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Sample records for alkaline pulping processes

  1. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TIMBER ALKALINE PULPING PROCESS IN PRESENCE OF SALTS OF SOME METALS HAVING MIXED VALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Process of alkaline pulping in the presence of salts of some metals having mixed valence has been simulated on the basis of the executed investigations. The paper reveals that optimization of alkaline (sulphate) pulping depends on chemical nature and metal and its amount which is introduced in the form of salt.

  2. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TIMBER ALKALINE PULPING PROCESS IN PRESENCE OF SALTS OF SOME METALS HAVING MIXED VALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of alkaline pulping in the presence of salts of some metals having mixed valence has been simulated on the basis of the executed investigations. The paper reveals that optimization of alkaline (sulphate pulping depends on chemical nature and metal and its amount which is introduced in the form of salt.

  3. USING A MEMBRANE FILTRATION PROCESS TO CONCENTRATE THE EFFLUENT FROM ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a multi-effect evaporation system to concentrate the effluent from alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP plants is known to require a high energy consumption. In order to improve the situation, a polyethersulfone membrane was used to concentrate the effluent of APMP plants beforehand. An orthogonal experimental design was applied and a mathematical model was established to optimize the filtration parameters. An estimation of potential energy and water savings from this new concentration process was developed. The optimal filtration conditions obtained were: molecular weight cut-off at 10,000 Dalton, trans-membrane pressure at 3 bar, feed temperature at 50oC, cross-flow velocity at 420 rpm, and volume reduction factor at 0.93. The average permeate flux under these conditions was 45.31 l/m2.h. The total solids content was increased from 14.74 g/l in the feed to 95.04 g/l in the concentrate. The permeate had low total solid contents of 8.75 g/l, Chemical Oxygen Demand of 6696 mg/l, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand of 4383 mg/l. Such qualities would allow the permeate to be reused in the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process. With this new concentration process, about 4840.6 kwh energy can be saved and 23.3 m3 effluent discharge can be reduced for each ton of pulp produced.

  4. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  5. 碱法制浆蒸煮历程与动力学研究%Alkaline Pulping Process and Kinetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宇; 陈嘉川; 杨桂花

    2012-01-01

    硫酸盐法和烧碱蒽醌法作为主要的碱性制浆方法得到广泛应用。众多研究人员对这两种制浆方法蒸煮历程和动力学进行了深入细致的研究,一般认为蒸煮历程主要分为三个阶段:初始脱木素、大量脱木素、补充脱木素,不同原料不同方法其各个阶段不尽相同。不同制浆方法其蒸煮动力学有很大的区别,总的看来,碱法脱木素反应活化能:针叶木〉阔叶木〉草类。%Kraft and Soda-AQ pulping are the most important alkaline pulping methods. The process and kinetic of alkaline pulping had been widely investigated.The pulping precess consists of three steps:initial,bulk and residual delignification phase; but different mehtods are vary to other. The kinetics of different methods are also differemt.Gerenally,the activation energy of alkaline pulping :soft wood〉hard wood〉non wood.

  6. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. PMID:26722808

  7. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  8. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  9. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre he

  10. APPLICATION OF ALKALINE SULFITE PULPING ON CORN STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline sulfite pulping of corn stalks was investigated to produce supplementary pulp for corrugating board manufacture. Three pulping temperatures (125, 145, and 165°C and five active alkali charges (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18% were used. Cooking time at 30 minutes, Na2SO3/ NaOH ratio at 50:50, and liquor to residue ratio of 8:1 were kept constant. The highest total yield (61.9% was reached applying the treatment combination of 125°C and 10% active alkali, and the lowest total yield (42.5% was related to 165°C and 16% chemical. The influence of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratios was studied applying different ratios (30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 at constant time and temperature of 30 minutes and 145°C respectively and 14 and 16% active alkali. Pulping condition; 16% active alkali, 30 minutes time, 145°C pulping temperature and varying ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide were selected for pulp strength evaluation. The results of handsheet evaluation indicated that 16% active alkali, 30 minutes pulping at 145ºC and sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratio of 50:50 is the optimum pulping condition for corn stalks. Tear, tensile, and burst indices and breaking length of this pulp were measured as 10.53 mN.m2g-1, 62.4 N.mg-1, 3.80 kPa.m2g-1, and 6.07 km, respectively.

  11. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre hemp stem can be used for textile and specialty paper purposes. The inner part consists of hemp woody core, which resembles hardwood and might be processed similarly for paper pulp. Literature data a...

  12. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 μm, and 7.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  13. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  14. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  15. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  16. POTENTIAL OF FINES AS REINFORCING FIBRES IN ALKALINE PEROXIDE PULP OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul H. Kamaludin,; Arniza Ghazali,; Wan Daud Wanrosli

    2012-01-01

    Pulp from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) of oil palm empty fruit bunch, EFB, was fractionated with varying mesh-size screens to examine the effects imposed by size-specific fines on the produced pulp network. Occurring mainly as a result of refining, fines elements with dimensions almost resembling EFB fibres were the long tube-like tapered vessels from the arrays of adjoined cell walls detached along the perforation lines. These fibrillated vessel elements constituting the P...

  17. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose.

  18. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. PMID:24376222

  19. Desilication of spent liquors derived from alkaline pulping of non-wood plant fibres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology. Addendum. Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-22

    Removal of silica from spent liquors of alkaline non-wood plant fiber pulping. When using non-wood annual plant as raw material for pulping a considerable amount of silica (SiO2) is carried into the process, which prohibits recycling of the quick lime to the causticizing process. The desilication of the black liquor requires steam boiler flue gas as the only reagent. Precipitated matter is separated from the liquor by means of conventional mechanical systems.

  20. POTENTIAL OF FINES AS REINFORCING FIBRES IN ALKALINE PEROXIDE PULP OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul H. Kamaludin,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulp from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP of oil palm empty fruit bunch, EFB, was fractionated with varying mesh-size screens to examine the effects imposed by size-specific fines on the produced pulp network. Occurring mainly as a result of refining, fines elements with dimensions almost resembling EFB fibres were the long tube-like tapered vessels from the arrays of adjoined cell walls detached along the perforation lines. These fibrillated vessel elements constituting the P250/R300 fines fraction improved pulp network strength by gluing onto multiple fibres. More profound strength enhancement was promoted by the segments of the fibrillated vessel elements constituted in the P300/R400 fines fraction. With reduced dimensions, these elements enhanced pulp network strength by filling the micro-voids in the pulp network. By eliminating gaps that would otherwise interrupt inter-fiber bonding, 12% P300/R400 fines fraction enhanced the EFB APMP pulp network tensile strength by 100%.

  1. Comparative evaluation of different hemicelluloses isolation processes integrated with alkaline cooking - HemiEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixta, H.; Testova, L.; Rauhala, T. (and others) (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Forest Products Technology, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    HemiEx is a project focusing on the selective extraction of hemicelluloses from hardwood species in connection with alkaline pulping and study of different chemical aspects of the process. The project scope includes investigation of hemicelluloses isolation methods i.e. water prehydrolysis and alkaline pre-extraction prior to and novel solvents extraction subsequent to alkaline pulping. The sugar fraction of the extracts is then separated from other wood degradation products by means of membrane separation technology before it is converted to furanic compounds and xylose-based food additives. As regards pulp production, both dissolving and paper pulps are aimed at. The effect of pretreatment conditions on papermaking properties of pulp will also be investigated. (orig.)

  2. Comparative evaluation of different hemicelluloses isolation processes integrated with alkaline cooking - HemiEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixta, H.; Testova, L.; Rauhala, T. (and others) (Aalto Univ. School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Forest Products Technology)

    2010-10-15

    HemiEx is a project focusing on the selective extraction of hemicelluloses from hardwood species in connection with alkaline pulping and study of different chemical aspects of the process. The project scope includes investigation of hemicelluloses isolation methods i.e. water prehydrolysis and alkaline pre-extraction prior to and subsequent to alkaline pulping. The sugar fraction of the extracts is then separated from other wood degradation products by means of membrane separation technology before it is converted to furanic compounds and xylose-based food additives. As regards pulp production, both dissolving and paper pulps are aimed at. The effect of pretreatment conditions on papermaking properties of pulp will also be investigated. (orig.)

  3. Sequential Synergy of Alkaline Peroxide Treatment and Refining in Co-generating Filler for Pulp Web Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arniza Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desired pulp-based product properties can be achieved by addition of filler in the pulp network. In exploring this, fines co-generated upon refining the alkaline peroxide treated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were collected based on their passage and retention capacities when subjected to varying mesh-sizes stainless-steel square mesh wires. Pulp network incorporating fines produced from the synergy of low alkaline peroxide (AP and low energy refining effects shows that blending 12% of the 400-mesh fines (P300/R400 with the normal 200-mesh pulp fraction enhanced paper tensile strength by 100% due to their favourable dimensions. This defines the usefulness of fibrillar particles whose cell wall collapsibility increases the web density by increasing bonding ability and thus, strength of pulp-based products. Fines produced from more extreme synergy between alkaline peroxide and degree of refining, exhibit unique submicron fibrils and ‘nano-CGF’ also responsible for further augmentation of EFB alkaline peroxide pulp network. Whether from the simple (low-AP and low energy refining or the extreme synergy of AP and refining, the co-generated fines are apparently suitable materials for use as natural filler for augmentation of pulp network. Particularly for the simple AP and refining synergy, the introduced recovery and utilization of the co-generated filler (CGF was found to reduce 74% turbidity and this improvement will help reduce the complexity of whitewater generation in the pulping system.

  4. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Pértile; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; André da Costa; Maria Izabel Warmling

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a) changes in the physical and chemical properties of an a...

  5. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  6. THE COMPARISON OF STRENGTH PROPERTY BETWWEEN KRAFT PULP AND ALKALINE SULFITE-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FOR THICKER CELL WALL FIBER MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLi; FeifeiWang; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    The comparison of strength property between kraftpulp ( KP ) and Alkaline Sulfite-Anthraquinone(AS-AQ) pulp for thicker cell wall fiber materialsLarch and Quercus as examples was studied. Theaverage coefficient of flexibility of Larch andQuercus are 0.6-0.7 and 0.45-0.50, respectively. Theresults showed that the strength property of thickercell wall pulp is some what different from thosereported earlier. The strengths of AS-AQ are allhigher than those of KP for Larch and Quercus. ForLarch, under same beating degree the breaking lengthof AS-AQ is 8-16% higher than that of KP, burstindex 3-14% higher, folding endurance 30% higher,tear index slightly higher. For Quercus, the breakinglength of AS-AQ is 5-10% higher then that of KP,burst index 10-15% higher, folding endurance30-50% higher, tear index 5-15% higher. Under thesame breaking length the tear index of AS-AQ pulpis significantly higher than that of KP for both Larchand Quercus.

  7. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  8. Evaluation of alkaline deconstruction processes for Brazilian new generation of eucalypt clones

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Gomes, Fernando José; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Milanez, Augusto; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; dos Santos Muguet, Marcelo Coelho; Ribas Batalha, Larisse Aparecida; Gomez Gouvêa, Adriana de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Wood utilization for pulp and paper and biorefinery applications requires some kind of mechanical and/or physical–chemical pretreatment. Among the chemical treatments the alkaline ones are the most used worldwide, although acid and solvent treatments have also being used. This paper deals with eucalypt wood deconstruction with alkaline processes including soda-AQ, soda-AQ-O2, soda-O2, and kraft. The kraft process is largely used by the pulp industry and is evaluated here only to serve as a re...

  9. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence. PMID:25085529

  10. Utilization of by-product sulfur in Kraft pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Liu, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Chung, K.H. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    This presentation describes how sulfur derived from heavy oil processing can be used by the pulp and paper industry to increase yield, accelerate delignification and shorten the cooking time in the kraft pulping process. The liquor used in the kraft pulping process is a solution of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. The reaction kinetics of delignification in the cooking process was examined and a new method was proposed. The 3 key kinetic steps in the new method include: (1) adsorption of hydroxide and hydrosulfide ions on the fiber wall, (2) chemical reaction on the solid surface to produce degraded lignin products, and (3) desorption of degradation products from the solid surface. The surface reaction is the most important step in the delignification process. A newly developed kinetic model based on the proposed mechanism can be used to accurately predict the pulping behaviour under a variety of conditions.

  11. Hydrophobically Associating Polyethylenimine for Controlling Dissolved and Colloidal Substances of Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-lei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a paper mill’s water circuit, normal runnability of the paper machine is often disturbed due to buildup of hydrophobic dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS, such as wood pitch, white pitch, and stickies. General cationic fixing agents such as hydrophilic polymers do not always work to minimize these problems. In the present study, two kinds of novel hydrophobically associating polyethylenimine (PEI coagulants grafted by acetic anhydride and 1,2-epoxydodecane, named PEI-Ac and PEI-Ed, respectively, were synthesized to remove hydrophobic DCS. The performances of the modified PEI samples were evaluated using a model suspension containing alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP and styrene-butadiene latex. The results showed that the modified PEI was more inclined to interact with hydrophobic substances than was non-modified PEI. The relationship between DCS removal and non-modified or modified PEI content was not linear, but there was a maximum. The turbidity and particle counts of model suspensions decreased 30% and 80%, respectively, when the dosage of PEI-Ed(a was 0.025%. Compared with the 72.8% decrease in the case of non-modified PEI, cationic demand decreased by 67.7% when the PEI-Ed(a concentration was 0.2%. It was also found that PEI-Ed had a better affinity for DCS than PEI-Ac, which may be because the PEI-Ed had a long hydrophobic chain.

  12. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadif, A; Hunkeler, D; Käuper, P

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocell, Alcell and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin.

  13. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, A.; Hunkeler, D.; Kauper, P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. de Chimie

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocells, Aicello and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin. (author)

  14. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Quaiyyum

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita. Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. The soda-EDA process produced better pulp yield, kappa number, viscosity, and α-cellulose content as compared to the kraft process. Increasing EDA charge in the soda liquor increased pulping selectivity and α-cellulose content. Degraded cellulose (R18-R10 in soda-EDA pulp was lower than kraft pulp. But the bleachability of soda-EDA pulp was inferior as compared to kraft pulp in DED bleaching.

  15. Pulping of the giant leucaena wood. I. Pulping by the kraft process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, K.; Ogino, T.; Takano, I.; Shimada, K.; Nishida, A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooking of Leucaena latisiliqua with kraft liquor (30% sulfidity as Na/sub 2/O) at 160 degrees gave 59.1% pulp with Kappa number 59.0 and Hunter brightness 19.9. The strength properties of pulp were comparable to those of beech pulp. It was confirmed that the extractives remaining in the bleached pulp adversely affect the color reversion.

  16. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pértile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a changes in the physical and chemical properties of an acidic soil and (b pine tree development. The experiment was carried out in 2004 in Bocaina do Sul, Santa Catarina, consisting of the application of increasing dreg and lime rates to a Pinus taeda L. production area, on a Humic Cambisol, in a randomized block design with four replications and 10 x 10 m plots. The treatments consisted of levels of soil acidity amendments corresponding to the recommendations by the SMP method to reach pH 5.5 in the 0-20 cm layer, as follows: no soil amendment; dregs at 5.08 (1/4 SMP, 10.15 (1/2 SMP and 20.3 Mg ha-1 (1 SMP; and lime at 8.35 (1/2 SMP and 16.7 Mg ha-1 (1 SMP. Soil layers were sampled in 2010 for analyses of soil chemical and physical properties. The diameter at breast height of the 6.5 year old pine trees was also evaluated. Surface application of dregs improved soil chemical fertility by reducing acidity and increasing base saturation, similar to liming, especially in surface layers. Dregs, comparable to lime, reduced the degree of clay flocculation, but did not affect the soil physical quality. There was no effect of the amendments on increase in pine tree diameter. Thus, the alternative to raise the pH in forest soils to 5.5 with dregs is promising for the forestry sector with a view to dispose of the waste and increase soil fertility.

  17. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  18. Production of pulp from Salix viminalis energy crops using the FIRSST process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Capek-Menard, Eva; Gauvin, Henri; Chornet, Esteban

    2010-07-01

    In this work, isolation of the cellulose fibres was carried out via the Feedstock Impregnation Rapid and Sequential Steam Treatment process (FIRSST). The latter allows the separation of extractives, hemicellulosic sugars and lignin isolating the cellulose fibres. Quantitative data on the constitutive macromolecules of biomass was obtained using ASTM or TAPPI standard methods. Carbohydrates found in the hemicelluloses were also quantified using HPLC. Kraft pulp from whole biomass has also been produced at a bench scale (few kg per batch) using known and established pulping conditions. The pulps from both pulping techniques were tested following ATTPC standard methods. Pulp yields were of 34% for the classical Kraft processes (using whole biomass) while the FIRSST process showed yields around 30%. The average fibre lengths were similar for FIRSST pulp (0.39 mm) and Kraft pulp (0.41 mm) and the mechanical properties of the FIRSST pulp were as good as those of the Kraft pulp.

  19. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  20. Effect of silicon carbide and pulping processes on physical and mechanical properties of pulp plastic composites (PPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sukhtesaraie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different pulping processes and SiC particles on physical and mechanical properties of pulp plastic composites (PPCs. Polypropylene (PP, SODA and NSSC pulp fibers (max. 40 and 50 wt.%, silicon carbide particles (0, 5, 10, 15 wt.%, and 5 wt.% maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP as coupling agent were used to produce pulp plastic composites (PPCs by injection molding. The physical and mechanical properties of samples were characterized according to ASTM standards. SODA pulp composites illustrated higher values in all properties except contact angle and showed approximately same abrasion resistance compared to NSSC pulp composites. The addition of SiC particles improved the negative effect of pulp fibers in water absorption, and increased both contact angle and abrasion resistance of PPCs. By contrast, tensile, flexural, and impact properties of pulp plastic composites decreased by increasing SiC particles. In general, 50 wt.% SODA/SiC composite containing 10 wt.% SiC particles showed the highest efficiency among composites.

  1. Process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp with high strength

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp with a high strength. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a high freeness beaten low lignin pulp that is produced from a pulp with a low lignin content, wherein said pulp with a low lignin content is subjected to a beating process under relatively high compression forces and relatively low shear forces

  2. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  3. Study on TEMPO-Mediated Selective Oxidation of Alkaline Natural Cellulose Pulp and Properties of Its Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; SUN Bin; ZHU Mei-fang

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that natural cellulose(celluloseⅠ) can not be oxidized by TEMPO - NaOCl -NaBr system, one of TEMPO-mediated selective oxidantsystems, but regenerated cellulose(cellulose Ⅰ)can becompletely selectively oxidized. In the present work,natural cellulose pulp was treated with NaOH solution,which concentration is lower than 20 wt%. The alkalinecelluloses obtained were oxidized by TEMPO - NaOCl -NaBr system and the factors which influence the selectiveoxidation reaction rate have been investigated. Thestructure of the oxidized products has been characterizedby Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR), nuclear magenaticresonace(NMR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD) methods, and their adsorption properties forCu2+ and Cd2+ in aqueous solutions have beenpreliminarily examined. The results show that after thealkaline treatment, the primary hydroxyl at C6 position ofnatural cellulose can be selectively oxidized to carboxylgroup in the reaction medium at pH 10.8, the oxidationrate becomes greater with the NaOH concentration andalkaline treatment time increasing. The alkaline treatmenthas a great effect on the crystal structure of naturalcellulose, but the crystal structure of alkaline cellulosekeeps almost unchanged after oxidation. The adsorptioncapacity is enhanced by introducing carboxyl groups intothe cellulose macromolecular chains.

  4. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  5. Determinations of the Colloidal Structure of Pulp Fibres by Adsorption in Liquid Medium. The Role of Pulping Process

    OpenAIRE

    László Koltai; Miklósné Baksay; Sándor Rohrsetzer

    2008-01-01

    We used the principles of theoretical colloid chemistry and our earlier results.We developed further the measuring of the specific surface by adsorption method. The aimof the study was the change of the usability of the method in showing out the structuraldifferences of the pulping process. We found that the different pulping processes results indifferences of the specific surface of the fibres measured with iron/III/hydroxide, TiO2 andMethylene blue adsorption, and we also found that the spe...

  6. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A. (Stanley Industrial Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Smith, D.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O[sub 3]/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the [open quote]t[close quote] test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry: application to a sulfite wood pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.

    2007-07-01

    This report measures the actions performed in 2006 and the actions planned for 2007 within the framework of the project Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry. In addition to the data reconciliation models of the steam and condensate networks and of the process of Borregaard Schweiz AG, process models have been developed with the goal of defining the heat requirements of the process. The combination of utility system data reconciliation with the process models allows to considerably reduce the need for detailed process modelling and for on-site data collection and measurement. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process has been developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirement of the process. The process requirements have been defined using the dual representation concept where the energy requirement of the process unit operations are systematically analysed from their thermodynamic requirement and the way they are satisfied by the technology that implements the operation. Corresponding to the same energy requirement but realised with different temperature allows on one hand to define the exergy efficiency of the heat transfer system in each of the process unit operations and to identify possible energy savings by heat exchange in the system. The analysis has been completed by the definition of the possible energy recovery from waste streams. The minimum energy requirement of the process using the different requirement representation has been realised and the analysis of the energy savings opportunities is now under preparation. This new step will first concern the definition of the utility system integration and the systematic analysis of the energy savings opportunities followed by the techno-economic evaluation of the most profitable energy savings options in the process. The national and international collaborations constitute also an important part of this project. The project is done in close

  8. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  9. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  10. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  11. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STABILIZERS ON ALKALINE H2O2 BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihong Niu; Shulan Shi; Yunzhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a new stabilizer of H2O2 bleaching and compares the stabilizing effect of the new stabilizer with that of Na2SiO3. The results show that the new stabilizer is better than the conventional Na2SiO3. The optimum conditions of the stable latter process bleaching of H2O2 as follow: NaOH 3%,MgSO4 0.05%, H2O2 3%, stabilizer 3%, temperature 80℃, concentration 12%, time 3h.

  12. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  13. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  14. Alkaline xylan extraction of bleached kraft pulp-effect of extraction time on pulp chemical composition and physical properties%漂白硫酸盐浆的碱性木聚糖抽提对纸浆化学组分和物理性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林庆旭; 夏新兴

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot scale study, we examined the effects of alkaline extraction time on xylan removal, pulp and paper properties, and the consequences that need to be addressed when scaling up and intensifying the process. Alkaline extraction of bleached birch kraft pulp yields two fractions:pure polymeric xylan and pulp with reduced xylan content. Our results indicate that a similar amount of xylan can be extracted in 5 min as the amount obtained in 60 min. We found, however, that the shorter extraction time is beneficial to maintain the fiber and paper properties at an acceptable level. This pilot trial demonstrated that the washing procedure of the alkali-treated fibers must be selected with care to avoid causing mechanical damage to fibers and to avoid the loss of fines.%  研究了扩大和强化过程时碱抽提时间对木聚糖去除、纸浆和纸张性能及结果的影响。漂白桦木硫酸盐浆的碱抽提产生了两部分产物:纯木聚糖和木聚糖含量降低的纸浆。研究结果表明:抽提5m in得到的木聚糖量与抽提60m in得到的木聚糖量是相近的;在合理的范围内,缩短提取时间有利于保持纤维和纸张的性能;碱处理纤维的洗涤必须小心进行,以避免造成对纤维的机械损伤,以及细小纤维的流失。

  15. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  16. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  17. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from...... were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen...

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  20. Dynamic simulation of the carbon-in-pulp and carbon-in-leach processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. de Andrade Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp are continuous processes that use activated carbon in a cascade of large agitated tanks, which have been widely used to recover or concentrate precious metals in gold extraction plants. In the carbon-in-pulp process adsorption occurs after the leaching cascade section of the plant, and in the carbon-in-leach process leaching and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes the activated carbon is moved from one tank to another in countercurrent with the ore pulp until the recovery of the loaded carbon in the first tank. This paper presents a dynamic model that describes, with minor changes, the carbon-in-leach, the carbon-in-pulp, and the gold leaching processes. The model is numerically solved and calibrated with experimental data from a plant and used to perform a study of the effect of the activated carbon transfer strategy on the performance of the adsorption section of the plant. Based on the calculated values of the gold loss in the liquid and of the gold recovered in the loaded activated carbon that leaves the circuit, the results indicate that strategies in which a significant amount of activated carbon is held in the first tank and the contact time between the carbon and the pulp is longer are the best carbon transfer strategies for these processes.

