with a view to dispose of the waste and increase soil fertility.

  16. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  17. The energy saving potential of a new mechanical pulping process; Puristushieronnan mahdollisuudet mekaanisen massanvalmistuksen energiakulutuksen pienentaemisessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietarila, V. (UPM-Kymmene OYj, Lappeenranta (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The target of this project is to develop a new mechanical pulping process to produce papermaking pulp from chips. Energy consumption of this process should be remarkably lower than in mill processes today. In earlier small scale studies it has been pointed out that it could be possible to produce acceptable pulp in a process that differs from todayAEs pulp production methods. Anyhow extensive research efforts are required to test and develop this new process. (orig.)

  18. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  19. Effect of silicon carbide and pulping processes on physical and mechanical properties of pulp plastic composites (PPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sukhtesaraie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different pulping processes and SiC particles on physical and mechanical properties of pulp plastic composites (PPCs. Polypropylene (PP, SODA and NSSC pulp fibers (max. 40 and 50 wt.%, silicon carbide particles (0, 5, 10, 15 wt.%, and 5 wt.% maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP as coupling agent were used to produce pulp plastic composites (PPCs by injection molding. The physical and mechanical properties of samples were characterized according to ASTM standards. SODA pulp composites illustrated higher values in all properties except contact angle and showed approximately same abrasion resistance compared to NSSC pulp composites. The addition of SiC particles improved the negative effect of pulp fibers in water absorption, and increased both contact angle and abrasion resistance of PPCs. By contrast, tensile, flexural, and impact properties of pulp plastic composites decreased by increasing SiC particles. In general, 50 wt.% SODA/SiC composite containing 10 wt.% SiC particles showed the highest efficiency among composites.

  20. Process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp with high strength

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp with a high strength. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp that is produced from a pulp with a low lignin content, wherein said pulp with a low lignin content is subjected to a beating process under relatively high compression forces and relatively low shear forces

  1. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  2. Determinations of the Colloidal Structure of Pulp Fibres by Adsorption in Liquid Medium. The Role of Pulping Process

    OpenAIRE

    László Koltai; Miklósné Baksay; Sándor Rohrsetzer

    2008-01-01

    We used the principles of theoretical colloid chemistry and our earlier results.We developed further the measuring of the specific surface by adsorption method. The aimof the study was the change of the usability of the method in showing out the structuraldifferences of the pulping process. We found that the different pulping processes results indifferences of the specific surface of the fibres measured with iron/III/hydroxide, TiO2 andMethylene blue adsorption, and we also found that the spe...

  3. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O3/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the open-quote t close-quote test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry: application to a sulfite wood pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.

    2007-07-01

    This report measures the actions performed in 2006 and the actions planned for 2007 within the framework of the project Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry. In addition to the data reconciliation models of the steam and condensate networks and of the process of Borregaard Schweiz AG, process models have been developed with the goal of defining the heat requirements of the process. The combination of utility system data reconciliation with the process models allows to considerably reduce the need for detailed process modelling and for on-site data collection and measurement. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process has been developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirement of the process. The process requirements have been defined using the dual representation concept where the energy requirement of the process unit operations are systematically analysed from their thermodynamic requirement and the way they are satisfied by the technology that implements the operation. Corresponding to the same energy requirement but realised with different temperature allows on one hand to define the exergy efficiency of the heat transfer system in each of the process unit operations and to identify possible energy savings by heat exchange in the system. The analysis has been completed by the definition of the possible energy recovery from waste streams. The minimum energy requirement of the process using the different requirement representation has been realised and the analysis of the energy savings opportunities is now under preparation. This new step will first concern the definition of the utility system integration and the systematic analysis of the energy savings opportunities followed by the techno-economic evaluation of the most profitable energy savings options in the process. The national and international collaborations constitute also an important part of this project. The project is done in close

  5. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHANGES OF LIGNIN DURING THE TREATMENT OF HARDWOOD ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULP WITH LACCASE AND A LACCASE-MEDIATOR-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulp (APMP of triploid of Populus tomentosa was modified by laccase and a Laccase-Mediator-System (LMS. The influence of the following main variables on the pulp physical properties were studied: enzyme dosage, reaction time, treatment temperature, and pH. Under the optimum conditions of laccase treatment – pH 5, temperature 50 °C, pulp consistency 4%, and a reaction time of 60 min – the optimum charge of laccase was 2u/g. It was also found that the tensile strength and tear indices of the pulps treated with laccase increased significantly. The two-stage method of enzyme-mild acidic hydrolysis was adopted to isolate lignin from the APMP pulps both before and after enzymatic treatments. The functional groups in all lignin samples were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with 31P-NMR spectra. The molecular weight distributions of all the lignin samples were obtained through Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC after the lignin samples were benzoylated.

  7. Overcoming the Recalcitrance for the Conversion of Kenaf Pulp to Glucose via Microwave-Assisted Pre-Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hurtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the pre-treatment of cellulose from kenaf plant to yield sugar precursors for the production of ethanol or butanol for use as biofuel additives. In order to convert the crystalline cellulosic form to the amorphous form that can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to yield sugars, kenaf pulp samples were subjected to two different pre-treatment processes. In the acid pre-treatment, the pulp samples were treated with 37.5% hydrochloric acid in the presence of FeCl3 at 50 °C or 90 °C whereas in the alkaline method, the pulp samples were treated with 25% sodium hydroxide at room temperature and with 2% or 5% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C. Microwave-assisted NaOH-treatment of the cellulose was also investigated and demonstrated to be capable of producing high glucose yield without adverse environmental impact by circumventing the use of large amounts of concentrated acids i.e., 83–85% phosphoric acid employed in most digestion processes. The treated samples were digested with the cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma reesei. The amount of glucose produced was quantified using the QuantichromTM glucose bioassay for assessing the efficiency of glucose production for each of the treatment processes. The microwave-assisted alkaline pre-treatment processes conducted at 50 °C were found to be the most effective in the conversion of the crystalline cellulose to the amorphous form based on the significantly higher yields of sugar produced by enzymatic hydrolysis compared to the untreated sample.

  8. Effects of Various Dental Materials on Alkaline Phosphatase Extracted from Pulp: An Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lorin R.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that demonstrates the effects of various dental materials on a representative enzyme from the pulp is outlined. The experiment encourages students to consider the effects that various restorative materials and techniques might have on enzymes in the living pulp. (Author/MLW)

  9. Development of a Pulp Process Treating Contaminated HEPA Filters (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pulp Process (PP) Treatment option was conceived as a replacement for the current Filter Leaching System (FLS). The FLS has operated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1995 to treat radioactive, mixed waste HEPA filters. In recent years, the FLS has exhibited difficulty in removing mercury from the HEPA filters as the concentration of mercury in the spent HEPA filters has increased. The FLS leaches and washes the whole filter without any preparation or modification. The filter media and the trapped calcine particles are confined in a heavy filter housing that contributes to poor mixing zones around the edges of the filter, low media permeability, channeling of the liquid through cracks and tears in the filter media, and liquid retention between leach and rinse cycles. In the PP, the filter media and the trapped calcine particles are separated from the filter housing and treated as a pulp, taking advantage of improved contact with the leach solution that cannot be achieved when the media is still in the HEPA filter housing. In addition to removing the mercury more effectively, the PP generates less volume of liquid waste, requires a shorter leach cycle time, and possesses the versatility for treating filters of different sizes. A series of tests have been performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the advantages of the PP concept. These tests compare the PP with the FLS under controlled conditions that simulate the current operating parameters. A prior study using blended feed, a mixture of shredded clean HEPA filter media and non-radioactive calcine particles, indicated that the PP would significantly increases the calcine dissolution percentages. In this study, hazardous-metal contaminated HEPA filter media was studied. The results of side-by-side tests indicated that the PP increased the mercury removal percentage by 80% and might be a solution to the mercury removal

  10. Development of a Pulp Process Treating Contaminated HEPA Filters (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J. S.; Ramer, J.; Argyle, M. D.; Demmer, R. L.

    2002-02-28

    The Pulp Process (PP) Treatment option was conceived as a replacement for the current Filter Leaching System (FLS). The FLS has operated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1995 to treat radioactive, mixed waste HEPA filters. In recent years, the FLS has exhibited difficulty in removing mercury from the HEPA filters as the concentration of mercury in the spent HEPA filters has increased. The FLS leaches and washes the whole filter without any preparation or modification. The filter media and the trapped calcine particles are confined in a heavy filter housing that contributes to poor mixing zones around the edges of the filter, low media permeability, channeling of the liquid through cracks and tears in the filter media, and liquid retention between leach and rinse cycles. In the PP, the filter media and the trapped calcine particles are separated from the filter housing and treated as a pulp, taking advantage of improved contact with the leach solution that cannot be achieved when the media is still in the HEPA filter housing. In addition to removing the mercury more effectively, the PP generates less volume of liquid waste, requires a shorter leach cycle time, and possesses the versatility for treating filters of different sizes. A series of tests have been performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the advantages of the PP concept. These tests compare the PP with the FLS under controlled conditions that simulate the current operating parameters. A prior study using blended feed, a mixture of shredded clean HEPA filter media and non-radioactive calcine particles, indicated that the PP would significantly increases the calcine dissolution percentages. In this study, hazardous-metal contaminated HEPA filter media was studied. The results of side-by-side tests indicated that the PP increased the mercury removal percentage by 80% and might be a solution to the mercury removal

  11. Carboxymethylcellulose obtained by ethanol/water organosolv process under acid conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzene, Denise S.; A.R. Gonçalves; J. A. Teixeira; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse pulps were obtained by ethanol/water organosolv process under acid and alkaline conditions. The best condition of acid pulping for the sugarcane bagasse was 0.02 mol/L sulfuric acid at 160°C, for 1 h, whereas the best condition for alkaline pulping was 5% sodium hydroxide (base pulp) at 160°C, for 3 h. For the residual lignin removal, the acid and alkaline pulps were submitted to a chemical bleaching using sodium chlorite. Pulps under acid and alkaline conditions bleached w...

  12. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  13. Extractives in process water from compressive pre-treatment of chips in mechanical pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase

    2011-01-01

    The main abjectives of this work were to evaluate the extent to which extractives in wood chips for mechanical pulping are released into process water during compressive pre-treatment before refining and to develop a method to remove the released extractives from the process water.In thermomechanical pulping, pre-treatments based on a high compression ratio and high temperature, are used to reduce the amount of extractives in wood chips of different raw materials before refining. One objectiv...

  14. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  15. Electron beam processing technology for modification of different types of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Institute of Chemical Fibers carry out a joint research project in order to develop the radiation methods modification of cellulose pulps for production of cellulose derivatives such as carbamate (CC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC). Three different types of textile pulps: Alicell (A); Borregaard (B), Ketchikan (K) and Kraft softwood (PSS) and hardwood (PSB) pulps have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/9 linear accelerator with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. After electron beam treatment the samples of cellulose pulps have been examined by using of structural and physico-chemical methods. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated cellulose pulps. By means of analytical methods, such parameters as: viscosity, average degree of polymerization (DP) and α-cellulose contents were evaluated. Based on EPR and GPC investigations the relationship between concentrations of free radicals and decreasing polymerization degrees in electron beam treatment pulps has been confirmed. The carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and cellulose carbamate were prepared using the raw material of radiation modified pulps. Positive results of investigations will allow for determination of optimum conditions for electron beam modification of selected cellulose paper and textile pulps. Such procedure leads to limit the amounts of chemical activators used in methods for preparation cellulose derivatives. The proposed electron beam technology is new approaches in technical solution and economic of process of cellulose derivatives preparation. (author)

  16. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  17. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  18. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lyberatos, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the...... were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen...

  20. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. Ganda-Putra; L.P. Wrasiati; N.M. Wartini

    2010-01-01

    Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG) and pectin metyl esterase (PME) and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o...

  1. Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a recycling process for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries is proposed. Laboratory tests are performed to obtain a purified pregnant solution from which metallic zinc (purity 99.6%) can be recovered by electrolysis; manganese is recovered as a mixture of oxides by roasting of solid residue coming from the leaching stage. Nearly 99% of zinc and 20% of manganese are extracted after 3 h, at 80 C with 10% w/v pulp density and 1.5 M sulphuric acid concentration. The leach liquor is purified by a selective precipitation of iron, whereas metallic impurities, such as copper, nickel and cadmium are removed by cementation with zinc powder. The solid residue of leaching is roasted for 30 min at 900 C, removing graphite completely and obtaining a mixture of Mn3O4 and Mn2O3 with 70% grade of Mn. After that a technical-economic assessment is carried out for a recycling plant with a feed capacity of 5000 t y-1 of only alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. This analysis shows the economic feasibility of that plant, supposing a battery price surcharge of 0.5 EUR kg-1, with a return on investment of 34.5%, gross margin of 35.8% and around 3 years payback time. (author)

  2. Dynamic simulation of the carbon-in-pulp and carbon-in-leach processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. de Andrade Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp are continuous processes that use activated carbon in a cascade of large agitated tanks, which have been widely used to recover or concentrate precious metals in gold extraction plants. In the carbon-in-pulp process adsorption occurs after the leaching cascade section of the plant, and in the carbon-in-leach process leaching and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes the activated carbon is moved from one tank to another in countercurrent with the ore pulp until the recovery of the loaded carbon in the first tank. This paper presents a dynamic model that describes, with minor changes, the carbon-in-leach, the carbon-in-pulp, and the gold leaching processes. The model is numerically solved and calibrated with experimental data from a plant and used to perform a study of the effect of the activated carbon transfer strategy on the performance of the adsorption section of the plant. Based on the calculated values of the gold loss in the liquid and of the gold recovered in the loaded activated carbon that leaves the circuit, the results indicate that strategies in which a significant amount of activated carbon is held in the first tank and the contact time between the carbon and the pulp is longer are the best carbon transfer strategies for these processes.

  3. Redução de aminoácidos em polpas de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum e murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L. processado (aquecido e alcalinizado Amino acids reduction in processed (heated and alkalinized pulps of bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum and murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Porte

    2010-09-01

    C, with stirring and refluxing or without heating. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and pH values also were obtained in the pulps without heating. All nutrients were analised by HPLC. The pHs were: 3.2, 3.6 and 3.35 in the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps, respectively. Sucrose (38.34% and 36.93% was the major carbohydrate while fructose (8.93% and 12.63% and glucose (9.03% and 11.65% shown similar percentages in the cupuaçu and bacuri pulps. Murici pulp was almost free of sucrose (0.57%, but not of fructose (11.51% or glucose (11.39%. In the pulps without heating the major amino acids were: glutamic acid (46.6 mg/kg, aspartic acid (28.8 mg/kg and arginine (25.3 mg/kg in the bacuri pulp; aspartic acid (56.3 mg/kg, glutamic acid (44.0 mg/kg and alanine (24.2 mg/kg in the cupuaçu pulp; proline (73.5 mg/kg, glutamic acid (23.7 mg/kg and aspartic acid (23.5 mg/kg in the murici pulp. The heating of the 3 pulps decresead the concentration of all amino acids. The medium strongly alkaline (pH 12 produced more degradation of the amino acids than others pHs. Lysine was more sensible to the heating than others amino acids in pH 12.

  4. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  5. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  6. Processing of Malaysian xenotime using the alkaline leaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from being used as a red phosphor in colour television tubes, yttrium is also used as an oxygen detector, optical lenses, advance ceramic materials as well as in the manufacturing of superconductor. Xenotime is a main source of yttrium and is obtained as an industrial by product from tin mining. The present work shows how xenotime is processed by the alkaline leaching method. The results points that the method is comparatively superior than the conventional, namely sulfuric acid leaching. Some of the advantages of the process are purer product, more economics, an environmental friendly by-products and process

  7. Solvent extraction of dibutylphosphate bearing alkaline wastes from purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Purex process tributylphosphate undergoes chemical and radiolytic attack leading to the formation of acidic degradation products, mainly dibutylphosphate (DBP) and to a lesser extent monobutylphosphate (MBP). These alkylphosphoric compounds are extractants and may also give insoluble complexes with several cations of fission products. Thus their elimination from the organic phase by alkaline scrubbing of the solvent is necessary. The alkaline solution is generally made of carbonate, in order to keep uranium and plutonium, which can be present in small quantities, under a soluble form. The destination of this aqueous solution is usually the high or the medium activity wastes. Recycling actinide values from these effluent solutions in the process is to be considered to lower alpha-activity in the wastes. In this paper is studied the tri-iso-octylamine for extracting the disturbing organophosphorous compounds from neutral or alkaline solutions where they are under an anionic form. The actinides will stay in these aqueous solutions which can be concentrated and recycled without any risk of precipitation

  8. Structural modifications of flax and sisal lignin during the pulping and bleaching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Nieto Garrido, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T.; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the structural modifications of the lignin of flax and sisal during the pulping (soda/AQ) and bleaching (TCF and ECF) processes. The residual lignins were isolated by acidolysis and subsequently characterized by Py-GC/MS and 2D-NMR. Flax residual lignins have a predominance of G-lignin and low amounts of S-lignin units in the unbleached pulp, which are also present in similar abundances in the residual lignin after TCF bleaching. After ECF bleaching, lignin was still present, ...

  9. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Vila; Javier Romero; José Luis Francisco,; Valentín Santos,; Juan Carlos Parajó

    2012-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing) to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurize...

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the...

  11. Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

  12. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O), an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O) were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa num...

  13. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  14. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  15. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Carter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near river mouths. Strong net carbonate precipitation lowers basin mean Indian and Atlantic Alk*, while upwelling of dissolved CaCO3 rich deep waters elevates Northern Pacific and Southern Ocean Alk*. We use the Alk* distribution to estimate the carbonate saturation variability resulting from CaCO3 cycling and other processes. We show regional variations in surface carbonate saturation are due to temperature changes driving CO2 fluxes and, to a lesser extent, freshwater cycling. Calcium carbonate cycling plays a tertiary role. Monitoring the Alk* distribution would allow us to isolate the impact of acidification on biological calcification and remineralization.

  16. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  17. Changes in composition, antioxidant content, and antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp during the ensiling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodulo Salinas Rios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritive value, the presence of antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp ensiled or non-ensiled. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and lignin, as well as the antioxidant compounds present in coffee pulp and their antioxidant capacity, were determined. A completely randomized design was used. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Ensiling of coffee pulp increased the CP content from 98.6 to 111.6 g kg−1 DM, NDF from 414.6 to 519.5 g kg−1 DM, ADF from 383.9 to 439.3 g kg−1 DM, and lignin from 122.9 to 133.6 g kg−1 DM. Caffeine decreased from 5.72 to 5.02 mg g−1 DM. Three antioxidant compounds were detected. Caffeic acid decreased due to ensiling (16.49 vs 14.69 mg g−1 DM. Gallic acid (2.88 vs 2.58 mg g−1 DM and chlorogenic acid (62.12 vs 56.00 mg g−1 DM did not differ, and there was similar antioxidant capacity of non-ensiled (215.66 µmol trolox g−1 DM and ensiled coffee pulp (206.59 µmol trolox g−1 DM. Despite the decrease in the caffeic acid content due to the ensiling process, it is possible to use either ensiled or non-ensiled coffee pulp for animal feeding because of its high antioxidant capacity.

  18. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  19. Electrochemical processing of alkaline nitrate and nitrite wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) will produce, as a by-product, a low-level, alkaline salt solution containing approximately 17% sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. This solution will be incorporated into a cement formulation, saltstone, and placed in an engineered landfill. Electrochemical methods have been investigated to decrease the nitrate and nitrite in this solution in order to lower the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from saltstone and to reduce the volume of saltstone. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrolytically reducing the nitrate and nitrite in a synthetic salt solution similar in composition to that expected to be produced at SRP. Greater than 99% of the sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite can be reduced, producing ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen, and sodium hydroxide. In addition, significant reductions in the volume of saltstone may be realized if the sodium hydroxide produced by electrolysis can be recycled

  20. Electrochemical processing of alkaline nitrate and nitrite solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) will produce, as a by product, a low- level, alkaline salt solution containing approximately 17% sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. This solution will be incorporated into a cement formulation, saltstone, and placed in an engineered landfill. Electrochemical methods have been investigated to decrease the nitrate and nitrite in this solution in order to lower the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from saltstone and to reduce the volume of saltstone. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrolytically reducing the nitrate and nitrite in a synthetic salt solution similar in composition to that expected to be produced at SRP. Greater than 99% of the sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite can be reduced, producing ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen, and sodium hydroxide. In addition, significant reductions in the volume of saltstone may be realized if the sodium hydroxide produced by electrolysis can be recycled

  1. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O, an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa number. A lower kappa number and good strength properties were achieved by increasing total alkali and Na2SO3 charge. SAS-AQ pulps showed good response towards CEHH bleaching. The NSSC-AQ pulping was conducted at a total alkali charge of 8% (as Na2O by varying the ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate (100:0-0:100, and cooking time (60-120 min at 1600C. A ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 60:40 was suitable for corrugating medium (cooking time 60 min, while a ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 70:30 showed better strength properties (longer cooking time.

  2. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  3. Refining of Polysulfide Pulps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Yalcin

    This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.). Polysulfide (PS) pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

  4. Failure analysis of a heat exchanger used of a wood pulp bleaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involved an investigation of the failure of a heat exchanger used in the ozone destruction stage of a wood pulp bleaching process at a pulp plant. The following procedures were carried out to determine the causes of the failure: a chemical analysis of the component, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurements of hardness and of corrosion-related mass loss, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion damage of the heat exchanger was caused by chloric and sulfuric acid, which led to pitting, grooving and cracking, as well as generalized corrosion of the component (AISI 316L steel). Nitric acid caused minimal damage to the heat exchanger, with minor generalized corrosion and occasional pitting. White crystals rich in sulfur and chlorine were identified as the corrosive agents acting inside the heat exchanger. (author)

  5. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H2O2/Fe2+), UV, UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H2O2) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H2O2/Fe2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used

  6. Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A process integration model that establishes material stream connections among typical Nordic forest industries is developed. • Potential benefit of the operating the different industries in one site is studied using pinch analysis. • Different scenarios considered to assess impact of prioritization on how to utilize excess biomass. • Results indicate large potential for improved biomass resource utilization. - Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  7. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  8. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mervit M. Janbi; Suhama E. Salah; Kadhum M. Shabe

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage...

  9. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process. PMID:27099940

  10. Effects of ozonation process on lignin-derived compounds in pulp and paper mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ozonation process on pulp and paper mill effluents was investigated. The objectives were to: (1) identify various compounds in wastewater from a pulp and paper mill, (2) evaluate decolorization and organic removal efficiency by conventional bubble reactor and (3) evaluate the biodegradability at various progressive stages of ozonation. The qualitative GC/MS analyses were performed before and after the biological treatment and ozonation process. Two groups of compounds were observed in this wastewater: lignin-derived compounds and aliphatic compounds used in the pulp and paper production process (i.e. n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acid and ester). Treatment efficiency was measured by decolorization and TOC removal rates. Additionally, the utilization coefficient (k) and BOD/COD ratio were determined to observe the biodegradability of ozonized effluents. The results indicated that after 45 min, the ozonation of effluents yielded almost colorless effluent with over 90% decolorization efficiency and with corresponding ozone capacity rate of 20.0 mg O3 L-1. This decolorization was not always accompanied by the mineralization of the organic matters therefore ozonation was not related to TOC removal rates. The BOD/COD ratio increased from 0.10 to a maximum value of 0.32 with ozone flow rate (O/F) of 4.0 L min-1. It was confirmed by the utilization coefficient as first order BOD equation, the magnitude k value increased from 0.21 day-1 to maximum value of 0.47 day-1 as the ozonation time was raised to 60 min with O/F 4.0 L min-1

  11. Separation of lignocelluloses from spent liquor of NSSC pulping process via adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Gilbert, Allan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-04-01

    Hemicelluloses and lignin present in the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulping process can potentially be converted into value-added products such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, phenols and adhesives. However, the direct conversion of hemicelluloses and lignin of SL into value-added products is uneconomical due to the dilute nature of the SL. To have a feasible downstream process for utilizing lignocelluloses of SL, the lignocelluloses should initially be separated from the SL. In this study, an adsorption process (via applying activated carbon) was considered for isolating the dissolved lignin and hemicelluloses from the SL of an NSSC pulping process. Under the optimal conditions of pH, SL/AC weight ratio, time and temperature of 5.7, 30, 360 min and 30 °C, the maximum lignin and hemicellulose adsorptions were 0.33 and 0.25 g/g on AC. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity of the SL were decreased by 11% and 39%, respectively, as a result of lignocellulose adsorption on AC. Also, the incineration behavior of the SL-treated AC was studied with a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). PMID:24565877

  12. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  13. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. PMID:27178917

  14. Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps, based on the engineering quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addys Castellanos Gómez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps, can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products. With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

  15. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Wahono Sumaryono; Dyah Primarini; Sumarno; Nonot Soewarno; Djuma’ali

    2011-01-01

    Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size

  16. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning;

    2008-01-01

    discusses the environmental potential of a range of other enzyme applications  by qualitative means. LCA is used as analytical tool and modelling is facilitated in SimaPro software. Foreground LCA data are production/ company specific and collected from P&P technology service providers, specific P...... improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given......The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly and...

  17. Simulation and Prediction of Alkalinity in Sintering Process Based on Grey Least Squares Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Qiang; WANG Ai-min

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of the alkalinity is difficult during the sintering process. Whether or not the level of the alkalinity of sintering process is successful is directly related to the quality of sinter. There is no very good method for predicting the alkalinity by now owing to the high complexity, high nonlinearity, strong coupling, high time delay, and etc. Therefore, a new technique, the grey squares support machine, was introduced. The grey support vector machine model of the alkalinity enabled the development of new equation and algorithm to predict the alkalinity. During modelling, the fluctuation of data sequence was weakened by the grey theory and the support vector machine was capable of processing nonlinear adaptable information, and the grey support vector machine has a combination of those advantages. The results revealed that the alkalinity of sinter could be accurately predicted using this model by reference to small sample and information. The experimental results showed that the grey support vector machine model was effective and practical owing to the advantages of high precision, less samples required, and simple calculation.

  18. Improved control of the cooking process reduces energy consumption in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahvenlampi, T.; Ikonen, E. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: timo.ahvenlampi@oulu.fi; Liedes, M.; Malmi, T. (Oy Metsae-Botnia Ab, Kemi mill (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the cooking process of the chemical pulping plant is considered. The control of the impregnation vessel and digester has great influence to the energy and raw material savings. A good control of the cooking has significant effects also to the following processes as washing and bleaching. In this research, the effect of the impregnation vessel and digester is analysed and diagnosed. The cooking process is modelled using modified Gustafson's Kappa number model. The model is used in the Downflow Lo-SolidsTM type cooking application. There are not many on-line quality measurements in the cooking process. Normally the only on-line quality measurement (Kappa number) is located in the blow line of the digester. In this research, the cooking process has been modelled and analysed. The objective of the research is to study the control of the cooking process and to find out the main effects of the manipulations in the main cooking controls (temperature and alkali controls) to quality, energy and raw material consumption

  19. Flint corn grain processing and citrus pulp level in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, V N; Batistel, F; Souza, J; Chagas, L J; Sitta, C; Campanili, P R B; Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-02-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of flint corn processing and the replacement of corn with citrus pulp (CiP) in diets for Nellore feedlot cattle. In a 103-d finishing trial, 216 Nellore bulls (350 ± 24 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 2 processing methods, either ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (FC), with CiP replacing each corn type at 4 levels (0, 25, 50, and 75% of DM). All diets contained 12% sugarcane bagasse and 88% concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were also evaluated in metabolism trials, in which 10 ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (389 ± 37 kg) were assigned to 2 independent but simultaneous 5 × 5 Latin squares, each using 1 method of corn processing (GC and FC). Interactions ( NEm ( = 0.001) and NEg ( < 0.001) of FC-based diets but did not affect ( = 0.15) NE values of CG-based diets. Steam flaking flint corn improved cattle performance in this trial more than has been reported for dent corn in the published literature. PMID:27065137

  20. Advanced Oxidation Processes for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluents : A Technical, Economical and Environmental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Karat, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the dominating source for emissions of degradable organic substances to water is the pulp and paper industry. The organic substances increase oxygen consumption in the recipient which subsequently threatens aquatic species. Improved process engineering, process closures and use of external treatments have in recent years drastically lowered the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has not been reduced to the same extent, as some organic substanc...