  1. Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferella, Francesco; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    In this paper a recycling process for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries is proposed. Laboratory tests are performed to obtain a purified pregnant solution from which metallic zinc (purity 99.6%) can be recovered by electrolysis; manganese is recovered as a mixture of oxides by roasting of solid residue coming from the leaching stage. Nearly 99% of zinc and 20% of manganese are extracted after 3 h, at 80 °C with 10% w/v pulp density and 1.5 M sulphuric acid concentration. The leach liquor is purified by a selective precipitation of iron, whereas metallic impurities, such as copper, nickel and cadmium are removed by cementation with zinc powder. The solid residue of leaching is roasted for 30 min at 900 °C, removing graphite completely and obtaining a mixture of Mn 3O 4 and Mn 2O 3 with 70% grade of Mn. After that a technical-economic assessment is carried out for a recycling plant with a feed capacity of 5000 t y -1 of only alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. This analysis shows the economic feasibility of that plant, supposing a battery price surcharge of 0.5 € kg -1, with a return on investment of 34.5%, gross margin of 35.8% and around 3 years payback time.

  2. Redução de aminoácidos em polpas de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum e murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L. processado (aquecido e alcalinizado Amino acids reduction in processed (heated and alkalinized pulps of bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd ex-Spreng Schum and murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Porte

    2010-09-01

    C, with stirring and refluxing or without heating. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and pH values also were obtained in the pulps without heating. All nutrients were analised by HPLC. The pHs were: 3.2, 3.6 and 3.35 in the bacuri, cupuaçu and murici pulps, respectively. Sucrose (38.34% and 36.93% was the major carbohydrate while fructose (8.93% and 12.63% and glucose (9.03% and 11.65% shown similar percentages in the cupuaçu and bacuri pulps. Murici pulp was almost free of sucrose (0.57%, but not of fructose (11.51% or glucose (11.39%. In the pulps without heating the major amino acids were: glutamic acid (46.6 mg/kg, aspartic acid (28.8 mg/kg and arginine (25.3 mg/kg in the bacuri pulp; aspartic acid (56.3 mg/kg, glutamic acid (44.0 mg/kg and alanine (24.2 mg/kg in the cupuaçu pulp; proline (73.5 mg/kg, glutamic acid (23.7 mg/kg and aspartic acid (23.5 mg/kg in the murici pulp. The heating of the 3 pulps decresead the concentration of all amino acids. The medium strongly alkaline (pH 12 produced more degradation of the amino acids than others pHs. Lysine was more sensible to the heating than others amino acids in pH 12.

  3. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  4. Mechanism of Methanol Formation during Alkaline Pulping of Non-wood Fiber Materials Part I The relationship between the quantity of methanol and chemical composition%非木材原料碱法蒸煮甲醇产生机理的研究 第一部分甲醇发生量与化学成分的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文0秋娟; 刘海学; 李丹

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is the main alcohol of air pollutants generated in the alkaline pulping process. The relationship between the quantity of methanol generated in alkaline processes and lignin and pentosan content of several commonly used non-wood raw materials, as well as the course of methanol formation during sulfate pulping of bamboo, were studied. The results showed that the quantity of generated methanol varied greatly according to the species of raw material. During bamboo kraft pulping process, the amount of methanol increased with the increase of the dissolution of lignin and pentosan.%甲醇为碱法蒸煮过程中产生的主要醇类大气污染物。本文主要研究了几种常用的非木材原料碱法蒸煮甲醇的发生量与木素和聚戊糖含量的关系,并研究了竹材硫酸盐法蒸煮甲醇产生的历程。实验得出,原料种类不同,其甲醇发生量相差很大。刺竹硫酸盐法蒸煮过程中,甲醇发生量随着木索和聚戊糖溶出量的增大而升高。

  5. Structural modifications of flax and sisal lignin during the pulping and bleaching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Nieto Garrido, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T.; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the structural modifications of the lignin of flax and sisal during the pulping (soda/AQ) and bleaching (TCF and ECF) processes. The residual lignins were isolated by acidolysis and subsequently characterized by Py-GC/MS and 2D-NMR. Flax residual lignins have a predominance of G-lignin and low amounts of S-lignin units in the unbleached pulp, which are also present in similar abundances in the residual lignin after TCF bleaching. After ECF bleaching, lignin was still present, ...

  6. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on extraction using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and its process parameters. The process parameters of the extraction were varied in terms of concentration of NaOH solution and also the soaking time. The texture and structure of the chemically purified continuous cellulose fiber were observed by visual inspection. Detailed microstructural analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM while chemical composition analysis in term of cellulose percentage was conducted using Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI; TAPPI T203. Preliminary results showed that increment in cellulose percentage when the concentration of NaOH and soaking time were increased.

  7. Quantitative characterization of the impact of pulp refining on enzymatic saccharification of the alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanfei; Li, Bin; Mu, Xindong; Yu, Guang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-10-01

    In this work, corn stover was refined by a pulp refining instrument (PFI refiner) after NaOH pretreatment under varied conditions. The quantitative characterization of the influence of PFI refining on enzymatic hydrolysis was studied, and it was proved that the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by PFI refining of the pretreated corn stover was largely due to the significant increment of porosity of substrates and the reduction of cellulose crystallinity. Furthermore, a linear relationship between beating degree and final total sugar yields was found, and a simple way to predict the final total sugar yields by easily testing the beating degree of PFI refined corn stover was established. Therefore, this paper provided the possibility and feasibility for easily monitoring the fermentable sugar production by the simple test of beating degree, and this will be of significant importance for the monitoring and controlling of industrial production in the future.

  8. Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

  9. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O), an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O) were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa num...

  10. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Vila; Javier Romero; José Luis Francisco,; Valentín Santos,; Juan Carlos Parajó

    2012-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing) to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurize...

  11. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  12. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  13. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days

  14. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Carter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near river mouths. Strong net carbonate precipitation lowers basin mean Indian and Atlantic Alk*, while upwelling of dissolved CaCO3 rich deep waters elevates Northern Pacific and Southern Ocean Alk*. We use the Alk* distribution to estimate the carbonate saturation variability resulting from CaCO3 cycling and other processes. We show regional variations in surface carbonate saturation are due to temperature changes driving CO2 fluxes and, to a lesser extent, freshwater cycling. Calcium carbonate cycling plays a tertiary role. Monitoring the Alk* distribution would allow us to isolate the impact of acidification on biological calcification and remineralization.

  15. High-risk biodegradable waste processing by alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambura, Sanja; Voća, Neven; Krička, Tajana; Sindrak, Zoran; Spehar, Ana; Kalambura, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradable waste is by definition degraded by other living organisms. Every day, meat industry produces large amounts of a specific type of biodegradable waste called slaughterhouse waste. Traditionally in Europe, this waste is recycled in rendering plants which produce meat and bone meal and fat. However, feeding animals with meat and bone meal has been banned since the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In consequence, new slaughterhouse waste processing technologies have been developed, and animal wastes have now been used for energy production. Certain parts of this waste, such as brains and spinal cord, are deemed high-risk substances, because they may be infected with prions. Their treatment is therefore possible only in strictly controlled conditions. One of the methods which seems to bear acceptable health risk is alkaline hydrolysis. This paper presents the results of an alkaline hydrolysis efficiency study. It also proposes reuse of the obtained material as organic fertiliser, as is suggested by the analytical comparison between meat and bone meal and hydrolysate. PMID:21971109

  16. Changes in composition, antioxidant content, and antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp during the ensiling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodulo Salinas Rios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritive value, the presence of antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp ensiled or non-ensiled. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and lignin, as well as the antioxidant compounds present in coffee pulp and their antioxidant capacity, were determined. A completely randomized design was used. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Ensiling of coffee pulp increased the CP content from 98.6 to 111.6 g kg−1 DM, NDF from 414.6 to 519.5 g kg−1 DM, ADF from 383.9 to 439.3 g kg−1 DM, and lignin from 122.9 to 133.6 g kg−1 DM. Caffeine decreased from 5.72 to 5.02 mg g−1 DM. Three antioxidant compounds were detected. Caffeic acid decreased due to ensiling (16.49 vs 14.69 mg g−1 DM. Gallic acid (2.88 vs 2.58 mg g−1 DM and chlorogenic acid (62.12 vs 56.00 mg g−1 DM did not differ, and there was similar antioxidant capacity of non-ensiled (215.66 µmol trolox g−1 DM and ensiled coffee pulp (206.59 µmol trolox g−1 DM. Despite the decrease in the caffeic acid content due to the ensiling process, it is possible to use either ensiled or non-ensiled coffee pulp for animal feeding because of its high antioxidant capacity.

  17. A highly thermostable alkaline cellulase-free xylanase from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. JB 99 suitable for paper and pulp industry: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinivas, Dengeti; Savitha, Gunashekaran; Raviranjan, Kumar; Naik, Gajanan Ramchandra

    2010-11-01

    A highly thermostable alkaline xylanase was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant of Bacillus sp. JB 99 using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration with 25.7-fold increase in activity and 43.5% recovery. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase was found to be 20 kDA by SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 70 °C, pH 8.0 and stable over pH range of 6.0-10.0.The relative activity at 9.0 and 10.0 were 90% and 85% of that of pH 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed high thermal stability at 60 °C with 95% of its activity after 5 h. The K (m) and V (max) of enzyme for oat spelt xylan were 4.8 mg/ml and 218.6 µM min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Analysis of N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the xylanase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11 from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. with basic pI. Substrate specificity showed a high activity on xylan-containing substrate and cellulase-free nature. The hydrolyzed product pattern of oat spelt xylan on thin-layer chromatography suggested xylanase as an endoxylanase. Due to these properties, xylanase from Bacillus sp. JB 99 was found to be highly compatible for paper and pulp industry.

  18. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NAOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Li; Yongjun Deng; Ping Li; Guigan Fang; Shuchai Liu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination,alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulp from Gaoyou Papermill.Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps were improved.

  19. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  20. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  1. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O, an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa number. A lower kappa number and good strength properties were achieved by increasing total alkali and Na2SO3 charge. SAS-AQ pulps showed good response towards CEHH bleaching. The NSSC-AQ pulping was conducted at a total alkali charge of 8% (as Na2O by varying the ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate (100:0-0:100, and cooking time (60-120 min at 1600C. A ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 60:40 was suitable for corrugating medium (cooking time 60 min, while a ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 70:30 showed better strength properties (longer cooking time.

  2. Electrochemical processing of alkaline nitrate and nitrite solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) will produce, as a by product, a low- level, alkaline salt solution containing approximately 17% sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. This solution will be incorporated into a cement formulation, saltstone, and placed in an engineered landfill. Electrochemical methods have been investigated to decrease the nitrate and nitrite in this solution in order to lower the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from saltstone and to reduce the volume of saltstone. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrolytically reducing the nitrate and nitrite in a synthetic salt solution similar in composition to that expected to be produced at SRP. Greater than 99% of the sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite can be reduced, producing ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen, and sodium hydroxide. In addition, significant reductions in the volume of saltstone may be realized if the sodium hydroxide produced by electrolysis can be recycled

  3. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  4. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  5. Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A process integration model that establishes material stream connections among typical Nordic forest industries is developed. • Potential benefit of the operating the different industries in one site is studied using pinch analysis. • Different scenarios considered to assess impact of prioritization on how to utilize excess biomass. • Results indicate large potential for improved biomass resource utilization. - Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  6. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  7. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mervit M. Janbi; Suhama E. Salah; Kadhum M. Shabe

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage...

  8. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process. PMID:27099940

  9. Separation of lignocelluloses from spent liquor of NSSC pulping process via adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Gilbert, Allan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-04-01

    Hemicelluloses and lignin present in the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulping process can potentially be converted into value-added products such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, phenols and adhesives. However, the direct conversion of hemicelluloses and lignin of SL into value-added products is uneconomical due to the dilute nature of the SL. To have a feasible downstream process for utilizing lignocelluloses of SL, the lignocelluloses should initially be separated from the SL. In this study, an adsorption process (via applying activated carbon) was considered for isolating the dissolved lignin and hemicelluloses from the SL of an NSSC pulping process. Under the optimal conditions of pH, SL/AC weight ratio, time and temperature of 5.7, 30, 360 min and 30 °C, the maximum lignin and hemicellulose adsorptions were 0.33 and 0.25 g/g on AC. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity of the SL were decreased by 11% and 39%, respectively, as a result of lignocellulose adsorption on AC. Also, the incineration behavior of the SL-treated AC was studied with a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). PMID:24565877

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF SODA PULPING PROCESS OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC RESIDUES OF LEMON AND SOFIA GRASSES PRODUCED AFTER STEAM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjeet Kaur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sofia (Cymbopogon martini, and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces a pulp yield of 43.7% of kappa number 20 at an active alkali dose of 14% (as Na2O, maximum cooking temperature of 160 oC and cooking time 90 min. Likewise, lemon grass produces a pulp yield of 41.4% of kappa number 12.5 under the same conditions except temperature (150 oC by a soda pulping process. Addition of 0.1% AQ at optimum cooking conditions reduces kappa number by 26 and 8% for sofia and lemon grasses with insignificant increase in pulp yield i.e. 0.2 and 0.4% for sofia and lemon grasses, respectively. The mechanical strength properties of lemon grass soda-AQ pulp are better than sofia grass. Bauer-McNett fiber classification further validates that +20 fractions are more (62.63% in lemon grass than in sofia grass (42.72%.

  11. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  12. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. PMID:27178917

  13. Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps, based on the engineering quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addys Castellanos Gómez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps, can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products. With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

  14. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NaOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaixiaLi; YongjunDeng; PingLi; GuiganFang; ShuchaiLiu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination, alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulpfrom Gaoyou Papermill. Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps wereimproved.

  15. A Study on Enhancement of Filtration Process with Filter Aids Diatomaceous Earth and Wood Pulp Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都丽红; 陈旭; 李文苹; 朱企新

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a study to enhance the filtration for solid/liquid materials difficult to be filtered, such as highly viscous, highly compactible or gel like materials, is presented. Filter aids diatomaceous earth and wood pulp cellulose are used to enhance the filtration by improving filter cake structure and properties in the filtration of a biological health product and a highly viscous chemical fiber polymer melt product. The property of solid/liquidsystems, filtration at different flow rates, specitic cake resistance, cake wetness, filtration rate, filtrate turbidity for filter aid selection and evaluation, and operation optimization are investigated. The results are successfully applied to industrial process, .and can be used as a reference for similar filtration applications.

  16. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning;

    2008-01-01

    The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly...... and discusses the environmental potential of a range of other enzyme applications  by qualitative means. LCA is used as analytical tool and modelling is facilitated in SimaPro software. Foreground LCA data are production/ company specific and collected from P&P technology service providers, specific P...... and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means...

  17. Improved control of the cooking process reduces energy consumption in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahvenlampi, T.; Ikonen, E. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: timo.ahvenlampi@oulu.fi; Liedes, M.; Malmi, T. (Oy Metsae-Botnia Ab, Kemi mill (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the cooking process of the chemical pulping plant is considered. The control of the impregnation vessel and digester has great influence to the energy and raw material savings. A good control of the cooking has significant effects also to the following processes as washing and bleaching. In this research, the effect of the impregnation vessel and digester is analysed and diagnosed. The cooking process is modelled using modified Gustafson's Kappa number model. The model is used in the Downflow Lo-SolidsTM type cooking application. There are not many on-line quality measurements in the cooking process. Normally the only on-line quality measurement (Kappa number) is located in the blow line of the digester. In this research, the cooking process has been modelled and analysed. The objective of the research is to study the control of the cooking process and to find out the main effects of the manipulations in the main cooking controls (temperature and alkali controls) to quality, energy and raw material consumption

  18. Simulation and Prediction of Alkalinity in Sintering Process Based on Grey Least Squares Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Qiang; WANG Ai-min

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of the alkalinity is difficult during the sintering process. Whether or not the level of the alkalinity of sintering process is successful is directly related to the quality of sinter. There is no very good method for predicting the alkalinity by now owing to the high complexity, high nonlinearity, strong coupling, high time delay, and etc. Therefore, a new technique, the grey squares support machine, was introduced. The grey support vector machine model of the alkalinity enabled the development of new equation and algorithm to predict the alkalinity. During modelling, the fluctuation of data sequence was weakened by the grey theory and the support vector machine was capable of processing nonlinear adaptable information, and the grey support vector machine has a combination of those advantages. The results revealed that the alkalinity of sinter could be accurately predicted using this model by reference to small sample and information. The experimental results showed that the grey support vector machine model was effective and practical owing to the advantages of high precision, less samples required, and simple calculation.

  19. Isolating lignin from spent liquor of thermomechanical pulping process via adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Wood chips are pretreated with steam prior to refining in the thermomechanical pulping process. The steam treatment dissolves part of lignin of wood chips in the spent liquor (SL) of this process, and subsequently the SL is sent to the wastewater system of the process. However, the lignin of SL can be used in the production of value-added chemicals, but it should first be separated from the SL in order to have a feasible downstream process. In this study, activated carbon (AC) was considered as an adsorbent to isolate lignin from SL. The results showed that the maximum adsorption of lignin on AC was 166 mg/g under the optimal conditions of pH 5.2, 30 degrees C and 3 h treatment. Furthermore, the separation of lignin from SL was improved from 45% to 60% by having a two-stage adsorption process at pH 5.2, which also reduced the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand of SL by 39% and 32%, respectively.

  20. Flint corn grain processing and citrus pulp level in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, V N; Batistel, F; Souza, J; Chagas, L J; Sitta, C; Campanili, P R B; Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-02-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of flint corn processing and the replacement of corn with citrus pulp (CiP) in diets for Nellore feedlot cattle. In a 103-d finishing trial, 216 Nellore bulls (350 ± 24 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 2 processing methods, either ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (FC), with CiP replacing each corn type at 4 levels (0, 25, 50, and 75% of DM). All diets contained 12% sugarcane bagasse and 88% concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were also evaluated in metabolism trials, in which 10 ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (389 ± 37 kg) were assigned to 2 independent but simultaneous 5 × 5 Latin squares, each using 1 method of corn processing (GC and FC). Interactions ( NEm ( = 0.001) and NEg ( < 0.001) of FC-based diets but did not affect ( = 0.15) NE values of CG-based diets. Steam flaking flint corn improved cattle performance in this trial more than has been reported for dent corn in the published literature. PMID:27065137

  1. 蔗渣碱法蒸煮甲醇发生量与木素溶出率和聚戊糖溶出率的关系%The Relationship between Generation of Methanol and Dissolution of Lignin and Pentosan in Bagasse Alkaline Pulping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋娟; 邱昱桥

    2013-01-01

    甲醇是碱法蒸煮过程中产生的主要醇类大气污染物.研究了蔗渣烧碱-蒽醌法蒸煮过程中,不同蒸煮条件下甲醇发生量与木素溶出率和聚戊糖溶出率之间的关系.结果表明,在蔗渣烧碱-蒽醌法蒸煮过程中,甲醇发生量随木素溶出率和聚戊糖溶出率的增大而升高;若增加用碱量、提高蒸煮最高温度和延长保温时间,甲醇发生量的变化趋势与木素溶出率的变化趋势相近,而与聚戊糖溶出率的变化趋势有所不同;蒽醌用量为0.025%时,甲醇发生量最低.%Methanol is the main alcohol of air pollutants generated in alkaline pulping process. The relationships between the methanol generation and the dissolution of lignin and pentosan in bagasse alkaline cooking under different pulping conditions were investigated. The results showed that the quantity of the methanol generation increased with the increase of the dissolution of lignin and pentosan. The change trend of methanol generation was similar to that of the lignin dissolution, but unlike the dissolution of pentosan.

  2. Advanced Oxidation Processes for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluents : A Technical, Economical and Environmental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Karat, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the dominating source for emissions of degradable organic substances to water is the pulp and paper industry. The organic substances increase oxygen consumption in the recipient which subsequently threatens aquatic species. Improved process engineering, process closures and use of external treatments have in recent years drastically lowered the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has not been reduced to the same extent, as some organic substanc...

  3. USE OF A VOITH FLOTATION CELL FOR REMOVAL OF LIPOPHILIC EXTRACTIVES AND Mn IONS FROM SPRUCE THERMOMECHANICAL PULPING PROCESS WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Zasadowski,; Erik Hedenström,; Håkan Edlund; Magnus Norgren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a chelating surfactant and different foaming agents on the efficiency of cleaning process waters from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill were studied in a Voith flotation cell. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography were used to determine the removal extent and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo). The metal ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal after flotation were determined using inductively coupled p...

  4. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  5. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.; Fernández-Carrasco, L.

    1996-01-01

    Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa) have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution), Ca(OH)2 (3,5∙10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N) at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation...

  6. Increased delignification rate of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh nees by Schizophyllum commune Fr.; Fr. to reduce chemical consumption during pulping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Saini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its largeconsumption of energy and chemicals. To reduce the chemical consumption, rate of delignification was increased bySchizophyllum commune in destructured sample of Dendrocalamus stictus, which was destructured by Impressafiner (compression-cum dewatering process. The extent of delignification was determined and comparison was made between thenon-destructured and destructured samples. The influence of physical parameters like incubation time, moisture level, media,media concentration, pH and temperature were also examined during the study. It was found that rate of delignification wassignificantly 6.43% more in destructured sample than non-destructured sample. Kraft pulping of treated destructured sampleshows 2.59 point reduction in kappa number than untreated non-destructured sample. Thus this paper provides an insight ofthe delignification extent in Dendrocalamus strictus after mechanical operation at varying physical parameters.

  7. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  8. EVALUATION OF A NEW LACCASE PRODUCED BY STREPTOMYCES IPOMOEA ON BIOBLEACHING AND AGEING OF KRAFT PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Enriqueta Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to prove the suitability of a new alkaline and halo-tolerant bacterial laccase (SilA produced by Streptomyces ipomoea CECT 3341 to enhance the conventional chemical bleaching process of an industrial eucalyptus kraft pulp. The laccase used for this study was a recombinant laccase obtained from cultures of E. coli BL21 (DE3 grown in LB liquid medium. The biobleaching experiment was carried out on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps using the above mentioned laccase and acetosyringone as natural mediator. Then, an alkaline extraction and further hydrogen peroxide steps were applied to evaluate the efficiency of the laccase-mediator system as a pretreatment in the bleaching sequences. Biobleached pulps showed a kappa number decrease and a brightness increase without decreasing the viscosity values significantly. Also, a reduction in the consumption of hydrogen peroxide was observed when the enzymatic treatment was applied to the pulp. CIE L*a*b* and CIE L*C* color coordinates measured in pulps demonstrated that among all treatments applied to pulps, the laccase-acetosyringone system presented the best optical properties even after an accelerated ageing process. Finally, it is also remarkable that during this treatment 64% of the laccase activity remained unaltered.

  9. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  10. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervit M. Janbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage dosages range of 50-2000 mg/L, rapid mixing at 200 rpm for 2 min, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 15 min and settling time of 30 min. The effectiveness of Fenugreek mucilage was measured by the reduction of turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. The results show that the combination of PACl and Fenugreek mucilage is more effective than alum, PACl and alum + Fenugreek mucilage. It can achieve greater than 97% of turbidity reduction and greater than 98% of COD reduction at low dosage of PACl (50 mg/L and Fenugreek mucilage (100 mg/L. The results indicate that lower quantities of PACl are needed to obtain an acceptable reduction in turbidity and COD in the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater.

  11. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  12. ALKALINE SULFITE-ALCOHOL DELIGNIFICATION OF STEMS OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND BUNIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Трембус, Ірина Віталіївна; Плосконос, Віктор Григорович; Швидкий, А. М.

    2015-01-01

    Stems of Helianthus annuus and Bunias can be processed into semi-finished fiber products using alkaline sulfite-alcohol delignification. These semi-finished fiber products in their physical and mechanical characteristics are similar to those of the pulp of hardwood. The dependences of quality semi-finished fiber products on the temperature and duration of delignification are obtained.Keywords: alkaline sulfite-alcohol delignification, semi-finished fiber products, Helianthus annuus, Bunias

  13. Concentration by membrane separation processes of a medicinal product obtained from pineapple pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of pineapple juice is needed to retain the bromelain activity and to standardize the composition and proteolytic activity. Thus, this work aimed to obtain a pure bromelain extract from the Ananas comosus L. Merril juice by membrane separation process. A 2² experimental planning was used to study the influence of pH and transmembrane pressure on the activity recovery by micro-filtration using a plain membrane. In second step, this enzyme was purified by the ultra-filtration using a 10 kDa millipore kit. The best operation condition to bromelain concentration using the plain membrane was at pH 7.5 and transmembrane pressure of 0.05 bar, while 85% of bromelain activity was recovered. Ultra-filtration retained 100% of proteolytic activity and concentrated in 10 fold the bromelain extract. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that the ultra-filtrated had high purity and the bromelain from A. comosus pulp had a molecular weight of 24.5 kDa.A concentração do suco de abacaxi é necessária para manter a atividade da bromelina e padronizar a composição e atividade proteolítica. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a obter um extrato de bromelina pura do suco do Ananas comosus L. Merril por processos de separação por membranas. Um planejamento experimental do tipo 2² foi feito para estudar a influência do pH a da pressão transmembranar sobre a recuperação da atividade por micro-filtração usando uma membrana plana. Em uma segunda etapa, purificou-se a enzima alvo por ultra-filtração usando um "kit millipore" de 10 kDa. A melhor condição para a concentração da bromelina foi a pH 7,5 e pressão transmembranar de 0,05 bar, onde 85% da atividade da bromelina foi recuperado. A ultra-filtração manteve 100% da atividade proteolítica e concentrou em 10 vezes o extrato de bromelina. A eletroforese via SDS-PAGE mostrou que o ultra-filtrado teve alta pureza e a bromelina da polpa do Ananas comosus tem um peso molecular de 24.5 kDa.

  14. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi; Binti Megat Yusoff Puteri Sri Melor; Bin Abdul Latif Muhamad Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on ext...

  15. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  16. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of poplar processing residues for methane production after alkaline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqing; He, Mulan; Ren, Yubing; Ma, Liying; Luo, Yang; Sheng, Hongmei; Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Li, Qien; An, Lizhe

    2013-04-01

    Poplar processing residues were used for methane production by anaerobic digestion after alkaline treatment and methane production was measured. The highest methane production of 271.9 L/kg volatile solid (VS) was obtained at conditions of 35 g/L and 5.0% NaOH, which was 113.8% higher than non-alkaline treated samples, and 28.9% higher than that of corn straw, which is the conventional anaerobic digestion material in China. The maximal enhancement of 275.5% obtained at conditions of 50 g/L and 7.0% NaOH. Degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after treatment increased by 4.0-9.0%, 3.3-6.2%, and 11.1-20.5%, respectively, with NaOH dose ranged from 3.0% to 7.0%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectra and Crystallinity measurements showed that the lignocellulosic structures were disrupted by NaOH. The results indicate poplar processing residues might be an efficient substrate for methane production after alkaline treatment.

  18. Optimization of Preparation Process for Processed Cheese Fortified with Blueberry Pulp%蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 李浩; 田雪娇; 张建强; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with process optimization for the preparation of processed cheese fortified with blueberry pulp from fast-ripened cheese and blueberry pulp using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal formulation for processed cheese was skimmed milk powder 8%,butter 10%,blueberry pulp 20%,emulsifying salt 1.0%,xanthan gum 0.3%,salt 1.5%,and purified water 35%,which were simultaneously heated at 85 ℃ and stirred for 7 min.%以快速成熟干酪、蓝莓果浆为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验对蓝莓果肉再制干酪工艺进行优化,确定最佳配方为:加入脱脂奶粉8%、黄油10%、蓝莓果浆20%、乳化盐1.5%、黄原胶0.3%、食盐1.5%、纯净水35%、加热温度85℃、搅拌时间7min。

  19. EIS ANALYSIS ON THE ANODIC PROCESS OF ZINC IN AN ALKALINE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zheng; J.M. Wang; H. Chen; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2004-01-01

    The EIS on the anodic process of pure Zn in an alkaline solution were performed and fitted using the expression of Faradic admittance, based on which the mechanism of the process was proposed. The results showed that besides electrode potential E the electrochemical reaction rate was affected by the adsorption of Zn(OH)ads on the electrode surface and the diffusion of in the electrolyte in active region, and only by the covering of passivation layer on the electrode surface in both transitive and passivation regions. The equivalent circuits applied in these various circumstances were proposed and the variation of some parameters and state variables was also discussed.

  20. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode.

  1. New method of laser doppler flowmetry signal processing in pulp vitality evaluation after teeth cosmetic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Sarpe, Amalia; Vitez, Bogdan; Draganescu, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the pulp vitality before and after different tooth bleaching procedures, in order to determine the changes in pulpal microcirculation and whether they are reversible or not. Twelve volunteers were included in this study. For each volunteer, the pulpal blood flow of maxillary teeth was assessed prior to treatment using Laser Doppler Flowmetry. The "in office" bleaching technique was used 6 anterior teeth, with two different gels, a conventional one chemically activated (Group I 3teeth) and another one activated using Nd:YAG laser (Group II-3 teeth). The bleaching agents were applied on counterpart teeth and, after obtaining a esthetic results for each tooth, the pulpal blood flow was assessed using Laser Doppler Flowmetry immediately after treatment and then after one day and one week. All data were collected and statistically analyzed. Immediately after treatment, the assessment showed an increase of pulpal blood flow, for both study groups, but higher in Group I as compared to Group II (ptreatment method, which does not lead to irreversible damage to the dental pulp, when used correctly.

  2. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Vanessa Lopes Silva

    2009-01-01

    Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX) content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxi...

  3. Responses of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) to 20 years of process and waste treatment changes at a bleached kraft pulp mill, and to mill shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowron, L K; Munkittrick, K R; McMaster, M E; Tetreault, G; Hewitt, L M

    2009-11-01

    The impacts of pulp mill effluents on white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) have been studied at Jackfish Bay, ON, Canada since the late 1980s. The site receives effluent from a large bleached kraft pulp mill which is the only source of chemical contamination in the area. Many laboratory studies have looked at the toxicological consequences of pulping process changes, but the benefit of these changes have not been looked at in wild fish. Jackfish Bay white sucker showed impacts on sexual maturity, gonad size, secondary sexual characteristics and circulating steroids hormone levels in the early years of the studies, and impacts were evaluated after installation of secondary treatment (1989), major pulping process changes (1995) and after the mill ceased pulp production and effluent release (2006). The addition of secondary treatment resulted in minor improvements in wild fish health, and the conversion to elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching at the mill was associated with more recovery in liver and gonad size. While some impacts persist at the exposure site, reproductive parameters showed further improvement during the mill shutdown period demonstrating that biologically active chemicals are still being discharged from modernized mills. PMID:19783055

  4. Three-photon process for producing a degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D. S.; Pisenti, N. C.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating a quantum degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. This has yet to be achieved due to inelastic collisions that limit evaporative cooling in the metastable states. Quantum degenerate samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent three-photon process. Numerical integration of the density-matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth-metal atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ≃90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the three-photon process can be set up such that it imparts no net momentum to the degenerate gas during the excitation, which will allow for studies of metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to successfully realizing our scheme, including the minimization of differential ac Stark shifts between the four states connected by the three-photon transition.

  5. A 3-photon process for producing degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating quantum degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms. A degenerate gas in any of the 3 P metastable states has not previously been obtained due to large inelastic collision rates, which are unfavorable for evaporative cooling. Samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent 3-photon process. Numerical integration of the density matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ~= 90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the 3-photon process does not impart momentum to the degenerate gas during excitation, which allows studies of these metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to the successful realization of our scheme, including the minimization of differential AC Stark shifts between the four states connected by the 3-photon transition.

  6. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  7. An overview on fermentation, downstream processing and properties of microbial alkaline proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Beg, Q K; Khan, S; Chauhan, B

    2002-12-01

    Microbial alkaline proteases dominate the worldwide enzyme market, accounting for a two-thirds share of the detergent industry. Although protease production is an inherent property of all organisms, only those microbes that produce a substantial amount of extracellular protease have been exploited commercially. Of these, strains of Bacillus sp. dominate the industrial sector. To develop an efficient enzyme-based process for the industry, prior knowledge of various fermentation parameters, purification strategies and properties of the biocatalyst is of utmost importance. Besides these, the method of measurement of proteolytic potential, the selection of the substrate and the assay protocol depends upon the ultimate industrial application. A large array of assay protocols are available in the literature; however, with the predominance of molecular approaches for the generation of better biocatalysts, the search for newer substrates and assay protocols that can be conducted at micro/nano-scale are becoming important. Fermentation of proteases is regulated by varying the C/N ratio and can be scaled-up using fed-batch, continuous or chemostat approaches by prolonging the stationary phase of the culture. The conventional purification strategy employed, involving e.g., concentration, chromatographic steps, or aqueous two-phase systems, depends on the properties of the protease in question. Alkaline proteases useful for detergent applications are mostly active in the pH range 8-12 and at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees C, with a few exceptions of extreme pH optima up to pH 13 and activity at temperatures up to 80-90 degrees C. Alkaline proteases mostly have their isoelectric points near to their pH optimum in the range of 8-11. Several industrially important proteases have been subjected to crystallization to extensively study their molecular homology and three-dimensional structures. PMID:12466877

  8. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  9. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in fruit pulp processing byproducts and potential probiotic properties of selected Lactobacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L. and Fragaria vesca L. pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86% and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49 and L. fermentum 111 were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30 and 1.00% did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  10. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  11. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  12. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of rayon grade dissolving pulp and effects of metallic-ions on the viscose rayon process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan imports rayon grade pulp from different countries for viscose rayon fibre manufacturing. Samples of imported pulp were collected and analyzed for alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose, calcium, magnesium, silica, copper, manganese, and iron. Moisture, ash content, cuprammonium viscosity, degree of polymerization, alkali absorption, and colour brightness were also determined. The results showed that all these parameters varied from sample to sample. The cotton linter pulp contained high alpha-cellulose content (94-98%) as compared to the softwood pulp (89.7-95%). Degree of polymerization of all samples was above 500 and varied from 500-750 ml/g. the study showed that higher manganese and copper content in cotton decreased the degree of polymerization. Iron above the standard value (7-10 ppm) affected the brightness of fibre, as observed in the case of cotton linter pulp (imported from China). The percentage of ash was less than 0.25% in all samples studied. (author)

  14. Pretreatment with xylanase and its significance in hemicellulose removal from mixed hardwood kraft pulp as a process step for viscose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Sharma, Jitender

    2016-07-10

    The upturn of viscose fiber market has triggered an augmented dissolving pulp usage over the last decade. Dissolving pulp is feasible to obtain from kraft pulp after two essential steps including hemicellulose removal and subsequent pulp activation. Prerequisite of conversion being hemicellulose reduction can be gently done by using xylanase treatment prior to alkali extraction. Herein, the significance of xylanase treatment and the optimum xylanase dose required in conjunction with subsequent alkali extraction was investigated. An increase in xylanase dose prior to alkali extraction had no significant effect on pentosans while the Fock reactivity and viscosity both improved at the dose of 50AXU/g. Also, alkali extraction without xylanase pretreatment resulted in decreased Fock reactivity, alpha cellulose, brightness and viscosity of paper grade pulp. A moderate dose of xylanase prior to alkali extraction can thus be used to facilitate the hemicellulose removal while simultaneously protecting the native structure of cellulose. PMID:27106156

  15. Experimentale Study of Alkaline Precipitation on Thermal Process SeaWater Desalination Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment of alkaline precipitation by separated method has beencarry out. Experiment took please by heating sea water simulation with eachother consist of a).142 ppm bicarbonate and 400 ppm calcium ion b). 142 ppmbicarbonate and magnesium ion at temperature 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110 and120 oC respectively by using autoclave. Sampling has been done periodicalfor 30 minute in interval 300 minute for each temperature. The calculation ofalkaline precipitation on each step calculated through the decreasing ofcalcium and magnesium concentration with analysis by AAS. From experimentdata have the information that alkaline precipitation have been formed since40 oC. From time variable have been the information that the precipitationformed at 30th minute rapidly. Whether at further time the increasing ofprecipitation are not significant. This phenomena can explained that at eachheating step from 40 oC bicarbonate ion be come decomposition with theresult carbonate and hydroxide ion and react with calcium and magnesium formcalcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. From this information could beimplemented as base for avoiding using chemical material in desalinationthermal process. (author)

  16. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%.

  17. Alkaline hydrolysis process for treatment and disposal of Purex solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of spent Purex solvent (30% TBP-70% n-dodecane mixture) from reprocessing plants by alkaline hydrolysis process was investigated using inactive 30% TBP solvent as well as actual radioactive spent solvent. Complete conversion of TBP to water-soluble reaction products was achieved in 7 hours reaction time at 130 deg C using 50%(w/v) NaOH solution at NaOH to TBP mole ratio of 3:2. Addition of water to the product mixture resulted in the complete separation of diluent containing less than 2 and 8 Bg./ml. of α and β activity respectively. Silica gel and alumina were found effective for purification of the separated diluent. Aqueous phase containing most of the original radioactivity was found compatible with cement matrix for further conditioning and disposal. (author). 17 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Enzymatic solubilization of a pectinaceous dietary fiber fraction from potato pulp: Optimization of the fiber extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Dam, Birgitte P; Lærke, Helle N.

    2009-01-01

    Upgrading of potato pulp, a byproduct stream from industrial manufacture of potato starch, is important for the continued economic competitiveness of the potato starch industry. The major part of potato pulp consists of the tuber plant cell wall material which is particularly rich in galactan...... conditions for the solubilization were optimized via a surface response design to be addition of 0.27% Viscozyme® L by weight of potato pulp substrate dry matter, 1 h treatment at pH 3.5, 62.5 °C. Analysis of the molecular size and monomer composition of the enzymatically released fibers showed...

  19. Carboxymethylcellulose Obtained by Ethanol/Water Organosolv Process Under Acid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzene, Denise S.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Teixeira, José A.; Pessoa de Amorim, Maria T.

    Sugar cane bagasse pulps were obtained by ethanol/water organosolv process under acid and alkaline conditions. The best condition of acid pulping for the sugarcane bagasse was 0.02 mol/L sulfuric acid at 160°C, for 1h, whereas the best condition for alkaline pulping was 5% sodium hydroxide (base pulp) at 160°C, for 3h. For the residual lignin removal, the acid and alkaline pulps were submitted to a chemical bleaching using sodium chlorite. Pulps under acid and alkaline conditions bleached with sodium chlorite presented viscosities of 3.6 and 7.8 mPas, respectively, and μ-kappa numbers of 1.1 and 2.4, respectively. The pulp under acid condition, bleached with sodium chlorite was used to obtain carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). CMC yield was 35% (pulp based), showing mass gain after the carboxymethylation reaction corresponding to 23.6% of substitution or 0.70 groups-CH2COONa per unit of glucose residue. The infrared spectra showed the CMC characteristic bands and by the infrared technique it was possible to obtain a substitution degree (0.63), similar to the substitution degree calculated by mass gain (0.70).

  20. USE OF A VOITH FLOTATION CELL FOR REMOVAL OF LIPOPHILIC EXTRACTIVES AND Mn IONS FROM SPRUCE THERMOMECHANICAL PULPING PROCESS WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zasadowski,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a chelating surfactant and different foaming agents on the efficiency of cleaning process waters from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP mill were studied in a Voith flotation cell. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography were used to determine the removal extent and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo. The metal ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal after flotation were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. FiberLab™ equipment was used to characterize changes in the size of fibers present in the process waters. The results indicate that a decrease in turbidity of up to 91% and the removal of 80% of lipophilic extractives in the TMP water could be obtained using a single-stage flotation unit. Furthermore, the foam fraction was within 5% of the initial volume, and 100% of the Mn2+/chelating surfactant complex added to the TMP water was removed.

  1. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  2. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for pulp and paper mill effluent by response surface methodological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Wong, S S; Teng, T T; Zuhairi, A

    2007-06-25

    Coagulation-flocculation is a proven technique for the treatment of high suspended solids wastewater. In this study, the central composite face-centered design (CCFD) and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied to optimize two most important operating variables: coagulant dosage and pH, in the coagulation-flocculation process of pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. The treated wastewater with high total suspended solids (TSS) removal, low SVI (sludge volume index) and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. The effect of interactions between coagulant dosage and pH on the TSS removal and SVI are significant, whereas there is no interaction between coagulant dosage and water recovery. Quadratic models have been developed for the response variables, i.e. TSS removal, SVI and water recovery based on the high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of >0.99 obtained from the analysis of variances (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for coagulant dosage and pH are 1045mgL(-1) and 6.75, respectively, where 99% of TSS removal, SVI of 37mLg(-1) and 82% of water recovery can be obtained. PMID:17161910

  3. Thermoluminescent and optical processes in alkaline halogenides dosemeters contaminated with Europium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research results are presented about the properties of the optical processes of photo transferred thermoluminescence (TLFT), optical whitening (BO), thermoluminescence induced by light (TLL) and its effect in the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) produced by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The systematic analysis of all these processes, acquires a singular importance due that actually the alkaline halogenide crystals are object of intense investigations which analyse their potential applications as detectors and radiation dosemeters through stimulated optical luminescence techniques or thermoluminescence. The obtained data show that the Tl curve of material with this nature can be enormously affected by exposure of phosphorus to the environmental light or UV. This is in part due to liberation processes of charge bearers are shouted and makes a subsequent trapping in less temperature traps; at the same time that induce changes in the intensity of determined Tl bands. Additionally, also it is observed that mentioned phenomena are related as with wavelength of incident light as of the illumination time. Finally, the obtained information allows to conclude that although the illumination effect is extremely complex, it is associated and can be explained mainly with phenomena that implicate the electrons excitation trapped in form of F centers and trapping mechanisms or radioactive and non-radioactive recombination. (Author)

  4. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  5. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  6. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  7. ALKALINE PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HOT WATER TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Mustajoki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.

  8. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rosario del P., E-mail: rosariocastillo@udec.cl [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araya, Juan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Troncoso, Eduardo [Consorcio Bioenercel S.A, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita [Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  9. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  10. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  11. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  12. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; H. Ahmad; S.T. Soekarno; Sri Mulato

    2011-01-01

    Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian C...

  13. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Xu; Baoguo Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence. are found.

  14. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinXu; BaoguoSun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence, are found.

  15. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT,KRAFT-AQ,POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriaan van Heiningen; Yang Gao; Mehmet Sefik Tunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work,a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  16. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT, KRAFT-AQ, POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdriaanvanHeiningen; YangGao; MehmetSefikTunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work, a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  17. Oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in aqueous alkaline solutions - An alternative to the Purex process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Peper, Shane; Brodnax, Lia; Crooks, William; Zehnder, Ralph; Jarvinen, Gordon

    2004-07-01

    As an alternative to acidic reprocessing of spent nuclear, oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} into aqueous alkaline solutions and subsequent separation of fission products is considered. The efficacy of such a method is limited by the kinetics of the UO{sub 2} dissolution and the capacity of alkaline solutions for dissolved U(VI) species. We performed a series of dissolution studies on UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in aqueous alkaline solutions applying various oxidants. Among the oxidative agents commonly used to transform low-valence actinides into their higher oxidation states, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has proven to be the most effective in basic media. Consequently, we investigated the dissolution of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in NaOH-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions and determined the dissolution kinetics as a function of peroxide and hydroxide (carbonate) concentrations. Methods to remove fission products, e.g., Cs, Sr, Ba and Zr, from alkaline solutions will be evaluated based upon their decontamination factors. We will discuss the feasibility of using chemically oxidizing alkaline solutions as an alternative spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method based on results from experimental quantitative investigations. (authors)

  18. Concentration by membrane separation processes of a medicinal product obtained from pineapple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes; João Baptista Severo Júnior; Roberto Rodrigues de Souza; Daniela Diniz Ehrhardt; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Elias Basile Tambourgi

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of pineapple juice is needed to retain the bromelain activity and to standardize the composition and proteolytic activity. Thus, this work aimed to obtain a pure bromelain extract from the Ananas comosus L. Merril juice by membrane separation process. A 2² experimental planning was used to study the influence of pH and transmembrane pressure on the activity recovery by micro-filtration using a plain membrane. In second step, this enzyme was purified by the ultra-filtration u...

  19. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  20. The application of soft sensors in the pulp and paper and cement manufacturing sectors for process and energy performance improvement : opportunity analysis and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, M. [Effective Assets Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Amazouz, M.; Platon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-06-01

    Information from process experts and operators, research and development experts and sensors and control systems developers and providers is presented in order to help with the development and implementation of soft sensor technology. A soft sensor is the correlation from various raw data sources to create a new source of relevant information. Soft sensor technology is a useful tool in reducing energy consumption, operating costs, environmental impact and in improving final product quality. This report presents an introduction to soft sensor technology with reference to the need for soft sensors; first principal models; statistical based models; black box models; key success factors for a soft sensor project; benefits and drawbacks of soft sensor technology; and barriers to implementation of soft sensors. It discusses the state of the art in soft sensor research and development and industrial applications including design techniques and commercial software tools. Potential applications of soft sensors in the pulp and paper industry were discussed with reference to chemical pulping; mechanical pulping; newsprint and papermaking; and current applications of sensors in pulp and paper in Canada. Potential applications of soft sensors in the cement industry were also discussed. A survey was also conducted to obtain the opinions of industry experts, such as developers, suppliers and end-users of soft sensor applications. Interview notes were included in annex form. Key areas of future research and development include development of multi-grade models; development of adaptive models able to cope with production changes and shutdowns; increasing the awareness of plant managers and operators; development of user-friendly software; and recommendations on future work. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs., 2 appendices.

  1. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  2. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  3. Pulp moulding machines for the production of packing paper elements

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić Ljubomir S.; Krgović Milorad V.; Jaraković Ilija M.

    2005-01-01

    Paper pulp molds are now commonly applied in the technology of modern packing for a wide range of products. The technological process of producing the paper molds has three basic phases: paper pulp preparation, in which water and waste paper are the basic raw materials, the formation of product in tool pulp moulding machines and process drying. The firm "SERVOTEH" from Belgrade has developed various pulp moulding machines for different operating conditions (manual, semiautomatic and automatic...

  4. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  5. Prospects for biodiesel as a byproduct of wood pulping - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of byproducts can affect the profitability of kraft pulping to produce cellulosic fibers from wood. This review considers opportunities to use tall oil components, obtained from kraft pulping, as a source of raw material for biodiesel fuel, or as a source of additives for petrodiesel. Considerable progress has been achieved with respect to converting vegetable oils to diesel fuel, and some of what has been learned appears to have potential application for processing of wood-derived fatty acids and related compounds. Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification strategies, while seemingly well adapted for relatively pure vegetable oil source materials, may not be the best fit for the processing of tall oil fractions. The promising strategies to consider include acid-catalyzed esterification, enzymatic processes, hydrogenation, and the use of supercritical methanol.

  6. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  7. 甲酸/过氧甲酸脱木素及制浆工艺研究进展%Research progress of formic acid/peroxyformic acid deligniifcation and pulping process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永超; 秦梦华

    2014-01-01

    甲酸法制浆作为一种具有巨大发展潜力的有机溶剂制浆方法,引起了研究人员的广泛关注。本文主要阐述了甲酸法制浆的特点、反应机理及几种典型甲酸法制浆工艺的研究进展,并对甲酸法制浆在生物质精炼平台的构建方面作了展望。%Formic acid pulping has been paid great attention for its potential application in biorefinery. The characteristics, reaction mechanism of formic acid pulping were reviewed, the research progress of several typical formic acid pulping processes was introduced, and the possible application of formic acid pulping in the building of biomass reifning platform was prospected in the paper.

  8. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihong Niu; Shulan Shi; Jinghui Zhou; Yunzhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H2O2 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82% ISO.