  1. USE OF A VOITH FLOTATION CELL FOR REMOVAL OF LIPOPHILIC EXTRACTIVES AND Mn IONS FROM SPRUCE THERMOMECHANICAL PULPING PROCESS WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Zasadowski,; Erik Hedenström,; Håkan Edlund; Magnus Norgren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a chelating surfactant and different foaming agents on the efficiency of cleaning process waters from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill were studied in a Voith flotation cell. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography were used to determine the removal extent and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo). The metal ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal after flotation were determined using inductively coupled p...

  2. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  3. SONOCHEMICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW FOR PULP AND PAPERMAKING IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS ECONOMICAL RATES AND REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Csoka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw (an agricultural by-product was pulped by an alkaline anthraquinone (AQ process. Then the straw pulp was treated by high-power ultrasound under different noble-gas (argon, krypton, xenon combinations. The pulps’ degree of beating and acid-insoluble lignin content were measured. Handsheets were made from sonicated and control pulps and tested for paper tensile strength. In this study we explore which noble-gas combination with ultrasound may be more useable to reduce the lignin content and enhance fibrillation. We also describe the most effective ultrasound-assisted, modified alkaline pulping process. Overall, we found that in two steps ultrasonification decreased the residual lignin contents more then 75 %, the pulp fibrillation increased from 12 to 70 °SR within 20 min. of ultrasound irradiation, and the tensile index of the handsheets increased by 65%. For sustainable paper production, it is required to develop alternative paper resources. Paper made from alternate fiber resources with efficient technology will improve our living standards without sacrificing the environment, our habitat. High frequency ultrasound-based pulp processing offers significant improvements, and it reduces energy and chemical consump-tions for pulp and paper production.

  4. ECF AND TCF BLEACHING OF SECONDARY FIBER PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ventorim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ECF and TCF bleaching processes were evaluated for the bleaching of a deinked mixed office waste (MOW pulp sample produced in a pilot plant. The sample was bleached by all processes to a target brightness of 78 % ISO minimum. The results were interpreted on the basis of chemical cost to reach the target brightness, bleaching yield and bleached pulp quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* color coordinate. Among the ECF sequences, the mosattractive was the DEDD which showed the lowest chemical cost and produced bleached pulp of high quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* coordinate. The best TCF sequence with ozone was the Q(PO(ZQ(PO which resulted in very high brightness ceiling. This sequence decreased moderately the pulp b* coordinate and viscosity and slightly its fluorescence. Among the TCF sequences without ozone the Q(POQ(PO was the most effective but showed poor flexibility with regard to brightness ceiling. This sequence had little effect on pulp viscosity, fluorescence and b* coordinate. For all three  bleaching processes, it was determined that process yield is negatively affected by hot alkaline stages such as O, P and (PO.

  5. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  6. EVALUATION OF A NEW LACCASE PRODUCED BY STREPTOMYCES IPOMOEA ON BIOBLEACHING AND AGEING OF KRAFT PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Enriqueta Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to prove the suitability of a new alkaline and halo-tolerant bacterial laccase (SilA produced by Streptomyces ipomoea CECT 3341 to enhance the conventional chemical bleaching process of an industrial eucalyptus kraft pulp. The laccase used for this study was a recombinant laccase obtained from cultures of E. coli BL21 (DE3 grown in LB liquid medium. The biobleaching experiment was carried out on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps using the above mentioned laccase and acetosyringone as natural mediator. Then, an alkaline extraction and further hydrogen peroxide steps were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the laccase-mediator system as a pretreatment in the bleaching sequences. Biobleached pulps showed a kappa number decrease and a brightness increase without decreasing the viscosity values significantly. Also, a reduction in the consumption of hydrogen peroxide was observed when the enzymatic treatment was applied to the pulp. CIE L*a*b* and CIE L*C* color coordinates measured in pulps demonstrated that among all treatments applied to pulps, the laccase-acetosyringone system presented the best optical properties even after an accelerated ageing process. Finally, it is also remarkable that during this treatment 64% of the laccase activity remained unaltered.

  7. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.; Fernández-Carrasco, L.

    1996-01-01

    Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa) have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution), Ca(OH)2 (3,5∙10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N) at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation...

  8. Increased delignification rate of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh nees by Schizophyllum commune Fr.; Fr. to reduce chemical consumption during pulping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Saini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its largeconsumption of energy and chemicals. To reduce the chemical consumption, rate of delignification was increased bySchizophyllum commune in destructured sample of Dendrocalamus stictus, which was destructured by Impressafiner (compression-cum dewatering process. The extent of delignification was determined and comparison was made between thenon-destructured and destructured samples. The influence of physical parameters like incubation time, moisture level, media,media concentration, pH and temperature were also examined during the study. It was found that rate of delignification wassignificantly 6.43% more in destructured sample than non-destructured sample. Kraft pulping of treated destructured sampleshows 2.59 point reduction in kappa number than untreated non-destructured sample. Thus this paper provides an insight ofthe delignification extent in Dendrocalamus strictus after mechanical operation at varying physical parameters.

  9. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  10. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  11. ALKALINE SULFITE-ALCOHOL DELIGNIFICATION OF STEMS OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND BUNIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Трембус, Ірина Віталіївна; Плосконос, Віктор Григорович; Швидкий, А. М.

    2015-01-01

    Stems of Helianthus annuus and Bunias can be processed into semi-finished fiber products using alkaline sulfite-alcohol delignification. These semi-finished fiber products in their physical and mechanical characteristics are similar to those of the pulp of hardwood. The dependences of quality semi-finished fiber products on the temperature and duration of delignification are obtained.Keywords: alkaline sulfite-alcohol delignification, semi-finished fiber products, Helianthus annuus, Bunias

  12. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20. PMID:22277892

  13. Process for the separation of uranium in an alkaline solution, particularly extracted from an uraniferous ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process for the treatment of an alkaline uraniferous liquor containing solubilised uranium, particularly sodium uranyl-tricarbonate, characterised in that this liquor is placed into contact with a cationic ion exchange resin, previously put into ammonium form and, in that after the ion exchange has taken place a solution is collected in which the previous sodium salts and complexes have been mainly transformed in ammonium salts and complexes

  14. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi; Binti Megat Yusoff Puteri Sri Melor; Bin Abdul Latif Muhamad Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on ext...

  15. Concentration by membrane separation processes of a medicinal product obtained from pineapple pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of pineapple juice is needed to retain the bromelain activity and to standardize the composition and proteolytic activity. Thus, this work aimed to obtain a pure bromelain extract from the Ananas comosus L. Merril juice by membrane separation process. A 2² experimental planning was used to study the influence of pH and transmembrane pressure on the activity recovery by micro-filtration using a plain membrane. In second step, this enzyme was purified by the ultra-filtration using a 10 kDa millipore kit. The best operation condition to bromelain concentration using the plain membrane was at pH 7.5 and transmembrane pressure of 0.05 bar, while 85% of bromelain activity was recovered. Ultra-filtration retained 100% of proteolytic activity and concentrated in 10 fold the bromelain extract. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that the ultra-filtrated had high purity and the bromelain from A. comosus pulp had a molecular weight of 24.5 kDa.A concentração do suco de abacaxi é necessária para manter a atividade da bromelina e padronizar a composição e atividade proteolítica. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a obter um extrato de bromelina pura do suco do Ananas comosus L. Merril por processos de separação por membranas. Um planejamento experimental do tipo 2² foi feito para estudar a influência do pH a da pressão transmembranar sobre a recuperação da atividade por micro-filtração usando uma membrana plana. Em uma segunda etapa, purificou-se a enzima alvo por ultra-filtração usando um "kit millipore" de 10 kDa. A melhor condição para a concentração da bromelina foi a pH 7,5 e pressão transmembranar de 0,05 bar, onde 85% da atividade da bromelina foi recuperado. A ultra-filtração manteve 100% da atividade proteolítica e concentrou em 10 vezes o extrato de bromelina. A eletroforese via SDS-PAGE mostrou que o ultra-filtrado teve alta pureza e a bromelina da polpa do Ananas comosus tem um peso molecular de 24.5 kDa.

  16. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  17. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  18. Analysis of the electrodeposition process of rhenium and rhenium oxides in alkaline aqueous electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The electrodeposition of rhenium and rhenium oxides from alkaline aqueous electrolyte was investigated. • The authors propose that the electrocrystallization process follows a multi-step reduction mechanism. • The electrodeposited material corresponds to a mixture of metallic rhenium, rhenium (IV) oxide and rhenium (VI) oxide. -- Abstract: The electrodeposition of rhenium and rhenium oxides from an alkaline aqueous solution containing 0.125 mol dm−3 NH4ReO4 + 0.01 mol dm−3 NaOH (pH 13.3 ± 0.1) has been studied. Cyclic voltammetry studies were carried out using two electrodes, polycrystalline platinum and polycrystalline gold, and the galvanostatic electrodeposition was conducted on a pure copper electrode (99.9%). Information regarding rhenium electrodeposits has been obtained by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte suggest that the electrocrystallization process follows a multi-step mechanism influenced by hydrogen adsorption. The main conclusion was that rhenium, rhenium (IV) oxide and rhenium (VI) oxide coexist in the electrodeposited material

  19. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95, Ionsiv is a trademark of Union Carbide Company), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100, Duolite is a registered trademark of Diamond Shamrock Co) and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungsthC acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process

  20. EIS ANALYSIS ON THE ANODIC PROCESS OF ZINC IN AN ALKALINE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zheng; J.M. Wang; H. Chen; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2004-01-01

    The EIS on the anodic process of pure Zn in an alkaline solution were performed and fitted using the expression of Faradic admittance, based on which the mechanism of the process was proposed. The results showed that besides electrode potential E the electrochemical reaction rate was affected by the adsorption of Zn(OH)ads on the electrode surface and the diffusion of in the electrolyte in active region, and only by the covering of passivation layer on the electrode surface in both transitive and passivation regions. The equivalent circuits applied in these various circumstances were proposed and the variation of some parameters and state variables was also discussed.

  1. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Vanessa Lopes Silva

    2009-01-01

    Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX) content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxi...

  2. Direct pulp capping using biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

  3. Structural elucidation of sorghum lignins from an integrated biorefinery process based on hydrothermal and alkaline treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Long; Wen, Jia-Long; Ma, Ming-Guo; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-08-13

    An integrated process based on hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) (i.e., 110-230 °C, 0.5-2.0 h) and alkaline post-treatment (2% NaOH at 90 °C for 2.0 h) has been performed for the production of xylooligosaccharide, lignin, and digestible substrate from sweet sorghum stems. The yield, purity, dissociation mechanisms, structural features, and structural transformations of alkali lignins obtained from the integrated process were investigated. It was found that the HTP process facilitated the subsequent alkaline delignification, releasing lignin with the highest yield (79.3%) and purity from the HTP residue obtained at 190 °C for 0.5 h. All of the results indicated that the cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and degradation of β-β and β-5 linkages occurred under the harsh HTP conditions. Depolymerization and condensation reactions simultaneously occurred at higher temperatures (≥ 170 °C). Moreover, the thermostability of lignin was positively related to its molecular weight, but was also affected by the inherent structures, such as β-O-4 linkages and condensed units. These findings will enhance the understanding of structural transformations of the lignins during the integrated process and maximize the potential utilizations of the lignins in a current biorefinery process. PMID:25090032

  4. Responses of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) to 20 years of process and waste treatment changes at a bleached kraft pulp mill, and to mill shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowron, L K; Munkittrick, K R; McMaster, M E; Tetreault, G; Hewitt, L M

    2009-11-01

    The impacts of pulp mill effluents on white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) have been studied at Jackfish Bay, ON, Canada since the late 1980s. The site receives effluent from a large bleached kraft pulp mill which is the only source of chemical contamination in the area. Many laboratory studies have looked at the toxicological consequences of pulping process changes, but the benefit of these changes have not been looked at in wild fish. Jackfish Bay white sucker showed impacts on sexual maturity, gonad size, secondary sexual characteristics and circulating steroids hormone levels in the early years of the studies, and impacts were evaluated after installation of secondary treatment (1989), major pulping process changes (1995) and after the mill ceased pulp production and effluent release (2006). The addition of secondary treatment resulted in minor improvements in wild fish health, and the conversion to elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching at the mill was associated with more recovery in liver and gonad size. While some impacts persist at the exposure site, reproductive parameters showed further improvement during the mill shutdown period demonstrating that biologically active chemicals are still being discharged from modernized mills. PMID:19783055

  5. Improvement to treatment processes of alkaline leaching liquors of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process for treating alkaline leaching liquors of uranium ores, the characteristics of which include: - an operation to neutralize at least a fraction of these liquors by an acid in conditions leading to the decarbonation of the said fraction, - where required, joining the neutralized and non neutralized fractions, - adding lime to the mixture of the two fractions in an amount and under conditions giving rise to the precipitation of virtually all the uranium in solution, - separating the precipitate formed constituting a calcic pre-concentrate of the surface floating solution

  6. The resin-in-pulp process and its application to ores from Brosses ''BRS 10''; Le procede resin in pulp et son application aux minerais des Brosses ''BRS 10''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M

    1959-03-01

    The resin-in-pulp process is a technical variant of the recovery process of uranium in dilute solution by means of ion exchanger resins. An anion resin, XE 123, of a well-defined grain size is placed in direct contact with the pulp produced by sulfuric acid attack on ore with a low uranium content. This process is of particular value in the treatment of pulps that cannot be filtered or decanted, such as those obtained with ore from Brosses. The preparation of the pulp, the elution of the uranium, and its fixation, as well as the various factors encountered in these operations, are discussed. (author) [French] Le procede ''resin in pulp'' est une variante technique du procede de recuperation de l'uranium en solution diluee par les resines echangeuses d'ions. Une resine anionique, la 'XE 123' a granulometrie bien determinee, est mise en contact direct avec la pulpe provenant de l'attaque a l'acide sulfurique d'un minerai d'uranium a faible teneur. Ce procede est particulierement interessant dans le cas de pulpes infiltrables ou indecantables, telles que celles obtenues dans l'attaque du minerai des Brosses. La preparation de la pulpe, la fixation et l'elution de l'uranium, ainsi que les facteurs intervenant dans ces diverses operations sont etudies dans le present rapport. (auteur)

  7. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  8. Three-photon process for producing a degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D. S.; Pisenti, N. C.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating a quantum degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. This has yet to be achieved due to inelastic collisions that limit evaporative cooling in the metastable states. Quantum degenerate samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent three-photon process. Numerical integration of the density-matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth-metal atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ≃90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the three-photon process can be set up such that it imparts no net momentum to the degenerate gas during the excitation, which will allow for studies of metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to successfully realizing our scheme, including the minimization of differential ac Stark shifts between the four states connected by the three-photon transition.

  9. A 3-photon process for producing degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating quantum degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms. A degenerate gas in any of the 3 P metastable states has not previously been obtained due to large inelastic collision rates, which are unfavorable for evaporative cooling. Samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent 3-photon process. Numerical integration of the density matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ~= 90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the 3-photon process does not impart momentum to the degenerate gas during excitation, which allows studies of these metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to the successful realization of our scheme, including the minimization of differential AC Stark shifts between the four states connected by the 3-photon transition.

  10. New alternative processes for the treatment of the alkaline solvent wash waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separate treatment of the solvent wash alkaline waste (ASWW) from the other low and medium level liquid wastes generated during reprocessing operations has been investigated through the development of three alternative processes dealing with solvent extraction, chemical precipitation combined with ultrafiltration and inorganic ion exchange. On the basis of lab-scale experiments performed on the same genuine ASWW sample, a comparison has been made between the respective performances of each of these processes in terms of selectivity, decontamination and volume reduction factors. From this assessment, it evolved that solvent extraction and chemical precipitation combined with utrafiltration processes are good competitors for implementing such kind of treatment although for the alpha DF, solvent extraction appears more flexible. To be really attractive, inorganic ion exchange should exhibit better VRF and DF possibly by pretreating the ASWW. 10 refs

  11. An overview on fermentation, downstream processing and properties of microbial alkaline proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Beg, Q K; Khan, S; Chauhan, B

    2002-12-01

    Microbial alkaline proteases dominate the worldwide enzyme market, accounting for a two-thirds share of the detergent industry. Although protease production is an inherent property of all organisms, only those microbes that produce a substantial amount of extracellular protease have been exploited commercially. Of these, strains of Bacillus sp. dominate the industrial sector. To develop an efficient enzyme-based process for the industry, prior knowledge of various fermentation parameters, purification strategies and properties of the biocatalyst is of utmost importance. Besides these, the method of measurement of proteolytic potential, the selection of the substrate and the assay protocol depends upon the ultimate industrial application. A large array of assay protocols are available in the literature; however, with the predominance of molecular approaches for the generation of better biocatalysts, the search for newer substrates and assay protocols that can be conducted at micro/nano-scale are becoming important. Fermentation of proteases is regulated by varying the C/N ratio and can be scaled-up using fed-batch, continuous or chemostat approaches by prolonging the stationary phase of the culture. The conventional purification strategy employed, involving e.g., concentration, chromatographic steps, or aqueous two-phase systems, depends on the properties of the protease in question. Alkaline proteases useful for detergent applications are mostly active in the pH range 8-12 and at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees C, with a few exceptions of extreme pH optima up to pH 13 and activity at temperatures up to 80-90 degrees C. Alkaline proteases mostly have their isoelectric points near to their pH optimum in the range of 8-11. Several industrially important proteases have been subjected to crystallization to extensively study their molecular homology and three-dimensional structures. PMID:12466877

  12. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  13. DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and α-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

  14. The alkaline pre-filming process of the RWCU piping surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose rate on a BWR can cause great damage to operators and their maintenances working quality, so it is very important to lower it. The RWCU of a BWR primary system has the highest radiation dose rate and deposition of an active corrosion product because of: continually cleaning the reactor water and the repeated, acute change of temperature. The Lungmen NPP was built as an advanced BWR (ABWR) system. All new ABWRs in Japan, such as Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP units K6 and K7, Hamaoka NPP unit H5, and Shika NPP unit2, were given in passivation treatment in the stage of nuclear heating or flow-induced vibration (FIV) testing before each plant's initial start up. The conditions of alkaline pre-filming process include: pH, dissolve oxygen (DO) and temperature. This project had been decided by the results of earlier water loop testing. Three kinds of specimens including stainless steel AISI SS316L and carbon steel SA106 GrB, SA333 Gr6 were put into the autoclave located at a bypass system during the process of passivation treatment. The materials of these specimens have been used in RWCU piping, and during the alkaline pre-filming process they were monitored by AC impedances and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP). Their surface analyses including SEM, EDS, ESCA and SIMS data were obtained from the initial test, and obtained every six months thereafter. From the SEM plot of first issue it was found that the specimens' surface of all three different materials presented excellent levels of oxidized pellets. They are almost completely packed, for both large and small granules, and the porosity is less than 40%. The deposition tests of cobalt ion were also completed. The material of stainless steel was nearly not affected through the passive process. However, carbon steel could reduce about 30% to 50% of deposited cobalt ion. This result follows the conclusion of Hatch Company. Based on the nominal cost of radiation protection, i.e. 10000 USD

  15. Experimentale Study of Alkaline Precipitation on Thermal Process SeaWater Desalination Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment of alkaline precipitation by separated method has beencarry out. Experiment took please by heating sea water simulation with eachother consist of a).142 ppm bicarbonate and 400 ppm calcium ion b). 142 ppmbicarbonate and magnesium ion at temperature 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110 and120 oC respectively by using autoclave. Sampling has been done periodicalfor 30 minute in interval 300 minute for each temperature. The calculation ofalkaline precipitation on each step calculated through the decreasing ofcalcium and magnesium concentration with analysis by AAS. From experimentdata have the information that alkaline precipitation have been formed since40 oC. From time variable have been the information that the precipitationformed at 30th minute rapidly. Whether at further time the increasing ofprecipitation are not significant. This phenomena can explained that at eachheating step from 40 oC bicarbonate ion be come decomposition with theresult carbonate and hydroxide ion and react with calcium and magnesium formcalcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. From this information could beimplemented as base for avoiding using chemical material in desalinationthermal process. (author)

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of rayon grade dissolving pulp and effects of metallic-ions on the viscose rayon process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan imports rayon grade pulp from different countries for viscose rayon fibre manufacturing. Samples of imported pulp were collected and analyzed for alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose, calcium, magnesium, silica, copper, manganese, and iron. Moisture, ash content, cuprammonium viscosity, degree of polymerization, alkali absorption, and colour brightness were also determined. The results showed that all these parameters varied from sample to sample. The cotton linter pulp contained high alpha-cellulose content (94-98%) as compared to the softwood pulp (89.7-95%). Degree of polymerization of all samples was above 500 and varied from 500-750 ml/g. the study showed that higher manganese and copper content in cotton decreased the degree of polymerization. Iron above the standard value (7-10 ppm) affected the brightness of fibre, as observed in the case of cotton linter pulp (imported from China). The percentage of ash was less than 0.25% in all samples studied. (author)

  17. Pretreatment with xylanase and its significance in hemicellulose removal from mixed hardwood kraft pulp as a process step for viscose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Sharma, Jitender

    2016-07-10

    The upturn of viscose fiber market has triggered an augmented dissolving pulp usage over the last decade. Dissolving pulp is feasible to obtain from kraft pulp after two essential steps including hemicellulose removal and subsequent pulp activation. Prerequisite of conversion being hemicellulose reduction can be gently done by using xylanase treatment prior to alkali extraction. Herein, the significance of xylanase treatment and the optimum xylanase dose required in conjunction with subsequent alkali extraction was investigated. An increase in xylanase dose prior to alkali extraction had no significant effect on pentosans while the Fock reactivity and viscosity both improved at the dose of 50AXU/g. Also, alkali extraction without xylanase pretreatment resulted in decreased Fock reactivity, alpha cellulose, brightness and viscosity of paper grade pulp. A moderate dose of xylanase prior to alkali extraction can thus be used to facilitate the hemicellulose removal while simultaneously protecting the native structure of cellulose. PMID:27106156

  18. Carboxymethylcellulose Obtained by Ethanol/Water Organosolv Process Under Acid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzene, Denise S.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Teixeira, José A.; Pessoa de Amorim, Maria T.

    Sugar cane bagasse pulps were obtained by ethanol/water organosolv process under acid and alkaline conditions. The best condition of acid pulping for the sugarcane bagasse was 0.02 mol/L sulfuric acid at 160°C, for 1h, whereas the best condition for alkaline pulping was 5% sodium hydroxide (base pulp) at 160°C, for 3h. For the residual lignin removal, the acid and alkaline pulps were submitted to a chemical bleaching using sodium chlorite. Pulps under acid and alkaline conditions bleached with sodium chlorite presented viscosities of 3.6 and 7.8 mPas, respectively, and μ-kappa numbers of 1.1 and 2.4, respectively. The pulp under acid condition, bleached with sodium chlorite was used to obtain carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). CMC yield was 35% (pulp based), showing mass gain after the carboxymethylation reaction corresponding to 23.6% of substitution or 0.70 groups-CH2COONa per unit of glucose residue. The infrared spectra showed the CMC characteristic bands and by the infrared technique it was possible to obtain a substitution degree (0.63), similar to the substitution degree calculated by mass gain (0.70).

  19. Alkaline hydrolysis process for treatment and disposal of Purex solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of spent Purex solvent (30% TBP-70% n-dodecane mixture) from reprocessing plants by alkaline hydrolysis process was investigated using inactive 30% TBP solvent as well as actual radioactive spent solvent. Complete conversion of TBP to water-soluble reaction products was achieved in 7 hours reaction time at 130 deg C using 50%(w/v) NaOH solution at NaOH to TBP mole ratio of 3:2. Addition of water to the product mixture resulted in the complete separation of diluent containing less than 2 and 8 Bg./ml. of α and β activity respectively. Silica gel and alumina were found effective for purification of the separated diluent. Aqueous phase containing most of the original radioactivity was found compatible with cement matrix for further conditioning and disposal. (author). 17 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  1. Combining enzymatic esterification with conventional alkaline transesterification in an integrated biodiesel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, Jesper; Damstrup, Marianne Linde; Nielsen, Per Munk; Holm, Hans Christian; Maes, Jeroen; De Greyt, Wim

    2011-04-01

    An integrated biodiesel process that combines enzymatic esterification and alkaline transesterification is suggested. With focus on the enzymatic step, the paper provides proof of concept and suggestions for further process development. Hence, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been enzymatically converted to fatty acid methyl esters in a two-step process using the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 in packed-bed columns. With only a small excess of methanol, the first reaction stage could reduce the free fatty acid (FFA) content from 85% to 5%. After removal of water by simple phase separation, it was possible to lower the FFA content to 2.5% in a second reaction stage. Both reaction stages are relatively fast with suggested reaction times of 15 min in column 1 (productivity 10 kg/kg/h) and 30 min in column 2 (productivity 5 kg/kg/h), resulting in 15% FFA after column 1 and 5% FFA after column 2. A lifetime study indicated that approximately 3,500 kg PFAD/kg Novozym 435 can be treated in the first reaction stage before the enzyme has become fully inactivated. With further optimization, the enzymatic process could be a real alternative to today's sulfuric acid catalyzed process. PMID:20878260

  2. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu2+ induced by non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers VK taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu2+, mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f65d(t2g)-4f7(8S7/2) of the ion Eu2+ characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and Fz participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu2+) and Fz (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo stimulation evidence was obtained that the F center (peak in 470 K

  3. USE OF A VOITH FLOTATION CELL FOR REMOVAL OF LIPOPHILIC EXTRACTIVES AND Mn IONS FROM SPRUCE THERMOMECHANICAL PULPING PROCESS WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zasadowski,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a chelating surfactant and different foaming agents on the efficiency of cleaning process waters from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP mill were studied in a Voith flotation cell. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography were used to determine the removal extent and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo. The metal ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal after flotation were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. FiberLab™ equipment was used to characterize changes in the size of fibers present in the process waters. The results indicate that a decrease in turbidity of up to 91% and the removal of 80% of lipophilic extractives in the TMP water could be obtained using a single-stage flotation unit. Furthermore, the foam fraction was within 5% of the initial volume, and 100% of the Mn2+/chelating surfactant complex added to the TMP water was removed.

  4. Enzymatic solubilization of a pectinaceous dietary fiber fraction from potato pulp: Optimization of the fiber extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Dam, Birgitte P; Lærke, Helle N.

    2009-01-01

    branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin. In the work reported here, the release of high-molecular weight pectinaceous dietary fiber polysaccharides from starch free potato pulp was accomplished by use of a multicomponent pectinase preparation from Aspergillus aculeatus (Viscozyme® L). The enzyme reaction......Upgrading of potato pulp, a byproduct stream from industrial manufacture of potato starch, is important for the continued economic competitiveness of the potato starch industry. The major part of potato pulp consists of the tuber plant cell wall material which is particularly rich in galactan...... conditions for the solubilization were optimized via a surface response design to be addition of 0.27% Viscozyme® L by weight of potato pulp substrate dry matter, 1 h treatment at pH 3.5, 62.5 °C. Analysis of the molecular size and monomer composition of the enzymatically released fibers showed that they...

  5. Thermoluminescent and optical processes in alkaline halogenides dosemeters contaminated with Europium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research results are presented about the properties of the optical processes of photo transferred thermoluminescence (TLFT), optical whitening (BO), thermoluminescence induced by light (TLL) and its effect in the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) produced by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The systematic analysis of all these processes, acquires a singular importance due that actually the alkaline halogenide crystals are object of intense investigations which analyse their potential applications as detectors and radiation dosemeters through stimulated optical luminescence techniques or thermoluminescence. The obtained data show that the Tl curve of material with this nature can be enormously affected by exposure of phosphorus to the environmental light or UV. This is in part due to liberation processes of charge bearers are shouted and makes a subsequent trapping in less temperature traps; at the same time that induce changes in the intensity of determined Tl bands. Additionally, also it is observed that mentioned phenomena are related as with wavelength of incident light as of the illumination time. Finally, the obtained information allows to conclude that although the illumination effect is extremely complex, it is associated and can be explained mainly with phenomena that implicate the electrons excitation trapped in form of F centers and trapping mechanisms or radioactive and non-radioactive recombination. (Author)

  6. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  7. Anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of sugar-beet processing wastewater and beet-pulp in batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkaya, Emrah; Demirer, Goeksel N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was conducted to investigate the effect of waste mixing and F/M ratio on the co-digestion of wastewater and beet-pulp, in addition to the digestion of the wastes separately. In the studied F/M range (0.51-2.56 g COD/g VSS), observed treatment efficiencies (63.7-87.3% COD removal and 69.6-89.3% VS reduction) were indications of high biodegradability for both wastewater and beet-pulp, which decreased with increasing F/M. It was evident that the extent of biomethanation of wastewater was higher than beet-pulp, owing to the inherent soluble carbohydrates in wastewater. When the co-digestion of the wastes was evaluated, it came up with the result that, major outcome of wastewater addition was to increase methane production rate of beet-pulp, rather than increasing its ultimate biodegradability. Indeed, modeled first-order rate functions indicated that rate constants (k values) differentiated in the ranges between 0.081 and 0.143 day{sup -1} and 0.028-0.050 day{sup -1} respectively for wastewater added and non-added reactors. These results indicated that anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater and beet-pulp is promising since wastewater addition significantly increases the rate of biomethanation of beet-pulp. (author)

  8. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for pulp and paper mill effluent by response surface methodological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Wong, S S; Teng, T T; Zuhairi, A

    2007-06-25

    Coagulation-flocculation is a proven technique for the treatment of high suspended solids wastewater. In this study, the central composite face-centered design (CCFD) and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied to optimize two most important operating variables: coagulant dosage and pH, in the coagulation-flocculation process of pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. The treated wastewater with high total suspended solids (TSS) removal, low SVI (sludge volume index) and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. The effect of interactions between coagulant dosage and pH on the TSS removal and SVI are significant, whereas there is no interaction between coagulant dosage and water recovery. Quadratic models have been developed for the response variables, i.e. TSS removal, SVI and water recovery based on the high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of >0.99 obtained from the analysis of variances (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for coagulant dosage and pH are 1045mgL(-1) and 6.75, respectively, where 99% of TSS removal, SVI of 37mLg(-1) and 82% of water recovery can be obtained. PMID:17161910

  9. ALKALINE PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HOT WATER TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Mustajoki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.

  10. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  11. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  12. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – part B: Techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study by the authors, energy efficiency measures in a conceptual kraft pulp mill converted to a lignocellulosic ethanol plant were investigated. The results suggested a number of different process designs which would give a substantial improvement in steam economy in the ethanol plant, compared to the original design. In the present study the different process designs are evaluated from an economic point-of-view, in order to determine if energy efficiency measures and increasing by-product sales decrease the production cost of ethanol from this specific process, or if the increased costs related to the implementation of these measures overshadow the benefits from increased by-product sales. The different energy efficiency measures are compared with less capital demanding alternatives (i.e. including low or no energy efficiency improvements) in order to assess the economic benefits of different strategies when converting a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. The study indicates the economic importance of considering energy efficiency measures when repurposing a kraft pulp mill to an ethanol plant. It is also shown that, within the context of this study, a larger investment in measures will give better economic results than less capital demanding alternatives (with less improvement in energy efficiency). From an economic and energy efficiency viewpoint many of the suggested process designs will give approximately similar results, therefore the process design should be made based on other criteria (e.g. low complexity, low maintenance). - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Energy efficiency measures lead to lower ethanol production cost. ► If capital costs and raw material prices are low the production cost could be as low as 365 €/m3 EtOH.

  13. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required

  15. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rosario del P., E-mail: rosariocastillo@udec.cl [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araya, Juan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Troncoso, Eduardo [Consorcio Bioenercel S.A, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita [Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  16. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  17. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; H. Ahmad; S.T. Soekarno; Sri Mulato

    2011-01-01

    Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian C...

  18. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  19. The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: mechanical processing and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kelley L; Venditti, Richard A; Habibi, Youssef; Rojas, Orlando J; Pawlak, Joel J

    2010-08-01

    Films of microfibrillated celluloses (MFCs) from pulps of different yields, containing varying amounts of extractives, lignin, and hemicelluloses, were produced by combining refining and high-pressure homogenization techniques. MFC films were produced using a casting-evaporation technique and the physical and mechanical properties (including density, roughness, fold endurance and tensile properties) were determined. Homogenization of bleached and unbleached Kraft pulps gave rise to highly individualized MFCs, but not for thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). The resulting MFC films had a roughness equivalent to the surface upon which the films were cast. Interestingly, after homogenization, the presence of lignin significantly increased film toughness, tensile index, and elastic modulus. The hornification of fibers through a drying and rewetting cycle prior to refining and homogenization did not produce any significant effect compared to films from never-dried fibers, indicating that MFC films can potentially be made from low-cost recycled cellulosic materials. PMID:20335025

  20. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Xu; Baoguo Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence. are found.

  1. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinXu; BaoguoSun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence, are found.

  2. EFFECTS OF THE PULP PREPARATION AND PAPERMAKING PROCESSES ON THE PROPERTIES of OCC FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Wan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes of the pore structure of recycled fibers and the strength properties of papers produced by old corrugated container (OCC recycled fibers were studied, after they were subjected to different stock preparation and papermaking processes. In this paper, the effects of beating, sizing, pressing, and drying on fiber properties were investigated, and the porous structure of fibers was analyzed by nitrogen adsorption technique. The results showed that beating, pressing, and other physical processes significantly influenced the fiber properties, whereas the effects of sizing were minor. Significant changes of water retention value (WRV, crystallinity index, and paper strength were observed after those processes. Further, an effort has been made to show relationships between pore structure and macroscopic properties (WRV, crystallinity index of recycled fibers.

  3. Pulp moulding machines for the production of packing paper elements

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić Ljubomir S.; Krgović Milorad V.; Jaraković Ilija M.

    2005-01-01

    Paper pulp molds are now commonly applied in the technology of modern packing for a wide range of products. The technological process of producing the paper molds has three basic phases: paper pulp preparation, in which water and waste paper are the basic raw materials, the formation of product in tool pulp moulding machines and process drying. The firm "SERVOTEH" from Belgrade has developed various pulp moulding machines for different operating conditions (manual, semiautomatic and automatic...

  4. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  5. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  6. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  7. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  8. Concentration by membrane separation processes of a medicinal product obtained from pineapple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes; João Baptista Severo Júnior; Roberto Rodrigues de Souza; Daniela Diniz Ehrhardt; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Elias Basile Tambourgi

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of pineapple juice is needed to retain the bromelain activity and to standardize the composition and proteolytic activity. Thus, this work aimed to obtain a pure bromelain extract from the Ananas comosus L. Merril juice by membrane separation process. A 2² experimental planning was used to study the influence of pH and transmembrane pressure on the activity recovery by micro-filtration using a plain membrane. In second step, this enzyme was purified by the ultra-filtration u...

  9. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  10. Prospects for biodiesel as a byproduct of wood pulping - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of byproducts can affect the profitability of kraft pulping to produce cellulosic fibers from wood. This review considers opportunities to use tall oil components, obtained from kraft pulping, as a source of raw material for biodiesel fuel, or as a source of additives for petrodiesel. Considerable progress has been achieved with respect to converting vegetable oils to diesel fuel, and some of what has been learned appears to have potential application for processing of wood-derived fatty acids and related compounds. Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification strategies, while seemingly well adapted for relatively pure vegetable oil source materials, may not be the best fit for the processing of tall oil fractions. The promising strategies to consider include acid-catalyzed esterification, enzymatic processes, hydrogenation, and the use of supercritical methanol.

  11. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  12. Formation and emission of PCDD/Fs in Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

    2012-11-01

    Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by non-wood pulp and paper mills in China, resulting in considerable formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). We investigate the distribution of PCDD/Fs in different papermaking processes and dioxin emissions at six typical Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills. Raw materials for papermaking included reed, wheat straw, bamboo, and sugar cane bagasse. The formation and emission of PCDD/Fs varied strikingly according to bleaching processes and raw materials. Elemental chlorine bleaching promoted the formation of tetra- to octa-CDDs and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, while hypochlorite bleaching only gave rise to a significant increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Bleaching with elemental chlorine and hypochlorite increased 2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.9-42.5 and 0.3-4.1 times, respectively. Most of the 2,3,7,8-TCDF formed at hypochlorite bleaching stage was partitioned into the effluent, which indicated that hypochlorite bleaching was also an important emission source of dioxins. The removal of PCDD/Fs occurred visibly during alkaline digestion, alkaline extraction, and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Furthermore, the annual emission of PCDD/Fs from Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills was evaluated. PMID:23067332

  13. Pollution prevention for the kraft pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The document is an annotated bibliography of publications related to pollution prevention in the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. It is organized by process area as follows: chip preparation, chemical pulping, pulp washing, bleaching, chemical recovery, recausticizing, power generation, wastewater treatment, papermaking, and general plant. The document contains 269 citations.

  14. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Bajić Marijana; Danilović Vesna; Prokić Branislav; Prokić Bogomir Bolka; Manojlović Milica; Živković Slavoljub

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus). Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces o...

  15. Process, mechanism and impacts of scale formation in alkaline flooding by a variable porosity and permeability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jiachun

    2016-06-01

    In spite of the role of alkali in enhancing oil recovery (EOR), the formation of precipitation during alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding can severely do harm to the stratum of oil reservoirs, which has been observed in situ tests of oil fields such as scale deposits found in oil stratum and at the bottom of oil wells. On the other hand, remarkable variation of stratum parameters, e.g., pore radius, porosity, and permeability due to scale formation considerably affects seepage flow and alkaline flooding process in return. The objective of this study is to firstly examine these mutual influential phenomena and corresponding mechanisms along with EOR during alkaline flooding when the effects of precipitation are no longer negligible. The chemical kinetic theory is applied for the specific fundamental reactions to describe the process of rock dissolution in silica-based reservoirs. The solubility product principle is used to analyze the mechanism of alkali scale formation in flooding. Then a 3D alkaline flooding coupling model accounting for the variation of porosity and permeability is established to quantitatively estimate the impact of alkali scales on reservoir stratum. The reliability of the present model is verified in comparison with indoor experiments and field tests of the Daqing oil field. Then, the numerical simulations on a 1/4 well group in a 5-spot pattern show that the precipitation grows with alkali concentration, temperature, and injection pressure and, thus, reduces reservoir permeability and oil recovery correspondingly. As a result, the selection of alkali with a weak base is preferable in ASP flooding by tradeoff strategy.

  16. Process, mechanism and impacts of scale formation in alkaline flooding by a variable porosity and permeability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jiachun

    2016-03-01

    In spite of the role of alkali in enhancing oil recovery (EOR), the formation of precipitation during alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding can severely do harm to the stratum of oil reservoirs, which has been observed in situ tests of oil fields such as scale deposits found in oil stratum and at the bottom of oil wells. On the other hand, remarkable variation of stratum parameters, e.g., pore radius, porosity, and permeability due to scale formation considerably affects seepage flow and alkaline flooding process in return. The objective of this study is to firstly examine these mutual influential phenomena and corresponding mechanisms along with EOR during alkaline flooding when the effects of precipitation are no longer negligible. The chemical kinetic theory is applied for the specific fundamental reactions to describe the process of rock dissolution in silica-based reservoirs. The solubility product principle is used to analyze the mechanism of alkali scale formation in flooding. Then a 3D alkaline flooding coupling model accounting for the variation of porosity and permeability is established to quantitatively estimate the impact of alkali scales on reservoir stratum. The reliability of the present model is verified in comparison with indoor experiments and field tests of the Daqing oil field. Then, the numerical simulations on a 1/4 well group in a 5-spot pattern show that the precipitation grows with alkali concentration, temperature, and injection pressure and, thus, reduces reservoir permeability and oil recovery correspondingly. As a result, the selection of alkali with a weak base is preferable in ASP flooding by tradeoff strategy.

  17. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  18. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF2 > MgF2. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF2 and MgF2. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides

  19. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction rates are reported for the first time. Design parameters and guidelines for the set-up and maintenance of a full-scale wetland are recommended. The study concludes that integrating a full-scale wetl...

  20. Search for optimum conditions of wheat straw hemicelluloses cold alkaline extraction process

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A method for the selective extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw involving cold alkaline extraction and subsequent separation by precipitation with ethanol is proposed. Wheat straw affords selective separation of the hemicellulose fraction from the cellulose and lignin fractions with the proposed method. The hemicellulose yield was optimized by using a 2n factor design to examine the influence of temperatures (temperature was designed between 20 and 40 ◦C), operation times ...

  1. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Tang; Lingxi Bu; Lihong Deng; Liwei Zhu; Jianxin Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to eval...

  2. Process optimization by response surface methodology for extracellular alkaline protease production from bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three microbial cultures Bacillus subtilis DSM 1970, Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 1969 were screened for protease production by casein agar plate method. Among these Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 was found to be the most potent protease producer in wide pH range (5.0 to 8.0). Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of alkaline protease using two statistical tools: Placket Burmen Model for linear regression study and Response Surface Model for interactive effects of significant factors on production. The alkaline protease was optimally produced after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degree C in fermentation media containing equal amounts of substrates (soybean meal and wheat bran, 7.5 g), MgSO/sub 4/ 7H/sub 2/O, 0.10 g and yeast extract 0.55 g. The protease was purified to homogeneity by salt precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The homogeneity and molecular weights were checked by SDS-PAGE. The protease was 45 KDa protein, predominantly alkaline and optimally active at pH 8.0. (author)

  3. Biosynthesis of pectinolytic enzymes by Aspergillus on apple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro; Petreska, Meri; Ziberoski, Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus. Different concentration on apple pulp and different pH initial on the bases were studied, and all other process parameters were same. Results of different concentration on apple pulp gived maximal endo- PG with 1% apple pulp, during from 96 h, and the growth of the micr...

  4. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  5. Papermaking fibers from giant reed (Arundo donax L. by advanced ecologically friendly pulping and bleaching technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, H.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical structure and chemical composition of the stem-wall material of giant reed is considered from the viewpoint of raw material characterization for industrial fiber production. The effect of stem morphology (nodes and internodes on pulping results and general pulp properties is discussed. The advantages of application of modern organic solvent based (organosolv pulping technologies to giant reed are shown in comparison with the conventional (kraft method. The conditions optimization for Ethanol-Alkali pulping (a selected organosolv pulping process is given, and the chemical kinetics of the principal macromolecular components during ethanol-alkali pulping is described. The bleachability of organosolv pulps by short totally chlorine free (TCF bleaching sequences using hydrogen peroxide and ozone as the active bleaching chemicals without pulp pre-delignification is examined and compared with kraft pulps. The enzymatic pre-treatment of reed organosolv pulps by commercial xylanase preparation is considered as a possibility toward the improvement of pulp bleachability.

  6. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  7. On the behaviour of lignin rich pulps upon irradiation with light. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with investigations on changes taking place in brightness, lignin content and methoxyl content upon irradiation of differently prepared unbleached and semi-bleached pulps from beech and spruce with light of more or less the same the spectral distribution as daylight. The results show that the change in brightness depends to a large extent on the used pulping method as well as on the pulping conditions. Pulps prepared according to the alkaline sulphite method as well as according to the soda method display an increase in brightness upon exposure to light. The behaviour of pulps produced by the neutral-sulphite-semichemical method (NSSC-Method) depends mainly upon the pulping conditions. Pulps produced under relatively mild conditions regarding alkalinity and cooking temperature show a great decrease in brightness by irradiation. Pulping at relatively high alkalinity and temperature leads to pulps, which show at first a slight increase in brightness, after which practically no change in colour occurs. Bisulphite pulps decrease in brightness under the same conditions. In all cases there was a significant decrease in the lignin content due to light irradiation. The lignin content of NSSC-pulps from beech wood decreases at a higher rate than the lignin content of pulps prepared by the alkaline sulphite method. The loss in the methoxyl content was in all cases higher than that of lignin. The amount of water-soluble extractives increases by lengthening the exposure time, the pH-value of the extractives decreases in the same direction. The characteristic maximum at 280 nm decreases in intensity to a large extent after irradiation. (orig.)

  8. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  9. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor. PMID:22789829

  10. Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation process for pulp mill wastewater treatment using a combination of uniform design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Pulp mill wastewater was treated using the coagulation-flocculation process with aluminum chloride as the coagulant and a modified natural polymer, starch-g-PAM-g-PDMC [polyacrylamide and poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride], as the flocculant. A novel approach with a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and uniform design (UD) was employed to evaluate the effects and interactions of three main influential factors, coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage and pH, on the treatment efficiency in terms of the supernatant turbidity and lignin removals as well as the water recovery. The optimal conditions obtained from the compromise of the three desirable responses, supernatant turbidity removal, lignin removal and water recovery efficiency, were as follows: coagulant dosage of 871 mg/L, flocculant dosage of 22.3 mg/L and pH 8.35. Confirmation experiments demonstrated that such a combination of the UD and RSM is a powerful and useful approach for optimizing the coagulation-flocculation process for the pulp mill wastewater treatment. PMID:21920576

  11. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry. Final report, September 1977--May 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J.H.; Hurley, P.J.; Martin, P.J.

    1978-09-01

    Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application. Performance analyses based on the operation of a math model of the process steam supply system indicate potential substitution of waste wood fuel for 100,000 bbl oil per year per installation with the accumulator TES system. Based on an industry survey of potential TES application, which requires excess base steaming capability, the results from the individual installation were extrapolated to a near-term (1980's) fossil fuel savings in the paper and pulp industry of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ bbl oil/year. Conceptual designs of mechanical equipment and control systems indicate installed cost estimates of about $560,000 per installation, indicating an after tax return on investment of over 30%.

  12. Processing of LEU targets for 99Mo production - Dissolution of U3Si2 targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-enriched uranium silicide targets designed to recover fission product 99Mo were dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plus NaOH) at about 90 deg. C. Sintering of matrix aluminium powder during irradiation and heat treatment retarded aluminum dissolution and prevented silicide particle dispersion. Gas evolved during dissolution is suspected to adhere to particles and block hydroxide ion contact with aluminum. Reduction of base concentrations from 5M to 0.1M NaOH yielded similar silicide dissolution and peroxide destruction rates, simplifying later processing. Future work in particle dispersion enhancement, 99Mo separation, and waste disposal is also discussed. (author)

  13. Process for the hot oxidized attack on a uraniferous ore by a concentrated alkaline liquor with simultaneous uranium precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a continuous process for the oxidizing attack of a uraniferous ore by means of an aqueous recycling liquor which contains in a dissolved state alkaline carbonate and bicarbonate and uranium at a concentration close to the limit of solubility thereof at the temperature of the attack operation. The uranium which is precipitated in the course of the attack operation is collected within the solid phase which remains after attack. By redissolution in a suitable aqueous liquor and separation from the sterile materials, a uraniferous liquor is obtained

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lesiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

  15. The potential of denitrification for the stabilization of activated sludge processes affected by low alkalinity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hoffmann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problems provoked by nitrification of wastewater with low alkalinity were analyzed in a pilot sequencing batch activated sludge reactor (SBR. Decrease in pH resulted in disappearence of protozoa. De-flocculation of the activated sludge floc started below pH 6.5, resulting in enhanced effluent turbidity and loss of bacteria. Nitrification efficiency was affected below pH 6.2. The denitrification activity was not sufficient to keep up the pH, due to a low C/N ratio of the wastewater. Based on alkalinity and ammonia concentration of the wastewater and the necessary denitrification rate to prevent operational problems, was developed a prognostic diagram. The applicability of this diagram was tested for the SBR with excellent results. The diagram could be applied to optimize the operation of wastewater treatment plants affected by problems with low alkalinity wastewater.Os problemas provocados pela nitrificação no esgoto com baixa alcalinidade foram analisados num reator piloto do tipo lodos ativados seqüencial por batelada (RSB, alimentado por esgoto urbano. A diminuição do pH se mostrou em três níveis: com pH de 6,8 - 6,0 os protozoários, responsáveis para a filtração da fase liquida, desaparecerem; os flocos de lodos ativados começaram a se destruir abaixo pH 6,5 resultando em elevação da turbidez no efluente final e abaixo de pH 6,2-6,0 a nitrificação foi afetada. A influência da desnitrificação para manter o pH foi analisada. Devido a baixa relação C:N no esgoto pré-tratado, a desnitrificação não se mostrou suficiente para manter o pH estável. Este trabalho apresenta o cálculo da alcalinidade que considera a influência da nitrificação e desnitrificação, de acordo com os resultados obtidos no RSB. Baseado nesse cálculo, foi desenvolvida uma recomendação na forma gráfica para usar em ETE´s afetadas por baixa alcalinidade.

  16. Modeling the kinetics nonenzymatic browning reactions and rheological behavior in the termal process of fruit juices and pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Manayay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacture of fruit juices and pulps, is of paramount importance to refer to non-enzymatic browning and rheological behavior. The non-enzymatic browning is a phenomenon of darkening of a purely chemical (Braverman, 1980, is characterized by the presence of brown polymers called melanoidins, generated by the Maillard reaction or condensation of melanoidins, the caramelization and degradation of acid ascorbic, while the rheological behavior is define as the proportion deformation of the material when exposed to shear stress (σ caused by a rheometer (Muller, 1978; Ibarz, 2005. Modeling studies of colour formation and definition of rheological behavior, considered in this review, aimed at the conclusion of the existence of a zero kinetic and first order respectively, and the most influential factors with the reactions are mainly Maillard, temperature, amino acids presence, water activity and pH, while the rheological behavior is affected by temperature, solid concentration and particles size that make up the suspension in the specific case of the pulps.

  17. IMPACT OF FURFURAL ON THE SUGAR ANALYSIS OF PRE-HYDROLYSIS LIQUOR OF KRAFT-BASED DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION PROCESS USING THE HPAEC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Saeed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse ampero-metric detector (HPAEC-PAD is a reliable method to systematically determine the sugar contents in pulp and paper waste streams, including bleaching and extraction liquors. We used the same method to determine the sugar content of industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL from a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The analysis showed that the traditional method cannot be applied for sugar analysis, and an improvement on the method was required. In fact, the presence of furfural in the PHL sample was the reason for the required modification. It was noted that the removal of furfural via evaporation could improve the reliability of the HPAEC technique for sugar assessments. If the concentration of furfural was higher than 0.045% (wt. in the PHL, the error introduced in the sugar analysis was profound. Also, the industrially produced PHL contained more furfural than the laboratory produced PHL under the same hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, the concentration of furfural in the PHL should be taken into account for sugar analysis using the HPAEC technique.

  18. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained fro...

  19. Assessment of integrated process based on hydrothermal and alkaline treatments for enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Long; Sun, Shao-Ni; Wen, Jia-Long; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Peng, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-10-29

    In this study, sweet sorghum stem was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) and alkaline post-treatment to enhance its saccharification ratio by reducing its recalcitrance. The results showed that the HTP (110-210°C, 0.5-2.0h) significantly degraded hemicelluloses, and the pretreatment at the temperature higher than 190°C led to the partial degradation of the cellulose. As compared to the sole HTP, the integrated process removed most of lignin and hemicelluloses, which incurred a higher cellulose saccharification ratio. Under an optimum condition evaluated (HTP at 170°C for 0.5h and subsequent 2% NaOH treatment), 77.5% saccharification ratio was achieved, which was 1.8, 2.0 and 5.5 times as compared to the only HTP pretreated substrates, alkaline treated substrates alone and the raw material without pretreatment, respectively. Clearly, the integrated process can be considered as a promising approach to achieve an efficient conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable glucose. PMID:25459857

  20. EXAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS INTO PROCESS WATER OF KRAFT PULP BLEACHING MILL FROM ASPECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ohi; Tomoya Yokoyama; Keiichi Nakamata

    2004-01-01

    Process water of a pulp mill with kraft cooking,oxygen delignification and chlorine bleaching or chlorine dioxide (ECF) bleaching was examined from an aspect of a new level for environmental water quality in Japan. According to the new level, a concentration of dioxins consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental water is restricted to less than 1 pg- TEQ/L. We clarified that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) concentrations were 0.5 pg/L or less. In addition, a main source of 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in the process water seemed to be an agrochemical in water supplied from a river.

  1. EXAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS INTO PROCESS WATER OF KRAFT PULP BLEACHING MILL FROM ASPECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroshiOhi; TomoyaYokoyama; KeiichiNakamata

    2004-01-01

    Process water of a pulp mill with kraft cooking, oxygen delignification and chlorine bleaching or chlorine dioxide (ECF) bleaching was examined from an aspect of a new level for environmental water quality in Japan. According to the new level, a concentration of dioxins consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental water is restricted to less than 1 pg- TEQ/L. We clarified that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) concentrations were 0.5 pg/L or less. In addition, a main source of 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in the process water seemed to be an agrochemical in water supplied from a river.

  2. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L.; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promisin...

  3. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  4. Polpa de fruta congelada: efeito do processamento sobre o conteúdo de fibra alimentar Frozen fruit pulps: effects of the processing on dietary fiber contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Magalhães Salgado

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos do processo utilizado na obtenção de polpa de frutas congelada sobre o teor de fibras alimentares, empregando-se acerola, caju, goiaba, graviola, manga, pinha, pitanga, sapoti e uva no estágio maduro. Demonstrou-se que o processo tecnológico empregado reduziu significativamente o percentual de fibras alimentares das frutas, determinadas por método gravimétrico não enzimático, principalmente da goiaba, seguida da uva, graviola, sapoti, caju, pinha e acerola; com exceção da manga e pitanga, as demais polpas congeladas não substituem, em termos quantitativos, a fibra alimentar dos frutos in natura na dieta de indivíduos sadios. Considerando que essas perdas são variáveis face às características dos frutos processados, a inclusão de polpas congeladas na dieta em substituição às frutas dependerá de estudos qualitativos que permitam esclarecer os constituintes da referida fração.The effects of the process utilized to obtain frozen fruit pulp on the quality of dietary fibers were evaluated, using ripe samples of acerola, cashew, guava, soursop, mango, sweetsop, pitanga, sapoti and grapes. The results obtained showed that the technological process used reduced significantly the fiber percentual of the fruit, determined by gravimetric non-ensymatic method particularly the guava, followed by the grapes, soursop, saoti, cashew, sweetsop and acerola. With the exception of mango and pitanga, all the frozen pulps tested do not seem to substitute, in terms of quantity of dietary fiber, the in natura fruit in the diet of healthy individuals. Considering the fact that these losses are variable, depending on the characteristics of the fruit which was processed, the inclusion of frozen pulps in the human diet in substitution to fruits will depend on quality control studies which may lead to a classification of the components of the mentioned fraction.