  9. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeihongNiu; ShulanShi; JinghuiZhou; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H202 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82%ISO.

  10. Pollution prevention for the kraft pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The document is an annotated bibliography of publications related to pollution prevention in the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. It is organized by process area as follows: chip preparation, chemical pulping, pulp washing, bleaching, chemical recovery, recausticizing, power generation, wastewater treatment, papermaking, and general plant. The document contains 269 citations.

  11. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Bajić Marijana; Danilović Vesna; Prokić Branislav; Prokić Bogomir Bolka; Manojlović Milica; Živković Slavoljub

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus). Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces o...

  12. Apatite formation on alkaline-treated dense TiO2 coatings deposited using the solution precursor plasma spray process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H; Gell, Maurice; Wei, Mei

    2008-05-01

    A dense titania (TiO2) coating was deposited from an ethanol-based solution containing titanium isopropoxide using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process. XRD and Raman spectrum analyses confirmed that the coating is exclusively composed of rutile TiO2. SEM micrographs show the as-sprayed coating is dense with a uniform thickness and there are no coarse splat boundaries. The as-sprayed coating was chemically treated in 5M NaOH solution at 80 degrees C for 48 h. The bioactivity of as-sprayed and alkaline-treated coatings was investigated by immersing the coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14-28 days, respectively. After 28 days immersion, there is a complete layer of carbonate-containing apatite formed on the alkaline-treated TiO2 coating surface, but none formed on the as-sprayed coating.

  13. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  14. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF2 > MgF2. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF2 and MgF2. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides

  15. Process, mechanism and impacts of scale formation in alkaline flooding by a variable porosity and permeability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jiachun

    2016-06-01

    In spite of the role of alkali in enhancing oil recovery (EOR), the formation of precipitation during alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding can severely do harm to the stratum of oil reservoirs, which has been observed in situ tests of oil fields such as scale deposits found in oil stratum and at the bottom of oil wells. On the other hand, remarkable variation of stratum parameters, e.g., pore radius, porosity, and permeability due to scale formation considerably affects seepage flow and alkaline flooding process in return. The objective of this study is to firstly examine these mutual influential phenomena and corresponding mechanisms along with EOR during alkaline flooding when the effects of precipitation are no longer negligible. The chemical kinetic theory is applied for the specific fundamental reactions to describe the process of rock dissolution in silica-based reservoirs. The solubility product principle is used to analyze the mechanism of alkali scale formation in flooding. Then a 3D alkaline flooding coupling model accounting for the variation of porosity and permeability is established to quantitatively estimate the impact of alkali scales on reservoir stratum. The reliability of the present model is verified in comparison with indoor experiments and field tests of the Daqing oil field. Then, the numerical simulations on a 1/4 well group in a 5-spot pattern show that the precipitation grows with alkali concentration, temperature, and injection pressure and, thus, reduces reservoir permeability and oil recovery correspondingly. As a result, the selection of alkali with a weak base is preferable in ASP flooding by tradeoff strategy.

  16. Search for optimum conditions of wheat straw hemicelluloses cold alkaline extraction process

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A method for the selective extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw involving cold alkaline extraction and subsequent separation by precipitation with ethanol is proposed. Wheat straw affords selective separation of the hemicellulose fraction from the cellulose and lignin fractions with the proposed method. The hemicellulose yield was optimized by using a 2n factor design to examine the influence of temperatures (temperature was designed between 20 and 40 ◦C), operation times ...

  17. Process optimization by response surface methodology for extracellular alkaline protease production from bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three microbial cultures Bacillus subtilis DSM 1970, Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 1969 were screened for protease production by casein agar plate method. Among these Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 was found to be the most potent protease producer in wide pH range (5.0 to 8.0). Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of alkaline protease using two statistical tools: Placket Burmen Model for linear regression study and Response Surface Model for interactive effects of significant factors on production. The alkaline protease was optimally produced after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degree C in fermentation media containing equal amounts of substrates (soybean meal and wheat bran, 7.5 g), MgSO/sub 4/ 7H/sub 2/O, 0.10 g and yeast extract 0.55 g. The protease was purified to homogeneity by salt precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The homogeneity and molecular weights were checked by SDS-PAGE. The protease was 45 KDa protein, predominantly alkaline and optimally active at pH 8.0. (author)

  18. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  19. Papermaking fibers from giant reed (Arundo donax L. by advanced ecologically friendly pulping and bleaching technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, H.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical structure and chemical composition of the stem-wall material of giant reed is considered from the viewpoint of raw material characterization for industrial fiber production. The effect of stem morphology (nodes and internodes on pulping results and general pulp properties is discussed. The advantages of application of modern organic solvent based (organosolv pulping technologies to giant reed are shown in comparison with the conventional (kraft method. The conditions optimization for Ethanol-Alkali pulping (a selected organosolv pulping process is given, and the chemical kinetics of the principal macromolecular components during ethanol-alkali pulping is described. The bleachability of organosolv pulps by short totally chlorine free (TCF bleaching sequences using hydrogen peroxide and ozone as the active bleaching chemicals without pulp pre-delignification is examined and compared with kraft pulps. The enzymatic pre-treatment of reed organosolv pulps by commercial xylanase preparation is considered as a possibility toward the improvement of pulp bleachability.

  20. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  1. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  2. Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation process for pulp mill wastewater treatment using a combination of uniform design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Pulp mill wastewater was treated using the coagulation-flocculation process with aluminum chloride as the coagulant and a modified natural polymer, starch-g-PAM-g-PDMC [polyacrylamide and poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride], as the flocculant. A novel approach with a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and uniform design (UD) was employed to evaluate the effects and interactions of three main influential factors, coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage and pH, on the treatment efficiency in terms of the supernatant turbidity and lignin removals as well as the water recovery. The optimal conditions obtained from the compromise of the three desirable responses, supernatant turbidity removal, lignin removal and water recovery efficiency, were as follows: coagulant dosage of 871 mg/L, flocculant dosage of 22.3 mg/L and pH 8.35. Confirmation experiments demonstrated that such a combination of the UD and RSM is a powerful and useful approach for optimizing the coagulation-flocculation process for the pulp mill wastewater treatment. PMID:21920576

  3. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  4. Processing of LEU targets for 99Mo production - Dissolution of U3Si2 targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-enriched uranium silicide targets designed to recover fission product 99Mo were dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plus NaOH) at about 90 deg. C. Sintering of matrix aluminium powder during irradiation and heat treatment retarded aluminum dissolution and prevented silicide particle dispersion. Gas evolved during dissolution is suspected to adhere to particles and block hydroxide ion contact with aluminum. Reduction of base concentrations from 5M to 0.1M NaOH yielded similar silicide dissolution and peroxide destruction rates, simplifying later processing. Future work in particle dispersion enhancement, 99Mo separation, and waste disposal is also discussed. (author)

  5. On the behaviour of lignin rich pulps upon irradiation with light. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with investigations on changes taking place in brightness, lignin content and methoxyl content upon irradiation of differently prepared unbleached and semi-bleached pulps from beech and spruce with light of more or less the same the spectral distribution as daylight. The results show that the change in brightness depends to a large extent on the used pulping method as well as on the pulping conditions. Pulps prepared according to the alkaline sulphite method as well as according to the soda method display an increase in brightness upon exposure to light. The behaviour of pulps produced by the neutral-sulphite-semichemical method (NSSC-Method) depends mainly upon the pulping conditions. Pulps produced under relatively mild conditions regarding alkalinity and cooking temperature show a great decrease in brightness by irradiation. Pulping at relatively high alkalinity and temperature leads to pulps, which show at first a slight increase in brightness, after which practically no change in colour occurs. Bisulphite pulps decrease in brightness under the same conditions. In all cases there was a significant decrease in the lignin content due to light irradiation. The lignin content of NSSC-pulps from beech wood decreases at a higher rate than the lignin content of pulps prepared by the alkaline sulphite method. The loss in the methoxyl content was in all cases higher than that of lignin. The amount of water-soluble extractives increases by lengthening the exposure time, the pH-value of the extractives decreases in the same direction. The characteristic maximum at 280 nm decreases in intensity to a large extent after irradiation. (orig.)

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lesiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

  7. Modeling the kinetics nonenzymatic browning reactions and rheological behavior in the termal process of fruit juices and pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Manayay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacture of fruit juices and pulps, is of paramount importance to refer to non-enzymatic browning and rheological behavior. The non-enzymatic browning is a phenomenon of darkening of a purely chemical (Braverman, 1980, is characterized by the presence of brown polymers called melanoidins, generated by the Maillard reaction or condensation of melanoidins, the caramelization and degradation of acid ascorbic, while the rheological behavior is define as the proportion deformation of the material when exposed to shear stress (σ caused by a rheometer (Muller, 1978; Ibarz, 2005. Modeling studies of colour formation and definition of rheological behavior, considered in this review, aimed at the conclusion of the existence of a zero kinetic and first order respectively, and the most influential factors with the reactions are mainly Maillard, temperature, amino acids presence, water activity and pH, while the rheological behavior is affected by temperature, solid concentration and particles size that make up the suspension in the specific case of the pulps.

  8. 香蕉茎秆制造纸浆工艺研究%Process of Paper Pulp Production from Banana Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎瑞珍

    2014-01-01

    The process of paper pulp production from banana (Musa ‘Paradisiaca’) stem and the effects of acetic acid con-centration on chemical degumming efficiency, the effects of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia concentration on bleaching effi-ciency for banana stem were analyzed. The results showed that the best concentration of the three reagents including hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and acetic acid was 6 mol/L, 5 mol/L and 6 mol/L, respectively. The paper pulps produced were the best when old banana stems were bleached and degummed under these concentrations.%对香蕉(Musa ‘Paradisiaca’)茎秆制造纸浆的工艺进行了研究,并探讨了乙酸溶液浓度对香蕉树原茎化学脱胶效果的影响及过氧化氢、氨水浓度对其漂白效果的影响,最终确定3种试剂的最佳浓度。结果表明,老的香蕉树原茎在加热的情况下选用6.0 mol/L的过氧化氢溶液、5.0 mol/L的氨水、6.0 mol/L的乙酸溶液进行漂白和脱胶,所得纸浆成品效果最好。

  9. IMPACT OF FURFURAL ON THE SUGAR ANALYSIS OF PRE-HYDROLYSIS LIQUOR OF KRAFT-BASED DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION PROCESS USING THE HPAEC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Saeed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse ampero-metric detector (HPAEC-PAD is a reliable method to systematically determine the sugar contents in pulp and paper waste streams, including bleaching and extraction liquors. We used the same method to determine the sugar content of industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL from a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The analysis showed that the traditional method cannot be applied for sugar analysis, and an improvement on the method was required. In fact, the presence of furfural in the PHL sample was the reason for the required modification. It was noted that the removal of furfural via evaporation could improve the reliability of the HPAEC technique for sugar assessments. If the concentration of furfural was higher than 0.045% (wt. in the PHL, the error introduced in the sugar analysis was profound. Also, the industrially produced PHL contained more furfural than the laboratory produced PHL under the same hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, the concentration of furfural in the PHL should be taken into account for sugar analysis using the HPAEC technique.

  10. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained fro...

  11. Study on Wheat Straw Alkaline Sulfite Pulping Biorefinery(Ⅰ)——Characteristics of Extended Delignification and Lignin Sulfonation%麦草碱性亚硫酸盐制浆生物炼制的研究(Ⅰ)——深度脱木质素及木质素磺化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 翟华敏

    2012-01-01

    提出了非木材木质纤维生物质碱性亚硫酸盐制浆(ASP)生物炼制的理念,研究了总用碱量、亚硫酸化度、温度和时间对麦草碱性亚硫酸盐法蒸煮深度脱木质素特性和木质素磺化的影响.结果表明:麦草ASP法具有高的深度脱木质素选择性;深度脱本质素延伸与木质素磺化度提高具有一致性;总用碱量、亚硫酸化度、最高温度和保温时间对深度脱木质素选择性和木质素磺化度都有重要的影响;在总碱用量18.0%,亚硫酸化度85.0%,液比值3.5,最高温度168℃,保温150 min的条件下,可制得卡伯值8.8,得率56.8%,黏度为33.3 mPa·s的优良纸浆,此时黑液中磺化本质素磺酸基含量达2.16 mmol/g(以固形物计).从深度脱木质素选择性、木质素磺化和纸浆基本特性考虑,麦草ASP法具有制浆生物炼制的前景.%The biorefineiy concept of non-wood lignoceltulosic fiber biomass alkaline sulfite pulping (ASF) was proposed in this study. The influences of total alkali charge, sulfurous acid degree, cooking temperature and time on the characteristics of wheat straw extended delignification and lignin sulfonation were investigated. The results indicated that ASP has a high selectivity on extended delignification for wheat straw, and the degree of lignin sulfonation increased with the extending of delignification. The total alkaline charge, sulfurous acid degree, maximum cooking temperature and time at maximum temperature have significant impacts on both extended delignification selectivity and lignin sulfonation degree. A good extended delignification pulp with yield 56.8% , Kappa number S. 8, and viscosity 33. 3 mPa . S was obtained under the cooking conditions of the total alkali charge 18.0% , the sulfurous acid degree 85.0% , liquor ratio 3.5, maximum cooking temperature 168 %℃ and 150 minutes at 168 ℃. Meanwhile the lignin sulfonation group content in the black liquor was up to 2.16 mmol/g. Based on the

  12. EXAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS INTO PROCESS WATER OF KRAFT PULP BLEACHING MILL FROM ASPECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroshiOhi; TomoyaYokoyama; KeiichiNakamata

    2004-01-01

    Process water of a pulp mill with kraft cooking, oxygen delignification and chlorine bleaching or chlorine dioxide (ECF) bleaching was examined from an aspect of a new level for environmental water quality in Japan. According to the new level, a concentration of dioxins consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental water is restricted to less than 1 pg- TEQ/L. We clarified that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) concentrations were 0.5 pg/L or less. In addition, a main source of 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in the process water seemed to be an agrochemical in water supplied from a river.

  13. EXAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS INTO PROCESS WATER OF KRAFT PULP BLEACHING MILL FROM ASPECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ohi; Tomoya Yokoyama; Keiichi Nakamata

    2004-01-01

    Process water of a pulp mill with kraft cooking,oxygen delignification and chlorine bleaching or chlorine dioxide (ECF) bleaching was examined from an aspect of a new level for environmental water quality in Japan. According to the new level, a concentration of dioxins consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental water is restricted to less than 1 pg- TEQ/L. We clarified that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) concentrations were 0.5 pg/L or less. In addition, a main source of 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in the process water seemed to be an agrochemical in water supplied from a river.

  14. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  15. Alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for 99Mo production -- Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress on the alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for the production of 99Mo, a parent nuclide of the widely used medical isotope 99mTc, is reported. Kinetic studies were undertaken to investigate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution in contact with a uranium metal surface. It was found that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide essentially follows the kinetic trend of uranium dissolution and can be classified into two regimes, depending on the hydroxide concentration. In the low-base regime (0.2 M), the rate of peroxide decomposition is independent of alkali concentration. When the acid/base equilibrium between H2O2 and O2H- is taken into account, the overall rate of hydrogen peroxide disappearance can be described as a 0.25th order reaction with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration over NaOH concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 5 M. Empirical kinetics models are proposed and discussed

  16. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  17. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  18. MILD ALKALINE TREATMENT ACTIVATES SPRUCE WOOD FOR ENZYMATIC PROCESSING: A POSSIBLE STAGE IN BIO-REFINERY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of wood is so compact that enzymes are too large to penetrate into the structure and thereby attack the wood components for modifications that can be valuable for various purposes. Here we present a pretreatment method based on traditional kraft pulping, which opens the wood structure, so that enzymes are able to attack the wood components. To study this kind of chemical pretreatment, spruce wood samples were treated at similar conditions used in kraft cooking at varying intensities (H-factors. To verify if the structure was “opened” for enzymes, the pretreated wood samples were incubated with a cellulolytic culture filtrate, and the released reducing sugar concentration after the enzymatic hydrolysis was measured. The results indicated that un-pretreated wood fibers could not be attacked by the enzymes, but already relatively mild pretreatment was sufficient for letting the culture filtrate attack wood polysaccharides, and more intensive treatments opened the structure further. The mildest treatments did not cause any significant yield losses of lignin (Klason lignin. Some galactogluco-mannans were however lost during the pretreatments. The mechanisms behind the effect and the technical significance of the method are discussed.

  19. Studies on adsorption of carbon dioxide on alkaline paper mill waste using cyclic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 9–12 h adsorption of CO2 in the 1st cycle increases cyclic CO2 adsorption of APMW. • Repeated prolonged adsorptions in cycles are feasible to capture CO2 using APMW. • Prolonged adsorption increases pores in 10–100 nm of APMW after desorption of CO2. - Abstract: The adsorption/desorption cycles of the alkaline paper mill waste (APMW) can be used to remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants. In this work, the prolonged adsorption duration treatment was used to modify CO2 capture behavior of the raw and the prewashed APMW in the multiple adsorption/desorption cycles. The effects of increased duration of adsorption and CO2 partial pressure in the first cycle on the fractional adsorption of CO2 and adsorption rate were investigated, when the raw and the prewashed APMW are employed as the sorbents. The cyclic CO2 capture behavior of APMW after the repeated prolonged adsorption in different cycles was also studied. For the raw and the prewashed APMW as the sorbents, 9–12 h adsorption of CO2 just in the 1st cycle enhances the cyclic fractional adsorption of CO2 and adsorption rate of CO2 in the 1st cycle and the subsequent cycles. The repeated prolonged adsorptions in the various cycles are more effective to increase the cyclic CO2 capture capacity of APMW than only in the 1st cycle. The longer adsorption duration results in larger area and volume of pores in 10–100 nm in diameter for CaO derived from APMW after the next cycles, which are helpful to cyclic CO2 capture of APMW. The raw and the prewashed APMW can retain high CO2 adsorption reactivity by the prolonged adsorption duration treatment in the multiple adsorption/desorption cycles

  20. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviana Reis Milagres; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Marcos Sousa Rabelo; Danila Morais de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine d...

  1. Processing of LEU targets for 99Mo production - Dissolution of metal foil targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1995, we started studies on a new process for dissolution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. In this process, an LEU metal foil target is dissolved in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, then 99Mo is recovered from the dissolved solution. We focused on the dissolution kinetics to develop a mechanistic model for predicting the products and the rate of uranium dissolution under process conditions. We thoroughly studied the effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration, and temperature on the rate of uranium dissolution. It was found that uranium dissolution can be classified into a low-base (0.2M) process. In the low-base process, both the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide concentrations affect the rate of uranium dissolution; in the high base process, uranium dissolution is a 0.25th order reaction with respect to the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide. The dissolution activation energy was experimentally determined to be 48.8 kJ/mol. Generally, the rate of uranium dissolution increases to a maximum as the hydroxide concentration is increased from 0.01 to about 1.5M, then it decreases as the hydroxide concentration is further increased. The alkalinity of the dissolution solution is an important factor that affects not only the dissolution rate, but also the amount of radioactive waste. (author)

  2. Pulp moulding machines for the production of packing paper elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ljubomir S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper pulp molds are now commonly applied in the technology of modern packing for a wide range of products. The technological process of producing the paper molds has three basic phases: paper pulp preparation, in which water and waste paper are the basic raw materials, the formation of product in tool pulp moulding machines and process drying. The firm "SERVOTEH" from Belgrade has developed various pulp moulding machines for different operating conditions (manual, semiautomatic and automatic operation, different manufacturing capacities and an alternative number of tools. The system of "SERVOTEH" pulp moulding machines covers several construction solutions: a sinking system, veer system and rotation system. This paper presents the technological process, as well as the integral and concept approach to the design of pulp moulding machines and system tools.

  3. THE PEROXYMONOCARBONATE ANIONS AS PULP BLEACHING AGENTS. PART 1. RESULTS WITH LIGNIN MODEL COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis K Attiogbe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The peroxymonocarbonate mono-anion (HCO4─ is generated when the bicarbonate anion is added to a H2O2 solution. The mono-anion is believed to have a pKa value of ca. 10 and as such would start dissociating to the di-anion (CO42─ at pH ca. 8. The mono-anion should demonstrate electrophilic properties, while the di-anion should be a nucleophile. In an alkaline, non-sulfur pulping process such as soda/AQ, Na2CO3 could be obtained from the chemical recovery system and carbonated with CO2 from a flue gas stream to produce NaHCO3. In such a case only H2O2 would need to be purchased to generate the peroxymonocarbonate (PMC anions. Bicarbonate anions could also be produced from the carbonation of solutions containing NaOH, Mg(OH2 or mined Na2CO3. One or both of the PMC anions was found to be effective in oxidizing two lignin model compounds as well as lowering the lignin content of kraft and soda/AQ hardwood pulps. The PMC anions were generated in-situ by NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 + CO2 addition to dilute H2O2 solutions.

  4. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schubert

    Full Text Available Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water. The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin. The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA, the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  5. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  6. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  7. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  8. New Advanced Technology on Waste Resourcelization of the Black Pulping Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Dong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of the black pulping liquor that contains a lot of lignin and other biomass resources, the technology of comprehensive waste utilization is employed. The reconstructive preparation of modified urea-formaldehyde glue by adding black pulping liquor and the application in extruding the medium density fibre board using this modified urea-formaldehyde glue is researched. Results show that when applying the preparation technology that alkaline reaction and then weak acid reaction, the appropriate preparation process is as follows: the adding urea process is divided into three stages (proportion 2∶1∶1); the pH value is 8.0, and the reaction time is 40min in the addition reaction stage; the pH value will be naturally reduced to 3.5-5.0, and the reaction time is 45min in the aggregation reaction stage; the pH value is 8.0 in the urea complement stage. And the optimal condition of the reconstructive preparation the modified urea-formaldehyde glue is adding the condensed black pulping liquor after hydroxymethylation in the beginning of polycondensation reaction by 5% proportion. The application in extruding medium density fibre board with this modified urea-fosmaldehyde glue is proved feasible.

  9. 糯玉米浆制备的新工艺研究%New Process of Preparation of Waxy Corn Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成宇; 周红芳

    2011-01-01

    Use the fresh waxy com as the main raw material, the new process of preparation process of the waxy com pulp was studied. And the process preparation included non-filtered and non-gelatinization process with raw material utilization rate being up to 100%. Through determination of the particle size, sedimentation rate, suspension stability and sensory evaluation, the best technology parameters were: refining frequency 2, homogenious pressure 30 MPa, homogenious temperature 40 ℃, homogeneous times 2, refining times two, sterilization time 25 minutes and temperature 121 ℃.%以新鲜的速冻糯玉米为主要原料,研究出糯玉米浆生产的新工艺过程.该生产工艺过程无过滤和糊化工序,原料利用率达100%.通过测定糯玉米浆的粒径、沉淀率,悬浮稳定性和感官评定,确定了糯玉米浆最佳的生产工艺参数:磨浆次数为2次;均质压力为30MPa,均质温度为40℃,均质次数为2次;灭菌时间为121℃下25min,使产品的保质期达6个月.

  10. Removal of TOC and Color in Bleaching Effluents from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe0- H2O2 Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-li; LIU Ru-peng; LIU Ya-nan

    2006-01-01

    TOC and color in the bleaching effluent from straw pulp paper process could not reach draining standard after its treatment by a biochemical process. In this study, advanced treatment by integrated micro-electrolysis (Fe0) method and Fenton-like process was investigated under various conditions, i.e. pH, Fe/C ratio, initial H2O2 concentration and carrier gas. Results showed that Fe/C ratio(V/V =1.5), larger H2O2 dosage around 50 mg/L, lower pH(pH=3) turned out to be particularly efficient. Temperature was a key parameter, remarkably increasing reaction rates.Carrier air not only improved reaction efficiency, but also saved H2O2 dosage. Chlorinated organic compounds could be reductive dechlorinated by Fe0 reaction and oxidated by · OH produced from Fenton process. The combination of Fe0 and H2O2 reactions had been proved to be highly effective for the advanced treatment of such a type of wastewaters, and important advantages concerning the application in the study.

  11. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

  12. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  13. Steam explosion and new production processes for pulping industry: technical and economical feasibility; Steam explosion e nuovi processi di produzione cartaria: fattibilita` tecnico-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bramanti, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-05-01

    Pulping and paper industry traditionally uses wood as the main raw material for its production processes. Thus, the global increasing of paper and pulp yield has causes so a depletion work of natural wood resources that the environment balances are weakened. About conversion technologies, the most important developments are carried out by the Companies from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Canada, where industrial management has chosen production processes anti pollution (soda-sulphate) in the place of those more dangerous (bi-sulphate). The international research and development activities are focused, at the same time, on new conversion processes and renewable resources in the last time shows to meet three different needs: 1. anti pollution laws; 2. public opinion for the environment policy; 3. market competitors. The present work offers a technical and economical assessment of industrial application of steam-explosion process and non-wood biomass (C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}). Then, the authors propose the introduction of the steam-explosion technology in pulping industry in order to obtain technical and economical advantages. [Italiano] Il comparto industriale cartario impiega per tradizione secolare il legno come principale materia prima all`interno dei cicli tecnologici di produzione. Cio` ha determinato un incremento produttivo di paste e di carta a cui si e` accompagnata una crescente opera di deforestazione ed una serie di conseguenti squilibri ecologici. A fronte di tali interventi di distruzione `programmata`, dal punto di vista delle tecnologie di trasformazione, va rilevato che i processi produttivi hanno subito una reale evoluzione nei Paesi maggiormente sensibili ai problemi ambientali come Svezia, Finlandia, Norvegia e Canada, ove gli imprenditori del setttore hanno abbandonato i processi a maggior impatto ambientale, come quelli al bisolfito, per adottarne alcuni meno inquinanti, come quello alla soda-solfato. Negli ultimi anni gli sforzi della ricerca

  14. Pulp Fibroblasts Control Nerve Regeneration through Complement Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmilewsky, F; About, I; Chung, S-H

    2016-07-01

    Dentin-pulp regeneration is closely linked to the presence of nerve fibers in the pulp and to the healing mechanism by sprouting of the nerve fiber's terminal branches beneath the carious injury site. However, little is known about the initial mechanisms regulating this process in carious teeth. It has been recently demonstrated that the complement system activation, which is one of the first immune responses, contributes to tissue regeneration through the local production of anaphylatoxins such as C5a. While few pulp fibroblasts in intact teeth and in untreated fibroblast cultures express the C5a receptor (C5aR), here we show that all dental pulp fibroblasts, localized beneath the carious injury site, do express this receptor. This observation is consistent with our in vitro results, which showed expression of C5aR in lipoteichoic acid-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The interaction of C5a, produced after complement synthesis and activation from pulp fibroblasts, with the C5aR of these cells mediated the local brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) secretion. Overall, this activation guided the neuronal growth toward the lipoteichoic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, our findings highlight a new mechanism in one of the initial steps of the dentin-pulp regeneration process, linking pulp fibroblasts to the nerve sprouting through the complement system activation. This may provide a useful future therapeutic tool in targeting the fibroblasts in the dentin-pulp regeneration process. PMID:27053117

  15. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A portion of each filtrate sample was freeze-dried and the resulting solids were analyzed for ash content. Adsorption experiments with calcium and barium were carried at 70{degrees}C in a temperature controlled incubator under continuous mixing in order to simulate the environment experienced by brownstock as it moves through the Q stage. In the calcium experiments, it was difficult to accurately determine the calcium adsorbed on the pulp by measuring the depletion of calcium in the aqueous phase. Consequently, the technique was modified. In the modified technique, the calcium-adsorbed pulp is acid washed again to release the calcium. The calcium concentration in the washings is measured, and the calcium adsorbed on the pulp is estimated by material balance. Measurement of calcium adsorption on the brownstock pulp fibers from the L-P/Samoa mill have been obtained.

  16. ALKALI DARKENING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF MECHANICAL PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin He; Yonghao Ni; Eric Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage.Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.

  17. ALKALI DARKENING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF MECHANICAL PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhibinHe; Yon2haoNi; EricZhang_

    2004-01-01

    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage. Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.

  18. Optimization of low-temperature alkaline smelting process of crushed metal enrichment originated from waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xue-yi; LIU Jing-xin

    2015-01-01

    A novel low-temperature alkaline smelting process is proposed to convert and separate amphoteric metals in crushed metal enrichment originated from waste printed circuit boards. The central composite design was used to optimize the operating parameters, in which mass ratio of NaOH-to-CME, smelting temperature and smelting time were chosen as the variables, and the conversions of amphoteric metals tin, lead, aluminum and zinc were response parameters. Second-order polynomial models of high significance and 3D response surface plots were constructed to show the relationship between the responses and the variables. Optimum area of 80%-85% Pb conversion and over 95% Sn conversion was obtained by the overlaid contours at mass ratio of NaOH-to-CME of 4.5-5.0, smelting temperature of 653-723 K, smelting time of 90-120 min. The models were validated experimentally in the optimum area, and the results demonstrate that these models are reliable and accurate in predicting the smelting process.

  19. Arsenophilic Bacterial Processes in Searles Lake: A Salt-saturated, Arsenic-rich, Alkaline Soda Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Swizer Blum, J.; Stolz, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Searles Lake, located in the Mojave Desert of California, is essentially a chemically-similar, concentrated version of Mono Lake, but having a much higher salinity (e.g., 340 vs. 90 g/L) and a greater dissolved inorganic arsenic content in its brine (e.g., 3.9 vs. 0.2 mM). The source of all this arsenic ultimately comes from hydrothermal spring inputs, thereby underscoring the importance of volcanic and fluvial processes in transporting this toxic element into these closed basin lakes. Nonetheless, the presence of microbial activities with regard to respiration of arsenate oxyanions under anaerobic conditions and the oxidation of arsenite oxyanions under aerobic conditions can be inferred from porewater profiles taken from handcores retrieved beneath Searles Lake's salt crust. Sediment slurry incubations confirmed biological arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, with the former processes notably enhanced by provision of the inorganic electron donor sulfide or H2. Hence, arsenic-linked chemo-autotrophy appears to be an important means of carbon fixation in this system. Subsequent efforts using 73As-arsenate as radiotracer detected dissimilatory arsenate reduction activity down the length of the core, but we were unable to detect any evidence for sulfate-reduction using 35S-sulfate. An extremely halophilic anaerobic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales [strain SLAS-1] was isolated from the sediments that grew via arsenate respiration using lactate or sulfide as its electron donors. These results show that, unlike sulfate-reduction, arsenic metabolism (i.e., both oxidation of arsenite and dissimilatory reduction of arsenate) is operative and even vigorous under the extreme conditions of salt-saturation and high pH. The occurrence of arsenophilic microbial processes in Searles Lake is relevant to the search for extant or extinct microbial life on Mars. It is evident from surface imagery that Mars had past episodes of volcanism, fluvial transport, and most

  20. Efficacy of Microwave-Heating during Alkaline Processing of Fumonisin-Contaminated Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mendez-Albores

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins (a family of foodborne carcinogenic mycotoxins cause health hazards to humans and animals in developing countries, and has also economic implications. Therefore, the efficacy of a novel environmental friendly nixtamalization procedure to make tortillas (the main staple food for the Mexican population was investigated.Maize contaminated with 2136.67 ng/g total fumonisins was processed into tortillas, starting with maize grits mixed with water and calcium hydroxide that was cooked in a microwave field at 2.45 GHz during 3.75 min, and steeped 3.5 h at room temperature. The steeped maize grits (nixtamal was stone-ground into masa (maize dough, which was then used to make tortillas. Total fumonisin content was determined using monoclonal antibody columns.Masa contained 1998.33 ng/g total fumonisins, which represents 6.5% toxin reduction. Nevertheless, fumonisin concentration was reduced significantly in tortillas (up to 985.33 ng/g due to the cooking process, corresponding to a cumulative toxin degradation of 54%. Tortillas were below the maximum tolerated level, considering the European Union regulatory limit for fumonisins in maize (1000 ng/g. The physicochemical and technological properties of tortillas were also considered within the acceptable margins of quality.Microwave nixtamalization was not a feasible method to reduce fumonisin content in masa to acceptable levels; however, an effective extra-reduction occurred when masa was baking into tortillas.

  1. Hemicellulases in the bleaching and characterisation of kraft pulps. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurnaekki, A.

    1996-03-01

    Xylanase-aided bleaching of kraft pulps is the major industrial application of hemicellulases in pulp processing. In addition to process aids, hemicellulases have recently also been shown to be promising tools in fibre analytics. In this work, the role of xylanase and mannanase pretreatments in the bleaching of softwood pulps produced by different sulphate cooking methods was studied. In addition, the action of hemicellulases in kraft fibres was characterized and exploited in the analysis of the suface composition of kraft pulps.

  2. Impact of kaolin filler on physical and mechanical paper properties formed by ECF pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Rodrigues dos Santos; Gustavo Ventorim; José Cláudio Caraschi; Jaqueline Silveira Comelato Favaro

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry is the main global consumer of kaolin. It is mostly used as paper filler, due to its lower cost as compared to pulp cost. Color removal process from pulp - chemical bleaching - determines final pulp's characteristics. Effort has been made to make possible to obtain less toxic bleaching processes. This study aims to evaluate the influence of three bleaching sequences, on kaolin retention and paper properties. Industrial eucalyptus kraft pulp, oxygen pre-delignified, was blea...

  3. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Ahmad, H; s Soekarno

    2009-01-01

    Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Insti...

  4. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Talebizadeh; Pejman Rezayati-Charani

    2010-01-01

    Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder...

  5. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  6. Study on Extraction Process of Potato Pulp Pectin%马铃薯渣提取果胶的工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖原; 刘刚; 邵士俊; 郭勇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To provide references for improving the enterprise production technology of pectin extraction from potato pulp. [Method] Improved extraction method of critic acid was used to extract potato pulp pectin,through ultrafiltration and spraying drying,the final pectin products were obtained,with the yield of pectin as index,the extraction technology was optimized. [Result] The optimal extraction pH,extraction temperature and extraction time were 2,90 ℃ and 60 min, respectively. Then the pectin products were obtained from the extract by using ultrafiltration and spray drying. The yield of pectin extraction rate reached 17.9%. [ Conclusion] The potato pectin products were obtained through a series of procedures such as citric acid extraction, ultrafiltration and spraying drying, the technical process was simple and workable, and the yield was high.%[目的]为马铃薯废渣提取果胶的企业生产工艺改进提供依据.[方法]采用改进的柠檬酸抽提法提取马铃薯果胶,通过超滤浓缩和喷雾干燥得到果胶产品.以果胶产率为指标,对提取工艺进行了优化.[结果]马铃薯渣提取果胶的最佳工艺条件:pH为2,提取温度90℃,提取时间60 min,得到果胶提取液,然后通过超滤浓缩和喷雾干燥的方法得到果胶产品,果胶的提取率达17.9%.[结论]采用柠檬酸抽提、超滤浓缩和喷雾干燥工艺得到马铃薯果胶产品,该工艺过程简单,产率高,可操作性强.

  7. CMP process optimization using alkaline bulk copper slurry on a 300 mm Applied Materials Reflexion LK system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMP process optimization for bulk copper removal based on alkaline copper slurry was performed on a 300 mm Applied Materials Reflexion LK system. Under the DOE condition, we conclude that as the pressure increases, the removal rate increases and non-uniformity is improved. As the slurry flow rate increases, there is no significant improvement in the material removal rate, but it does slightly reduce the WIWNU and thus improve uniformity. The optimal variables are obtained at a reduced pressure of 1.5 psi and a slurry flow rate of 300 ml/min. Platen/carrier rotary speed is set at a constant value of 97/103 rpm. We obtain optimized CMP characteristics including a removal rate over 6452 Å/min and non-uniformity below 4% on blanket wafer and the step height is reduced by nearly 8000 Å/min in the center of the wafer on eight layers of copper patterned wafer, the surface roughness is reduced to 0.225 nm. (semiconductor technology)

  8. A NEW THERMAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM ZINC-CARBON AND ALKALINE SPENT BATTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Belardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the thermal recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn after a preliminary physical treatment. Separation of the metals is carried out on the basis of their different phase change temperatures, the boiling point of zinc being 906°C and 1564°C that of Mn3O4, the main Mn-bearing phase in the mixture. After wet comminution and sieving to remove the anodic collectors and most of the chlorides contained in the mixture, chemical and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD analyses were performed. The mixture was heated in CO2 atmosphere and the temperature raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture. Other tests were carried out by addition to the mixture of activated charcoal (95% C or of the automotive shredder residue (fluff containing 45% C.A zinc product was obtained suitable, after refining, for the production of new batteries. The treatment residue consisted of manganese and iron oxides that could be used to produce manganese-iron alloys. From these results, an integrated process for the recovery of the two metals was proposed.

  9. A NEW THERMAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM ZINC-CARBON AND ALKALINE SPENT BATTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Belardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the thermal recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn after a preliminary physical treatment. Separation of the metals is carried out on the basis of their different phase change temperatures, the boiling point of zinc being 906�C and 1564�C that of Mn3O4, the main Mn-bearing phase in the mixture. After wet comminution and sieving to remove the anodic collectors and most of the chlorides contained in the mixture, chemical and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD analyses were performed. The mixture was heated in CO2 atmosphere and the temperature raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture. Other tests were carried out by addition to the mixture of activated charcoal (95% C or of the automotive shredder residue (fluff containing 45% C.A zinc product was obtained suitable, after refining, for the production of new batteries. The treatment residue consisted of manganese and iron oxides that could be used to produce manganese-iron alloys. From these results, an integrated process for the recovery of the two metals was proposed.

  10. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  11. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%.

  12. Optimization on screening process of waste paper pulping%废纸制浆精筛工序工艺流程优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾金枝; 王长健; 王松

    2014-01-01

    The optimization measures on the screening section of waste paper pulping process was introduced in this article, in which the traditional three-stage pressurized screening systrm was transformed into sigle stage screening incorporated with reifning. The transformation got to the excellent effect with equipment failure rate reduced, unplanned downtime decreased, the yield raised by 1.5 percent and power consumption reduced by 3%.%介绍了公司废纸制浆筛选工序工艺流程的优化措施:将传统的三段压力筛工艺改为一段压力筛加磨浆的工艺。通过上述改造,车间取得了良好的效果:设备故障率降低,意外停机情况减少,制浆得率提高1.5%,电耗降低3%。

  13. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste

  14. PRESENCE OF HARDWOOD CHIPS AND ITS IMPACT ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hardwood admixture (15-25% birch or aspen in kraft cooking on the strength properties of the fully bleached pulp was investigated. Results obtained from both lab- and mill-processed ECF bleached pulps showed that adding 15-25% birch or aspen to the production of fully bleached softwood kraft pulp had a minor effect on the strength properties. No significant effect was observed for the hardwood admixture on the apparent density over a wide range of breaking length. Under the conditions studied, the results showed that pulping of mixed softwood/hardwood chips (chip blending resulted in overall better strength properties than the pulp blending at a given freeness. It was hypothesized that the softwood fibers would be cooked to a higher kappa number in the cooking of mixed softwood/hardwood chips for the same target kappa number, thus having higher fiber strength due to higher pulp viscosity and preservation of the hemicellulose. This was supported by the results from zero-span tensile strength of the long fiber fraction of the samples from chip blending and pulp blending. The implication is that some softwood kraft pulp mills can add up to 25% of hardwood chips to the kraft cooking of softwood chips without significantly affecting the overall pulp strength properties.

  15. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-α1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (α se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidrataci

  16. >Effect of progesterone hormon on cell viability and stem cell activation in dental pulp cells

    OpenAIRE

    Segah Altuntaş; Muhammed Ali Kara; Deniz Selin Aksoy; Zehra Dilşad Çoban; Şefik Güran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The vitality of the dentin structure, both during health and after injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that regulate the cell’s behavior. Dental pulp tissue has condensed stem cell activity. Dental pulp stem cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Several publications hav...

  17. Failure analysis of a heat exchanger used of a wood pulp bleaching process; Analise de falha de um trocador de calor utilizado no processo de branqueamento da polpa de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.B.V.; Moreto, J.A.; Rossino, L.S.; Spinelli, D.; Tarpani, J.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (SMM/EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica

    2010-07-01

    This study involved an investigation of the failure of a heat exchanger used in the ozone destruction stage of a wood pulp bleaching process at a pulp plant. The following procedures were carried out to determine the causes of the failure: a chemical analysis of the component, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurements of hardness and of corrosion-related mass loss, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion damage of the heat exchanger was caused by chloric and sulfuric acid, which led to pitting, grooving and cracking, as well as generalized corrosion of the component (AISI 316L steel). Nitric acid caused minimal damage to the heat exchanger, with minor generalized corrosion and occasional pitting. White crystals rich in sulfur and chlorine were identified as the corrosive agents acting inside the heat exchanger. (author)

  18. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O) and NaOH solution (of variable concentration). Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α) was determined from hydration hea...

  19. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder rotational speed: 55, 70, 85 rpm. Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 15. As the results show, pulping of rice stem fiber can be done at a relatively short pretreatment time about 4 hours and a low NaOH concentration about 0.8% by twin-screw extruder with limit extrusion temperature of about 80 oC and extruder rotational speed about 85 rpm. The effect of pretreatment solvent, NaOH, is greatly enhanced by increases in the extrusion temperature. Analysis of the results revealed that this process has suitable potential to be used to obtain a pulp with yields approximately equivalent to neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping at fixed kappa number, which is applicable for fluting paper and linerboard production.

  20. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  1. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  2. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  3. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  4. USING Mg(OH2 IN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxide bleaching of high yield pulps from wood with Mg(OH2 has been developing recently in the pulp and paper industry. However, there is still a lack of data on the application of Mg(OH2 in peroxide bleaching of non-wood fibres. In this work, our purpose was to study the effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The results showed that Mg(OH2 significantly improved peroxide bleaching efficiency (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the H2O2 consumption and selectivity (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the viscosity losses of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The brightness, viscosity, and yield of bleached pulp can be significantly enhanced by increasing the replacement ratio of Mg(OH2. However, at 100% replacement of NaOH with Mg(OH2, the brightness of bleached pulp was much lower than that of the bleached pulp with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When 24 to 73% of the NaOH was replaced with Mg(OH2, the COD of the bleaching filtrate was 11 to 38% lower than that of the NaOH as the sole alkaline source. The lower solubility and alkalinity of Mg(OH2, as well as the reduction of Cu ion content in bleached pulp were proposed as accounting for the favorable effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp.

  5. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus. Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, pulp was exposed. In the experimental group, the perforations were capped with Emdogain® (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland, while in the control group pulp capping was performed with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. The observational period was 28 days, after which the animal was sacrificed and histological preparations were made. A light microscope was used to analyze dentin bridge formation, tissue reorganization and inflammation, and the presence of bacteria in the pulp. Results. The formation of dentin bridge was observed in the experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Angiogenesis and many odontoblast-like cells, responsible for dentin bridge formation, were observed. Necrosis was not observed in any case, nor were bacteria present in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated a favorable therapeutic effect of Emdogain® Gel in direct pulp capping of Vietnamese pigs. Pulp reaction was similar to that of MTA®. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON172026

  6. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.G. [Science Applications International Corp., Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  7. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  8. THE EFFECT OF HEMICELLULOSE EXTRACTION ON FIBER CHARGE PROPERTIES AND RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF KRAFT PULP FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Lyytikäinen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The integrated forest biorefinery (IFBR concept provides a promising opportunity for the development of the pulp and paper industry. One proposed next generation technology for an integrated forest biorefinery is the extraction of hemicelluloses, allowing the co-production of pulp and different hemicellulose-based chemicals. In addition to paper properties, hemicelluloses are known to be important for the function of cationic papermaking additives, because they are the main source of charged groups in fibers. This paper shows that the alkaline extraction of hemicelluloses from bleached kraft pulp decreases both the total and surface charge of the pulps. It was found that the decreased fiber charge leads to increased filler retention with fixed retention aid dosage. The reduction observed in the fiber surface charge for alkali-extracted pulp was mainly attributed to the decrease in the amount of anionic groups located in fines.

  9. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  10. Processing of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) fruits : a case study on health-promoting compounds in marula pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwilepo-van Hal, P.

    2013-01-01

    Marula is a multipurpose tree from Southern Africa, used by local people for its fruit, and cosmetic oil from the seed and for medicinal products from the bark and leaves. Fruits are eaten raw, or used to prepare juices, jams, conserves, dry fruit rolls, or fermented to make alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and Amarula. The fruit is a vital source of vitamin C for rural people most of whom cannot afford other more expensive sources of vitamin C. The specific processing methods and conditio...

  11. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  12. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  13. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  14. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor

  15. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  16. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  17. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  18. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means.

  19. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  20. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  1. RAT DENTAL PULP RESPONSE TO PROPOLIS AS A DIRECT PULP CAPPING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Ardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp capping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP. An occlusal cavity was prepared on the right maxillary first molar of Spraque-Dawley rats. The dental pulp was exposed and the lined with a zinc-oxide based filler as a control (group I, or with EEP (group II. Then, each cavity was filled with glass ionomer cement. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2, or 4. Biopsy samples were obtained, and these were stained and viewed by a light microscope. The histological examination was based on the presence of polymorph nuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and also the dentinal bridge formation. Data were statistically analysed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that the inflammatory response of EEP group was relatively milder compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the two groups. There was no dentinal bridge formation seen in both groups. Therefore, the present results suggest that direct pulp capping with EEP in rats may delay pulp inflammatory process and fail to stimulate reparative dentin.

  2. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  3. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  4. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  5. Study on the Controlling Process of Freezing Point in Fresh-cut Litchi Pulp%鲜切荔枝果肉冰点调节工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汶飞; 余小林; 胡卓炎; 周宇

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different freezing point regulators including sucrose, sorbitol and glucose on the freezing point of fresh - cut litchi pulp were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimal conditions were: sorbitol content 6.24% , glucose content 7.31% and sucrose content 40.93%. Under the optimal conditions, the freezing point of the fresh -cut litchi pulp decreased to -4.15℃ , close to the predicted val ue of -4.13℃. The optimal freezing point of the fresh - cut litchi pulp was reduced by 1.3℃ comparing to the control group.%研究了蔗糖、山梨醇、葡萄糖3种冰点调节剂对降低鲜切荔枝果肉冰点的效果及复配浓度的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以鲜切荔枝果肉的冰点为响应值,通过响应曲面法建立回归模型,得到山梨醇、葡萄糖、蔗糖3种冰点调节剂的优化复配浓度为:山梨醇6.24%,葡萄糖7.31%,蔗糖40.93%。鲜切荔枝果肉经此优化复配浓度在3cc、浸渍3h处理后,其冰点可降至-4.15℃,与模型预测值(-4.13℃)接近,比未处理果肉的冰点降低了1.3℃。

  6. The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of current study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded on electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds with or without the addition of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). For the in vitro evaluation, DNA content, alkaline phosph

  7. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  8. Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood : Effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Converting wood into paper is a complex process involving many different stages, one of which is pulping. Pulping involves liberating the wood fibres from each other, which can be done either chemically or mechanically. This thesis focuses on the most common chemical pulping method, the kraft cooking process, and especially on a recently developed improvement of the impregnation phase, which is the first part of a kraft cook. Extended impregnation kraft cooking (EIC) technique is demonstrated...

  9. Pulp and plaque microbiotas of children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Chalmers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide

  10. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100. The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L-1; starch, 15.0 g.L-1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L-1; incubation temperature, 34.12 ºC and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL-1. The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R² value (0.9987. The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization.