  5. Alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for 99Mo production -- Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress on the alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for the production of 99Mo, a parent nuclide of the widely used medical isotope 99mTc, is reported. Kinetic studies were undertaken to investigate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution in contact with a uranium metal surface. It was found that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide essentially follows the kinetic trend of uranium dissolution and can be classified into two regimes, depending on the hydroxide concentration. In the low-base regime (0.2 M), the rate of peroxide decomposition is independent of alkali concentration. When the acid/base equilibrium between H2O2 and O2H- is taken into account, the overall rate of hydrogen peroxide disappearance can be described as a 0.25th order reaction with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration over NaOH concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 5 M. Empirical kinetics models are proposed and discussed

  6. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  7. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  8. Americium and plutonium association with magnesium hydroxide colloids in alkaline nuclear industry process environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Zoe; Ivanov, Peter; O'Brien, Luke; Sims, Howard; Taylor, Robin J.; Heath, Sarah L.; Livens, Francis R.; Goddard, David; Kellet, Simon; Rand, Peter; Bryan, Nick D.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviours of Pu, Am and colloids in feed solutions to the Site Ion-exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in the U.K. have been studied. For both Pu and Am, fractions were found to be associated with material in the colloidal size range, with ˜50% of the Pu in the range 1-200 nm. The concentration of soluble Pu (brucite (magnesium hydroxide) colloids of different sizes was studied under alkaline conditions representative of nuclear fuel storage pond and effluent feed solution conditions. The morphology of the brucite particles in the bulk material observed by ESEM was predominantly hexagonal, while that of the carbonated brucite consisted of hexagonal species mixed with platelets. The association of 241Am(III) with the brucite colloids was studied by ultrafiltration coupled with gamma ray-spectrometry. For carbonate concentrations up to 10-3 M, the 241Am(III) was mainly associated with larger colloids (>300 kDa), and there was a shift from the smaller size fractions to the larger over a period of 6 months. At higher carbonate concentrations (10-2 M), the Am was predominantly detected in the true solution fraction (<3 kDa) and in smaller size colloidal fractions, in the range 3-100 kDa.

  9. Integrated dynamic model of the alkaline delignification process of Lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although in the public literature there are several studies that describe models of alkaline delignification, they were originally developed for the paper industry, and do not include the effects of important operating variables such as temperature, hydroxide-ion concentration, solid to liquid weight ratio, particle size, biomass composition (hemi cellulose, lignin fraction) and mixing. This lack of detailed models of the pretreatment stages prompted the current study that describes a model which includes the variables listed above and provides an important tool for predicting the degree of lignin removal in lignocellulosic materials such as sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L). The model considers kinetic expressions available in the literature. The kinetic parameters were determined by fitting the model to experimental data obtained for that purpose in our lab. The experimental matrix considered eighteen, 24-h isothermal experiments in which bulk and residual delignification stages were observed to occur in a parallel manner. Carbohydrate removal and hydroxide consumption were related to lignin removal by effective stoichiometric coefficients that were calculated by fitting the experimental data. A mixing compartment network model that represented mixing inside the reactor was included into a temporal superstructure based on the similarity between plug flow reactors and ideal batch reactors to model a non-ideally mixed batch reactor. The kinetic model was validated with data obtained in this study.

  10. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Chen; Paul V. Abbott

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  11. Recuperation of uranium and gold in mineral pulps by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological routes for the treatment of the gold and uranium ores are presented. The results obtained during the continuous tests with the uraniferous Ores of Wabo in Somalia are presented. The utilization of 99% of the uranium content in the alkaline pulp is obtained. (C.B.)

  12. Studies on adsorption of carbon dioxide on alkaline paper mill waste using cyclic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 9–12 h adsorption of CO2 in the 1st cycle increases cyclic CO2 adsorption of APMW. • Repeated prolonged adsorptions in cycles are feasible to capture CO2 using APMW. • Prolonged adsorption increases pores in 10–100 nm of APMW after desorption of CO2. - Abstract: The adsorption/desorption cycles of the alkaline paper mill waste (APMW) can be used to remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants. In this work, the prolonged adsorption duration treatment was used to modify CO2 capture behavior of the raw and the prewashed APMW in the multiple adsorption/desorption cycles. The effects of increased duration of adsorption and CO2 partial pressure in the first cycle on the fractional adsorption of CO2 and adsorption rate were investigated, when the raw and the prewashed APMW are employed as the sorbents. The cyclic CO2 capture behavior of APMW after the repeated prolonged adsorption in different cycles was also studied. For the raw and the prewashed APMW as the sorbents, 9–12 h adsorption of CO2 just in the 1st cycle enhances the cyclic fractional adsorption of CO2 and adsorption rate of CO2 in the 1st cycle and the subsequent cycles. The repeated prolonged adsorptions in the various cycles are more effective to increase the cyclic CO2 capture capacity of APMW than only in the 1st cycle. The longer adsorption duration results in larger area and volume of pores in 10–100 nm in diameter for CaO derived from APMW after the next cycles, which are helpful to cyclic CO2 capture of APMW. The raw and the prewashed APMW can retain high CO2 adsorption reactivity by the prolonged adsorption duration treatment in the multiple adsorption/desorption cycles

  13. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviana Reis Milagres; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Marcos Sousa Rabelo; Danila Morais de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine d...

  14. Processing of LEU targets for 99Mo production - Dissolution of metal foil targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1995, we started studies on a new process for dissolution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. In this process, an LEU metal foil target is dissolved in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, then 99Mo is recovered from the dissolved solution. We focused on the dissolution kinetics to develop a mechanistic model for predicting the products and the rate of uranium dissolution under process conditions. We thoroughly studied the effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration, and temperature on the rate of uranium dissolution. It was found that uranium dissolution can be classified into a low-base (0.2M) process. In the low-base process, both the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide concentrations affect the rate of uranium dissolution; in the high base process, uranium dissolution is a 0.25th order reaction with respect to the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide. The dissolution activation energy was experimentally determined to be 48.8 kJ/mol. Generally, the rate of uranium dissolution increases to a maximum as the hydroxide concentration is increased from 0.01 to about 1.5M, then it decreases as the hydroxide concentration is further increased. The alkalinity of the dissolution solution is an important factor that affects not only the dissolution rate, but also the amount of radioactive waste. (author)

  15. Pulp moulding machines for the production of packing paper elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ljubomir S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper pulp molds are now commonly applied in the technology of modern packing for a wide range of products. The technological process of producing the paper molds has three basic phases: paper pulp preparation, in which water and waste paper are the basic raw materials, the formation of product in tool pulp moulding machines and process drying. The firm "SERVOTEH" from Belgrade has developed various pulp moulding machines for different operating conditions (manual, semiautomatic and automatic operation, different manufacturing capacities and an alternative number of tools. The system of "SERVOTEH" pulp moulding machines covers several construction solutions: a sinking system, veer system and rotation system. This paper presents the technological process, as well as the integral and concept approach to the design of pulp moulding machines and system tools.

  16. THE PEROXYMONOCARBONATE ANIONS AS PULP BLEACHING AGENTS. PART 1. RESULTS WITH LIGNIN MODEL COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis K Attiogbe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The peroxymonocarbonate mono-anion (HCO4─ is generated when the bicarbonate anion is added to a H2O2 solution. The mono-anion is believed to have a pKa value of ca. 10 and as such would start dissociating to the di-anion (CO42─ at pH ca. 8. The mono-anion should demonstrate electrophilic properties, while the di-anion should be a nucleophile. In an alkaline, non-sulfur pulping process such as soda/AQ, Na2CO3 could be obtained from the chemical recovery system and carbonated with CO2 from a flue gas stream to produce NaHCO3. In such a case only H2O2 would need to be purchased to generate the peroxymonocarbonate (PMC anions. Bicarbonate anions could also be produced from the carbonation of solutions containing NaOH, Mg(OH2 or mined Na2CO3. One or both of the PMC anions was found to be effective in oxidizing two lignin model compounds as well as lowering the lignin content of kraft and soda/AQ hardwood pulps. The PMC anions were generated in-situ by NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 + CO2 addition to dilute H2O2 solutions.

  17. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  18. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process. (paper)

  19. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  20. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  1. New Advanced Technology on Waste Resourcelization of the Black Pulping Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Dong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of the black pulping liquor that contains a lot of lignin and other biomass resources, the technology of comprehensive waste utilization is employed. The reconstructive preparation of modified urea-formaldehyde glue by adding black pulping liquor and the application in extruding the medium density fibre board using this modified urea-formaldehyde glue is researched. Results show that when applying the preparation technology that alkaline reaction and then weak acid reaction, the appropriate preparation process is as follows: the adding urea process is divided into three stages (proportion 2∶1∶1); the pH value is 8.0, and the reaction time is 40min in the addition reaction stage; the pH value will be naturally reduced to 3.5-5.0, and the reaction time is 45min in the aggregation reaction stage; the pH value is 8.0 in the urea complement stage. And the optimal condition of the reconstructive preparation the modified urea-formaldehyde glue is adding the condensed black pulping liquor after hydroxymethylation in the beginning of polycondensation reaction by 5% proportion. The application in extruding medium density fibre board with this modified urea-fosmaldehyde glue is proved feasible.

  2. Comparison of pulping and bleaching behaviors of some agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, Saim; DENİZ, İlhan; KIRCI, Hüseyin; ATİK, Celil; OKAN, Onur Tolga

    2015-01-01

    The present study determines the characteristics of bleaching and beating of annual plants and agricultural waste, which constitute important raw material potential for the pulp and paper industry in Turkey. It also examines the effects of this process on several paper properties. Firstly, chemical contents are determined for each raw material and then evaluated for use in the pulp and paper industry. All raw materials studied are found to be suitable for use in the pulp and paper industry, a...

  3. Removal of TOC and Color in Bleaching Effluents from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe0- H2O2 Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-li; LIU Ru-peng; LIU Ya-nan

    2006-01-01

    TOC and color in the bleaching effluent from straw pulp paper process could not reach draining standard after its treatment by a biochemical process. In this study, advanced treatment by integrated micro-electrolysis (Fe0) method and Fenton-like process was investigated under various conditions, i.e. pH, Fe/C ratio, initial H2O2 concentration and carrier gas. Results showed that Fe/C ratio(V/V =1.5), larger H2O2 dosage around 50 mg/L, lower pH(pH=3) turned out to be particularly efficient. Temperature was a key parameter, remarkably increasing reaction rates.Carrier air not only improved reaction efficiency, but also saved H2O2 dosage. Chlorinated organic compounds could be reductive dechlorinated by Fe0 reaction and oxidated by · OH produced from Fenton process. The combination of Fe0 and H2O2 reactions had been proved to be highly effective for the advanced treatment of such a type of wastewaters, and important advantages concerning the application in the study.

  4. 糯玉米浆制备的新工艺研究%New Process of Preparation of Waxy Corn Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成宇; 周红芳

    2011-01-01

    Use the fresh waxy com as the main raw material, the new process of preparation process of the waxy com pulp was studied. And the process preparation included non-filtered and non-gelatinization process with raw material utilization rate being up to 100%. Through determination of the particle size, sedimentation rate, suspension stability and sensory evaluation, the best technology parameters were: refining frequency 2, homogenious pressure 30 MPa, homogenious temperature 40 ℃, homogeneous times 2, refining times two, sterilization time 25 minutes and temperature 121 ℃.%以新鲜的速冻糯玉米为主要原料,研究出糯玉米浆生产的新工艺过程.该生产工艺过程无过滤和糊化工序,原料利用率达100%.通过测定糯玉米浆的粒径、沉淀率,悬浮稳定性和感官评定,确定了糯玉米浆最佳的生产工艺参数:磨浆次数为2次;均质压力为30MPa,均质温度为40℃,均质次数为2次;灭菌时间为121℃下25min,使产品的保质期达6个月.

  5. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  6. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

  7. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, K.; Saukkonen, E.; Nokkanen, T. (and others) (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Fiber and Paper Technology). Email: kaj.henricson@lut.fi

    2010-10-15

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy is seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill (Biojalostamo Sellutehdas), BiSe project approach, prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel are studied. The main goal of the project is to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp. In the project, laboratory experiments on wood chip prehydrolysis prior to cooking, hydrolysis liquor treatment, cooking of prehydrolyzed chips, low power pulp bleaching and lignin separation are carried out. Based on these laboratory data, a simulation model of the biorefinery is created. The model is then used to assess the profitability of the BiSe biorefinery approach. (orig.)

  8. ALKALI DARKENING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF MECHANICAL PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin He; Yonghao Ni; Eric Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage.Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.

  9. ALKALI DARKENING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF MECHANICAL PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhibinHe; Yon2haoNi; EricZhang_

    2004-01-01

    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage. Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.

  10. Steam explosion and new production processes for pulping industry: technical and economical feasibility; Steam explosion e nuovi processi di produzione cartaria: fattibilita` tecnico-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bramanti, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-05-01

    Pulping and paper industry traditionally uses wood as the main raw material for its production processes. Thus, the global increasing of paper and pulp yield has causes so a depletion work of natural wood resources that the environment balances are weakened. About conversion technologies, the most important developments are carried out by the Companies from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Canada, where industrial management has chosen production processes anti pollution (soda-sulphate) in the place of those more dangerous (bi-sulphate). The international research and development activities are focused, at the same time, on new conversion processes and renewable resources in the last time shows to meet three different needs: 1. anti pollution laws; 2. public opinion for the environment policy; 3. market competitors. The present work offers a technical and economical assessment of industrial application of steam-explosion process and non-wood biomass (C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}). Then, the authors propose the introduction of the steam-explosion technology in pulping industry in order to obtain technical and economical advantages. [Italiano] Il comparto industriale cartario impiega per tradizione secolare il legno come principale materia prima all`interno dei cicli tecnologici di produzione. Cio` ha determinato un incremento produttivo di paste e di carta a cui si e` accompagnata una crescente opera di deforestazione ed una serie di conseguenti squilibri ecologici. A fronte di tali interventi di distruzione `programmata`, dal punto di vista delle tecnologie di trasformazione, va rilevato che i processi produttivi hanno subito una reale evoluzione nei Paesi maggiormente sensibili ai problemi ambientali come Svezia, Finlandia, Norvegia e Canada, ove gli imprenditori del setttore hanno abbandonato i processi a maggior impatto ambientale, come quelli al bisolfito, per adottarne alcuni meno inquinanti, come quello alla soda-solfato. Negli ultimi anni gli sforzi della ricerca

  11. Does removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation influence ingrowth of new tissue in the pulp chamber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, Wim G M; Dermaut, Luc R; Cuvelier, Claude A; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2010-10-01

    In an attempt to extend the indication area for autotransplantation of vital teeth, two possibilities can be proposed: (i) The enlargement of the apical foramen, with the aim to facilitate revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue. The ingrowth of tissue will eliminate the need for endodontic treatment when mature teeth are transplanted and (ii) the cryopreservation of teeth in case they cannot be transplanted immediately to the receptor site. Teeth with an ideal stage of root formation can be cryopreserved to perform transplantation later. Although pulpcell cultures survive crypreservation in vitro, the pulp tissue cannot survive the cryopreservation procedures when it is kept inside the pulpchamber. Therefore, the pulp tissue has to be removed before cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue can occur in an empty pulp chamber (1). The aim of this study was to find out if revascularization and ingrowth of new pulp tissue is influenced by removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation. Twenty nine single-rooted teeth from three adult beagle dogs were transplanted after resection of the root tip. One group of teeth (n = 14) had the pulp tissue removed before transplantation. The other group (n = 15) had the original pulp left in situ. The transplanted teeth were histologically analysed 90 days post-transplantation. In the group with the tissue left in situ, 12 teeth (80%) showed a pulp chamber totally filled or at least 1/3 to 2/3 filled with viable tissue. In the group with the pulp tissue removed, 11 teeth (79%) had no or little vital tissue in the pulp chamber. The necrotic masses that develop in the original pulp tissue immediately after transplantation are a possible stimulating factor in the repair process of the pulp. As a conclusion, it can be stated that in case of autotransplantation of teeth, it is advisable to leave the pulp tissue in situ to stimulate the revascularization and

  12. EIS and adjunct electrical modeling for material selection by evaluating two mild steels for use in super-alkaline mineral processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiyari, Leila; Moghimi, Fereshteh; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil;

    2012-01-01

    The production of metal concentrates during mineral processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metals involves a variety of highly corrosive chemicals which deteriorate common mild steel as the material of choice in the construction of such lines, through rapid propagation of localized pitting in...... constructions which are exposed to super-alkaline and corrosive environments....

  13. Optimization of low-temperature alkaline smelting process of crushed metal enrichment originated from waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xue-yi; LIU Jing-xin

    2015-01-01

    A novel low-temperature alkaline smelting process is proposed to convert and separate amphoteric metals in crushed metal enrichment originated from waste printed circuit boards. The central composite design was used to optimize the operating parameters, in which mass ratio of NaOH-to-CME, smelting temperature and smelting time were chosen as the variables, and the conversions of amphoteric metals tin, lead, aluminum and zinc were response parameters. Second-order polynomial models of high significance and 3D response surface plots were constructed to show the relationship between the responses and the variables. Optimum area of 80%-85% Pb conversion and over 95% Sn conversion was obtained by the overlaid contours at mass ratio of NaOH-to-CME of 4.5-5.0, smelting temperature of 653-723 K, smelting time of 90-120 min. The models were validated experimentally in the optimum area, and the results demonstrate that these models are reliable and accurate in predicting the smelting process.

  14. Using the properties of soil to speed up the start-up process, enhance process stability, and improve the methane content and yield of solid-state anaerobic digestion of alkaline-pretreated poplar processing residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yiqing; Luo, Yang; Li, Tian; Yang, Yingxue; Sheng, Hongmei; Virgo, Nolan; Xiang, Yun; Song, Yuan; Zhang, Hua; An, Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) was initially adopted for the treatment of municipal solid waste. Recently, SS-AD has been increasingly applied to treat lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural and forestry residues. However, studies on the SS-AD process are few. In this study, the process performance and methane yield from SS-AD of alkaline-pretreated poplar processing residues (PPRs) were investigated using the properties of soil, such as buffering capacity and nutri...

  15. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  16. Impact of kaolin filler on physical and mechanical paper properties formed by ECF pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Rodrigues dos Santos; Gustavo Ventorim; José Cláudio Caraschi; Jaqueline Silveira Comelato Favaro

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry is the main global consumer of kaolin. It is mostly used as paper filler, due to its lower cost as compared to pulp cost. Color removal process from pulp - chemical bleaching - determines final pulp's characteristics. Effort has been made to make possible to obtain less toxic bleaching processes. This study aims to evaluate the influence of three bleaching sequences, on kaolin retention and paper properties. Industrial eucalyptus kraft pulp, oxygen pre-delignified, was blea...

  17. Hemicellulases in the bleaching and characterisation of kraft pulps. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurnaekki, A.

    1996-03-01

    Xylanase-aided bleaching of kraft pulps is the major industrial application of hemicellulases in pulp processing. In addition to process aids, hemicellulases have recently also been shown to be promising tools in fibre analytics. In this work, the role of xylanase and mannanase pretreatments in the bleaching of softwood pulps produced by different sulphate cooking methods was studied. In addition, the action of hemicellulases in kraft fibres was characterized and exploited in the analysis of the suface composition of kraft pulps.

  18. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; H. Ahmad; S. Soekarno

    2009-01-01

    Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Insti...

  19. Arsenophilic Bacterial Processes in Searles Lake: A Salt-saturated, Arsenic-rich, Alkaline Soda Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Swizer Blum, J.; Stolz, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Searles Lake, located in the Mojave Desert of California, is essentially a chemically-similar, concentrated version of Mono Lake, but having a much higher salinity (e.g., 340 vs. 90 g/L) and a greater dissolved inorganic arsenic content in its brine (e.g., 3.9 vs. 0.2 mM). The source of all this arsenic ultimately comes from hydrothermal spring inputs, thereby underscoring the importance of volcanic and fluvial processes in transporting this toxic element into these closed basin lakes. Nonetheless, the presence of microbial activities with regard to respiration of arsenate oxyanions under anaerobic conditions and the oxidation of arsenite oxyanions under aerobic conditions can be inferred from porewater profiles taken from handcores retrieved beneath Searles Lake's salt crust. Sediment slurry incubations confirmed biological arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, with the former processes notably enhanced by provision of the inorganic electron donor sulfide or H2. Hence, arsenic-linked chemo-autotrophy appears to be an important means of carbon fixation in this system. Subsequent efforts using 73As-arsenate as radiotracer detected dissimilatory arsenate reduction activity down the length of the core, but we were unable to detect any evidence for sulfate-reduction using 35S-sulfate. An extremely halophilic anaerobic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales [strain SLAS-1] was isolated from the sediments that grew via arsenate respiration using lactate or sulfide as its electron donors. These results show that, unlike sulfate-reduction, arsenic metabolism (i.e., both oxidation of arsenite and dissimilatory reduction of arsenate) is operative and even vigorous under the extreme conditions of salt-saturation and high pH. The occurrence of arsenophilic microbial processes in Searles Lake is relevant to the search for extant or extinct microbial life on Mars. It is evident from surface imagery that Mars had past episodes of volcanism, fluvial transport, and most

  20. Efficacy of Microwave-Heating during Alkaline Processing of Fumonisin-Contaminated Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mendez-Albores

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins (a family of foodborne carcinogenic mycotoxins cause health hazards to humans and animals in developing countries, and has also economic implications. Therefore, the efficacy of a novel environmental friendly nixtamalization procedure to make tortillas (the main staple food for the Mexican population was investigated.Maize contaminated with 2136.67 ng/g total fumonisins was processed into tortillas, starting with maize grits mixed with water and calcium hydroxide that was cooked in a microwave field at 2.45 GHz during 3.75 min, and steeped 3.5 h at room temperature. The steeped maize grits (nixtamal was stone-ground into masa (maize dough, which was then used to make tortillas. Total fumonisin content was determined using monoclonal antibody columns.Masa contained 1998.33 ng/g total fumonisins, which represents 6.5% toxin reduction. Nevertheless, fumonisin concentration was reduced significantly in tortillas (up to 985.33 ng/g due to the cooking process, corresponding to a cumulative toxin degradation of 54%. Tortillas were below the maximum tolerated level, considering the European Union regulatory limit for fumonisins in maize (1000 ng/g. The physicochemical and technological properties of tortillas were also considered within the acceptable margins of quality.Microwave nixtamalization was not a feasible method to reduce fumonisin content in masa to acceptable levels; however, an effective extra-reduction occurred when masa was baking into tortillas.

  1. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  2. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Talebizadeh; Pejman Rezayati-Charani

    2010-01-01

    Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder...

  3. Radiation-induced processes and defects in alkali and alkaline-earth borate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of a study of the radiation-induced processes and defects in nonlinear optical crystals Li2B4O7 (LTB), LiB3O5 (LBO), CsLiB6O10, KB5O8·4H2O, β-BaB2O4. It was revealed that a pulsed electron beam irradiation at 290 K forms the radiation-induced pairs of the 'vacancy--interstitial atom' defects in the cation sublattice of these crystals. This gives rise to a creation of metastable electronic (interstitial atom) and hole (small-radius polaron near the cation vacancy) centers in high concentrations. Optical hole-transitions from the local level of the trapped hole centers to the valence band states are responsible for the transient optical absorptions (TOA) of borates in the visible and UV spectral ranges. A sublattice of the weakly bound mobile lithium cations in LTB and LBO favors a spatial separation of the radiation-induced pair defects 'hole polaron near Li-vacancy--mobile interstitial Li0 atom'. Their decay rated by the electron-hole nonradiative tunnel recombination determines a peculiar feature of the TOA decay kinetics in LTB and LBO

  4. Modification of 1018 carbon steel corrosion process in alkaline sour medium with a formulation of chemical corrosion inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia, Policarpo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Electroquimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Electroquimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: igm@xanum.uam.mx

    2005-08-10

    This work is focused on researching corrosion mechanism modifications of 1018 carbon steel in alkaline sour medium (0.1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S and 10 ppm CN{sup -}) using inhibitor formulation (IHF) composed of hydroxyoleic imidazoline (C{sub 12}H{sub 42}ON{sub 2}), HI, and aminoether (C{sub 20}H{sub 28}O{sub 3}N{sub 2}), AE. The accelerated formation of corrosion products was thereby carried out in the presence of the formulation alone and of each of its components separately; these films were subsequently characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study in the presence of the IHF components revealed that the films formed have different nature, because their physical and chemical properties such as thickness, porosity and (electronic and ionic) conductivity are determined by the media where they are grown. The film formed in the presence of HI has a homogeneous, non-porous topography that impairs the diffusion process of H{sup 0}, in addition, its electronic conductivity is above that observed in the film formed with AE. Then, it was determined that the film formed with IHF presents some distinctive component characteristics which interact in a complementary way improving film passivity.

  5. CMP process optimization using alkaline bulk copper slurry on a 300 mm Applied Materials Reflexion LK system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMP process optimization for bulk copper removal based on alkaline copper slurry was performed on a 300 mm Applied Materials Reflexion LK system. Under the DOE condition, we conclude that as the pressure increases, the removal rate increases and non-uniformity is improved. As the slurry flow rate increases, there is no significant improvement in the material removal rate, but it does slightly reduce the WIWNU and thus improve uniformity. The optimal variables are obtained at a reduced pressure of 1.5 psi and a slurry flow rate of 300 ml/min. Platen/carrier rotary speed is set at a constant value of 97/103 rpm. We obtain optimized CMP characteristics including a removal rate over 6452 Å/min and non-uniformity below 4% on blanket wafer and the step height is reduced by nearly 8000 Å/min in the center of the wafer on eight layers of copper patterned wafer, the surface roughness is reduced to 0.225 nm. (semiconductor technology)

  6. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  7. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste

  8. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS. PMID:25359783

  9. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%. PMID:23131623

  10. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...

  11. Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent. PMID:24261917

  12. Optimization on screening process of waste paper pulping%废纸制浆精筛工序工艺流程优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾金枝; 王长健; 王松

    2014-01-01

    The optimization measures on the screening section of waste paper pulping process was introduced in this article, in which the traditional three-stage pressurized screening systrm was transformed into sigle stage screening incorporated with reifning. The transformation got to the excellent effect with equipment failure rate reduced, unplanned downtime decreased, the yield raised by 1.5 percent and power consumption reduced by 3%.%介绍了公司废纸制浆筛选工序工艺流程的优化措施:将传统的三段压力筛工艺改为一段压力筛加磨浆的工艺。通过上述改造,车间取得了良好的效果:设备故障率降低,意外停机情况减少,制浆得率提高1.5%,电耗降低3%。

  13. PRESENCE OF HARDWOOD CHIPS AND ITS IMPACT ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hardwood admixture (15-25% birch or aspen in kraft cooking on the strength properties of the fully bleached pulp was investigated. Results obtained from both lab- and mill-processed ECF bleached pulps showed that adding 15-25% birch or aspen to the production of fully bleached softwood kraft pulp had a minor effect on the strength properties. No significant effect was observed for the hardwood admixture on the apparent density over a wide range of breaking length. Under the conditions studied, the results showed that pulping of mixed softwood/hardwood chips (chip blending resulted in overall better strength properties than the pulp blending at a given freeness. It was hypothesized that the softwood fibers would be cooked to a higher kappa number in the cooking of mixed softwood/hardwood chips for the same target kappa number, thus having higher fiber strength due to higher pulp viscosity and preservation of the hemicellulose. This was supported by the results from zero-span tensile strength of the long fiber fraction of the samples from chip blending and pulp blending. The implication is that some softwood kraft pulp mills can add up to 25% of hardwood chips to the kraft cooking of softwood chips without significantly affecting the overall pulp strength properties.