  11. Effects of blanching treatments on quality of carrot pulp and its processing optimization%热烫方式对胡萝卜浆品质的影响及工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春霖; 陈义伦; 谢芳超; 张琪

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of carrot pulp, the fresh carrot (cv: Eastern Six-inch) was taken as raw materials, and the content of P-carotene in carrot pulp was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Effects of four different blanching methods, including hot water blanching, steam blanching, vitamin C blanching and citric acid blanching treatments on the content of P-carotene in carrot pulp were studied, and the blanching process technology was optimized by Box-Behnken response surface method. The results showed that the citric acid blanching was the best blanching method, and the best blanching conditions were as follow: the citric acid mass fraction was 1.4%, blanching time was 18 min, blanching temperature was 84%, the mass fraction of P-carotene was 23.59 mg/kg, which matched with the predict value by the model. The research provides a reference for improving the quality of carrot pulp.%为提高胡萝卜制浆的品质,以新鲜东方六寸参胡萝卜为原料,采用高效液相色谱法测定胡萝卜浆中β-胡萝卜素含量.比较了热水热烫、蒸汽热烫、维生素C热烫、柠檬酸热烫等4种不同的热烫方式对胡萝卜浆中β-胡萝卜素含量的影响,并用Box-Behnken响应面设计法优化热烫处理的工艺条件.结果表明,柠檬酸热烫为最佳热烫方式,优化得到的柠檬酸热烫工艺条件为:柠檬酸质量分数1.4%、热烫时间18 min、热烫温度84℃.经验证在此条件下,β-胡萝卜素质量分数23.59 mg/kg,与模型预测值吻合,建立的模型可用于工艺预测.因此,本研究结果可为改善胡萝卜制浆的品质提供技术依据.

  12. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. METHODS: The pulp tissue was gently...... separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal...... abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. RESULTS: The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were...

  13. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blancas, A. (Center of Scientific Research of Yucatan, Merida, Mexico); Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  14. Study and Application of Hydrolysis and Acidification Process in Waste Water Treatment of Pulp and Paper Industry%水解酸化在制浆造纸废水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏令军; 蒋立人

    2011-01-01

    Because of low biodegradability of paper industry waste water, hydrolysis and acidification process is widely applied in paper industry waste water treatment.Aiming at different waste water from different material sources and processes, through experiment and analysis of the collected operation data, some engineering data and operating experiences for application of hydrolysis and acidification process in waste water treatment of pulp and paper industry are summarized.%针对不同原料不同工艺所产生制浆造纸废水的特点,通过对收集到的实验及实际运行数据的分析,总结出水解酸化工艺应用于制浆造纸废水处理中设计及运行管理的一些参数和经验.

  15. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  16. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process. PMID:26752149

  17. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process.

  18. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  19. Immobilization of B, F, Cr, and As in alkaline coal fly ash through an aging process with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Sakakibara, Kento; Wang, Li; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2014-10-01

    Fourteen different alkaline coal fly ashes (CFAs) were used for the experiment, in which each sample was mixed with water to be 28.6% of water content (wt/wt) and aged for 1-4 weeks at 10-30 °C. This simple treatment is advantageous for decreases in water-soluble B, F, Cr, and As. Compared to non-aged CFAs, their water-soluble fractions remained 0.56-88%, 21-85%, 0.37-93% and 2.6-88%, respectively, after aging for a week at 20 °C, although the amounts of Cr and As released from some CFA samples increased. Considering the significant decrease in elution of sulfate, Ca and Al after aging, the immobilization, namely prevention of toxic element elution, could be related to formation of secondary minerals such as portlandite, gypsum and ettringite. Immobilization of B and Cr tends to proceed preferentially under colder conditions. Aging at higher temperatures enhances the leachability of Cr in some CFA samples. Contrary to the behavior of B and Cr, water-soluble F effectively decreases under warmer conditions.

  20. A study on the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in hot alkaline-sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Kevin Robert

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) generally have superior strength and corrosion resistance as compared to most standard austenitic and ferritic stainless grades owing to a balanced microstructure of austenite and ferrite. As a result of having favorable properties, DSS have been selected for the construction of equipment in pulp and paper, chemical processing, nuclear, oil and gas as well as other industries. The use of DSS has been restricted in some cases because of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which can initiate and grow in either the ferrite or austenite phase depending on the environment. Thorough understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in chloride- and hydrogen sulfide-containing solutions has been useful for material selection in many environments. However, understanding of SCC mechanisms of DSS in sulfide-containing caustic solutions is limited, which has restricted the capacity to optimize process and equipment design in pulp and paper environments. Process environments may contain different concentrations of hydroxide, sulfide, and chloride, altering corrosion and SCC susceptibility of each phase. Crack initiation and growth behavior will also change depending on the relative phase distribution and properties of austenite and ferrite. The role of microstructure and environment on the SCC of standard grade UNS S32205 and lean grade UNS S32101 in hot alkaline-sulfide solution were evaluated in this work using electrochemical, film characterization, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and microscopy techniques. Microstructural aspects, which included residual stress state, phase distribution, phase ratio, and microhardness, were related to the propensity for SCC crack initiation in different simulated alkaline pulping liquors at 170 °C. Other grades of DSS and reference austenitic and superferritic grades of stainless steel were studied using exposure coupons for comparison to understand compositional effects and individual phase susceptibility

  1. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD

    2006-11-30

    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  2. An oxidant and organic solvent tolerant alkaline lipase by P. aeruginosa mutant: downstream processing and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant has been purified to homogeneity using acetone precipitation followed by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and resulted in 27-fold purification with 19.6% final recovery. SDS-PAGE study suggested that the purified lipase has an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified lipase were 45 °C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable stability in pH range of 7.0-11.0 and temperature range 35-55 °C. The metal ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Na(+) tend to increase the enzyme activity, whereas, Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) ions resulted in discreet decrease in the activity. Divalent cations Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) seemed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation at high temperatures and in presence of Ca(+2) (5 mM) the optimum temperature shifted from 45 °C to 55 °C. The purified lipase displayed significant stability in the presence of several hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic solvents (25%, v/v) up to 168 h. The pure enzyme preparation exhibited significant stability and compatibility with oxidizing agents and commercial detergents as it retained 40-70% of its original activities. The values of K(m) and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) under optimal conditions were determined to be 2.0 mg.mL(-1) and 5000 μg.mL(-1).min(-1), respectively. PMID:24688527

  3. An oxidant and organic solvent tolerant alkaline lipase by P. aeruginosa mutant: downstream processing and biochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant has been purified to homogeneity using acetone precipitation followed by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and resulted in 27-fold purification with 19.6% final recovery. SDS-PAGE study suggested that the purified lipase has an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified lipase were 45°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable stability in pH range of 7.0-11.0 and temperature range 35-55 °C. The metal ions Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ tend to increase the enzyme activity, whereas, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions resulted in discreet decrease in the activity. Divalent cations Ca+2 and Mg+2 seemed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation at high temperatures and in presence of Ca+2 (5 mM the optimum temperature shifted from 45°C to 55°C. The purified lipase displayed significant stability in the presence of several hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic solvents (25%, v/v up to 168 h. The pure enzyme preparation exhibited significant stability and compatibility with oxidizing agents and commercial detergents as it retained 40-70% of its original activities. The values of Km and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP under optimal conditions were determined to be 2.0 mg.mL-1 and 5000 μg.mL-1.min-1, respectively.

  4. Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh

    2011-04-01

    Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques. PMID:23033705

  5. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  6. A new combined process for efficient removal of Cu(II) organic complexes from wastewater: Fe(III) displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Gao, Guandao; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2015-12-15

    Efficient removal of heavy metals complexed with organic ligands from water is still an important but challenging task now. Herein, a novel combined process, i.e., Fe(III)-displacement/UV degradation/alkaline precipitation (abbreviated as Fe(III)/UV/OH) was developed to remove copper-organic complexes from synthetic solution and real electroplating effluent, and other processes including alkaline precipitation, Fe(III)/OH, UV/OH were employed for comparison. By using the Fe(III)/UV/OH process, some typical Cu(II) complexes, such as Cu(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Cu(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), Cu(II)-citrate, Cu(II)-tartrate, and Cu(II)-sorbate, each at 19.2 mg Cu/L initially, were efficiently removed from synthetic solution with the residual Cu below 1 mg/L. Simultaneously, 30-48% of total organic carbon was eliminated with exception of Cu(II)-sorbate. Comparatively, the efficiency of other processes was much lower than the Fe(III)/UV/OH process. With Cu(II)-citrate as the model complex, the optimal conditions for the combined process were obtained as: initial pH for Fe(III) displacement, 1.8-5.4; molar ratio of [Fe]/[Cu], 4:1; UV irradiation, 10 min; precipitation pH, 6.6-13. The mechanism responsible for the process involved the liberation of Cu(II) ions from organic complexes as a result of Fe(III) displacement, decarboxylation of Fe(III)-ligand complexes subjected to UV irradiation, and final coprecipitation of Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ions. Up to 338.1 mg/L of Cu(II) in the electroplating effluent could be efficiently removed by the process with the residual Cu(II) below 1 mg/L and the removal efficiency of ∼99.8%, whereas direct precipitation by using NaOH could only result in total Cu(II) removal of ∼8.6%. In addition, sunlight could take the place of UV to achieve similar removal efficiency with longer irradiation time (90 min).

  7. Ion-exchange separation of nitrate from alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO3 microspheres by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the studies carried out for the separation of nitrate from hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea which are present in the alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO3 microspheres by sol-gel process. For separation, Dowex 1 X 4 was used as ion exchanger and 0.5 M NaOH was used as eluent. Experiments were conducted both under batch equilibration conditions as well as through column. The distribution ratio data for nitrate at different equilibrium concentration in solution phase were used to determine the capacity of the resin. The batch equilibration as well as column experiments showed that nitrate can be separated. The studies quantified the extent of nitrate removal from the waste and the amount of additional waste generated. (author)

  8. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappapulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Lesiecki; Wojciech Białas; Grażyna Lewandowicz

    2012-01-01

    Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol ferment...

  10. Short Process ECF Bleaching of Corn Stalk Rind Pulp by Organic Acid Biorefinery%有机酸生物炼制玉米秸秆皮浆短流程ECF漂白特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍; 翟华敏

    2012-01-01

    为寻求合理白度、节省资源、节能减排的漂白途径,研究了有机酸玉米秸秆皮生物炼制浆(OABCSRP)的短流程碱处理-二氧化氯-二氧化氯(ED1D2)无元素氯(ECF)漂白特性.结果表明:碱处理对OABCSRP具有良好的脱木质素选择性,是后续二氧化氯(D)漂白的重要基础,在浆浓10.0%(质量分数)、温度70℃、时间1.5h和用碱量4.0%的条件下碱处理,可获得率为95.4%、脱木质素率23.5%、黏度115 mPa·s、白度44.2%(ISO)的纸浆;在碱处理过程中浆料中木质素和碳水化合物中的酯键发生了水解;ECF短流程ED1D2在4.0%NaOH及总ClO2用量3.6%条件下,经ED1D2漂白后,可获积累得率为88.0%、黏度124 mPa·s、白度74.7%(ISO)的优良纸浆.%To obtain a bleaching process with a reasonable brightness, low consumption of fiber resource and energy, the bleaching properties of organic acid biorefinery corn stalk rind pulp (OABCSRP) by a short ECF bleaching process of ED1D2 were investigated in present study. The results indicates alkali extraction is high selective on delignification of OABCSRP, and the extraction is a foundation for next effective D1D2 bleaching stages. A pulp with 95.4% yield, 23.5% delignification ratio, 115 mPa·s viscosity and 44.2% ISO brightness was obtained when pulp with 10.0% concentration was treated by 4.0% NaOH for 1. 5 h at 70 ℃. Interesting findings revealed that the ester linkages between lignin and carbohydrate were hydrolyzed in the extraction process. The pulp with an accumulated yield 88.0% , 124 mPa·s and brightness 74.7% ISO respectively when 4. 0% NaOH and 3.6% C1O2 dosages were applied in ED1D2 bleaching. ED1D2 short bleaching process was suitable for OABCSRP bleaching to produce cultural papers.

  11. Key Processing Technologies for Yacon Juice Beverage with Pulp%雪莲果果粒果汁饮料生产关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾仁勇; 罗莉萍; 李好

    2011-01-01

    对雪莲果果粒果汁饮料生产中的护色、产品配方确定及稳定剂选择等关键技术进行研究。采用单因素试验、正交试验及对比试验分别确定复合护色剂的最优配比、产品配方及复合稳定剂的比例和用量。结果表明:复合护色剂的最优配比为VC 0.20g/100mL、柠檬酸0.20g/100mL、Na2SO3 0.15g/100mL;雪莲果果粒果汁饮料最优配方为雪莲果原汁用量25.0g/100mL、雪莲果粒用量6.0g/100mL、柠檬酸用量0.15g/100mL、蔗糖用量7.0g/100mL;复合稳定剂组成为卡拉胶:明胶=1:2,用量0.25g/100mL。%In the production of yacon juice beverage with pulp,key technologies,such as color fixation,product formulation and stabilizer formulation were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.The optimal color fixative formula(per 100 mL)was composed of VC 0.20 g,citric acid 0.20 g and Na2SO3 0.15 g.The optimal beverage formula(per 100 mL) consisted of yacon juice 25.0 g,yacon pulp 6.0 g,citric acid 0.15 g and sucrose 7.0 g.The optimal stabilizer was carrageenan-gelatin at a ratio of 1:2,added at a ratio of 0.25 g/100 mL.

  12. Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Kumari, S.; Wongputtisin, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Methods and Results Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each

  13. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  14. To the question of production of pectin from beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Zelepukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since at present their needs for pectin confectionery and pharmaceutical enterprises in Russia is satisfied only in part, because of the import of this product, the problem is currently the domestic production of pectin is very urgent. Sugar production is one of the branches materialconsuming industrial production, requiring a significant amount of raw materials per unit of output. A positive feature of beet raw material is that protopectin content of up to 98% of the total amount of pectin, which makes the extraction process parameters of the desired product. Dried beet pulp coming from the warehouse, is ground for the intensification of the processes of extraction of pectin; further pulp is hydrolyzed; the resulting mixture is sent to a filter press for coarse and fine purification of the extract. Hydrolyse pulp after neutralization fed to cattle feed. The extract was fed to a thin filter cleaning. After purification, the extract fed to precipitate pectin. Then it is crushed, cleaned and dried. The dried pectin packaged and sent to storage. The proposed technological scheme will allow to receive beet pectin, satisfying the requirements of the pectin substances of food and medical supplies. Studies have been conducted to obtain pectin from dried pulp. The resulting pectin organoleptic had a gray tint, which have a negative effect on the quality of the product. The pulp used as a raw material, which is dried by means of flue gases. For comparison was obtained pectin from dried beet pulp, as a coolant which use steam. Pectin is derived from such a pulp had higher quality indicators.

  15. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  16. A mitochondrial alkaline/neutral invertase isoform (A/N-InvC) functions in developmental energy-demanding processes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Mariana L; Lechner, Leandra; Zabaleta, Eduardo J; Salerno, Graciela L

    2013-03-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Invs), enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose, are essential proteins in plant life. The fact that different isoforms are present in multiple locations makes them candidates for the coordination of metabolic processes. In the present study, we functionally characterized the encoding gene of a novel A/N-Inv (named A/N-InvC) from Arabidopsis, which localizes in mitochondria. A/N-InvC is expressed in roots, in aerial parts (shoots and leaves) and flowers. A detailed phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invc) reveals an impaired growth phenotype. Shoot growth was severely reduced, but root development was not affected as reported for A/N-InvA mutant (inva) plants. Remarkably, germination and flowering, two energy demanding processes, were the most affected stages. The effect of exogenous growth regulators led us to suggest that A/N-InvC may be modulating hormone balance in relation to the radicle emergence. We also show that oxygen consumption is reduced in inva and invc in comparison with wild-type plants, indicating that both organelle isoenzymes may play a fundamental role in mitochondrion functionality. Taken together, our results emphasize the involvement of mitochondrial A/N-Invs in developmental processes and uncover the possibility of playing different roles for the two isoforms located in the organelle.

  17. Thermoluminescent and optical processes in alkaline halogenides dosemeters contaminated with Europium; Procesos opticos y termoluminiscentes en dosimetros de halogenuros alcalinos contaminados con Europio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza F, M.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Pedroza M, M.; Chernov, V.; Perez S, R.; Aceves, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Recent research results are presented about the properties of the optical processes of photo transferred thermoluminescence (TLFT), optical whitening (BO), thermoluminescence induced by light (TLL) and its effect in the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) produced by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The systematic analysis of all these processes, acquires a singular importance due that actually the alkaline halogenide crystals are object of intense investigations which analyse their potential applications as detectors and radiation dosemeters through stimulated optical luminescence techniques or thermoluminescence. The obtained data show that the Tl curve of material with this nature can be enormously affected by exposure of phosphorus to the environmental light or UV. This is in part due to liberation processes of charge bearers are shouted and makes a subsequent trapping in less temperature traps; at the same time that induce changes in the intensity of determined Tl bands. Additionally, also it is observed that mentioned phenomena are related as with wavelength of incident light as of the illumination time. Finally, the obtained information allows to conclude that although the illumination effect is extremely complex, it is associated and can be explained mainly with phenomena that implicate the electrons excitation trapped in form of F centers and trapping mechanisms or radioactive and non-radioactive recombination. (Author)

  18. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus, steam exploded chips and control chips were subjected to kraft cookings. Steam exploded chips provided pulps with reductions of kappa number by up to 70% with no significant change in viscosity. Therefore, the cooking time could be shortened by 60%, increasing the productivity and obtaining pulps with similar delignification degree to those of the control pulp. Furthermore, not only the production rate could be increased, but also most of the hemicelluloses could be recovered before pulping and converted to a value-added product. Finally, although exploded pulp had inferior mechanical strength, the optical properties, which are more important in eucalyptus pulps, were found to be better.

  19. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture.

  20. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture. PMID:24195353

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' AMONG PULP AND PAPER MILL WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from as...

  2. REFINING BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBRE FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres, there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefmer under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp. Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  3. REFINING BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBER FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres,there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefiner under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp.Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  4. 用木材生产生物燃料与纸浆%From Wood to Biofuels and Pulp Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚光裕

    2012-01-01

    A mild alkaline treatment was applied to aspen chips prior to kraft pulping in order .to ex- tract hemicellulose for use as biofuels(bioethanol),the extraction was performed at 90℃, NaOH 1-2M,liguor towood ratio 1-4. It resulted in a recovery of 40-50kg of hemicellulose per ton of chips and yieled the same amount of pulp after subsequent pulping of the extracted chips,as compared to a control cook. The pre-extract process requires careful optimization of the pulping process and allows shorter cooking time and lower chemical charges. The process did not costly pressurized reaction ves- sels. Kraft pulps obtained from per-extracted chips have a slightiy higher cellulose/hemicellulose ratio and demonstrate a small decrease in tensile index(10%), but improved brightness and shive content, while the hemiecllulose yield for this process is low, this problem is outweighed by the fact that pulp properties and pulping yield can be maintained at a high level. The recovered hemicellulose can be con- centrated and isolateed more easily than furfural obtained by autohydrolysis or dilute acid treatment.%杨木木片硫酸盐制浆前,进行缓和的碱抽提处理,抽提出半纤维素用作生物燃料(生物乙醇),在温度90℃,NaOH1-2M,液比1:4条件下进行碱处理,不需要高压设备,每吨木片得到半纤维素40-50kg,经碱抽提后木片进行硫酸盐蒸煮,与未经碱抽提木片参照对比,纸浆得率基本相同,但是需要很好地控制碱抽提与硫酸盐蒸煮工艺条件,能缩短蒸煮时间和节省化学品用量。碱预抽提木片得到的硫酸盐纸浆中纤维素/半纤维素的比率稍高,导致纸浆的抗张指数稍有降低(约10%),但是纸浆白度较高且筛渣含量低,为使硫酸盐纸浆的质量和得率保持较高水平,采用缓和的碱预抽提,使半纤维素得率较低,而回收的半纤维素的浓缩和离析比木片自水解或稀酸水解回收糠醛更加容易。

  5. [Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L A; Vélez, A J; de Rozo, M P

    1985-09-01

    The polyphenol content of coffee pulp extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The use of polyvynilpirrolidone (PVP) was introduced in order to eliminate interferences. Condensed polyphenols in the extracts were determined by the method of acidified vanillin. Chlorogenic acid and catechin were used as standards for Folin-Ciocalteau and Vanillin methods, respectively, and a calibration curve was constructed for each solvent. The solvents used were methanol, methanol-water (50:50), ammonium hydroxide (3%) and calcium hydroxide (1%), using times of extraction of 10 minutes and 1 hour. No differences were found in the amount of polyphenols extracted by the different solvents at the two extraction times. After 10 minutes, the alkaline solvents NH4OH (3%) and Ca(OH)2 (1%), extracted more polyphenols than the other two solvents. Nevertheless, ammonium hydroxide (3%) was more efficient in extracting condensed polyphenols. The results herein presented suggest that treating coffee pulp with mild alkaline solvents may improve its nutritive value.

  6. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  7. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  8. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  9. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto I. Korpinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

  11. EFFECTS OF XYLAN IN EUCALYPTUS PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moreira Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a better use of wood in the pulp industry has fuelled interest in a more rational use of its components, particularly xylans. The impact of xylans removal and of xylans redeposition on pulp properties for tissue and P&W paper grades are discussed in this paper. Kraft pulp (15.6% xylans treatment with 10-70 g.L-1 NaOH resulted in pulps of 14.5-5.9% xylans. The treatments decreased pulp lignin and HexA contents and caused significant positive impact on subsequent oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching. Xylan removal decreased pulp beatability, water retention value and tensile index but increased drainability, water absorption capacity, capillarity Klemm and bulk. Overall, xylan depleted pulps showed almost ideal properties for tissue paper grade pulps. In a second step of the research, xylans extracted from unbleached (BXL and bleached eucalyptus pulps (WXL by cold caustic extraction (CCE were added to a commercial brown pulp in the oxygen delignification (O-stage and further bleached. Xylans deposition occurred at variable degree (up to 7% on pulp weight depending upon the O-stage reaction pH. Pulp bleachability was not impaired by WXL xylan deposition but slightly negatively affected by BXL xylans. Pulp beatability was improved by xylan deposition. The deposited xylans were quite stable across bleaching and beating, with the WXL xylans being more stable than the BXL ones. At low energy consumption, the deposited xylans improved pulp physical and mechanical properties. Xylans extraction by CCE with subsequent deposition onto pulp in the O-stage proved attractive for manufacturing high xylan P&W paper grades.

  12. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  13. Detection of Chlorophenolic Compounds in Bleaching Effluents of Chemical Pulps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chhaya Sharma; S.Mohanty; S.Kumar; N.J.Rao; li qian

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory bleaching effluents from the chlorination and caustic extraction stages of mixed wood kraft pulp processing have been analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively for various chlorophenolics by using GC.A number of chlorinated derivaties of phenols,catechols,guaiacols and syringaldehydes have been detected and their concentrations are estimated.The results are compared with that of different agriculture residue / hardwood pulps,which were reported in literature.The concentrations of various compounds detected have also been compared with their reported 96LC50 values.

  14. Intensified alkaline leaching pretreatment of refractory gold concentrates at common temperature and pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宇群; 吴敏杰; 宿少玲; 王隆保

    2003-01-01

    A new process for the hydrometallurgy of refractory gold concentrates was presented. The process comprises grinding-leaching, intensified alkaline leaching (IAL), cyanidation and adsorption. In a stirring-type pulverizing-leaching tower mill, the concentrate is ground to <35.6μm of 95.5 % while simultaneously leached by NaOH of 12kg/t, then carried out intensified alkaline leaching for 48h by NaOH of 108kg/t in enhanced agitation tanks with the pulp concentration of 40% solids at the environmental temperature of 9.5 ~ 13.5℃ and the environmental pressure of 105Pa. The oxidation rate of As is 94.9%, and 47.6% for S. The total consumption of NaOH is only 20% of that theoretically calculated under the conditions of full oxidation at the same oxidation rates of arsenic to arsenate and sulfur to sulfate. The gold leaching rate by NaCN in 24h is increased from 9.2% before pretreatment to 94.2%. The consumption of NaCN is 7.5kg/t, which is one times less than that before pretreatment. The extraction cost of gold is about 422Yuan/t.

  15. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  16. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Branislav V.; Šereš Zita I.; Gyura Julianna F.; Sakač Marijana B.; Simović-Šoronja Dragana M.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.; Pajin Biljana S.

    2013-01-01

    Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy co...

  17. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  18. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; gang Chen; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp.Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together with said liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  19. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaopingWang; gangChen; AiminTang; HongweiZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp. Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together withsaid liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  20. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio;

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  1. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption.