  14. >Effect of progesterone hormon on cell viability and stem cell activation in dental pulp cells

    OpenAIRE

    Segah Altuntaş; Muhammed Ali Kara; Deniz Selin Aksoy; Zehra Dilşad Çoban; Şefik Güran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The vitality of the dentin structure, both during health and after injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that regulate the cell’s behavior. Dental pulp tissue has condensed stem cell activity. Dental pulp stem cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Several publications hav...

  15. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-α1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (α se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidrataci

  16. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial com...

  17. Development of a carousel ion-exchange process for removal of cesium-137 from alkaline nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic model-based approach is used for development of an efficient carousel ion-exchange process for the selective removal of radioactive 137Cs+ from alkaline nuclear waste solutions. Equilibrium data for two resorcinol-formaledhyde (R-F) cation-exchange resins are correlated by an empirical equation of the Freundlich-Langmuir type over cesium/sodium concentration ratios of 10-9 to 10-2 and sodium concentrations of 1 to 6 N. The standard deviations are 3.5 and 6.6%, respectively. The data cannot be accurately described by mass action equations. A detailed rate model, developed in this study for the periodic countercurrent multicolumn operation of carousel systems, is used with the equilibrium correlations to simulate cesium breakthrough curves from R-F resin columns. Results show that accuracy of the predicted breakthrough curves are directly related to the accuracy of the isotherm data and correlations. Cesium breakthrough position is generally predicted to within 5% or less for 10 of 13 runs over linear superficial velocities of 0.16 to 8.8 cm/min, column lengths of 3.14 to 118.5 cm, and particle radii of 145 to 200 microm. One run shows later breakthrough than predicted as a result of a low potassium concentration in the feed. Two other runs show early breakthroughs as a result of channeling in poorly packed columns of a carousel system. Despite the channeling, strong thermodynamic self-sharpening effects helped establish constant pattern waves in the downstream columns. A case study for a pilot-scale carousel unit shows that 100% utilization of cesium capacity and maximum throughput can be achieved while containing the mass transfer zone within the downstream columns. Since intraparticle diffusion controls spreading of the breakthrough curves, reducing the particle radius from 200 to 145 microm increases throughput by 40%

  18. Correlation of dental pulp stones, carotid artery and renal calcifications using digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Yeluri; C Anand Kumar; Namita Raghav

    2015-01-01

    Background: The human tissues continuously undergo modification as deposition of calcium (CA) salts either in an organized or disorganized pattern. The latter pattern usually occurs in the soft tissues such as in arteries, brain, kidneys, lungs, and dental pulp. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification (CDC) as a marker for renal calcification and altered serum biomarkers such as serum CA, phosphorus (P), and alkaline phospha...

  19. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  20. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O) and NaOH solution (of variable concentration). Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α) was determined from hydration hea...

  1. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder rotational speed: 55, 70, 85 rpm. Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 15. As the results show, pulping of rice stem fiber can be done at a relatively short pretreatment time about 4 hours and a low NaOH concentration about 0.8% by twin-screw extruder with limit extrusion temperature of about 80 oC and extruder rotational speed about 85 rpm. The effect of pretreatment solvent, NaOH, is greatly enhanced by increases in the extrusion temperature. Analysis of the results revealed that this process has suitable potential to be used to obtain a pulp with yields approximately equivalent to neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping at fixed kappa number, which is applicable for fluting paper and linerboard production.

  2. Failure analysis of a heat exchanger used of a wood pulp bleaching process; Analise de falha de um trocador de calor utilizado no processo de branqueamento da polpa de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.B.V.; Moreto, J.A.; Rossino, L.S.; Spinelli, D.; Tarpani, J.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (SMM/EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica

    2010-07-01

    This study involved an investigation of the failure of a heat exchanger used in the ozone destruction stage of a wood pulp bleaching process at a pulp plant. The following procedures were carried out to determine the causes of the failure: a chemical analysis of the component, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurements of hardness and of corrosion-related mass loss, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion damage of the heat exchanger was caused by chloric and sulfuric acid, which led to pitting, grooving and cracking, as well as generalized corrosion of the component (AISI 316L steel). Nitric acid caused minimal damage to the heat exchanger, with minor generalized corrosion and occasional pitting. White crystals rich in sulfur and chlorine were identified as the corrosive agents acting inside the heat exchanger. (author)

  3. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  4. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  5. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  6. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus. Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, pulp was exposed. In the experimental group, the perforations were capped with Emdogain® (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland, while in the control group pulp capping was performed with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. The observational period was 28 days, after which the animal was sacrificed and histological preparations were made. A light microscope was used to analyze dentin bridge formation, tissue reorganization and inflammation, and the presence of bacteria in the pulp. Results. The formation of dentin bridge was observed in the experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Angiogenesis and many odontoblast-like cells, responsible for dentin bridge formation, were observed. Necrosis was not observed in any case, nor were bacteria present in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated a favorable therapeutic effect of Emdogain® Gel in direct pulp capping of Vietnamese pigs. Pulp reaction was similar to that of MTA®. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON172026

  7. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  8. THE EFFECT OF HEMICELLULOSE EXTRACTION ON FIBER CHARGE PROPERTIES AND RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF KRAFT PULP FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Lyytikäinen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The integrated forest biorefinery (IFBR concept provides a promising opportunity for the development of the pulp and paper industry. One proposed next generation technology for an integrated forest biorefinery is the extraction of hemicelluloses, allowing the co-production of pulp and different hemicellulose-based chemicals. In addition to paper properties, hemicelluloses are known to be important for the function of cationic papermaking additives, because they are the main source of charged groups in fibers. This paper shows that the alkaline extraction of hemicelluloses from bleached kraft pulp decreases both the total and surface charge of the pulps. It was found that the decreased fiber charge leads to increased filler retention with fixed retention aid dosage. The reduction observed in the fiber surface charge for alkali-extracted pulp was mainly attributed to the decrease in the amount of anionic groups located in fines.

  9. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.G. [Science Applications International Corp., Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  10. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  11. Chemical and sensory characterization of orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp,a by-product of orange juice processing using gas-chromatography-olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile composition of commercial orange pulp (from Brazil and Florida, U.S.A.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Olfactometry (GC-O). In both samples 72 volatiles were detected, of which 58 were identified. Odor-active compounds with high frequency of detection (...

  12. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  13. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  14. Processing of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) fruits : a case study on health-promoting compounds in marula pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwilepo-van Hal, P.

    2013-01-01

    Marula is a multipurpose tree from Southern Africa, used by local people for its fruit, and cosmetic oil from the seed and for medicinal products from the bark and leaves. Fruits are eaten raw, or used to prepare juices, jams, conserves, dry fruit rolls, or fermented to make alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and Amarula. The fruit is a vital source of vitamin C for rural people most of whom cannot afford other more expensive sources of vitamin C. The specific processing methods and conditio...

  15. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor

  16. Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry – A screening of wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The fiber fraction of the KP mills holds a large methane potential. ► CH4-yields of the alkaline ECF effluents were higher when hardwood was processed. ► Acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora. ► Effluents from TMP and NSSC mills gave CH4-yields >40% of the theoretical potential. ► Most samples from the CTMP mills yielded 40–50% of the theoretical CH4-potential. - Abstract: With the final aim of reducing the energy consumption and increase the methane production at Swedish pulp and paper mills, the methane potential of 62 wastewater effluents from 10 processes at seven pulp and/or paper mills (A–G) was determined in anaerobic batch digestion assays. This mapping is a first step towards an energy efficient and more sustainable utilization of the effluents by anaerobic digestion, and will be followed up by tests in lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. Five of the mills produce kraft pulp (KP), one thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), two chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and two neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp. Both elementary and total chlorine free (ECF and TCF, respectively) bleaching processes were included. The effluents included material from wood rooms, cooking and oxygen delignification, bleaching (often both acid- and alkali effluents), drying and paper/board machinery as well as total effluents before and after sedimentation. The results from the screening showed a large variation in methane yields (percent of theoretical methane potential assuming 940 NmL CH4 per g TOC) among the effluents. For the KP-mills, methane yields above 50% were obtained for the cooking effluents from mills D and F, paper machine wastewater from mill D, condensate streams from mills B, E and F and the composite pre-sedimentation effluent from mill D. The acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora and also seemed to have a negative effect on the yields of composite effluents downstream while

  17. Using renewable sources in the pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulp and paper industry is a major consumer of natural sources (wood) and energy (fossil fuels, electricity) and a significant contributor of pollutant discharges to the environment. In this paper there are presented pulp and paper making process and steam and power generation using renewable sources. This paper includes also an exergy analysis of the steam and power generation process for a pulp and paper mill. Based on the analysis, two sustainability indicators were calculated: the exergetic efficiency and the exergy renewability. (authors)

  18. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  19. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together

  20. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  1. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lyberatos, G.

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  2. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  3. RAT DENTAL PULP RESPONSE TO PROPOLIS AS A DIRECT PULP CAPPING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Ardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp capping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP. An occlusal cavity was prepared on the right maxillary first molar of Spraque-Dawley rats. The dental pulp was exposed and the lined with a zinc-oxide based filler as a control (group I, or with EEP (group II. Then, each cavity was filled with glass ionomer cement. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2, or 4. Biopsy samples were obtained, and these were stained and viewed by a light microscope. The histological examination was based on the presence of polymorph nuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and also the dentinal bridge formation. Data were statistically analysed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that the inflammatory response of EEP group was relatively milder compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the two groups. There was no dentinal bridge formation seen in both groups. Therefore, the present results suggest that direct pulp capping with EEP in rats may delay pulp inflammatory process and fail to stimulate reparative dentin.

  4. Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal Neto, C.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic extractives of Eucalyptus globulus , Eucalyptus grandis , Eucalyptus urograndis , Betula verrucosa and Acacia mangium woods and of the corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps, were characterised by GC-MS. The five hardwoods showed significant differences in the content and composition of the main families of extractives, namely fatty acids, long chain aliphatic alcohols and sterols. Significant differences in the composition persist after wood pulping and ECF bleaching of pulps. The fate of the various types of extractives during the wood and pulp processing is discussed. Long chain aliphatic acids and alcohols are quite stable during the pulp production and are retained to a great extent in the final bleached pulp; delta 5 sterols are mostly oxidised and partially retained in the pulps, while delta 7 sterols are completely degraded and/or dissolved. B. verrucosa and A. mangium bleached pulps show contents of fatty acids about 4 and 20 times higher than that of Eucalyptus pulps, respectively, while the content of long chain aliphatic alcohols in A. mangium pulp is of the order of 100 times higher than Eucalyptus and B. verrucosa pulps.

  5. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  6. Wood pulp characterization by a novel photoacoustic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we introduce a novel photoacoustic sensing technique that captures a photoacoustic signal excited by a laser light pulse after the light has propagated through a turbid medium. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic sound wave is captured after it has propagated through the same turbid medium. By combining the two signals, more information on the investigated medium can be obtained. Applications can be found in the pulp and paper industry where monitoring wood pulp compositions is of interest. Depending on its origin, pulp suspension contains different compositions of fibres and fibre fragments (fines). Poor control of the pulp composition leads to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and energy efficiency in the pulp mill. The result shows the feasibility of the photoacoustic sensor in monitoring the mass fractions of fibres and fines in a pulp suspension. The first received echo, corresponding to the light interaction with the sample, showed a stronger correlation to the fines mass fraction compared to fibre mass fraction. The second echo, corresponding to the sound wave interaction with the sample, showed a much stronger correlation to fibre mass fraction than to fines mass fraction. Hence, it is proposed that by combining these two echoes, more information about the pulp suspension could be extracted than from any other sensor built on a single sensing principle. (paper)

  7. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  8. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  9. Enhancing hemicelluloses removal from a softwood sulfite pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Hongjie; Duan, Chao; Liu, Yishan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Hemicelluloses removal is highly desirable in many biomass processes, including the pretreatment steps of the bioconversion for ethanol production, production of high-quality dissolving pulps. In this study, a sequential treatment consisting of pulp fractionation, followed by caustic treatment to remove hemicelluloses from a softwood sulfite pulp, was investigated. The long-fiber fraction obtained after pulp fractionation, had a lower hemicelluloses content and smaller specific surface area, but larger pore diameter than the short-fiber fraction. The fiber fractions were subsequently treated in a cold caustic extraction (CCE) or hot caustic extraction (HCE). Results showed that hemicelluloses removal in the long-fiber fraction was more pronounced than the short-fiber fraction in both CCE and HCE processes. Other parameters, such as hemicelluloses removal selectivity, yield were studied. The underlying explanations were given. PMID:26004557

  10. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs

  11. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood : Effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Converting wood into paper is a complex process involving many different stages, one of which is pulping. Pulping involves liberating the wood fibres from each other, which can be done either chemically or mechanically. This thesis focuses on the most common chemical pulping method, the kraft cooking process, and especially on a recently developed improvement of the impregnation phase, which is the first part of a kraft cook. Extended impregnation kraft cooking (EIC) technique is demonstrated...

  13. Reducing the hydrogen production cost by operating alkaline electrolysis as a discontinuous process in the French market context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible reduction of the hydrogen production cost when operating alkaline electrolysers in a discontinuous way, in order to benefit from low electricity prices, is investigated. Beside the insights about the electricity market (prices do not correlate the demand; they are related to the supply-and-demand hardness), advances in modelling discontinuous operation are proposed. An optimum production cost is found that induces a profit of 4%, with regard to a plant that would work continuously. Specific attention should be given to related over-costs: additional degradation due to frequent transitions from the minimum electrolyser load to the nominal one, higher maintenance needs, and hydrogen storage costs. Such an operating mode would also greatly benefit from a reduction of the electrolyser prices. However, the state-of-the-art as regards the electrolyser minimum loads and transition time appears satisfactory. (authors)

  14. Pulp and plaque microbiotas of children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Chalmers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide

  15. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    OpenAIRE

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-01-01

    In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of cof...

  16. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100. The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L-1; starch, 15.0 g.L-1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L-1; incubation temperature, 34.12 ºC and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL-1. The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R² value (0.9987. The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization.

  17. Fluxes and enhancement of natural radionuclides in a pulp mill factory located in the south-west of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of several naturally occurring radionuclides (with 226Ra as a key radionuclide) have been determined by different radiometric techniques in samples representatives of the raw material (eucalyptus wood, fresh water), industrial process (liquors) and wastes (sludges, ashes) of a pulp-mill factory located in the south-west of Spain. This facility follows the so-called alkaline process for the production of cellulose pulp, and especially in several steps of its recycling line (in the so-called Ca-cycle) tends to concentrate several natural radionuclides. Annually in this factory, 725 000 m3 of wood are treated and 241 404 t of cellulose are produced. Radiometric determinations have allowed us to evaluate the fluxes of several natural radionuclides throughout the process and to determine their enrichment factors. In this sense, we can indicate that, annually, more than 200 MBq of 226Ra enters the process associated with the raw material, about 160 MBq leaves the production process associated with wastes, while annual fluxes ranging from 1200-1800 MBq have been found in the Ca-cycle of the recycling line. (author)

  18. A study on the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in hot alkaline-sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Kevin Robert

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) generally have superior strength and corrosion resistance as compared to most standard austenitic and ferritic stainless grades owing to a balanced microstructure of austenite and ferrite. As a result of having favorable properties, DSS have been selected for the construction of equipment in pulp and paper, chemical processing, nuclear, oil and gas as well as other industries. The use of DSS has been restricted in some cases because of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which can initiate and grow in either the ferrite or austenite phase depending on the environment. Thorough understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in chloride- and hydrogen sulfide-containing solutions has been useful for material selection in many environments. However, understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in sulfide-containing caustic solutions is limited, which has restricted the capacity to optimize process and equipment design in pulp and paper environments. Process environments may contain different concentrations of hydroxide, sulfide, and chloride, altering corrosion and SCC susceptibility of each phase. Crack initiation and growth behavior will also change depending on the relative phase distribution and properties of austenite and ferrite. The role of microstructure and environment on the SCC of standard grade UNS S32205 and lean grade UNS S32101 in hot alkaline-sulfide solution were evaluated in this work using electrochemical, film characterization, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and microscopy techniques. Microstructural aspects, which included residual stress state, phase distribution, phase ratio, and microhardness, were related to the propensity for SCC crack initiation in different simulated alkaline pulping liquors at 170 °C. Other grades of DSS and reference austenitic and superferritic grades of stainless steel were studied using exposure coupons for comparison to understand compositional effects and individual phase susceptibility

  19. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process. PMID:26752149

  20. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  1. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  2. Immobilization of B, F, Cr, and As in alkaline coal fly ash through an aging process with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Sakakibara, Kento; Wang, Li; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2014-10-01

    Fourteen different alkaline coal fly ashes (CFAs) were used for the experiment, in which each sample was mixed with water to be 28.6% of water content (wt/wt) and aged for 1-4 weeks at 10-30 °C. This simple treatment is advantageous for decreases in water-soluble B, F, Cr, and As. Compared to non-aged CFAs, their water-soluble fractions remained 0.56-88%, 21-85%, 0.37-93% and 2.6-88%, respectively, after aging for a week at 20 °C, although the amounts of Cr and As released from some CFA samples increased. Considering the significant decrease in elution of sulfate, Ca and Al after aging, the immobilization, namely prevention of toxic element elution, could be related to formation of secondary minerals such as portlandite, gypsum and ettringite. Immobilization of B and Cr tends to proceed preferentially under colder conditions. Aging at higher temperatures enhances the leachability of Cr in some CFA samples. Contrary to the behavior of B and Cr, water-soluble F effectively decreases under warmer conditions. PMID:25004853

  3. Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO4-) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO4- extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO4- extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar reg-sign M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 x 10-5 M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent

  4. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD

    2006-11-30

    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HLB VALUE AND ENZYMATIC TREATMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF OLD NEWSPAPER DEINKED PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Mayeli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current deinking processes use potentially environmentally damaging chemicals in large quantities. The use of enzymes could be an attractive alternative to certain other chemicals used in deinking. In this research, the effects of different HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance values and enzymatic treatments on the deinking of old newspaper pulp (ONP was studied, and optical properties and mechanical strengths of deinked pulps (DIP were determined. Enzymatic treatments of old newspaper pulps were performed at two temperatures, 20°C and 50°C. Nonionic surfactants with different HLB values were used as the flotation agent. The flotation was conducted for pulps with and without enzymatic treatment. The results showed that brightness values for the floated pulp without enzyme treatment were slightly greater than for the enzyme-treated deinked pulp. Also, dirt count for treated pulps with commercial cellulase and floated with ethoxylated fatty alcohol of HLB 12 at 50°C was lower than that of other pulps. The mechanical strengths of the enzymatically deinked pulps, in terms of burst, tensile, folding endurance, E-MOD, and elongation, were increased, but tear strength for the floated pulps with ethoxylated fatty alcohol of HLB 12 was increased at 50°C without enzymatic treatment. Also, the deinking efficiency of handsheets made from treated pulps with commercial cellulase and ethoxylated fatty alcohol of HLB 12 was highest. The treated pulps with enzyme only, with a combination of commercial cellulase and lipase at 50°C, showed the lowest freeness value in comparison with other pulps.

  6. An oxidant and organic solvent tolerant alkaline lipase by P. aeruginosa mutant: downstream processing and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant has been purified to homogeneity using acetone precipitation followed by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and resulted in 27-fold purification with 19.6% final recovery. SDS-PAGE study suggested that the purified lipase has an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified lipase were 45 °C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable stability in pH range of 7.0-11.0 and temperature range 35-55 °C. The metal ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Na(+) tend to increase the enzyme activity, whereas, Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) ions resulted in discreet decrease in the activity. Divalent cations Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) seemed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation at high temperatures and in presence of Ca(+2) (5 mM) the optimum temperature shifted from 45 °C to 55 °C. The purified lipase displayed significant stability in the presence of several hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic solvents (25%, v/v) up to 168 h. The pure enzyme preparation exhibited significant stability and compatibility with oxidizing agents and commercial detergents as it retained 40-70% of its original activities. The values of K(m) and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) under optimal conditions were determined to be 2.0 mg.mL(-1) and 5000 μg.mL(-1).min(-1), respectively. PMID:24688527

  7. An oxidant and organic solvent tolerant alkaline lipase by P. aeruginosa mutant: downstream processing and biochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant has been purified to homogeneity using acetone precipitation followed by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and resulted in 27-fold purification with 19.6% final recovery. SDS-PAGE study suggested that the purified lipase has an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified lipase were 45°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable stability in pH range of 7.0-11.0 and temperature range 35-55 °C. The metal ions Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ tend to increase the enzyme activity, whereas, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions resulted in discreet decrease in the activity. Divalent cations Ca+2 and Mg+2 seemed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation at high temperatures and in presence of Ca+2 (5 mM the optimum temperature shifted from 45°C to 55°C. The purified lipase displayed significant stability in the presence of several hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic solvents (25%, v/v up to 168 h. The pure enzyme preparation exhibited significant stability and compatibility with oxidizing agents and commercial detergents as it retained 40-70% of its original activities. The values of Km and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP under optimal conditions were determined to be 2.0 mg.mL-1 and 5000 μg.mL-1.min-1, respectively.

  8. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  9. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  10. Ion-exchange separation of nitrate from alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO3 microspheres by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the studies carried out for the separation of nitrate from hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea which are present in the alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO3 microspheres by sol-gel process. For separation, Dowex 1 X 4 was used as ion exchanger and 0.5 M NaOH was used as eluent. Experiments were conducted both under batch equilibration conditions as well as through column. The distribution ratio data for nitrate at different equilibrium concentration in solution phase were used to determine the capacity of the resin. The batch equilibration as well as column experiments showed that nitrate can be separated. The studies quantified the extent of nitrate removal from the waste and the amount of additional waste generated. (author)

  11. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Villela; Ângela Giovana Batista; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with...

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Lesiecki; Wojciech Białas; Grażyna Lewandowicz

    2012-01-01

    Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol ferment...

  13. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  14. [Application of Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy in analysis of pulp and paper industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun

    2011-03-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying. PMID:21595211

  15. Key Processing Technologies for Yacon Juice Beverage with Pulp%雪莲果果粒果汁饮料生产关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾仁勇; 罗莉萍; 李好

    2011-01-01

    对雪莲果果粒果汁饮料生产中的护色、产品配方确定及稳定剂选择等关键技术进行研究。采用单因素试验、正交试验及对比试验分别确定复合护色剂的最优配比、产品配方及复合稳定剂的比例和用量。结果表明:复合护色剂的最优配比为VC 0.20g/100mL、柠檬酸0.20g/100mL、Na2SO3 0.15g/100mL;雪莲果果粒果汁饮料最优配方为雪莲果原汁用量25.0g/100mL、雪莲果粒用量6.0g/100mL、柠檬酸用量0.15g/100mL、蔗糖用量7.0g/100mL;复合稳定剂组成为卡拉胶:明胶=1:2,用量0.25g/100mL。%In the production of yacon juice beverage with pulp,key technologies,such as color fixation,product formulation and stabilizer formulation were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal color fixative formula(per 100 mL)was composed of VC 0.20 g,citric acid 0.20 g and Na2SO3 0.15 g.The optimal beverage formula(per 100 mL) consisted of yacon juice 25.0 g,yacon pulp 6.0 g,citric acid 0.15 g and sucrose 7.0 g.The optimal stabilizer was carrageenan-gelatin at a ratio of 1:2,added at a ratio of 0.25 g/100 mL.

  16. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  17. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus, steam exploded chips and control chips were subjected to kraft cookings. Steam exploded chips provided pulps with reductions of kappa number by up to 70% with no significant change in viscosity. Therefore, the cooking time could be shortened by 60%, increasing the productivity and obtaining pulps with similar delignification degree to those of the control pulp. Furthermore, not only the production rate could be increased, but also most of the hemicelluloses could be recovered before pulping and converted to a value-added product. Finally, although exploded pulp had inferior mechanical strength, the optical properties, which are more important in eucalyptus pulps, were found to be better.

  18. Thermoluminescent and optical processes in alkaline halogenides dosemeters contaminated with Europium; Procesos opticos y termoluminiscentes en dosimetros de halogenuros alcalinos contaminados con Europio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza F, M.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Pedroza M, M.; Chernov, V.; Perez S, R.; Aceves, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Recent research results are presented about the properties of the optical processes of photo transferred thermoluminescence (TLFT), optical whitening (BO), thermoluminescence induced by light (TLL) and its effect in the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) produced by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The systematic analysis of all these processes, acquires a singular importance due that actually the alkaline halogenide crystals are object of intense investigations which analyse their potential applications as detectors and radiation dosemeters through stimulated optical luminescence techniques or thermoluminescence. The obtained data show that the Tl curve of material with this nature can be enormously affected by exposure of phosphorus to the environmental light or UV. This is in part due to liberation processes of charge bearers are shouted and makes a subsequent trapping in less temperature traps; at the same time that induce changes in the intensity of determined Tl bands. Additionally, also it is observed that mentioned phenomena are related as with wavelength of incident light as of the illumination time. Finally, the obtained information allows to conclude that although the illumination effect is extremely complex, it is associated and can be explained mainly with phenomena that implicate the electrons excitation trapped in form of F centers and trapping mechanisms or radioactive and non-radioactive recombination. (Author)

  19. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture. PMID:24195353

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' AMONG PULP AND PAPER MILL WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from as...

  1. Study of the processes resulting from the use of alkaline seed in natural gas-fired MHD facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical changes of the seed and the heat and mass transfer processes resulting from seed application are investigated using the U-02 experimental MHD facility and laboratory test facilities. Engineering methods for calculating the processes of seed droplet vaporization, condensation and the precipitation of submicron particles of K2CO3 on the heat exchange surface are also included

  2. Study of the processes resulting from the use of alkaline seed in natural gas-fired MHD facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styrikovich, M.A.; Mostinskii, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical changes of the seed and the heat and mass transfer processes resulting from seed application are investigated using the U-02 experimental MHD facility and laboratory test facilities. Engineering methods for calculating the processes of seed droplet vaporization, condensation and the precipitation of submicron particles of K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ on the heat exchange surface are also included.