  2. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  3. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  4. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO2 by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L-1, iron 348 mg L-1) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s-1 for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO2 and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  5. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Remediation of high pH Cr(VI) contamination related to COPR and its groundwater. • Extensive characterization of COPR and its related groundwater. • Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron. • Critical assessment of reactivity and passivation using spectroscopy and imaging. • Stabilization of the COPR Cr(VI) source by addition of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the

  6. The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions. The influence of plastic strain on the diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed structural steel (FeE 690T) was investigated using the electrochemical permeation technique. The plastic deformation was introduced either by cold rolling or by tensile straining. Specially prepared C(T)-specimen enabled the direct determination of the diffusion coefficient in the highly deformed region ahead of a blunting crack. It was shown, that the apparent diffusion coefficient depends on the plastic strain and on the overall hydrogen concentration, whereas the maximum hydrogen flux remained almost unchanged. These observations are interpreted in terms of variations in the dislocation density, which act as 'sinks' for the diffusable hydrogen atoms. The results are compared with model calculations, that describe the hydrogen transport as a function of the trap density. The comparison of the numerical simulation and the experimental data shows a good agreement over the whole range of plastic strain levels, leading to a trap density of 6.1.1019/d3. Together with the results of a previous study on the fracture toughness of FeE 690T in the presence of hydrogen the permeation data obtained in this work suggest that the observed influence of deformation rates on the fracture mechanism can be attributed to the reduced mobility of hydrogen atoms in the plastic zone. The assumption that the hydrogen transport during monotonic straining is controlled by diffusion was confirmed by investigations concerning the formation of surface films. Using a potentiodynamic method (cyclovoltammetry) a characterisation of the surface reactions involved in permeation experiments was performed. It was shown that the nature of the passive layers forming on the surface depends on the applied potential, affecting mainly the hydrogen absorption

  7. Synchronous alkaline and subalkaline magmatism during the late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross orogeny, Antarctica: Insights into magmatic sources and processes within a continental arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Peter, Graham; Cottle, John M.

    2016-10-01

    Extensive exposure of intrusive igneous rocks along the Ross orogen of Antarctica-an ancient accretionary orogen on the margin of East Gondwana-provides an exceptional opportunity to study continental arc magmatism. There is significant petrologic and geochemical variability in igneous rocks within a ~ 500-km-long segment of the arc in southern Victoria Land. The conspicuous occurrence of carbonatite and alkaline silicate rocks (nepheline syenite, A-type granite, and alkaline mafic rocks) adjacent to large complexes of subalkaline granitoids is not adequately explained by traditional models for continental arc magmatism. Extensive geochemical analysis (> 100 samples) and zircon U-Pb geochronology (n = 70) confirms that alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism was partially contemporaneous with the emplacement of large subduction-related igneous complexes in adjacent areas. Major pulses of subalkaline magmatism were compositionally distinct and occurred at different times along the arc. Large bodies of subalkaline orthogneiss and granite (sensu lato) were emplaced over similar time intervals (ca. 25 Myr) to the north (ca. 515-492 Ma) and south (ca. 550-525 Ma) of the alkaline magmatic province, although the initiation of these major pulses of magmatism was offset by ca. 35 Myr. Alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism spanned at least ca. 550-509 Ma, overlapping with voluminous subalkaline magmatism in adjacent areas. The most primitive rocks from each area have similarly enriched trace element compositions, indicating some common characteristics of the magma sources along the arc. The samples from the older subalkaline complex have invariably low Sr/Y ratios (< 40), consistent with relatively shallow magma generation and differentiation. The younger subalkaline complex and subalkaline rocks within the area of the alkaline province extend to higher Sr/Y ratios (up to ~ 300), indicative of generation and differentiation at deeper levels. The significant spatial and temporal

  8. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  9. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  10. Assessing the value of pulp mill biomass savings in a climate change conscious economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp mills use significant amounts of biofuels, both internal and purchased. Biofuels could contribute to reach greenhouse gas emission targets at competitive costs. Implementing process integration measures at a pulp mill in order to achieve pulp production with less use of energy (biofuels) has not only on-site consequences but also off-site consequences, such as substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere by the saved pulp mill biofuels, and less on-site electric power generation. In this paper a method, a linking model, is suggested to analyse pulp mill biofuel saving measures when carbon dioxide (CO2) external costs are internalised. The linking model is based on equilibrium economics and links information from CO2 constrained energy market future scenarios with process integration measures. Pulp mill economics and marginal energy market CO2 response are identified. In an applied study, four process integration measures at a Swedish pulp mill were analysed using five energy market future scenarios emanating from a Nordic energy model. The investigated investment alternatives for biofuel savings all result in positive net annual savings, irrespectively of the scenario used. However, CO2 emissions may increase or decrease depending on the future development of the Nordic energy market

  11. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  12. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes; Carla Christina de Oliveira Viana; Leandro Sauer; Jeovan De Carvalho Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980) in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industr...

  13. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y; Turner, D; Yates, K M; Tizard, I

    2004-12-20

    The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure, isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a diameter as large as 1000 microm. These cells were composed of cell walls and cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells. Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (+/-3.8), 0.70% (+/-0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component. Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better

  14. Recycling agroindustrial waste by lactic fermentations: coffee pulp silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, V.; Ferrer, J.

    1985-04-03

    This UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of coffee pulp for feed production covers (1) a process which can be adapted to existing coffee processing plants for drying the product once harvesting time has finished (2) unit operations involved: pressing (optional), silaging, liming and drying (3) experiments, results and discussion, bibliography, process statistics, and diagrams. Additional references: storage, biotechnology, lime, agricultural wastes, recycling, waste utilization.

  15. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of fibre sludge from pulp mill

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Ganna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a part of a project which aims at utilizing fibre sludge from pulp mill as a source of biofuel production. The study concentrates on optimizing one of the processing steps, enzymatic hydrolysis, in converting fibre sludge to bioalcohol. The aim of the thesis was to find optimum process parameters that enable maximum yield of glucose after performing the enzymatic hydrolysis. For this purpose, a series of experiments with changed process parameters was conducted. Also, enzym...

  16. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  17. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  18. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  19. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  20. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  1. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  2. Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

    1993-01-01

    Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds.

  3. Pulping characteristics of Eucalyptus species grown in Malawi (ODNRI Bulletin No. 33)

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, E. R.; Gibbs, J A; Ganguli, S; Dutta, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Eight species of Eucalyptus, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. cloeziana, E. grandis, E. maculata, E. maidenii, E. saligna and F. tereticornis grown in the Viphya plateau, Malawi, were examined to determine their suitability for the production of papermaking pulp. The size of 9-year-old trees, wood density, chemical characteristics and fibre dimensions are reported. All species were pulped by sulphate, soda and soda-anthraquinone processes. By the sulphate process all species yielded over 4...

  4. Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

  5. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenal, D.; Bajpai, P. K.; S P Mishra; Sharma, N.; Anand, A; Bajpai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an...

  6. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Santos Cruz; Antonio Donizette de Oliveira; José Roberto Soares Scolforo; José Luis Pereira de Rezende

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited...

  7. Evaluation of hydropyrolysis as an energy-saving alternative to the Tomlinson furnace. Task III. Chemical causes of increased pulp yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The yield-enhancing effect was found to be the result of the presence of small but significant levels of polysulfide and calcium ions. Polysulfide ions are generated during the causticization of the hydropyrolysis filtrate and is the result of a partial-air oxidation of Na/sub 2/S that occurs under conditions existing during the causticizing process. In the presence of residual organics, calcium ions are complexed to form soluble calcium-organo complexes which allow for a carryover of a significant amount of calcium into the final cooking liquor. The presence of both ions in the final cooking liquor allow for pulp yield increases through the formation of alkali-stable aldonic acid end-groups which protect carbohydrates from alkaline-degradation.

  8. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard;

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  9. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Dwi Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  10. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  11. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sanghi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% consistency with crude xylanase (6 IU/g o.d. pulp at 60 ºC for 2 h increased the final brightness by 4.9%. The enzyme treatment reduced the chlorine consumption by 28.6% with the same brightness as in the control. A reduction in kappa number and increase in viscosity was observed after enzyme pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loosening and swelling of pulp fibers. The strength properties viz. grammage, fiber thickness, beating degree, tensile index, breaking length, tear index and double fold of the treated pulp were improved as compared to the control pulp. This study reveals the potential of B. subtilis ASH xylanase as a biobleaching agent for the paper and pulp industry.

  12. Polyoxometalates in Oxidative Delignification of Chemical Pulps: Effect on Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolby Hirth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping, the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification should be performed in a highly selective manner. New environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional chlorine-based bleaching technologies (e.g., oxygen, ozone, or peroxide bleaching have been suggested or implemented. In an attempt to find inorganic agents that mimic the action of highly selective lignin-degrading enzymes and that can be applicable in industrial conditions, the researchers have focused on polyoxometalates (POMs, used either as regenerable redox reagents (in anaerobic conditions or as catalysts (in aerobic conditions of oxidative delignification. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of POM delignification in these two processes.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER PROPERTIES OF CANOLA STALKS PREPARED BY USING DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE OR DIETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad. H. Ekhtera

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparision between pulping of canola stalks with dimethyl formamide and diethylene glycol was studied in order to investigate the effects of cooking temperature (190˚C, 210˚C, and 230˚C, cooking time (120 min, 150 min, and 180 min and dimethyl formamide or diethylene glycol (50%, 60%, and 70% on the properties of pulp and paper. SCAN viscosity was applied to estimate the extent of cellulose degradation. Responses of pulp and handsheet properties to the process were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 15. The results showed that DMF pulp of canola was better than DEG pulp of Canola under the same conditions of cooking and organosolv ratio. In DMF pulping and DEG pulping, cooking temperature is a significant factor affecting paper properties. Analysis of results revealed that DMF pulp canola obtained at 230 °C, 180 min, and 70% DMF had a low kappa number (25 , indicating that the desired properties of the final product dictated the optimized pulping conditions.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulp (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara: concentration effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Santos Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The umbu is the umbuzeiro fruit (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. which is a tree native of the Brazilian backlands. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of commercial and concentrated umbu pulp to be used as raw material in the production of structured. The commercial pulp (2.5 kg was acquired in the trade of Feira de Santana. The concentration of the evaporator route pulp vacuo to increase the soluble solids content of 8.5ºBrix to 15.5ºBrix It was held in the Food Chemistry Laboratory of the State University of Feira de Santana. It was obtained after concentrating a yield of 41.12% by mass of fruit pulp. The concentration process had no influence in the nutritional value of umbu pulp. The concentrated pulp had the following properties pH (2.43, soluble solids (15.5°Brix, acidity (3.11 g citric acid/100 g, total protein (1.28% - w/v, vitamin C (4.36 mg/100 g - w/v, reducing sugars (6.08% - w/v, total sugars (13.55% - w/v non reducing sugars (7.46% - w/v and ash (0.42% - w/v. The physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulps had similar pH, Total Soluble Solids, acidity, proteins and ashes; higher values of reducing sugars and non-reducing and a lower vitamin C content that the pulps reported in the literature. The concentration process produced an increase in Total Soluble Solids, proteins, acidity, reducing and non reducing sugars and ash content. However there was a decrease in vitamin C concentration of the pulp.

  15. 水解酸化—好氧—Fenton氧化工艺处理制浆造纸废水工程实例%Application of hydrolytic acidification- aerobic biological treatment - fenton process in pulping and papermaking wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时孝磊; 李锋民; 胡洪营

    2012-01-01

    以某大型制浆造纸厂废水处理工程为例,介绍了水解酸化—好氧生物处理联合Fenton氧化深度处理工艺在造纸和制浆中段废水处理中的应用.厂内造纸废水量为0.77万~2.91万m3/d,COD为2 150~4 430 mg/L,SS为1 316~2 414 mg/L,经生化处理后,出水COD和SS平均分别为309 mg/L和53mg/L;制浆废水量为0.84万~3.68万m3/d,COD为1 720~4 360 mg/L,SS为1 184~1 994 mg/L,生化处理出水COD和SS平均分别为370 mg/L和56 mg/L.两种废水的生化处理出水经Fenton氧化和絮凝沉淀处理后,出水COD为67~98 mg/L,SS为21~29 mg/L,可达《制浆造纸工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 3544-2008)排放要求.废水处理成本为2.01元/m3,具有良好的经济效益和环境效益.%The application of hydroiytic acidification - aerobic biological treatment - fenton process to treat the regenerated papermaking and wood pulping middle - stage wastewater of a large - scale papermaking enterprise was introduced. The results showed that when the influent flux, COD and SS of the regenerated papermaking wastewater were 0. 77 × 104~2. 91 × 104 m3/d, 2 150~4 430 mg/L and 1 316~2 414 mg/L respectively, the average effluent COD and SS were 309 mg/L and 53 mg/L respectively through the bio- chemical treatment When the influent flux, COD and SS were 0. 84× 104~3. 68× 104 m3/d, 1 720~4 360 mg/L and 1 184~1 994 mg/L respectively, the average COD and SS in the effluent from bio - treatment were 370 mg/L and 56 mg/L respectively. When the mixed wastewater of these two bio - chemical effluents was treated by fenton oxidation and flocculation sedimentation process, the effluent COD and SS decreased to 67~98 mg/L and 21~29 mg/L respectively, which met the Discharge standard of water pollutants for pulp and paper industry (GB 3544-2008). The treatment cost was about CNY 2.01/m3, which has good economic and environment benefits.

  16. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  17. Effects of the bleaching sequence on the optical brighteners action in eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the bleaching process the pulp is treated with chemical reagents that can be retained in the pulp and interfere in the action of the optical brighteners. Different bleaching sequences can produce pulps at the same brightness but with different potential to whiteness increase when treated with optical brighteners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bleaching sequence on the efficiency of disulphonated and tetrasulphonated optical brighteners. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was bleached using four different bleaching sequences. For each pulp three brightness targets were aimeds. For each bleaching sequence mathematical model was generated for predicting the final pulp whiteness according to the initial brightness and the optical brightener charge applied. The presence of organochlorine residues in the pulp reduced the effectiveness of the optical brighteners. Therefore, bleaching sequences that use low chlorine dioxide charge favors for greater gains in whiteness with the application of optical brighteners. The replacement of the final chlorine dioxide bleaching stage with a hydrogen peroxide one in the sequence increased the efficiency of the optical brightening agents.

  18. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DENSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON PULPING YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colodette, J.L.; Mokfienski, A.; Gomide,J.L.; Oliveira, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions of ten Eucalyptus sp wood samples and verify the impact of this set of parameters and their combination on the Kraft pulping process yield and on bleached pulp quality. Ten eucalypt woods of different species, with basic densities varying from 365 to 544 kg/m3 and total wood carbohydrate contents varying from 70.0 to 74.5%, were transformed into kraft pulp of kappa number 17-18and bleached to 90% ISO brightness by the sequenceOD (PO)D. Wood basic density showed strongercorrelations with fiber dimensions, pulping yield and pulp quality than did chemical composition. Lighter woods resulted in higher yields. However, wood specific consumption was lower for denser woods,even though these demanded more drastic pulping conditions to achieve a given kappa number. The pulp quality results suggest that lower density woods should be directed towards fabrication of refined paper (printing and writing grades) while the denser woods be directed to the sanitary papers segment (tissue grades).

  19. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Germgard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out to determine which parameters affected pulp reactivity, as, for example: intrinsic viscosity, kappa number, pulp yield, carbohydrate composition, levelling-off degree of polymerization (LODP, and alkali solubility. The results of the study showed that the pulp reactivity increased with decreasing kappa number, and the highest reactivity was obtained after total lignin removal using chlorite delignification. It was also found that the carbohydrate composition had no influence on the pulp reactivity, but lower intrinsic viscosity either obtained by prolonged cooking or chlorite delignification correlated with higher pulp reactivity. Finally, lower alkali solubility, i.e. higher R18, reduced the reactivity.

  20. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

  1. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  2. Reductive atmospheric acid leaching of spent alkaline batteries in H2SO4/Na2SO3 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcali, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the optimum reductive leaching process for manganese and zinc recovery from spent alkaline battery paste. The effects of reducing agents, acid concentration, pulp density, reaction temperature, and leaching time on the dissolution of manganese and zinc were investigated in detail. Manganese dissolution by reductive acidic media is an intermediate-controlled process with an activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. After being leached, manganese and zinc were selectively precipitated with sodium hydroxide. The zinc was entirely converted into zincate (Zn(OH){4/2-}) ions and thus did not co-precipitate with manganese hydroxide during this treatment (2.0 M NaOH, 90 min, 200 r/min, pH > 13). After the manganese was removed from the solution, the Zn(OH){4/2-} was precipitated as zinc sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid. The results indicated that this process could be effective in recovering manganese and zinc from alkaline batteries.

  3. Production of Alkaline Protease by Solvent-Tolerant Alkaliphilic Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942 Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Habitat: Process Parameters Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhas Patil; Ambalal Chaudhari

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a newly isolated organic solvent-tolerant and alkaliphilic bacterial strain was reported from a hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel) contaminated soil collected from the petrol station, Shirpur (India). The strain was identified as Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942, based on phenotype, biochemical, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The capability of Bacillus circulans to secrete an extracellular, thermostable, alkaline protease and grow in the presence...

  4. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  5. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  6. Biodegradability enhancement by wet oxidation in alkaline media: delignification as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich, S; Kallas, J

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays many industries are considering the recycling of process waters as a way of improving environmental safety, preventing pollution, and avoiding the loss of valuable production materials. One industry in the forefront of this trend is the pulp and paper industry. Lignin is a pollutant present in the mill process waters and such macromolecules can cause problems during biological treatment of process waters. Wet oxidation (WO) is a process that can be used as a pre-treatment method for lignin fragmentation and improvement of biodegradability. Wet oxidation (WO) under alkaline conditions permits faster lignin fragmentation than the conventional WO process and, therefore, should favour biodegradability improvement. In this study, the experiments were carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor with an alkali lignin solution at temperatures up to 438 K, an alkali concentration of 1.5-3.5 g l(-1) and an oxygen partial pressure of 0.4 to 1.5 MPa. At an alkali concentration of 3.5 g l(-1)1 and 0.4 MPa of oxygen partial pressure, an increase in BOD/COD ratio was achieved from an initial 11% to 71%. The experiments also showed that the amount of small molecules in the solution measured by Immediately Available BOD (IA BOD) depends on the amount of alkali added and the operating temperature. PMID:12118617

  7. [Endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Pulp exposure and pulp necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R J M

    2005-11-01

    With management of the deep caries in primary teeth we have to take account into the coping strategies of the patient and the state of the development of the dentition. That's why in most cases a root canal treatment of primary incisors or even a pulpotomy is not indicated. Often Intellectual Decision Not To Restore is a good alternative for treatment of deep caries in primary incisors. In deep caries lesions of primary canines and molars preferably minimal invasive techniques as indirect pulp capping are performed. In case of a exposure, the dentist can choose between several types of treatment. Improved techniques have lead to clinical satisfying results of the calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. A partial pulpotomy is if possible the treatment of choice. A resin modified glass ionomer cement is used to cover the pulp wound because it has good sealing properties and it is easy to handle. To limit the burden in young children a root canal treatment in primary teeth is seldom indicated. Overfilling with calcium hydroxide in root canal treatment of primary teeth never causes problems. PMID:16320568

  8. SODA-AQ PULPING OF PAULOWNIA WOOD AFTER HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N•m/g and viscosity (848 cm3/g, significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.

  9. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  10. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  11. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  12. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and pa...

  13. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Cheng; Huaiyu Zhan; Shiyu Fu; Lucian A. Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature) affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The...

  14. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro; Maria E. Eugenio; Esteban Revilla; Juan A. Martin; J. Carlos Villar

    2011-01-01

    Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulpi...

  15. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  16. A comparative study about the increase of the yield of paper pulp by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the UNAM Nuclear Studies Center, the irradiation of wood chips was carried out according to the hypotesis that the gamma irradiation would increase the pulp production. The irradiation effect on pine, evergreen oak and Mexican sacred fir was compared through the alkaline terminal hydrolysis (peeling test). Concerning the pine and Mexican sacred fir it was found a maximum yield of the order of 8% and of 3% for the evergreen oak. With regard to the irradiation cost, the maintenance is very simple and economic; the principal investment is represented by the cobalt-60 source whose activity decays to the half every 5.2 years. The mechanism which provokes a diminution of the hemicelluose losing can be due to: modifications of the final reducing groups by oxidation that produces aldonic acids or by cross-linkings hemicellulose-hemicellulose or hemicellulose-lignin. The irradiated chips Kraft pulp is ground more rapidly than the control pulp; the differences in the explosion and tearing forces are very small and the pulps can be considered as equivalent regarding their physical properties for an interval of 70-100 Kappa. (author)

  17. ACCUMULATION OF ALKALIS IN THE RECYCLING FILTRATE OF THE PHOSPHOGYPSUM PULPS

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    ANTANAS KAZILIUNAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium and potassium combinations existing in phosphogypsum are highly soluble and remain in the filtrate, their amount increasing with each recycle. It has been determined that the amount of alkalis in the recycling filtrate depends on an amount of alkalis in uncleaned phosphogypsum, a number of recycles in the filtrate, the technology of the phosphogypsum pulp preparation and an amount of soluble phosphates. New phosphate formations composed in an acid medium (pH = 4.5-5 are well crystalized crystals. They do not alter the filtrability of the phosphogypsum pulp. The new combinations formed in an alkaline medium (pH = 7-11 are colloidal. They settle down on the surface of the hard particles and make the filtration of the phosphogypsum pulp complicated. The filtrated phosphogypsum is more humid which causes the growth of the amount of alkalis carried out together with moisture and thus the lower alkali concentration is observed in the recycling filtrate. In the discussed case, the larger amount of soluble phosphates of uncleaned phosphogypsum is formed the larger amount of the colloidal particles in the neutralized phosphogypsum pulp which results in complicated filtration. In all the cases, the alkali concentration in the recycling filtrate approaches the maximum degree which would take place if alkalis existing in uncleaned phosphogypsum were thawed in humidity of cleaned phosphogypsum.

  18. Effects of biological pre-treatment of pine chips on the beating performance of Kraft pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami IMAMOGLU; Celil ATIK

    2007-01-01

    The Calabrien pine (Pinus brutia ) wood chips prior to kraft pulping were biologically pre-treated with selected whiterot fungi ( Ceriporiopsis subvermispora ), which was recorded to be preferentially attacking the lignin component of the wood. The effects of this treatment on beating performance and physical strength of resultant papers were studied in detail. Bio-treated samples showed comparable and, in most cases, higher physico-mechanical properties than those obtained from untreated controls. Under the same beating conditions the bio-treated kraft pulp was noted to have the lower SR° indicating a lower degree of external fibrillation. The paper made from bio-treated kraft pulp has a higher density, tensile property, air permeability and swellability. Furthermore, remarkable energy savings up to 33 % were observed when beating bio-treated kraft pulp. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms taking place during bio-treatment and the modification processes of cell wall components.

  19. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  20. Investigation and modelling of release and transport processes of alkaline substances in high-pressure coal combustion processes. Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Freisetzungs- und Transportvorgaenge von Alkalien bei der Kohleverbrennung unter hohen Druecken. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S.; Mueller, C.; Murza, S.; Scheuer, S.; Mohr, M.