  3. 用木材生产生物燃料与纸浆%From Wood to Biofuels and Pulp Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚光裕

    2012-01-01

    A mild alkaline treatment was applied to aspen chips prior to kraft pulping in order .to ex- tract hemicellulose for use as biofuels(bioethanol),the extraction was performed at 90℃, NaOH 1-2M,liguor towood ratio 1-4. It resulted in a recovery of 40-50kg of hemicellulose per ton of chips and yieled the same amount of pulp after subsequent pulping of the extracted chips,as compared to a control cook. The pre-extract process requires careful optimization of the pulping process and allows shorter cooking time and lower chemical charges. The process did not costly pressurized reaction ves- sels. Kraft pulps obtained from per-extracted chips have a slightiy higher cellulose/hemicellulose ratio and demonstrate a small decrease in tensile index(10%), but improved brightness and shive content, while the hemiecllulose yield for this process is low, this problem is outweighed by the fact that pulp properties and pulping yield can be maintained at a high level. The recovered hemicellulose can be con- centrated and isolateed more easily than furfural obtained by autohydrolysis or dilute acid treatment.%杨木木片硫酸盐制浆前,进行缓和的碱抽提处理,抽提出半纤维素用作生物燃料(生物乙醇),在温度90℃,NaOH1-2M,液比1:4条件下进行碱处理,不需要高压设备,每吨木片得到半纤维素40-50kg,经碱抽提后木片进行硫酸盐蒸煮,与未经碱抽提木片参照对比,纸浆得率基本相同,但是需要很好地控制碱抽提与硫酸盐蒸煮工艺条件,能缩短蒸煮时间和节省化学品用量。碱预抽提木片得到的硫酸盐纸浆中纤维素/半纤维素的比率稍高,导致纸浆的抗张指数稍有降低(约10%),但是纸浆白度较高且筛渣含量低,为使硫酸盐纸浆的质量和得率保持较高水平,采用缓和的碱预抽提,使半纤维素得率较低,而回收的半纤维素的浓缩和离析比木片自水解或稀酸水解回收糠醛更加容易。

  4. Engineering structural integrity issues in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESI issues for Pulp and Paper (P and P) plant are reviewed. Five typical processes are covered, namely: Chemical Pulping, Bleaching, Chemical Recovery, Mechanical Pulping and Papermaking. Equipment, chemical environments and failure modes are summarized with examples from each process. Pressure, temperature, corrosion and rotation are typical sources of risk, which is managed by appropriate inspection. The nature of the P and P Industry and its technology supply is summarized: current trends are consolidation and outsourcing. Three examples are presented to illustrate typical ESI issues: deaerator cracking where the P and P Industry alerted others to this serious cross-industry problem; pressure vessel safety factors and inconsistent international codes; and caustic cracking in continuous kraft digesters, which required rapid and concerted action to diagnose and control. In the future better predictability, data-bases, more formal risk based inspection and fitness-for-service assessments are envisaged. (author)

  5. [Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L A; Vélez, A J; de Rozo, M P

    1985-09-01

    The polyphenol content of coffee pulp extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The use of polyvynilpirrolidone (PVP) was introduced in order to eliminate interferences. Condensed polyphenols in the extracts were determined by the method of acidified vanillin. Chlorogenic acid and catechin were used as standards for Folin-Ciocalteau and Vanillin methods, respectively, and a calibration curve was constructed for each solvent. The solvents used were methanol, methanol-water (50:50), ammonium hydroxide (3%) and calcium hydroxide (1%), using times of extraction of 10 minutes and 1 hour. No differences were found in the amount of polyphenols extracted by the different solvents at the two extraction times. After 10 minutes, the alkaline solvents NH4OH (3%) and Ca(OH)2 (1%), extracted more polyphenols than the other two solvents. Nevertheless, ammonium hydroxide (3%) was more efficient in extracting condensed polyphenols. The results herein presented suggest that treating coffee pulp with mild alkaline solvents may improve its nutritive value. PMID:3842054

  6. Pengaruh Total Solid Dan Total Alkali Aktif Pada Black Liqour (Lindi Hitam) Terhadap Kualitas Pulp Yang Dihasilkan Evaporator PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Rinto Pagabe

    2016-01-01

    Has made observations about the effect of a solid, solid total and total active alkali to black liquor in an effort to produce pulp that meets the quality standards in the cooking process in the evaporator unit, PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea. To obtain total solid and the desired total active alkali to black liquor can be arranged in the cooking process in the evaporator unit. Where more viscous black substance liquor cooker is better also the quality of the pulp produced by the evaporat...

  7. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  8. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  9. Radioactive Demonstration of Caustic Recovery from Low-Level Alkaline Nuclear Waste by an Electrochemical Separation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench-scale radioactive tests successfully demonstrated an electrochemical process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide (caustic) from Decontaminated Salt Solution produced from the In-Tank Precipitation and Effluent Treatment Processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This testing evaluated two membranes: an organic-based membrane, Nafion Type 350, manufactured by E. I. duPont de Nemours ampersand Company, Inc. (DuPont) and an inorganic-based membrane, NAS D, being developed by Ceramatec. Both membranes successfully separated caustic from radioactive SRS waste.Key findings of the testing indicate the following attributes and disadvantages of each membrane. The commercially-available Nafion membrane proved highly conductive. Thus, the electrochemical cell can operate at high current density minimizing the number of cells at the desired volumetric processing rate. Testing indicated cesium transported across the Nafion membrane into the caustic product. Therefore, the caustic product will contain low-levels of radioactive cesium due to the presence of 134,137Cs in the waste feed. To meet customer requirements, a post treatment stage may prove necessary to remove radioactive cesium resulting in increased overall process costs and decreased cost savings. In contrast to the Nafion membrane, the NAS D membrane demonstrated the production of caustic with much lower levels of gamma radioactivity (137Cs activity was < 51 dpm/g). Therefore, the caustic product could possibly release for onsite/offsite use without further treatment. The NAS D membrane remains in the development stage and does not exist as a commercial product. Operating costs and long-term membrane durability remain unknown.Caustic recovery has been successfully demonstrated in a bench-scale, 2-compartment electrochemical reactor operated for brief periods of time with simulated and radioactive waste solutions and two different types of membranes. The next phase of testing should be directed at (1

  10. Recovery of uranium from loaded resin of processing in-situ leaching solution by alkaline elution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium carbonate-ammonium sulfate solution is used as an eluant to elute uranium from loaded resin in the compact moving-bed column. Uranium concentration is up to about 10 g/L in eluate. The eluate is then heated to precipitate uranium and recover chemicals. The prepared yellow cake contains 60% of moisture and >60% of uranium (based on dried yellow cake). About 70% of CO2 and nearly all NH3 are recovered by condensing and absorbing from released gases during heating process of the eluate. The recovered chemicals and mother liquor after precipitation can be recycled for reuse

  11. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  12. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. PMID:23073109

  13. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  14. Intensified alkaline leaching pretreatment of refractory gold concentrates at common temperature and pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宇群; 吴敏杰; 宿少玲; 王隆保

    2003-01-01

    A new process for the hydrometallurgy of refractory gold concentrates was presented. The process comprises grinding-leaching, intensified alkaline leaching (IAL), cyanidation and adsorption. In a stirring-type pulverizing-leaching tower mill, the concentrate is ground to <35.6μm of 95.5 % while simultaneously leached by NaOH of 12kg/t, then carried out intensified alkaline leaching for 48h by NaOH of 108kg/t in enhanced agitation tanks with the pulp concentration of 40% solids at the environmental temperature of 9.5 ~ 13.5℃ and the environmental pressure of 105Pa. The oxidation rate of As is 94.9%, and 47.6% for S. The total consumption of NaOH is only 20% of that theoretically calculated under the conditions of full oxidation at the same oxidation rates of arsenic to arsenate and sulfur to sulfate. The gold leaching rate by NaCN in 24h is increased from 9.2% before pretreatment to 94.2%. The consumption of NaCN is 7.5kg/t, which is one times less than that before pretreatment. The extraction cost of gold is about 422Yuan/t.

  15. Processamento do grão de milho e sua substituição parcial por polpa de citros peletizada sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade de nutrientes e parâmetros sangüíneos em vacas leiteiras Corn grain processing and its partial replacement by pelleted citrus pulp on performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Corrêa de Simas

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Quatro vacas lactantes, em arranjo fatorial 2x2, no delineamento Quadrado Latino 4x4, receberam os seguintes tratamentos: milho moído grosso; milho floculado; moído grosso + polpa cítrica; floculado + polpa cítrica. A floculação (efeito processamento aumentou as digestibilidades aparentes (% no trato total da MS, MO, amido e proteína, reduziu a concentração de N-NH3 ruminal, a proporção de acetato, mas aumentou propionato. A floculação tendeu a aumentar eficência alimentar percentual e produção de proteína do leite. Inclusão de polpa não afetou a ingestão de MS e aumentou digestibilidade de fibra. Inclusão de polpa aumentou a digestibilidade do amido (% no tratamento moído grosso. Amonia ruminal e proporção de propionato não foram afetadas pela inclusão de polpa, mas houve significativo aumento de acetato. Houve interação processamento x polpa sobre concentração de glicose plasmática. Produção de leite corrigida, eficiência alimentar, percentual e produção de gordura do leite aumentaram com a inclusão de polpa.Four lactating cows were assigned to a 4x4 Latin square design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement for the following treatments: coarsely ground corn; steam-flaked corn; coarsely ground + citrus pulp; steam-flaked + citrus pulp. Steam-flaking grain (processing effect increased total tract digestibility (% of DM, OM, starch and protein; decreased rumen NH3-N and acetate and increased ruminal propionate. Feed efficiency, milk protein content and yield tended to be higher for flaked corn. Inclusion of citrus pulp did not affect DM intake and increased fiber digestibility. Inclusion of citrus pulp increased starch digestibility (% in the case of coarsely ground corn diet. Rumen ammonia nitrogen and molar proportion of propionate were not affected by citrus pulp; ruminal acetate, however, was significantly increased. There was an interaction between grain processing and citrus pulp on plasma glucose

  16. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  17. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  18. Detection of Chlorophenolic Compounds in Bleaching Effluents of Chemical Pulps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chhaya Sharma; S.Mohanty; S.Kumar; N.J.Rao; li qian

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory bleaching effluents from the chlorination and caustic extraction stages of mixed wood kraft pulp processing have been analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively for various chlorophenolics by using GC.A number of chlorinated derivaties of phenols,catechols,guaiacols and syringaldehydes have been detected and their concentrations are estimated.The results are compared with that of different agriculture residue / hardwood pulps,which were reported in literature.The concentrations of various compounds detected have also been compared with their reported 96LC50 values.

  19. Environmental regulation of the Norwegian pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses how the Norwegian pulp and paper industry has adapted to the emission requirements given by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) during the last 30 years. The authors have identified process alterations and internal measures in the factories that are due to stricter emission requirements, and they have identified external cleaning measures. The report also documents the interaction between the companies and SFT and it maps out real and permitted emissions to water and air from the Norwegian pulp and paper industry

  20. Flax pulp bleaching and residual lignin modification by laccase-mediator systems

    OpenAIRE

    Camarero, Susana; García Ballesteros, Olga; Vidal, T; Colom, J.; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Martínez Hernández, María Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T.

    2002-01-01

    Enzymatic bleaching of flax alkaline pulp is intended here by using laccase-mediator systems (LMS) based on Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccases and two mediators. The efficiency of the different LMS treatments was compared in terms of brightness, kappa number and viscosity modifications. Furthermore, changes in the molecular structure of residual lignin and lignin/carbohydrate ratio were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the ...

  1. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Branislav V.; Šereš Zita I.; Gyura Julianna F.; Sakač Marijana B.; Simović-Šoronja Dragana M.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.; Pajin Biljana S.

    2013-01-01

    Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy co...

  2. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  3. Wood and non-wood pulp production. Comparative ecological footprinting on the Canadian prairies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp production accounts for a major part of the Canadian forest industry. Because of the ecological damage caused by the industry, there has been growing interest in the use of agricultural residues as an alternative or supplementary fibre source for pulp making. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of crop residues has the potential to reduce the environmental 'load' associated with pulp production. We answer this question by estimating and comparing the ecological footprints of the currently dominant practice of using spruce and aspen harvested from the boreal forest, with the practice of using plant fibre from the residue of wheat and flax crops commonly grown in the Canadian prairie provinces. The analysis accounts for all major land and energy inputs associated with the two production processes. The study results indicate that the ecological load of pulp production varies among resources and provinces. However, overall, the total eco-footprint of pulped wheat straw is the smallest. (author)

  4. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio;

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... mix that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint...... accounting was adapted to better represent the efficiency of pulp and paper production. A multi-objective model for supply mix optimization was also developed using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Water footprint accounting confirmed the importance of the production efficiency of chemical pulp...

  5. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; gang Chen; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp.Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together with said liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  6. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaopingWang; gangChen; AiminTang; HongweiZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp. Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together withsaid liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  7. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO2 by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L-1, iron 348 mg L-1) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s-1 for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO2 and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  8. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  9. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Remediation of high pH Cr(VI) contamination related to COPR and its groundwater. • Extensive characterization of COPR and its related groundwater. • Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron. • Critical assessment of reactivity and passivation using spectroscopy and imaging. • Stabilization of the COPR Cr(VI) source by addition of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the

  10. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  11. The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions. The influence of plastic strain on the diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed structural steel (FeE 690T) was investigated using the electrochemical permeation technique. The plastic deformation was introduced either by cold rolling or by tensile straining. Specially prepared C(T)-specimen enabled the direct determination of the diffusion coefficient in the highly deformed region ahead of a blunting crack. It was shown, that the apparent diffusion coefficient depends on the plastic strain and on the overall hydrogen concentration, whereas the maximum hydrogen flux remained almost unchanged. These observations are interpreted in terms of variations in the dislocation density, which act as 'sinks' for the diffusable hydrogen atoms. The results are compared with model calculations, that describe the hydrogen transport as a function of the trap density. The comparison of the numerical simulation and the experimental data shows a good agreement over the whole range of plastic strain levels, leading to a trap density of 6.1.1019/d3. Together with the results of a previous study on the fracture toughness of FeE 690T in the presence of hydrogen the permeation data obtained in this work suggest that the observed influence of deformation rates on the fracture mechanism can be attributed to the reduced mobility of hydrogen atoms in the plastic zone. The assumption that the hydrogen transport during monotonic straining is controlled by diffusion was confirmed by investigations concerning the formation of surface films. Using a potentiodynamic method (cyclovoltammetry) a characterisation of the surface reactions involved in permeation experiments was performed. It was shown that the nature of the passive layers forming on the surface depends on the applied potential, affecting mainly the hydrogen absorption

  12. Assessing the value of pulp mill biomass savings in a climate change conscious economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp mills use significant amounts of biofuels, both internal and purchased. Biofuels could contribute to reach greenhouse gas emission targets at competitive costs. Implementing process integration measures at a pulp mill in order to achieve pulp production with less use of energy (biofuels) has not only on-site consequences but also off-site consequences, such as substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere by the saved pulp mill biofuels, and less on-site electric power generation. In this paper a method, a linking model, is suggested to analyse pulp mill biofuel saving measures when carbon dioxide (CO2) external costs are internalised. The linking model is based on equilibrium economics and links information from CO2 constrained energy market future scenarios with process integration measures. Pulp mill economics and marginal energy market CO2 response are identified. In an applied study, four process integration measures at a Swedish pulp mill were analysed using five energy market future scenarios emanating from a Nordic energy model. The investigated investment alternatives for biofuel savings all result in positive net annual savings, irrespectively of the scenario used. However, CO2 emissions may increase or decrease depending on the future development of the Nordic energy market

  13. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes; Carla Christina de Oliveira Viana; Leandro Sauer; Jeovan De Carvalho Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980) in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industr...

  14. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  15. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  16. On the application of grits to thermomechanical pulp refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somboon, P.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a mechanical pulping process capable of producing good-quality pulp, while consuming less electrical energy. The study focused on applying of grits to TMP refining to enhance the breaking of the fiber cell wall promoting faster development of pulp fibers to the desired quality for papermaking. The study comprises tests at laboratory scale and development of an application for industrial, including trials at pilot scale A preliminary trial with the grit application in TMP refining was conducted at laboratory scale. The results showed that the grits should be introduced between the first and second stages in TMP refining. The grit treatment on the TMP fibers caused disruption of the wall structure, opening of the outer layers and peeling-off of the cell wall. The efficient disruption with minimal shortening and weakening of fibers was found to be operated at a low-intensity and high-frequency of treatment. According to an experiment with first-stage TMP pulp, the disrupted pulp developed faster during subsequent refining, while the energy consumption was reduced by up to 30% without a significant loss of pulp quality. With the aim of developing an industrial application, the refiner segments were modified by applying grits on the refiner segment surfaces. The grits were made from self-fluxing tungsten-carbide powder and a Ni-base alloy powder, which were laser-clad onto the surface of breaker bars, the inner part of a segment. Trials with grit segments were carried out on a pilot refiner. The grit segments were applied in first-stage TMP refining, followed by treatment with base segments operated under normal mill conditions. The grit segments were found to have no negative effects on the refining system. A refiner equipped with grit segments, operated at a speed of 2400 rpm, produced pulp with a higher level of disruption of fiber cell walls than a refiner equipped with the reference segments. According to the results, the

  17. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  18. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  19. EFFECT OF PRIOR MECHANICAL REFINING ON BIOBLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW PULP WITH LACCASE /XYLANASE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lan Lian,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw pulp was mechanochemically processed in a PFI mill in order to improve the effect of laccase/xylanase system (LXS treatment before bleaching. The delignification and bleachability of the prepared pulp were investigated. The delignification of the prepared pulp could be enhanced with the mechanochemical processing (refining and LXS treatment. The delignification was increased by 29.8% with refining 7000 revolutions and 5 IU/g enzyme dosage. The LXS treatment after the mechanochemical process could save 28.6% effective usage of chlorine in the subsequent hypochlorite bleaching process, compared with the traditional bio-bleaching. The crystallinity of cellulose was increased by the co-treatment with mechanochemistry and LXS treatment. This result was further supported by the observations from SEM. This co-treatment with mechanochemistry and bio-treatment enhanced the delignification and bleachability of pulp.

  20. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  1. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of fibre sludge from pulp mill

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Ganna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a part of a project which aims at utilizing fibre sludge from pulp mill as a source of biofuel production. The study concentrates on optimizing one of the processing steps, enzymatic hydrolysis, in converting fibre sludge to bioalcohol. The aim of the thesis was to find optimum process parameters that enable maximum yield of glucose after performing the enzymatic hydrolysis. For this purpose, a series of experiments with changed process parameters was conducted. Also, enzym...

  2. Pulping characteristics of Eucalyptus species grown in Malawi (ODNRI Bulletin No. 33)

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, E. R.; Gibbs, J A; Ganguli, S; Dutta, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Eight species of Eucalyptus, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. cloeziana, E. grandis, E. maculata, E. maidenii, E. saligna and F. tereticornis grown in the Viphya plateau, Malawi, were examined to determine their suitability for the production of papermaking pulp. The size of 9-year-old trees, wood density, chemical characteristics and fibre dimensions are reported. All species were pulped by sulphate, soda and soda-anthraquinone processes. By the sulphate process all species yielded over 4...

  3. Evaluation of hydropyrolysis as an energy-saving alternative to the Tomlinson furnace. Task III. Chemical causes of increased pulp yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The yield-enhancing effect was found to be the result of the presence of small but significant levels of polysulfide and calcium ions. Polysulfide ions are generated during the causticization of the hydropyrolysis filtrate and is the result of a partial-air oxidation of Na/sub 2/S that occurs under conditions existing during the causticizing process. In the presence of residual organics, calcium ions are complexed to form soluble calcium-organo complexes which allow for a carryover of a significant amount of calcium into the final cooking liquor. The presence of both ions in the final cooking liquor allow for pulp yield increases through the formation of alkali-stable aldonic acid end-groups which protect carbohydrates from alkaline-degradation.

  4. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sanghi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% consistency with crude xylanase (6 IU/g o.d. pulp at 60 ºC for 2 h increased the final brightness by 4.9%. The enzyme treatment reduced the chlorine consumption by 28.6% with the same brightness as in the control. A reduction in kappa number and increase in viscosity was observed after enzyme pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loosening and swelling of pulp fibers. The strength properties viz. grammage, fiber thickness, beating degree, tensile index, breaking length, tear index and double fold of the treated pulp were improved as compared to the control pulp. This study reveals the potential of B. subtilis ASH xylanase as a biobleaching agent for the paper and pulp industry.

  5. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenal, D.; Bajpai, P. K.; S P Mishra; Sharma, N.; Anand, A; Bajpai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an...

  6. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Santos Cruz; Antonio Donizette de Oliveira; José Roberto Soares Scolforo; José Luis Pereira de Rezende

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited...

  7. Hf-Nd isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of alkaline and calc-alkaline lamprophyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and trace element, Nd and for the first time Hf isotopic compositions of Central European Hercynian and Alpine alkaline (nephelinites) and calc-alkaline (minettes) lamprophyres are reported. The alkaline dikes have significantly higher initial εNd values (+3.9 to +5.2) than the calc-alkaline dikes (-1 to -7). Their initial εHf values range between +1.9 and +6.0. Both groups show the typical high level of incompatible-element enrichment. In addition the calc-alkaline lamprophyres are characterized by an overabundance of Cs relative to Rb, high Ba/La and Ba/Sr ratios as well as depletion in Nb, Ti and Ta. Covariations between initial εHf-εNd and trace elements suggest that crust-mantle mixing processes were involved in the formation of the calc-alkaline mafic magmas. These data give way to a general, refined model of lamprophyre genesis and provide information about enrichment processes in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. It is suggested that alkaline and calc-alkaline lamprophyres originate from similar mantle segments. Alkaline lamprophyres can be generated by 10% partial melting of a metasomatically enriched garnet peridotite. Calc-alkaline lamprophyres, however, can be generated in subduction related environments by mixing of 5-15% sedimentary melts, strongly enriched in K, Rb, Zr, Hf, Y and REE, produced by partial melting of subducted oceanic sediments, with a metasomatically enriched mantle source similar to that suggested for the ultramafic alkaline dikes. (orig.)

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. The apple pulp waste used as a nourishing base by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. This actual waste from food and agriculture industry was used as a nourishing base by Aspergillus niger MK-15. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts was utilized as a nourishing base by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus niger MK-15. Different concentration on apple pulp (1%; 2%; and 3%, w/v) and different pH initial on the bases (4; 5 and 6) were s...

  10. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Dwi Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  11. Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

  12. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulp (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara: concentration effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Santos Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The umbu is the umbuzeiro fruit (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. which is a tree native of the Brazilian backlands. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of commercial and concentrated umbu pulp to be used as raw material in the production of structured. The commercial pulp (2.5 kg was acquired in the trade of Feira de Santana. The concentration of the evaporator route pulp vacuo to increase the soluble solids content of 8.5ºBrix to 15.5ºBrix It was held in the Food Chemistry Laboratory of the State University of Feira de Santana. It was obtained after concentrating a yield of 41.12% by mass of fruit pulp. The concentration process had no influence in the nutritional value of umbu pulp. The concentrated pulp had the following properties pH (2.43, soluble solids (15.5°Brix, acidity (3.11 g citric acid/100 g, total protein (1.28% - w/v, vitamin C (4.36 mg/100 g - w/v, reducing sugars (6.08% - w/v, total sugars (13.55% - w/v non reducing sugars (7.46% - w/v and ash (0.42% - w/v. The physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulps had similar pH, Total Soluble Solids, acidity, proteins and ashes; higher values of reducing sugars and non-reducing and a lower vitamin C content that the pulps reported in the literature. The concentration process produced an increase in Total Soluble Solids, proteins, acidity, reducing and non reducing sugars and ash content. However there was a decrease in vitamin C concentration of the pulp.

  14. Reductive atmospheric acid leaching of spent alkaline batteries in H2SO4/Na2SO3 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcali, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the optimum reductive leaching process for manganese and zinc recovery from spent alkaline battery paste. The effects of reducing agents, acid concentration, pulp density, reaction temperature, and leaching time on the dissolution of manganese and zinc were investigated in detail. Manganese dissolution by reductive acidic media is an intermediate-controlled process with an activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. After being leached, manganese and zinc were selectively precipitated with sodium hydroxide. The zinc was entirely converted into zincate (Zn(OH){4/2-}) ions and thus did not co-precipitate with manganese hydroxide during this treatment (2.0 M NaOH, 90 min, 200 r/min, pH > 13). After the manganese was removed from the solution, the Zn(OH){4/2-} was precipitated as zinc sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid. The results indicated that this process could be effective in recovering manganese and zinc from alkaline batteries.

  15. Polyoxometalates in Oxidative Delignification of Chemical Pulps: Effect on Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolby Hirth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping, the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification should be performed in a highly selective manner. New environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional chlorine-based bleaching technologies (e.g., oxygen, ozone, or peroxide bleaching have been suggested or implemented. In an attempt to find inorganic agents that mimic the action of highly selective lignin-degrading enzymes and that can be applicable in industrial conditions, the researchers have focused on polyoxometalates (POMs, used either as regenerable redox reagents (in anaerobic conditions or as catalysts (in aerobic conditions of oxidative delignification. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of POM delignification in these two processes.

  16. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  17. Effects of the bleaching sequence on the optical brighteners action in eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the bleaching process the pulp is treated with chemical reagents that can be retained in the pulp and interfere in the action of the optical brighteners. Different bleaching sequences can produce pulps at the same brightness but with different potential to whiteness increase when treated with optical brighteners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bleaching sequence on the efficiency of disulphonated and tetrasulphonated optical brighteners. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was bleached using four different bleaching sequences. For each pulp three brightness targets were aimeds. For each bleaching sequence mathematical model was generated for predicting the final pulp whiteness according to the initial brightness and the optical brightener charge applied. The presence of organochlorine residues in the pulp reduced the effectiveness of the optical brighteners. Therefore, bleaching sequences that use low chlorine dioxide charge favors for greater gains in whiteness with the application of optical brighteners. The replacement of the final chlorine dioxide bleaching stage with a hydrogen peroxide one in the sequence increased the efficiency of the optical brightening agents.

  18. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

  19. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Germgard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out to determine which parameters affected pulp reactivity, as, for example: intrinsic viscosity, kappa number, pulp yield, carbohydrate composition, levelling-off degree of polymerization (LODP, and alkali solubility. The results of the study showed that the pulp reactivity increased with decreasing kappa number, and the highest reactivity was obtained after total lignin removal using chlorite delignification. It was also found that the carbohydrate composition had no influence on the pulp reactivity, but lower intrinsic viscosity either obtained by prolonged cooking or chlorite delignification correlated with higher pulp reactivity. Finally, lower alkali solubility, i.e. higher R18, reduced the reactivity.

  20. Production of Alkaline Protease by Solvent-Tolerant Alkaliphilic Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942 Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Habitat: Process Parameters Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhas Patil; Ambalal Chaudhari

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a newly isolated organic solvent-tolerant and alkaliphilic bacterial strain was reported from a hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel) contaminated soil collected from the petrol station, Shirpur (India). The strain was identified as Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942, based on phenotype, biochemical, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The capability of Bacillus circulans to secrete an extracellular, thermostable, alkaline protease and grow in the presence...

  1. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  2. Biodegradability enhancement by wet oxidation in alkaline media: delignification as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich, S; Kallas, J

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays many industries are considering the recycling of process waters as a way of improving environmental safety, preventing pollution, and avoiding the loss of valuable production materials. One industry in the forefront of this trend is the pulp and paper industry. Lignin is a pollutant present in the mill process waters and such macromolecules can cause problems during biological treatment of process waters. Wet oxidation (WO) is a process that can be used as a pre-treatment method for lignin fragmentation and improvement of biodegradability. Wet oxidation (WO) under alkaline conditions permits faster lignin fragmentation than the conventional WO process and, therefore, should favour biodegradability improvement. In this study, the experiments were carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor with an alkali lignin solution at temperatures up to 438 K, an alkali concentration of 1.5-3.5 g l(-1) and an oxygen partial pressure of 0.4 to 1.5 MPa. At an alkali concentration of 3.5 g l(-1)1 and 0.4 MPa of oxygen partial pressure, an increase in BOD/COD ratio was achieved from an initial 11% to 71%. The experiments also showed that the amount of small molecules in the solution measured by Immediately Available BOD (IA BOD) depends on the amount of alkali added and the operating temperature. PMID:12118617

  3. Dentin Sialophosphoprotein-derived Proteins in the Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R; Oida, S; Yamakoshi, Y

    2015-08-01

    Porcine dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin, is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin. DSPP is processed by proteases into 3 major domains: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP), and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). There are at least 2 mRNA variants expressed from the Dspp gene: one encodes the full-length DSPP protein (DSP+DGP+DPP); the other encodes only DSP. The shorter transcript is generated through the use of a polyadenylation signal within intron 4, immediately following the DSP coding region (DGP and DPP are encoded by exon 5). We fractionated DSPP-derived proteins from the dental pulp of developing porcine incisors using heparin chromatography. DSP was identified, but little DPP could be detected in any fractions. BMP-1 digestion of DSPP-derived proteins extracted from dental pulp did not generate new DPP bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (indicating an absence of intact DSPP), although the results suggested another BMP-1 cleavage site within DSP. We further purified DSPP-derived protein by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Its amino acid composition was similar to DSP. Expression of the full-length Dspp mRNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was significantly higher in odontoblasts than in pulp, while expression of the DSP-only mRNA was almost equal in odontoblasts and in the body of the pulp. Expression of the full-length Dspp mRNA was also significantly higher than the expression of DSP-only mRNA in odontoblasts. Both the full-length and the DSP-only Dspp mRNA showed only trace expression in the pulp tip. We conclude that use of the 3' polyadenylation signal in exon 5 predominates in fully differentiated odontoblasts, while both polyadenylation signals are used throughout odontoblast differentiation. PMID:25951824

  4. Human dental pulp stem cells produce mineralized matrix in 2D and 3D cultures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Riccio; Resca, E.; Maraldi, T; Pisciotta, A.; Ferrari, A; Bruzzesi, G.; De Pol, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in 2D cultures and 3D biomaterials. DPSCs, separated from dental pulp by enzymatic digestion, and isolated by magnetic cell sorting were differentiated toward osteogenic lineage on 2D surface by using an osteogenic medium. During the differentiation process, DPSCs express specific bone proteins like Runx-2, Osx, OPN and OCN with a sequential expression, analogous to those occurr...

  5. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro; Maria E. Eugenio; Esteban Revilla; Juan A. Martin; J. Carlos Villar

    2011-01-01

    Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulpi...

  6. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Cheng; Huaiyu Zhan; Shiyu Fu; Lucian A. Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature) affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The...

  7. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and pa...

  8. A neural fuzzy model applied to hydrogen peroxide bleaching of non-wood soda pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Rosal, Antonio; Valls Vidal, Cristina; Ferrer, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    A neural fuzzy model was used to examine the influence of pulp bleaching variables of empty fruit bunches from oil palm (EFB) and Hesperaloe funifera, such as soda concentration (0.5-3%), hydrogen peroxide concentration (1-10%) and processing time (1-3 h), on Kappa number, brightness and viscosity. The experimental results are reproduced with errors below 10% and 15% for EFB and H. funifera, respectively. Bleaching pulp simulation permits to obtain optimal values of the operating variables, s...

  9. [Endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Pulp exposure and pulp necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R J M

    2005-11-01

    With management of the deep caries in primary teeth we have to take account into the coping strategies of the patient and the state of the development of the dentition. That's why in most cases a root canal treatment of primary incisors or even a pulpotomy is not indicated. Often Intellectual Decision Not To Restore is a good alternative for treatment of deep caries in primary incisors. In deep caries lesions of primary canines and molars preferably minimal invasive techniques as indirect pulp capping are performed. In case of a exposure, the dentist can choose between several types of treatment. Improved techniques have lead to clinical satisfying results of the calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. A partial pulpotomy is if possible the treatment of choice. A resin modified glass ionomer cement is used to cover the pulp wound because it has good sealing properties and it is easy to handle. To limit the burden in young children a root canal treatment in primary teeth is seldom indicated. Overfilling with calcium hydroxide in root canal treatment of primary teeth never causes problems. PMID:16320568

  10. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  11. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  12. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  13. A comparative study about the increase of the yield of paper pulp by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the UNAM Nuclear Studies Center, the irradiation of wood chips was carried out according to the hypotesis that the gamma irradiation would increase the pulp production. The irradiation effect on pine, evergreen oak and Mexican sacred fir was compared through the alkaline terminal hydrolysis (peeling test). Concerning the pine and Mexican sacred fir it was found a maximum yield of the order of 8% and of 3% for the evergreen oak. With regard to the irradiation cost, the maintenance is very simple and economic; the principal investment is represented by the cobalt-60 source whose activity decays to the half every 5.2 years. The mechanism which provokes a diminution of the hemicelluose losing can be due to: modifications of the final reducing groups by oxidation that produces aldonic acids or by cross-linkings hemicellulose-hemicellulose or hemicellulose-lignin. The irradiated chips Kraft pulp is ground more rapidly than the control pulp; the differences in the explosion and tearing forces are very small and the pulps can be considered as equivalent regarding their physical properties for an interval of 70-100 Kappa. (author)

  14. ACCUMULATION OF ALKALIS IN THE RECYCLING FILTRATE OF THE PHOSPHOGYPSUM PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTANAS KAZILIUNAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium and potassium combinations existing in phosphogypsum are highly soluble and remain in the filtrate, their amount increasing with each recycle. It has been determined that the amount of alkalis in the recycling filtrate depends on an amount of alkalis in uncleaned phosphogypsum, a number of recycles in the filtrate, the technology of the phosphogypsum pulp preparation and an amount of soluble phosphates. New phosphate formations composed in an acid medium (pH = 4.5-5 are well crystalized crystals. They do not alter the filtrability of the phosphogypsum pulp. The new combinations formed in an alkaline medium (pH = 7-11 are colloidal. They settle down on the surface of the hard particles and make the filtration of the phosphogypsum pulp complicated. The filtrated phosphogypsum is more humid which causes the growth of the amount of alkalis carried out together with moisture and thus the lower alkali concentration is observed in the recycling filtrate. In the discussed case, the larger amount of soluble phosphates of uncleaned phosphogypsum is formed the larger amount of the colloidal particles in the neutralized phosphogypsum pulp which results in complicated filtration. In all the cases, the alkali concentration in the recycling filtrate approaches the maximum degree which would take place if alkalis existing in uncleaned phosphogypsum were thawed in humidity of cleaned phosphogypsum.

  15. Biobleaching of pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches with laccase and xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Rodríguez, A; Ferrer, A; García-Fuentevilla, L L; Eugenio, M E

    2012-04-01

    Laccase and xylanase were tested for their suitability for biobleaching of soda-anthraquinone pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). An enzymatic stage with xylanase (X) and/or laccase (L) was incorporated before the alkaline extraction stage (E) and the hydrogen peroxide bleaching stage (P). Compared with controls, the LEP sequence resulted in an improvement of optical properties (brightness and colorimetric properties) and a reduction of the kappa number. When xylanase and laccase were used jointly, no improvement was detected, however, when the xylanase application preceded the laccase stage, the beneficial effects of laccase were boosted. Thus, the final XLEP bleached pulp showed a kappa number of 5.4 and a brightness of 60.5% ISO, although the hydrogen peroxide consumption increased (77.0% vs. 64.5% and 73.8% for EP and LEP respectively). Finally, after subjecting the bleached pulps to accelerated ageing, the best optical properties were observed in the XLEP pulp. PMID:22349193

  16. Mg(OH2-BASED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULPS AT HIGH CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Fatehi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the bleaching performance of a Mg(OH2-based hydrogen peroxide process at a high consistency. In this work, an industrially produced chemimechanical pulp (CMP was bleached via Mg(OH2- or NaOH-based hydrogen peroxide processes at 10% and 25% consistencies. The results showed that the pulp bleached under the conditions of 1.5% Mg(OH2 and 3% H2O2 at 25% consistency had a similar brightness to, a lower yellowness index, and a higher opacity than the pulp produced under the conditions of 2.1% NaOH, 3% Na2SiO3, and 3% H2O2 at the same consistency. The temperature (70 ºC and time (150 min of the bleaching were the same for both processes. Under the conditions stated above, the Mg(OH2-based process had a higher yield than the NaOH-based process did. The bleaching effluent of the Mg(OH2-based process had a higher residual H2O2, but a lower Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD load and turbidity, compared with that of the NaOH-based process. However, the strength properties and water retention value (WRV of the pulp bleached via the Mg(OH2-based process were lower, while its bulk was higher than those of the pulp bleached via the NaOH-based process.

  17. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask;

    2011-01-01

    % (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from Aspergillus aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C. Molecular size fractionation of the solubilized fibers revealed two major fractions: one fraction rich in......Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...... previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate the prebiotic potential of the fibers. Statistically designed experiments were conducted to investigate...

  18. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard;

    2011-01-01

    to characterize and compare four homogalacturonan degrading enzymes capable of catalyzing the required solubilization of these pectinaceous polysaccharides from potato pulp in a 1min reaction. An additional purpose was to assess the influence of the pH and the potential buffer chelating effects on....../w) potato pulp treated with 1% (w/w) enzyme/substrate (E/S) pectin lyase from E. nidulans and 1% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60°C for 1min.......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study was...

  19. Integration of pulp and paper technology with bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard B; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou Min

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite decades of work and billions of dollars of investments in laboratory and pilot plant projects, commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is only now beginning to emerge. Because of: (1)high technical risk coupled with; (2) high capital investment cost relative to ethanol product value, investors have not been able to justify moving forward with large scale projects on woody biomass. Results Both issues have been addressed by targeting pulp and paper industry processes for...

  20. Comparison of the free and bound phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activities of litchi pulp extracts from different solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Ruifen; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Mingwei; Guo, Jinxin; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkalin...

  1. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Mun Yun

    Full Text Available Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs and polycaprolactone (PCL, and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin, and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3 and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.

  2. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-joo; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-cheol

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and polycaprolactone (PCL), and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt) supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin), and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3) and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering. PMID:26382272

  3. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  4. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Orblin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells, usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS. The surface charge and surface area of pulp fine substrates were measured by methylene blue sorption-XPS analysis and nitrogen adsorption combined with mercury porosimetry, respectively. The driving force behind polyelectrolyte adsorption was the amount of the surface anionic charge, whereas surface area appeared to be of less importance. Based on a comparison of solid-liquid and XPS sorption isotherms, different polyelectrolyte conformations were suggested, depending on the types of fines: A flatter conformation and partial cell-wall penetration of polyelectrolytes on kraft fines from freshly prepared pulp, and a more free conformation with extended loops and tails on lignocellulosic fines from recycled pulp. Additionally, ToF-SIMS imaging proved that recycled pulp fines contained residual de-inking chemicals (primarily palmitic acid salts that possibly hinder the electrostatic interactions with polyelectrolytes.

  5. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  6. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  7. Alkaline quinone flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise Ann; Valle, Alvaro West; Hardee, D.; Gordon, Roy Gerald; Aziz, Michael J.; Marshak, M

    2015-01-01

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe f...

  8. On the beating of reinforcement pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Eero

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the effect of reinforcement pulp beating on the strength of mechanical pulp-dominated paper. The main purpose of reinforcement pulp beating is to improve the runnability of paper. The first objective of this study was to maximize the runnability related strength properties by beating. It was assumed that the flaw-resisting ability of paper correlates with the runnability of the dry paper web. In-plane fracture properties were assumed ...

  9. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  10. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hydrotropic Pulps at Different Substrate Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Marina N; Makarova, Ekaterina I; Pavlov, Igor N; Budaeva, Vera V; Sakovich, Gennady V

    2016-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic raw materials to produce nutrient broths for microbiological synthesis of ethanol and other valuable products is an important field of modern biotechnology. Biotechnological processing implies the selection of an effective pretreatment technique for raw materials. In this study, the hydrotropic treatment increased the reactivity of the obtained substrates toward enzymatic hydrolysis by 7.1 times for Miscanthus and by 7.3 times for oat hulls. The hydrotropic pulp from oat hulls was more reactive toward enzymatic hydrolysis compared to that from Miscanthus, despite that the substrates had similar compositions. As the initial substrate loadings were raised during enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrotropic Miscanthus and oat hull pulps, the concentration of reducing sugars increased by 34 g/dm(3) and the yield of reducing sugars decreased by 31 %. The findings allow us to predict the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrotropic pulps from Miscanthus and oat hulls when scaling up the process by volume. PMID:26634840

  11. SEM evaluation of pulp reaction to different pulp capping materials in dog’s teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation evaluates the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) as pulp capping materials on dental pulp tissues. Materials and Methods: The experimental procedures were performed on eighteen intact dog canine teeth. The pulps were exposed. Cavities were randomly filled with CEM, MTA, or CH followed by glass ionomer filling. After 2 months, animals were sacrificed, each tooth was sectioned into halves, and t...

  12. Conversion of Wood and Non-wood Paper-grade Pulps to Dissolving-grade Pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Köpcke, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    Dissolving-grade pulps are commonly used for the production of cellulose derivatives and regenerated cellulose. To obtain products of high quality, these so-called "special" pulps must fulfill certain requirements, such as high cellulose content, low hemicellulose content, a uniform molecular weight distribution and high cellulose reactivity. Most, if not all, of the commercial dissolving pulps accomplish these demands to a certain extent. Nevertheless, achieving high cellulose accessibility ...

  13. The case study of energy flow analysis and strategy in pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulp and paper industry is a significant consumer of fossil energy in the Taiwanese manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) from manufacturing factory activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Notable energy savings can be achieved in the pulp and paper industry through energy flow analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the energy flow for three major energy consuming mills of the pulp and paper industry in Taiwan to make energy savings. In addition, potential technology options are examined for the capture of some of the energy that is currently lost in the processes and to identify the areas of energy saving potential that could have a large impact across more than one industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the pulp and paper industry. - Highlights: ► The aim of this paper was to analyze the energy flow for three pulps and paper firms in Taiwan. ► The results were used as the basis for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential. ► Energy flow analysis results can serve as benchmarks for the current pulp and paper making operations.

  14. MODIFIED OPAL:A NOVEL STABILIZER FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueren Qian; Xianhui An; Wenbo Liu; Gang Yu; Zhanqian Song

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of modified opal as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching was investigated. The results showed that the modified opal in place of sodium silicate as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching is feasible. At the same dosage, above 3% ISO can be increased for both wheat straw pulp and deinked pulp. The stabilizing ability of the modified opal to hydrogen peroxide bleaching of pulp is improved markedly. It is favorable for bleaching to increase temperature and time within a permissive extent. The suitable process conditions are 10% of pulp consistency, 3% of hydrogen peroxide, 1.5% of sodium hydroxide, 3% of the modified opal, 70℃ and 60 min when the modified opal is used as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. At these conditions, the brightness gain can reach about 16% ISO for wheat straw pulp. In addition, it is favorable for bleaching to add a little magnesium sulfate when the modified opal is used as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, the brightness of pulp can increase I%ISO if0.05% of magnesium sulfate is added. The cost analysis indicated that the modified opal is superior to sodium silicate as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching in economical aspect and has further the potential of market development.

  15. BMP7 transfection induces in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Po John Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells can be induced by transient transfection with the gene encoding human bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7. Materials and Methods: A mesenchymal stem cell population was isolated from the dental pulp of two extracted permanent premolars, expanded and characterized. The human BMP7 gene, as a recombinant pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-BMP7 plasmid, was transfected into the cells. Three negative controls were used: No plasmid, empty vector, and an unrelated vector encoding green fluorescent protein. After the interval of 24 and 48 h, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as markers of in-vitro osteogenic differentiation were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and standardized against β-actin mRNA levels. Results: The level of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 48 h after transfection (706.9 vs. 11.24 for untransfected cells, 78.05 for empty vector, and 73.10 for green fluorescent protein vector. The level of osteocalcin mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 24 h after transfection (1.0, however, decreased after another 24 h. Conclusions: In-vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, can be induced by transient transfection with the BMP7 gene.

  16. Time of harvest affects the yield of soluble polysaccharides extracted enzymatically from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Sørensen, Ole Bandsholm; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    potato polysaccharides applying a recently developed enzymatic process using 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) [E/S] polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus at 60 °C, 100 mM citric acid, pH 6.0 for 1 min. Seven samples drawn within the potato starch......Potato pulp is a co-processing product from potato starch production. The pulp mainly consists of the tuber cell walls, which are rich in pectin and cellulose. The potato pulp pectin is dominated by galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan 1 which after enzymatic solubilization has shown promising...... properties as bifidogenic prebiotic fibers. The potato starch processing campaign is based on processing of fresh potatoes (in Denmark the campaign lasts from September to December). This study examines the effect of time of harvest and processing during the campaign on the yield of enzymatically solubilized...

  17. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  18. 某低品位铜钼矿低碱度浮选工艺研究%Investigation on the Low Alkalinity Flotation Process for a Low Grade Copper-Molybdenum Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 孙春宝; 刘洪均; 谷志君; 米丽平; 王越

    2011-01-01

    Low alkalinity flotation process is made on a low-grade porphyry Cu-Mo ore samples. In bulk flotation stage of copper-molybdenum, high quality combining inhibitors CS were adopted to separate copper and sulfur at low alkalinity ( pH = 7 ~ 8 ), with a higher recovery rate of associated molybdenum achieved. In Cu-Mo separation flotation stage, the new inhibitor BK510 instead of Na2S was adopted to realize the inhibition of high content of secondary copper. A good Cu-Mo separation effect was achieved at low alkalinity ( pH = 8 ~ 9 ). In closed-circuit laboratory tests, molybdenum concentrate with molybdenum grade of 46.21% and recovery of 84.01%, and copper concentrate with copper grade of 24.61% and recovery of 89.25% were obtained.%针对某低品位斑岩铜钼矿矿样进行了低碱度浮选工艺研究.铜钼混合浮选阶段采用高效组合抑制剂CS,在低碱度(pH=7~8)条件下实现了铜、硫分离,伴生金属钼取得了较高的回收率;铜钼分离浮选阶段采用新型抑制剂BK510替代Na2S抑制含量较高的次生铜,在低碱度(pH=8~9)条件下取得了较好的铜钼分离效果.实验室闭路试验获得了钼品位46.21%,钼回收率84.01%的钼精矿和铜品位24.61%,铜回收率89.25%的铜精矿.

  19. Chitosan-collagen biomembrane embedded with calcium-aluminate enhances dentinogenic potential of pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Rosseto, Hebert Luís; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Scheffel, Débora Salles; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The development of biomaterials capable of driving dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells able to secrete reparative dentin is the goal of current conservative dentistry. In the present investigation, a biomembrane (BM) composed of a chitosan/collagen matrix embedded with calcium-aluminate microparticles was tested. The BM was produced by mixing collagen gel with a chitosan solution (2:1), and then adding bioactive calcium-aluminate cement as the mineral phase. An inert material (polystyrene) was used as the negative control. Human dental pulp cells were seeded onto the surface of certain materials, and the cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell proliferation and cell morphology, assessed after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days in culture. The odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total protein production, gene expression of DMP-1/DSPP and mineralized nodule deposition. The pulp cells were able to attach onto the BM surface and spread, displaying a faster proliferative rate at initial periods than that of the control cells. The BM also acted on the cells to induce more intense ALP activity, protein production at 14 days, and higher gene expression of DSPP and DMP-1 at 28 days, leading to the deposition of about five times more mineralized matrix than the cells in the control group. Therefore, the experimental biomembrane induced the differentiation of pulp cells into odontoblast-like cells featuring a highly secretory phenotype. This innovative bioactive material can drive other protocols for dental pulp exposure treatment by inducing the regeneration of dentin tissue mediated by resident cells. PMID:27119587

  20. Correlation of dental pulp stones, carotid artery and renal calcifications using digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Yeluri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human tissues continuously undergo modification as deposition of calcium (CA salts either in an organized or disorganized pattern. The latter pattern usually occurs in the soft tissues such as in arteries, brain, kidneys, lungs, and dental pulp. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification (CDC as a marker for renal calcification and altered serum biomarkers such as serum CA, phosphorus (P, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 50 patients with the presence of pulp stones and suspected CAC were subjected to carotid artery and renal ultrasonography (USG examination for the presence of vascular calcification and also to evaluate the alterations in serum CA, P, and ALP levels. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square test. Results: Panoramic radiographs of 50 patients showed 88.28% of teeth with the presence of pulp stones stones and 91% carotid arteries with calcification. The sensitivity of panoramic radiograph was greater than that of USG (93.67%, but the specificity of USG was more than the panoramic radiograph (44.44% in detecting CAC. The prevalence rate of renal calcification on USG was 92%. The statistical difference between the patients with or without alteration in serum Ca levels was not significant (χ2 = 0.581 and P = 0.446. On comparison of serum P and ALP, the difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Presence of pulp stones and CAC's on panoramic radiograph have remarkably proved to establish the chances of renal artery calcification associated with alterations in serum CA levels.

  1. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-01-01

    -mature exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene......For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem...

  2. Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

  3. Non-wood pulp mill concepts. Environment and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, over 40% of the pulp used in the paper industry is produced from cereal straws, grasses and other non-wood sources, whereas, in Western Countries, the contribution of non-wood sources is currently very small. The average plant size in China is about one tenth of that in Nordic countries. The small plant size is mainly a consequence of the economy of raw-material collection, transportation and storage. In 1998, 107 Nordic paper and board mills produced 25 million tons of products, while about 6000 Chinese mills produced 28 million tons. The investments required for environmental protection are disproportionately large for the very small Chinese mills. The demand for paper and board in China has increased rapidly and is expected to keep increasing in the future. The predicted annual growth rate exceeds 6%. It would be possible to double non-wood paper production within about twenty years, if an economical and environmentally sound solution could be developed. In this article, integrated fibre and energy concepts, aimed at improving the economy non-wood pulping, are proposed. A simple new non-wood pulping process, capable of being integrated with local energy production, is outlined and preliminary cost estimates are presented. (orig.)

  4. Influência do tempo decorrido entre a colheita e o despolpamento de café cereja, sôbre a qualidade da bebida Influence of the time intervals between harvesting and the pulping process of cherry coffee beans on the beverage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton Rigitano

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados de ensaios relativos à influência do tempo decorrido entre a colheita e o despolpamento de café maduro, sôbre a qualidade da bebida, na zona ecológica de Campinas. Os resultados acusaram não haver influência do tempo de armazenamento até 46 1/2 horas após a colheita. Todos os tratamentos alcançaram valores correspondentes a bebida "mole" ou "apenas mole".Experiments were carried out in 1958 and 1959 to determine the influence of the time intervals between harvesting and the pulping process of cherry coffee beans on the beverage quality. The green coffee was the Mundo Novo variety which came from the São Quirino farm (massape soil located in the rural zone of the city of Campinas. The treatments were represented by 13 lots of cherry coffee with different time intervals of pulping after harvesting: 0, 4, 51/2, 81/2, 14 1/2, 26 1/2 and 46 1/2 hours Coffee was harvested at the beginning of the day, midday and the end of the day. Some lots of beans were exposed to the sun and some others were shaded. The cup tests were carried out in the Sensory Evaluation Laboratory of the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, by trained panel with 8 tasters. The data were based on 32 determinations (8 tasters x 4 replications and showed no difference among treatments; all of them were scored as soft and softish coffee. The autors arrived at the conclusion that the pulping process at Campinas conditions can be made up to 46 1/2 hours after harvesting without causing any "off flavor" to the coffee beverage. The results obtained are true for the pulped cherry beans for the rural zone of Campinas. To any other locality with different climate and soil, the conclusions can't be extended without previous experimental works.

  5. Rheological evaluation of Prunus mume pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Quast

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviour of mume pulp at 6, 7, 8 and 9 °Brix was investigated using a rotational viscometer at temperatures ranging from 15 to 75 °C. The rheological models of Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-Waele (Power Law were fitted to obtain the rheological parameters of the mume pulp. The product was described as time non-dependent and presented a viscosity of 1.9 Pa.s at 15 °C and 1.1°Pa.s at 65 and 75 °C for the 9 °Brix pulp. The pulp showed non-Newtonian behaviour and the Herschel-Bulkley model was used to describe this behaviour. The activation energy ranged from 6.6-10.6 kJ.mol-1 and the consistency index from 18.0-22.9 Pa.s n for the 9 °Brix pulp and 8.3-12.2 Pa.s n for the 8 °Brix pulp at temperatures varying from 15 to 75 °C. The models presented high correlation values for all the rheological data obtained in the present work.

  6. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys. PMID:26777778

  7. Application of xylanases from Amazon Forest fungal species in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Garcia Medeiros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude xylanase preparations from Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were used to treat Eucalyptus kraft pulp, prior to chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences. The enzyme pretreatment improved brightness and delignification of non-delignified and oxygen-bleached samples of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Xylanase preparations from T. longibrachiatum and P. corylophilum were more effective to reduce pulp kappa number. A small reduction in viscosity was obtained when the oxygen-bleached pulp was treated with xylanase preparation from A. niger. For all enzyme samples, the best release of chromophoric material from the pulp was at 237 nm. The enzyme preparation from P. corylophilum was responsible for the highest release of reducing sugar at a dosage interval of 10-20 IU/g dry weight pulp. Scanning electron microscopy studies of oxygen-bleached pulp after xylanase treatment revealed morphological changes, including holes, cracks, filament forming and peeling.Amostras de xilanases de extratos brutos de Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger e Trichoderma longibrachiatum foram utilizadas no branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto antes das seqüências alcalina e dióxido de cloro. O pré-tratamento enzimático melhorou a alvura e o processo de deslignificação de amostras de polpa kraft de eucalipto não-tratada e tratada com oxigênio. Amostras de xilanases de T. longibrachiatum e P. corylophilum foram mais efetivas na redução do número kappa da polpa. A polpa tratada com oxigênio sofreu uma pequena redução na sua viscosidade quando incubada com amostra de xilanase de A. niger. Para todas as amostras de xilanases, a maior liberação de cromóforos da polpa foi a 237 nm. A amostra de xilanase de P. corylophilum liberou maior quantidade de açúcar redutor da polpa, utilizando dosagem de 10-20 UI/g de peso seco da polpa. Estudos de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram várias altera

  8. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  9. DESIDRATAÇÃO DA POLPA DE ACEROLA (Malpighia emarginata D.C. PELO PROCESSO "FOAM-MAT" DEHYDRATION OF ACEROLA PULP (Malpighia emarginata D.C. BY FOAM-MAT DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Costa SOARES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi elaborado um suplemento alimentar em pó, a partir da desidratação da polpa de frutos de acerola utilizando o método "FOAM-MAT". Vários testes utilizando diferentes agentes químicos, que favorecem à formação da espuma, foram realizados, tendo sido escolhido o experimento que mais se ajustou ao parâmetro de densidade recomendado como ideal (0,1 a 0,6. Na condição experimental definida, a polpa foi formulada e desidratrada em estufa de secagem com circulação de ar, a uma temperatura de 60 a 70°C, por 90 minutos, obtendo-se um produto em pó, com umidade final de 7,2%. Em paralelo ao experimento, foi efetuada uma caracterização química da polpa de acerola. O produto em pó obtido, foi embalado em sacos metalizados de 25 gramas e submetido a um estudo de estabilidade por 3 meses. Os resultados encontrados, mostraram que o produto elaborado apresentou elevado teor de vitamina C, em um nível 10 vezes maior do que na polpa integral.A food supplement from dehydrated pulp using a non-conventional method of FOAM-MAT was produced. Several tests have been accomplished using different chemical agents to facilitate the foam formation, and an experiment has been chosen that most adjusted to the recommended density parameter (0.1 to 0.6. After the definition of the experimental conditions, the pulp was formulated and dehydrated in a drying hot-house with air circulation at a temperature of 60 to 70°C for 90 minutes. The product obtained was a powder with final humidity of 7.2%. Concomitant to the experiment the chemical analysis of the pulp had been accomplished. The obtained powder was immediately afterwards analysed with the purpose of identifying the new characteristics of the product and packed in 25g metalized bags and submitted to stability studies for a period of 3 months. Analysis of the results obtained showed that there was an increase in the basic nutrients mainly regarding to the content of vitamin C that showed an increase 10

  10. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  11. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  12. An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

  13. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  14. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  15. 锅炉设备碱性腐蚀原因分析及水处理工艺改进%Analysis on the causes of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion and improvements on water treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 霍文敏; 陆明

    2013-01-01

    锅炉的碱性腐蚀经常被人们所忽视,但其造成的后果往往是非常严重的,轻则造成爆管导致停产,重则会威胁到操作人员的人身安全.传统的锅炉水处理方法虽然价格低廉,但其存在先天的不足,在一定条件下无法阻止碱性腐蚀的发生.而近些年逐渐产生的锅炉水处理工艺及与其配套的有机锅炉水处理药剂则全方面改进了传统锅炉水处理方法的不足,并在现场应用中收到了良好的效果.%The problem of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion has always been neglected,resulting in serious consequence.It causes the burst of pipes leading to suspending operations,or threaten the safety of the operation staff.Although the price for traditional water treatment process is low,it has congenitally deficiency.It can not prevent the happening of alkaline corrosion under certain conditions.However,nowadays,some new boiler water treatment processes and organic boiler water treatment agents that go with the process can improve the deficiency of traditional boiler water treatment methods.It has been used in field application and received good effects.