    2000-06-01

    On the basis of IWE and DMT-FuelTec measurements on the release of alkaline components in coal dust combustion processes, a model for mathematical description of these processes was developed at LEAT and was integrated in the LEAT CFD code LORA. This required extensive further development and enhancement of the basic program available at the beginning of the project, especially the parallelization of the Lagrangian particle trackings and the improvement and enhancement of the description of the chemical and physical particle reactions. As a comparison with measurements showed, this results in an acceptably accurate description of the processes. The results of the project were applied in further LEAT projects and were also supported by experimental projects, making use of synergies and achieving clear progress in the description of combustion systems. Further developments of the model components are already used in industrial applications. [German] Auf der Grundlage von bei IWE und DMT-FuelTec durchgefuehrten Messungen zur Freisetzung von Alkalikomponenten bei der Kohlenstaubverbrennung ist am LEAT ein Modellansatz zur mathematischen Beschreibung dieser Vorgaenge entwickelt und in den am LEAT entwickelten CFD-Code LORA integriert worden. Dazu war eine umfangreiche Weiterentwicklung und Ergaenzung des zu Projektbeginn vorhandenen Basisprogramms notwendig. Dies betraf vor allem die Parallelisierung des Lagrange'schen Partikeltrackings und die Verbresserung bzw. Erweiterung der Beschreibung der chemischen und physikalischen Partikelreaktionen. Wie der Vergleich mit Messungen zeigt [9, 36], ist damit eine brauchbare Beschreibung der Vorgaenge moeglich. Die in diesem theoretisch orientierten Projekt erarbeiteten Ergebnisse sind sowohl in weitere Projekte des LEAT eingeflossen, als auch durch andere, experimentell ausgerichtete Projekte unterstuetzt worden. Insgesamt wurden dadurch Synergien genutzt und ein deutlicher Fortschritt bei der Beschreibung entsprechender

  1. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN IN POPLAR APMP PULPS TO PREVENT LIGHT INDUCED YELLOWING%木质素化学改性抑制杨木碱性过氧化氢机械浆返色的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房桂干; Alain,C

    2000-01-01

    中试系统制备了杨木碱性过氧化氢机械浆.分别在水相/有机溶剂相/气相等条件下,使用乙酐处理杨木化机浆(原浆及硼氢化钠还原后纸浆),分别抄造成60g/m 2纸片,测定了不同时间紫外线照射后试样白度.运用返色值(PC no.)和白度稳定效果(BSE) 等指标评价处理后浆料的光学稳定性.研究结果表明,有机溶剂相和气相乙酰化后的纸浆 ,光学稳定性的提高程度取决于乙酐用量和反应时间即乙酰化程度.通过乙酰化,可以获取光学完全稳定的杨木化机浆.紫外漫射反射光谱表明,杨木APMP机械浆光诱导返色的主要原因是纸浆木质素中羰基和酚羟基团吸收紫外光后变化形成发色结构所致.还原配合纸浆乙酰化处理, 可能成为防止高得率纸浆返色的工业应用方法.%Different brightness level s of poplar APMP pulps were prepared in a pilot scale system by alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, Un-treated and reduced pulps(borohydride reduction)were modified by acetic anhydride under different conditions, such as in aqueous, organic solvents and gaseous phases.The brightness of pulps before and after UV-light exposure for different periods were measured on handsheets, post-colour number and BSE (brightness stabilizing effect)were used to evaluate the photo -stability of the treated pulps. The results show that, both gaseous and organic phase acetylations improve pulps brightness stability more or less depending on am ount of acetic anhydride applied and reaction time I. E. Degree of acetylation. Co mpletely stabilized pulps were obtained by thorough acetylation.Form UV diffuse reflectance spectra, it seems that carbonyl and phenolic groups mainly contribute to the light-induced yellowing of poplar APMP. Sodium borohydride/so dium bisulfite mixture treatment of pulps followed by gaseous phase acetylation on paper sheet was proposed to be one of the practical process for yellowing inhibition of

  2. The effect of wood supply and bleaching process on pulp brightness stability O efeito do tipo de madeira e do processo de branqueamento na estabilidade da alvura da polpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romildo Lopes Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred different 5.5-year-old Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla wood clones were cooked to kappa number 15-17.5 and the resulting kraft pulps oxygen-delignified to kappa 9.5-11.5 under fixed conditions, except for chemical charges. Thirteen samples showing large variations in effective alkali requirement, pulp yield and O-stage efficiency and selectivity were selected for brightness reversion studies. These samples were bleached to 90-91% ISO by DEDD and DEDP sequences and their brightness stability and chemical characteristics determined. Heat reversion of the eucalyptus kraft pulps was strongly influenced by the wood supply, with brightness loss varying in the range of 2.1-3.6 and 0.8-1.7 %ISO for ODEDD and ODEDP bleached pulps, respectively. Pulps bleached by the ODEDP sequence showed reversion values 1.3-1.9 % ISO lower than those bleached by the ODEDD sequence. Pulp carbonyl content decreased by 35-40% during the final peroxide bleaching stage. Carbonyl and carboxyl groups correlated positively with brightness reversion, as did permanganate number and acid soluble lignin. Pulp final viscosity and metal and DCM extractives contents showed no significant correlation with brightness reversion. Pulping, oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching performances also showed no correlation with brightness reversion.Madeiras de 100 diferentes clones de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla, com aproximadamente 5,5 anos de idade, foram cozidas ao número kappa 15-17,5. As polpas kraft produzidas foram pré-deslignificadas com oxigênio ao número kappa 9,5-11,5, sob condições fixas. Treze polpas, que mostraram grandes variações na exigência da carga de álcali efetivo e rendimento no processo de polpação, seletividade e eficiência no estágio de Pré-O, foram selecionadas e branqueadas à alvura DE 90-91% ISO pelas seqüências DEDD e DEDP, para estudos de estabilidade de alvura e características químicas. A reversão de

  3. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Mun Yun

    Full Text Available Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs and polycaprolactone (PCL, and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin, and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3 and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.

  4. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-joo; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-cheol

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and polycaprolactone (PCL), and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt) supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin), and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3) and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering. PMID:26382272

  5. Role of MSX1 in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Goto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1 encodes a transcription factor implicated in embryonic development of limbs and craniofacial tissues including bone and teeth. Although MSX1 regulates osteoblast differentiation in the cranial bone of young animal, little is known about the contribution of MSX1 to the osteogenic potential of human cells. In the present study, we investigate the role of MSX1 in osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells isolated from deciduous teeth. When these cells were exposed to osteogenesis-induction medium, runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, alkaline phosphatase (ALPL, and osteocalcin (OCN mRNA levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, increased on days 4–12, and thereafter the matrix was calcified on day 14. However, knockdown of MSX1 with small interfering RNA abolished the induction of the osteoblast-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcification. Interestingly, DNA microarray and PCR analyses revealed that MSX1 knockdown induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2 transcriptional factor and its downstream target genes in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis enhances osteoblast differentiation of various mesenchymal cells. Thus, MSX1 may downregulate the cholesterol synthesis-related genes to ensure osteoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

  6. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  7. On the beating of reinforcement pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Eero

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the effect of reinforcement pulp beating on the strength of mechanical pulp-dominated paper. The main purpose of reinforcement pulp beating is to improve the runnability of paper. The first objective of this study was to maximize the runnability related strength properties by beating. It was assumed that the flaw-resisting ability of paper correlates with the runnability of the dry paper web. In-plane fracture properties were assumed ...

  8. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  9. SEM evaluation of pulp reaction to different pulp capping materials in dog’s teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation evaluates the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) as pulp capping materials on dental pulp tissues. Materials and Methods: The experimental procedures were performed on eighteen intact dog canine teeth. The pulps were exposed. Cavities were randomly filled with CEM, MTA, or CH followed by glass ionomer filling. After 2 months, animals were sacrificed, each tooth was sectioned into halves, and t...

  10. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  11. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  12. MODIFIED OPAL:A NOVEL STABILIZER FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueren Qian; Xianhui An; Wenbo Liu; Gang Yu; Zhanqian Song

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of modified opal as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching was investigated. The results showed that the modified opal in place of sodium silicate as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching is feasible. At the same dosage, above 3% ISO can be increased for both wheat straw pulp and deinked pulp. The stabilizing ability of the modified opal to hydrogen peroxide bleaching of pulp is improved markedly. It is favorable for bleaching to increase temperature and time within a permissive extent. The suitable process conditions are 10% of pulp consistency, 3% of hydrogen peroxide, 1.5% of sodium hydroxide, 3% of the modified opal, 70℃ and 60 min when the modified opal is used as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. At these conditions, the brightness gain can reach about 16% ISO for wheat straw pulp. In addition, it is favorable for bleaching to add a little magnesium sulfate when the modified opal is used as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, the brightness of pulp can increase I%ISO if0.05% of magnesium sulfate is added. The cost analysis indicated that the modified opal is superior to sodium silicate as the stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide bleaching in economical aspect and has further the potential of market development.

  13. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinet, C; Guichard, E; Fournier, N; Ducruet, V

    2007-10-01

    Release of aroma compounds in orange juice according to pulp content and pasteurization was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-SPME-GC-olfactometry, and by the determination of partition coefficients of aroma compounds between the juice and the headspace. Orange juices with 12% and 6% pulp contents were collected from a processing line before and after pasteurization. HS-SPME revealed that the 6% pulp juice was the most affected by pasteurization, with an increase in the release of several aroma compounds that are generated by heat treatment (that is, alpha- and beta-terpinéol) and a decrease in the release of compounds sensitive to pasteurization (that is, neral and geranial). Principal component analysis of olfactometric data allowed discriminating fresh and pasteurized juices, regardless of the pulp content. The determination of the gas/liquid partition coefficients by the phase ratio variation method was possible for 7 aroma compounds. For the most hydrophobic ones, the release of aroma compounds in fresh juices was higher in the 6% pulp juice than in the 12% pulp juice. However, in pasteurized juices, the difference between their partition coefficients was less marked. Potential interactions between cloud proteins and hydrophobic aroma compounds may explain this phenomenon.

  14. BMP7 transfection induces in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Po John Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells can be induced by transient transfection with the gene encoding human bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7. Materials and Methods: A mesenchymal stem cell population was isolated from the dental pulp of two extracted permanent premolars, expanded and characterized. The human BMP7 gene, as a recombinant pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-BMP7 plasmid, was transfected into the cells. Three negative controls were used: No plasmid, empty vector, and an unrelated vector encoding green fluorescent protein. After the interval of 24 and 48 h, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as markers of in-vitro osteogenic differentiation were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and standardized against β-actin mRNA levels. Results: The level of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 48 h after transfection (706.9 vs. 11.24 for untransfected cells, 78.05 for empty vector, and 73.10 for green fluorescent protein vector. The level of osteocalcin mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 24 h after transfection (1.0, however, decreased after another 24 h. Conclusions: In-vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, can be induced by transient transfection with the BMP7 gene.

  15. 某低品位铜钼矿低碱度浮选工艺研究%Investigation on the Low Alkalinity Flotation Process for a Low Grade Copper-Molybdenum Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 孙春宝; 刘洪均; 谷志君; 米丽平; 王越

    2011-01-01

    Low alkalinity flotation process is made on a low-grade porphyry Cu-Mo ore samples. In bulk flotation stage of copper-molybdenum, high quality combining inhibitors CS were adopted to separate copper and sulfur at low alkalinity ( pH = 7 ~ 8 ), with a higher recovery rate of associated molybdenum achieved. In Cu-Mo separation flotation stage, the new inhibitor BK510 instead of Na2S was adopted to realize the inhibition of high content of secondary copper. A good Cu-Mo separation effect was achieved at low alkalinity ( pH = 8 ~ 9 ). In closed-circuit laboratory tests, molybdenum concentrate with molybdenum grade of 46.21% and recovery of 84.01%, and copper concentrate with copper grade of 24.61% and recovery of 89.25% were obtained.%针对某低品位斑岩铜钼矿矿样进行了低碱度浮选工艺研究.铜钼混合浮选阶段采用高效组合抑制剂CS,在低碱度(pH=7~8)条件下实现了铜、硫分离,伴生金属钼取得了较高的回收率;铜钼分离浮选阶段采用新型抑制剂BK510替代Na2S抑制含量较高的次生铜,在低碱度(pH=8~9)条件下取得了较好的铜钼分离效果.实验室闭路试验获得了钼品位46.21%,钼回收率84.01%的钼精矿和铜品位24.61%,铜回收率89.25%的铜精矿.

  16. PEROXYACID ENHANCED OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION OF KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhao; XuezhiLi; ShulanShi; HuirenHu

    2004-01-01

    Effect of peroxyacid (a mixture ofperoxymonosulfuric acid and peroxyacetic acid)pretreatment on oxygen delignification of kraft pulpfrom eucalyptus was studied, and the conditions ofpretreatment (e.g. DTPA charge, peroxyacid charge,pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature and pHvalue) were optimized. The results show thatperoxyacid pretreatment prior to oxygendelignification could enhance oxygen delignificationof kraft pulp, and result in selective delignificationand increased delignified-pulp brightness. Theoptimum conditions of peroxyacid pretreatment wereas follows: peroxyacid charge 3% (onperoxymonosulfuric acid), 60~C, 30min, 12% pulpconsistency, pH5.0. Pretreatment with 0.5%DTPAwas essential before peroxyacid pretreatment. Underthe optimum conditions, the degree of delignificationand brightness of final pulp were increased by 12.4%(from 44.9% to 57.3%) and 4.9%(ISO, from 54.0%to 58.9%) respectively while maintaining a similarviscosity of final pulps compared to single oxygendelignification.

  17. Chitosan-collagen biomembrane embedded with calcium-aluminate enhances dentinogenic potential of pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Rosseto, Hebert Luís; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Scheffel, Débora Salles; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The development of biomaterials capable of driving dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells able to secrete reparative dentin is the goal of current conservative dentistry. In the present investigation, a biomembrane (BM) composed of a chitosan/collagen matrix embedded with calcium-aluminate microparticles was tested. The BM was produced by mixing collagen gel with a chitosan solution (2:1), and then adding bioactive calcium-aluminate cement as the mineral phase. An inert material (polystyrene) was used as the negative control. Human dental pulp cells were seeded onto the surface of certain materials, and the cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell proliferation and cell morphology, assessed after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days in culture. The odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total protein production, gene expression of DMP-1/DSPP and mineralized nodule deposition. The pulp cells were able to attach onto the BM surface and spread, displaying a faster proliferative rate at initial periods than that of the control cells. The BM also acted on the cells to induce more intense ALP activity, protein production at 14 days, and higher gene expression of DSPP and DMP-1 at 28 days, leading to the deposition of about five times more mineralized matrix than the cells in the control group. Therefore, the experimental biomembrane induced the differentiation of pulp cells into odontoblast-like cells featuring a highly secretory phenotype. This innovative bioactive material can drive other protocols for dental pulp exposure treatment by inducing the regeneration of dentin tissue mediated by resident cells. PMID:27119587

  18. Chitosan-collagen biomembrane embedded with calcium-aluminate enhances dentinogenic potential of pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gabriela SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of biomaterials capable of driving dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells able to secrete reparative dentin is the goal of current conservative dentistry. In the present investigation, a biomembrane (BM composed of a chitosan/collagen matrix embedded with calcium-aluminate microparticles was tested. The BM was produced by mixing collagen gel with a chitosan solution (2:1, and then adding bioactive calcium-aluminate cement as the mineral phase. An inert material (polystyrene was used as the negative control. Human dental pulp cells were seeded onto the surface of certain materials, and the cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell proliferation and cell morphology, assessed after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days in culture. The odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, total protein production, gene expression of DMP-1/DSPP and mineralized nodule deposition. The pulp cells were able to attach onto the BM surface and spread, displaying a faster proliferative rate at initial periods than that of the control cells. The BM also acted on the cells to induce more intense ALP activity, protein production at 14 days, and higher gene expression of DSPP and DMP-1 at 28 days, leading to the deposition of about five times more mineralized matrix than the cells in the control group. Therefore, the experimental biomembrane induced the differentiation of pulp cells into odontoblast-like cells featuring a highly secretory phenotype. This innovative bioactive material can drive other protocols for dental pulp exposure treatment by inducing the regeneration of dentin tissue mediated by resident cells.

  19. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  20. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and

  1. Rheological evaluation of Prunus mume pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Quast

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviour of mume pulp at 6, 7, 8 and 9 °Brix was investigated using a rotational viscometer at temperatures ranging from 15 to 75 °C. The rheological models of Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-Waele (Power Law were fitted to obtain the rheological parameters of the mume pulp. The product was described as time non-dependent and presented a viscosity of 1.9 Pa.s at 15 °C and 1.1°Pa.s at 65 and 75 °C for the 9 °Brix pulp. The pulp showed non-Newtonian behaviour and the Herschel-Bulkley model was used to describe this behaviour. The activation energy ranged from 6.6-10.6 kJ.mol-1 and the consistency index from 18.0-22.9 Pa.s n for the 9 °Brix pulp and 8.3-12.2 Pa.s n for the 8 °Brix pulp at temperatures varying from 15 to 75 °C. The models presented high correlation values for all the rheological data obtained in the present work.

  2. Effect of solids on pulp and froth properties in flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜

    2014-01-01

    Froth flotation is a widely used process of particle separation exploiting differences in surface properties. It is important to point out that overall flotation performance (grade and recovery) is a consequence of the quality and quantity of the solid particles collected from the pulp phase, transported into the froth phase, and surviving as bubble-particle aggregates into the overflow. This work will focus on studying these phenomena and will incorporate the effects of particle hydrophobicities in the 3-phase system. Solids are classed as either hydrophilic non-sulphide gangue (e.g. silica, talc), hydrophilic sulphide (e.g. pyrite), or hydrophobic sulphide (e.g. sphalerite). Talc is a surface-active species of gangue that has been shown to behave differently from silica (frother adsorbs on the surface of talc particles). Both are common components of ores and will be studied in detail. The focus of this work is to investigate the role of solids on pulp hydrodynamics, froth bubble coalescence intensity, water overflow rate with solids present, and in particular, the interactions between solids, frother and gas on the gas dispersion parameters. The results show that in the pulp zone there is no effect of solids on bubble size and gas holdup;in the froth zone, although hydrophilic particles solely do not effect on the water overflow rate, hydrophobic particles produce higher intensity of rates on water overflow and bubble coalescence, and many be attributed to the water reattachment.

  3. DESIDRATAÇÃO DA POLPA DE ACEROLA (Malpighia emarginata D.C. PELO PROCESSO "FOAM-MAT" DEHYDRATION OF ACEROLA PULP (Malpighia emarginata D.C. BY FOAM-MAT DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Costa SOARES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi elaborado um suplemento alimentar em pó, a partir da desidratação da polpa de frutos de acerola utilizando o método "FOAM-MAT". Vários testes utilizando diferentes agentes químicos, que favorecem à formação da espuma, foram realizados, tendo sido escolhido o experimento que mais se ajustou ao parâmetro de densidade recomendado como ideal (0,1 a 0,6. Na condição experimental definida, a polpa foi formulada e desidratrada em estufa de secagem com circulação de ar, a uma temperatura de 60 a 70°C, por 90 minutos, obtendo-se um produto em pó, com umidade final de 7,2%. Em paralelo ao experimento, foi efetuada uma caracterização química da polpa de acerola. O produto em pó obtido, foi embalado em sacos metalizados de 25 gramas e submetido a um estudo de estabilidade por 3 meses. Os resultados encontrados, mostraram que o produto elaborado apresentou elevado teor de vitamina C, em um nível 10 vezes maior do que na polpa integral.A food supplement from dehydrated pulp using a non-conventional method of FOAM-MAT was produced. Several tests have been accomplished using different chemical agents to facilitate the foam formation, and an experiment has been chosen that most adjusted to the recommended density parameter (0.1 to 0.6. After the definition of the experimental conditions, the pulp was formulated and dehydrated in a drying hot-house with air circulation at a temperature of 60 to 70°C for 90 minutes. The product obtained was a powder with final humidity of 7.2%. Concomitant to the experiment the chemical analysis of the pulp had been accomplished. The obtained powder was immediately afterwards analysed with the purpose of identifying the new characteristics of the product and packed in 25g metalized bags and submitted to stability studies for a period of 3 months. Analysis of the results obtained showed that there was an increase in the basic nutrients mainly regarding to the content of vitamin C that showed an increase 10

  4. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys. PMID:26777778

  5. Application of xylanases from Amazon Forest fungal species in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Garcia Medeiros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude xylanase preparations from Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were used to treat Eucalyptus kraft pulp, prior to chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences. The enzyme pretreatment improved brightness and delignification of non-delignified and oxygen-bleached samples of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Xylanase preparations from T. longibrachiatum and P. corylophilum were more effective to reduce pulp kappa number. A small reduction in viscosity was obtained when the oxygen-bleached pulp was treated with xylanase preparation from A. niger. For all enzyme samples, the best release of chromophoric material from the pulp was at 237 nm. The enzyme preparation from P. corylophilum was responsible for the highest release of reducing sugar at a dosage interval of 10-20 IU/g dry weight pulp. Scanning electron microscopy studies of oxygen-bleached pulp after xylanase treatment revealed morphological changes, including holes, cracks, filament forming and peeling.Amostras de xilanases de extratos brutos de Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger e Trichoderma longibrachiatum foram utilizadas no branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto antes das seqüências alcalina e dióxido de cloro. O pré-tratamento enzimático melhorou a alvura e o processo de deslignificação de amostras de polpa kraft de eucalipto não-tratada e tratada com oxigênio. Amostras de xilanases de T. longibrachiatum e P. corylophilum foram mais efetivas na redução do número kappa da polpa. A polpa tratada com oxigênio sofreu uma pequena redução na sua viscosidade quando incubada com amostra de xilanase de A. niger. Para todas as amostras de xilanases, a maior liberação de cromóforos da polpa foi a 237 nm. A amostra de xilanase de P. corylophilum liberou maior quantidade de açúcar redutor da polpa, utilizando dosagem de 10-20 UI/g de peso seco da polpa. Estudos de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram várias altera

  6. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  7. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

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    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  8. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  9. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  10. 锅炉设备碱性腐蚀原因分析及水处理工艺改进%Analysis on the causes of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion and improvements on water treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 霍文敏; 陆明

    2013-01-01

    锅炉的碱性腐蚀经常被人们所忽视,但其造成的后果往往是非常严重的,轻则造成爆管导致停产,重则会威胁到操作人员的人身安全.传统的锅炉水处理方法虽然价格低廉,但其存在先天的不足,在一定条件下无法阻止碱性腐蚀的发生.而近些年逐渐产生的锅炉水处理工艺及与其配套的有机锅炉水处理药剂则全方面改进了传统锅炉水处理方法的不足,并在现场应用中收到了良好的效果.%The problem of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion has always been neglected,resulting in serious consequence.It causes the burst of pipes leading to suspending operations,or threaten the safety of the operation staff.Although the price for traditional water treatment process is low,it has congenitally deficiency.It can not prevent the happening of alkaline corrosion under certain conditions.However,nowadays,some new boiler water treatment processes and organic boiler water treatment agents that go with the process can improve the deficiency of traditional boiler water treatment methods.It has been used in field application and received good effects.

  11. 溶解浆研究进展及发展前景%Research Progress and Development Prospects of Dissolving Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓娟; 曹石林; 罗小林; 陈礼辉; 黄六莲

    2013-01-01

    溶解浆是一种高纯度的化学浆,是黏胶纤维的主要生产原料.文章介绍了溶解浆的制备方法,包括预水解硫酸盐法、酸性亚硫酸盐法、有机溶剂法以及直接处理化学浆法,评价了不同制备方法所得溶解浆的性质,分析了溶解浆制备和生产过程中面临的关键技术问题,提出了解决方案,并对溶解浆厂实现生物质精炼模式的前景进行了展望.%Dissolving pulp is the most important raw material for viscose production in the textile field.This paper summarized the manufacture processes of dissolving pulp,e.g,prehydrolysis-kraft pulping,sulfite pulping,solvent pulping and chemical treatment of paper grade pulp.The properties of dissolving pulps from each method were discussed and evaluated.Besides,the key technologies related to dissolving pulp manufacture were addressed; some solutions were also suggested.Finally the authors forecasted the promising future of dissolving pulp manufacture based on the biorefinery mode.

  12. IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Ko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REACTIVITY OF PULP INTENDED FOR HIGH-VISCOSITY VISCOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ostberg,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to reduce the consumption of C2S when preparing high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating two softwood pulps with enzymes prior to the viscose stages. Reactivity was evaluated in two ways, Fock´s test of the pulp and the gamma number of the viscose solution prior to regeneration. Whilst the reactivity of a pulp that had been subjected to enzyme pretreatment increased according to Fock´s test, it did not increase according to the gamma number. This unexpected difference between the two reactivity tests was investigated. It was concluded that Fock´s test measures the extent to which C2S reacts with a pulp