  16. Synergistic degradation of konjac glucomannan by alkaline and thermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiping; Mei, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The application of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in the food industry is always limited by its high viscosity. Hereby, low-viscosity KGM was prepared by alkaline-thermal degradation method. This process was demonstrated by the changes of average molecular weight and a kinetic model was developed. The results revealed that high alkalinity and high temperature had a synergetic effect on degradation. The structure of hydrolysates was evaluated by periodate oxidation and their fluidly properties were researched by rheology measurements. The degradation was divided into two regimes. The rate of the first regime (within 1h) is higher than that of the second one (last 1h). It is found that alkaline hydrolysis and deacetylation have a synergistic effect on the degradation under high alkalinity (pH 9.2) and low temperature condition (25 °C). Finally, rheology parameters showed alkaline-thermal degradation is a promising way that can be applied in practice to degrade KGM. PMID:24274506

  17. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REACTIVITY OF PULP INTENDED FOR HIGH-VISCOSITY VISCOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ostberg,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to reduce the consumption of C2S when preparing high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating two softwood pulps with enzymes prior to the viscose stages. Reactivity was evaluated in two ways, Fock´s test of the pulp and the gamma number of the viscose solution prior to regeneration. Whilst the reactivity of a pulp that had been subjected to enzyme pretreatment increased according to Fock´s test, it did not increase according to the gamma number. This unexpected difference between the two reactivity tests was investigated. It was concluded that Fock´s test measures the extent to which C2S reacts with a pulp sample during a standardized test, whereas the gamma number measures the resulting degree of xanthate substitution on the cellulose backbone. The gamma number was judged to be the more relevant of the two tests, since it reflects the dissolution ability of a pulp in the viscose preparation. A higher gamma number also means that the coagulation time in the spinning process is prolonged; this is beneficial, as it can be used to increase the tenacity of the viscose fibres. Measuring the reactivity according to Fock´s test, on the contrary, provides more dubious results, as the test has no undisputed correlation to the viscose preparation process.

  18. U-Pb ages (zircon) of 1.75 Ga in deformed alkaline granitoids of the Betara an Tiger nuclei: evidences of extensional processes of the Statherian in the Apiai belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronological study of deformed alkaline rocks belonging to the NE-SW oriented ellipsoidal Betara and Tigre basement nuclei, located in the midst of metavolcanossedimentary rocks of the Apiai Belt provide new data on superimposed tectonic events of regions complex geological history. Protomylonitic, mylonitic and ultramylonitic syenogranites predominate and exhibit lithogeochemical characters of anorogenic 'A' type granites. U-Pb (zircon) dating indicates Paleoproterozoic ages of 1748 +- 5.4 Ma in the Betara Nuclei and 1772 +- 9.5 Ma in the Tigre Nuclei. These Statherian ages represent an important regional benchmark. Ages between 1600 Ma and 1800 Ma, predominantly associated with extensional processes, are recognized mainly in the eastern-central portion of the South American continent where they are interpreted as representing the age of rupture of the Paleoproterozoic Atlantic Supercontinent. (author)

  19. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  20. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  1. Analysis of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide reduction in the Chinese pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp and paper production, an energy-intensive process, is among the main light industries contributing to energy saving and pollution emission reduction in China. The improvement of energy efficiency is essential for energy consumption and sustainable development. This study analyzes the negative factors in the pulp and paper sector by calculating energy efficiency from the lengthways time and investigating the gap between China and foreign countries through a horizontal comparison. Accordingly, energy efficiency has increased in the Chinese pulp and paper industry with years of efforts, but its transformation remains unclear. Furthermore, the energy-saving potential, energy cost saving, and carbon dioxide emission reduction in the pulp and paper industry are evaluated according to the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2011–2015). The results show that the pulp and paper industry has further capabilities for energy-saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction by improving energy efficiency in China, resulting in great economic benefit. In brief, new technology and energy structure adjustment are long-term strategies for energy conversation, with changes in the scale of mills expected to provide huge opportunities to improve energy efficiency in China within a short period. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry changes markedly from 1985 to 2010. • This paper will identify better opportunities for energy conservation in China. • This paper will also confirm better opportunities for CO2 emission mitigation. • The negative factors do exist in the pulp and paper sector. • Energy efficient policies are suggested, especially in short term

  2. Stereological Analysis of the Dental Pulp in Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse effects of periodontitis on dental pulp have long been argued. The purpose of this study was to investigate stereological indices of dental pulp in patients with advanced periodontitis compared with healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 15 single-rooted permanent teeth of patients with advanced periodontal diseases and that of people with healthy periodontium, as control group, were investigated. All teeth were intact, and without filling and decay. After tissue processing, longitudinal serial sections of the tooth were prepared and stained by Masson’s trichrome. A grid containing organized points superimposed on the images of each section randomly. Then, the points hit with each subject were counted. The volume of pulp and its components in both groups were estimated, using Cavalieri’s principle. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The significance level was considered as p<0.05.Results: No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of inflammation and calcification intensity (p<0.05. Microscopic evaluations of tissue sections showed significant increase in predentin thickness in periodontitis group than control group (p<0.05. In addition, statistically significant reduction was observed in periodontitis group with respect to pulp absolute volume, volume density, odontoblastic layer absolute volume, collagen fibers absolute volume, and absolute pulp blood vessels volume, compared with control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Results showed periodontal disease affects stereological parameters of pulp. Because of reduction of pulp volume and narrowing of root canal, precise diagnostic and therapeutic considerations are recommended during treatment of those teeth.

  3. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. PMID:26686478

  4. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  5. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  6. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic...... applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is...... durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose...

  7. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagenetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1993-07-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, USA) is unlike that of most marine and other lacustrine rocks. Distinctive chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides strikingly enriched in 34S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and δ 34S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in δ 34S values. Analyses that identified and quantified these characteristics include carbonate-free abundance of organic carbon (0.13-47 wt%), total iron (0.31-13 wt%), reactive iron (>70% of total iron), total sulfur (0.02-16 wt%), acid-volatile monosulfide (S Av), disulfide (S Di > 70% of total sulfur), sulfate (S SO4) and organosulfur (S Org); isotopic composition of separated sulfur phases (δ 34S Di,Av up to +49‰); and mineralogy, morphology and paragenesis of sulfide minerals. Mineralogy, morphology, δ 34S Di,Av, and δ 34S Org have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H 2S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H 2S:SO 4 ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H 2S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to δ 34S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is

  8. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  9. Laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and phenolic compounds: can the efficiency of an enzyme mediator for delignifying kenaf pulp be predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Terrén, Glòria; Vidal Lluciá, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In this work, kenaf pulp was delignified by using laccase in combination with various redox mediators and the efficiency of the different laccase–mediator systems assessed in terms of the changes in pulp properties after bleaching. The oxidative ability of the individual mediators used (acetosyringone, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and actovanillone) and the laccase–mediator systems was determined by monitoring the oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) during process. The results co...

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewaters from Pulp and Paper Mills : A Substantial Source for Biomethane Production in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry is the third largest exporter of pulp and paper products worldwide. It is a highly energy-demanding and water-utilising industry, which generates large volumes of wastewater rich in organic material. These organic materials are to different extents suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD) and production of energy-rich biomethane. The implementation of an AD process within the wastewater treatment plant of a mill would increase the treatment capacity and decrea...

  11. A new solution to pitch problems in the pulp and paper industry using the laccase-mediator system

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Molina, Setefilla; Ibarra, David; Martínez Ferrer, Ángel Tomás; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic extractives in wood and other lignocellulosic materials exert a highly negative impact in pulp and paper manufacturing causing the so-called pitch deposits. As an alternative to physicochemical methods, lipases have been successfully applied to softwood mechanical pulping.1 However, the enzymes and microbial inocula available till present are only effective on some raw materials and processes. Recently, we have shown for the first time the effectiveness of the laccase-mediator syst...

  12. Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.) Polifenoloxidase e peroxidase na polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimara Salvat Vanini; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulps, from the Northwest area of Paraná-Brazil, in order to compare the varieties on their enzymatic activity for both, minimum and industrial processing. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from avocado pulp of Choquete, Fortuna and Quintal varieties, in green and ripe maturation stage. Thermal treatment was applied with temperatures 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80 °C. The enzymatic...

  13. Optimization of Phenolic Antioxidant Extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) Pulp Using Random-Centroid Optimazation Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong (Bill) Yu; Hao Jing; Xia Wu

    2011-01-01

    The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield wer...

  14. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu{sup 2+} induced by non ionizing radiation; Procesos de formacion de defectos en halogenuros alcalinos contaminados con Eu{sup 2+} inducidos por radiacion no ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza M, M.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de la Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [UNISON, A.P. 1626, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers V{sub K} taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu{sup 2+}, mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f{sup 6}5d(t{sub 2g})-4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) of the ion Eu{sup 2+} characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and F{sub z} participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu{sup 2+}) and F{sub z} (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo

  15. Influence of xilanase treatment on Pinus pinaster kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Duarte, Ana Paula; Curto, Joana

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, pulp and paper industry uses especially two wood species, Eucalyptus globules and Pinus pinaster. The second species gives pulps with low bleachability (compared with other common softwood species, like Pinus silvester), utilised for packaging papers. It is known that treatments with different hydrolytic enzymes could improve the bleaching capacity of softwood pulp. That is why, xylanases were used to improve Pinus pinaster kraft pulp characteristics. The enzymatic hydrolysis imp...

  16. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Ferella; Ida De Michelis; Francesca Beolchini; Valentina Innocenzi; Francesco Vegliò

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values exp...

  17. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  18. A New Technology for Treating Pulp Waste with Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaozhen; TIAN Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    New methods for both the treatment of pulp waste liquor called black liquor (BL) and the recovery of chemicals by using plasma,and the concentration of BL with the freezing technique were developed.The new methods aiming at the pilot plant scale are described and the experiments in a small-scale research facility for demonstration and test are presented.The energy consumption for treating waste liquid is 1 kg/kWh.Plasma processing can reduce the costs for treatment and eliminate pollution.

  19. RAT DENTAL PULP RESPONSE TO PROPOLIS AS A DIRECT PULP CAPPING AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sabir Ardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp capping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP). An occlusal cavity was prepared on the right maxillary first molar of Spraque-Dawley rats. The dental pulp was exposed and the lined with a zinc-oxide based filler as a control (group I), or with EEP (group II). Then, each cavity was filled with glass ionomer cement. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2, or 4. Biopsy samples were obtained, and these we...

  20. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  1. THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

  2. Experimental investigation of different refining stages influences on optical and ultrasonic signals in paper pulp suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important parameter to control in papermaking is the fiber mass fraction in the pulp suspension. Poor control to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and the energy efficiency in the pulp mill. Using optical or ultrasound measurement techniques can obtain estimation of the mass fraction. Refining is an important operation in preparing the fibers for the paper machine. Refining influence the properties of the fiber by crushing the fiber, roughens the fiber surface and occasionally cut fibers and removes parts of the outer fiber wall leading to an increasing amount of short fibers (fines). A freeness tester was used for verify the changes in fiber properties at four different refining levels. The result shows that for unbleached softwood pulp the used measurement techniques either were not observable or minor. The results indicate that refining can potentially influence accurate consistency estimation for unbleached softwood pulp but for bleached hardwood pulp the influence is believed to be minor using the investigating measurement techniques

  3. DRAINAGE AND RETENTION ENHANCEMENT OF A WHEAT STRAW PULP CONTAINING FURNISH USING MICROPARTICLE RETENTION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hultholm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The usage of non-wood pulps in furnishes for the production of various paper grades is a real alternative for the substitution of wood pulp in papermaking. In terms of the papermaking process, the main limiting factor for non-wood pulp utilization is poor dewatering. This problem can be partially solved by means of retention aids, and the modern microparticle-based retention aids are very promising for this application. In this study the main aim was to characterize how the microparticle retention systems affect the retention, dewatering, and formation of a non-wood pulp furnish and how these effects and mechanisms differ when compared to normal wood pulp. The performance of several commercially available retention aids was studied by making dynamic sheet forming tests for reference and an organosolv wheat straw furnish. The emphasis in the experiments was on drainage enhancement. The maximum drainage gain obtained with the bentonite-CPAM retention aid system was about 5%. Despite the improved drainage, dewatering of the reference furnish was better than for the non-wood containing furnish.

  4. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  5. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  6. Effect of temperature in the transesterification of pulp oil from macauba fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Coimbra, Jane Selia dos Reis [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    An alternative to diesel from fossil fuels is the biodiesel, which is a renewable biofuel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with alcohols. The Macauba is a palm that grows in lower rainfall regimes and its fruits present two different oils, namely pulp oil and nut oil. The nut oil is rich in palmitic oil, valuable oil for cosmetic industry. The pulp oil is used mostly for soap production, and it is considered inadequate for biodiesel production mainly due to its acid value, usually higher than 1%. In this work, the pulp oil from Macauba fruit with acid value of 0.8% was evaluated for biodiesel production. The transesterification was performed using ethanol and methanol, both in a molar ratio to the oil of 6:1. The catalyst employed was the potassium hydroxide at 1 % in oil weigh. The reactions were performed at constant temperatures of 60, 50 and 40 deg C and the reaction time was 30 minutes. Past the reaction time, the mixture was neutralized using hydrochloric acid and it was settled by 24 hours. The lower phase contains glycerol, water and excess of alcohol. The excess of alcohol and water was removed and the glycerol was weighted in order to estimate conversion yield. The transesterification at 60 deg C produces emulsion not allowing phase separation. Conversion yields were 62.0 and 57,7% using methanol at 50 and 40 deg C, respectively. For ethanol, the conversion yields were only 51.1 and 9.48% at 50 and 40 deg C, respectively. The acid value in the upper phase increases with temperature. Higher acid values were verified when ethanol was used in the transesterification. Since the pulp oil from Macauba fruit presents reasonable acid value, deacidification technique should be considered for alkaline catalyst transesterification using both methanol and ethanol. (author)

  7. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  8. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  9. Extraction of hemicelluloses from wood in a pulp biorefinery, and subsequent fermentation into ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hemicellulosic ethanol from softwood hemicelluloses in a pulp mill. • Comparison of acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis to extract hemicelluloses. • Effects of the extraction process conditions on inhibitors concentrations. • Effects of inhibitors on fermentation. - Abstract: This study deals with the production of ethanol and paper pulp in a kraft pulp mill. The use of an acid hydrolysis or a two-step treatment composed of an autohydrolysis followed by a secondary acid hydrolysis was studied. Acid hydrolysis allowed the extraction of higher quantities of sugars but led also to higher degradations of these sugars into inhibitors of fermentation. The direct fermentation of a hydrolysate resulting from an acid hydrolysis gave excellent yields after 24 h. However, the fermentation of hydrolysates after their concentration proved to be impossible. The study of the impact of the inhibitors on the fermentations showed that organic acids, and more specifically formic acid and acetic acid were greatly involved in the inhibition

  10. Strength enhancement of fiber network by carboxymethyl cellulose during oxygen delignification of kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Kontturi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC on the fiber surface was applied during oxygen delignification to enhance the strength properties of softwood kraft pulp. Unlike many previous efforts, the focus was not set on the improvement of selectivity of oxygen delignification, i.e. retaining stable viscosity vs. decreasing kappa number. Instead, without an improved selectivity, handsheets from CMC-treated fibers exhibited a 15% improvement in tensile index and 25% improvement in tear index after a full bleaching sequence in comparison to the untreated reference pulp. Since it is demonstrated that the CMC addition can be incorporated as an integral step in the fiberline process, the method offers an effortless and viable option to produce pulp resulting in stronger paper products.

  11. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  12. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro; Fernando J. B. Gomes; José N. Floriani; Renato A. P. Damásio; Iara F. Demuner; Jorge L. Colodette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be expla...

  13. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage.

  14. Economic Aspects of Raw Material Inputs for SAQ Pulp Production at the Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Nagy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today at a time of global economic and financial crisis, timber industry in Slovakia, as well as other industry, is not just trying to look inside for company reserves in production processes, but also identifies new trends in production and its competitiveness in world markets. It is obvious that the pulp and paper industry needs to keep up the competitive pressure with new trends in efficient production, which is certainly linked to investments and their expected effects (capacitance, substitution, income effect. One of the key factors of economic efficiency of production of SAQ pulp is a complex issue of ensuring the required inputs.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF ION EXCHANGERS PRODUCED FROM LIGNIN PRECIPITATED AFTER PEROXYACID PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. Nada

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulping of bagasse by one-stage and three-stage peroxyacetic acid was carried out. Characterization of the precipitated lignin from the waste liquor of the pulping process was studied using infrared spec-troscopy. Comparison between the molecular structure of peroxyacid lignin and kraft lignin was investigated. Different lignins were applied to phosphorylation reaction. The sodium binding capacity and metal ions absorption by these lignins were taken into consideration. Infrared spectroscopy of the produced phosphorylated lignin was investigated. The peroxyacid lignin was found to have lower OH, higher COOH, a higher level of phosphate groups, and a higher binding capacity for sodium compared to kraft lignin.

  16. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif; Estudio geoquimico de los procesos de interaccion agua-roca sobre sistemas goetermales de aguas alcalinas en granitoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Uague, E.; Auque Sanz, L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  17. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Perin-Levasseur, Z.

    2005-07-01

    This yearly report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2005 and the work planned for 2006 within the framework of the Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry project. The results of investigations made at a large pulp and paper facility in Switzerland are presented and analysed. Data models of the steam and condensate networks and of the processes involved are examined. An additional model of the sulphur loop has been also elaborated. From this analysis, a list of required measurements has been developed. Several performance indicators have also been calculated: A systematic analysis method developed to identify sections where condensate could be recovered is discussed. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process is being developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirements of the process. Evaluating this minimum energy requirement from the data available is to be used to prepare definitions of the energy savings possible.

  18. Enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation by AdShh-transfected human dental pulp cells and porous calcium phosphate cement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunguo Xia

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs and the potential of complexes with Shh gene modified hDPCs and porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC for mineralized tissue formation. hDPCs were cultured and transfected with adenoviral mediated human Shh gene (AdShh. Overexpression of Shh and cell proliferation was tested by real-time PCR analysis, western blotting analysis, and MTT analysis, respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and real-time PCR analysis on markers of Patched-1 (Ptc-1, Smoothened (Smo, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3, osteocalcin (OCN, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP. Finally, AdShh-transfected hDPCs were combined with porous CPC and placed subcutaneously in nude mice for 8 and 12 weeks, while AdEGFP-transfected and untransfected hDPCs were treated as control groups. Results indicated that Shh could promote proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, while Shh/Gli 1 signaling pathway played a key role in this process. Importantly, more mineralized tissue formation was observed in combination with AdShh transfected hDPCs and porous CPC, moreover, the mineralized tissue exhibited dentin-like features such as structures similar to dentin-pulp complex and the positive staining for DSPP protein similar to the tooth tissue. These results suggested that the constructs with AdShh-transfected hDPCs and porous CPC might be a better alternative for dental tissue regeneration.

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus PULP AND NANOFIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jonoobi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone and three-stage bleaching (DEpD processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high-pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the studies showed that the isolated nanofibers from unbleached and bleached pulp had diameters between 10-90 nm, while their length was in the micrometer range. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased in the pulping process and that lignin was almost completely removed during bleaching. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that both pulp types as well as the nanofibers displayed a superior thermal stability as compared to the raw kenaf. Finally, X-ray analyses showed that the chemo-mechanical treatments altered the crystallinity of the pulp and the nanofibers: the bleached pulp had a higher crystallinity than its unbleached counterpart, and the bleached nanofibers presented the highest crystallinity of all the investigated materials.

  20. Systematic approach to determination of maximum achievable capture capacity via leaching and carbonation processes for alkaline steelmaking wastes in a rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chang, E-E

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB. PMID:24236803

  1. Perawatan Indirect Pulp Capping pada Gigi Tetap Muda (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for young permanent teeth with deep carious lesion that on radiographic examination close to the pulp and without symptoms and sign of pulp degeneration are indirect pulp capping. The aim of this technique is to maintain pulp vitality. Material used for this treatment must be able to stimulate reparative dentin, such as calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide eugenol, glass ionomer cement and bonding agent. This paper reported indirect pulp capping on young permanent tooth with deep carious lesion. After 7 months of observation there was no symptom and on radiographic examination showed reparative dentin.

  2. HIGH CONSISTENCY PULPING OF OLD NEWSPRINT AND ITS FLOTATION PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhui Zhang; Menghua Qin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical effect on the pulping properties of the old newsprint was studied using a FORMAX Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper, and the flotation conditions such as velocity of air flow,air pressure and flotation time were also discussed with a FORMAX Deink Cell. The results show that sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide and deinking agent are the key factors in the chemical effect, and pulping consistency is more important than pulping time and rotation speed in the mechanical effect during the high consistency pulping of the ONP. In general, the chemical effect has a greater influence on the deinked pulp properties than the mechanical effect.

  3. Pulp supply optimization – Case M-real

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmonen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a pulp supply optimization model, a management decision support tool, which would efficiently optimize the allocation of the pulp within the company’s supply chain in such a way that the company’s added value is maximized. The company’s current situation and operational methods were carefully analyzed in order to build an accurate linear model that would optimize pulp allocation from the company’s pulp mills and external pulp suppliers to the company...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  6. Investigation of mechanisms of dechlorination of archaeological ferrous objects corroded in marine environment. Case of processing in aerated and deaerated alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a bibliographic study on the present knowledge on dechlorination mechanisms within corrosion layers of archaeological objects of submarine origin, this research thesis presents an analytical methodology which comprises characterization experimental techniques (from optical microscopy to Raman spectroscopy) and in situ investigation of the evolution of the corrosion layer during a processing under synchrotron radiation. The obtained results are then presented and discussed: morphological, elemental and structural characteristics. The author also compares the corrosion system between an object recently taken out of water and an object which has been air dried. He also comments and discusses the in situ observation by X ray diffraction under micro-beam of the evolution of the corrosion system during the processing. The ex situ characterization of corrosion systems after the rinsing and drying steps (after processing) is reported. Results are discussed in terms of thermodynamics. A kinetic approach is proposed

  7. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  8. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  9. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  10. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  11. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  12. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh [NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO{sub 4} . 7H{sub 2}O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  13. Xylanases of marine fungi of potential use for biobleaching of paper pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Muraleedharan, U.; Gaud, V.R.; Mishra, R.

    bleaching of sugarcane bagasse pulp by a 60 min treatment at 55oC, resulting in a decrease of 10 kappa numbers and a 30% reduction in consumption of chlorine during bleaching process. The culture filtrate showed peaks of xylanase activity at acidic pH (3...

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  15. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  16. Investigating the possibility of chemi-mechanical pulping of bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khakifirooz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemi-mechanical pulping was evaluated as a potential way to prepare sugarcane bagasse fibers for papermaking. Cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone were measured as 55.75%, 20.5%, 1.85%, and 3.25%, respectively. Fiber length, diameter, lumen cavity, and cell wall thickness were measured as 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 µm. The chemi-mechanical pulping conditions were selected as follows: three charging levels of 10, 15, and 20% sodium sulphite, and three pulping times of 20, 30, and 40 minutes after reaching the pulping temperature. Pulping temperature was held constant at 165 C. Different pulping conditions resulted in pulp yields between 65.38 and 84.28%. The highest yield (84.28% was obtained using a treatment combination of 20 minutes pulping time and 10% sodium sulphite. The lowest yield (65.38% was related to 40 minutes pulping time and 20% sodium sulphite. Pulps were refined to 300 ± 25 mL CSF, 60 gm-2 handsheets were made, and then strength indices and optical properties of the handsheets were measured. The results showed that 20% sodium sulphite, 40 minutes pulping time, at 165 ºC can be considered as the optimum pulping conditions for bagasse CMP pulping. Tensile, tear, and burst strength indices, as well as the opacity of this pulp were measured as 39.59 Nmg-1, 6.66 mNm2g-1, 2.1 KPa m2g-1, and 95.35%, respectively.

  17. Elucidating the cellular actions of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal dental pulp stem cell population in orchestrating dental tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi P; Colombo, John S; Ayre, Wayne Nishio; Sloan, Alastair J

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive growth factors identified within the extracellular matrix of dentine have been proposed roles in regulating the naturally inherent regenerative dentine formation seen in teeth in response to trauma and infection, which may also be harnessed for novel clinical treatments in augmenting mineralised tissue repair. This study examined the specific biological action of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal population of dental pulp stem cells in stimulating the prerequisite stages of wound healing associated with mineralised tissue repair. A clonal dental pulp stem cell population with sustained proliferative capacity and multi-potentiality towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was isolated from the pulp of human third molars. Dentine was collected from human healthy teeth, powdered and treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to obtain a solubilised DDM protein extract. The influence of DDM on the DPSC clonal population was assessed in vitro. Exposure of cells to proteolytically degraded DDM or unsupplemented media served as controls. Compared to controls, DDM stimulated cell expansion, reduced apoptotic marker caspase 3, increased cell survival marker Akt1 and enhanced mineralised matrix deposition as determined by mineral deposition and increased expression of bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin. Dental pulp stem cells successfully migrated into collagen gels supplemented with demineralised dentine matrix, with cells remaining viable and expanding in numbers over a 3-day period. Collectively, the results provide evidence that soluble proteins extracted from dentine matrix are able to exert a direct biological effect on dental pulp stem cells in promoting mineralised tissue repair mechanisms. PMID:26019808

  18. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are

  19. Decreasing NF-κB expression enhances odontoblastic differentiation and collagen expression in dental pulp stem cells exposed to inflammatory cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda S T Hozhabri

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response in the dental pulp can alter the collagen matrix formation by dental pulp stem cells and lead to a delay or poor healing of the pulp. This inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines, including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. In this study, it is hypothesized that suppressing the actions of these inflammatory cytokines by knocking down the activity of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-κB will lead to dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts and the production of collagen. Here, the role of Nuclear Factor-κB signaling and its reduction was examined during odontogenic behavior in the presence of these cytokines. The results showed a significant increase in Nuclear Factor-κB gene expression and p65 protein expression by interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. Nuclear Factor-κB activation in the presence of these cytokines decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by a Nuclear Factor-κB inhibitor (MG132 and p65 siRNA. Down-regulation of Nuclear Factor-κB activity also enhanced the gene expression of the odontoblastic markers (dentin sialophosphoprotein, Nestin, and alkaline phosphatase and displayed an odontoblastic cell morphology indicating the promotion of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Finally, dental pulp stem cells exposed to reduced Nuclear Factor-κB activity resulted in a significant increase in collagen (I-α1 expression in the presence of these cytokines. In conclusion, a decrease in Nuclear Factor-κB in dental pulp stem cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines enhanced odontoblastic differentiation and collagen matrix formation.

  20. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical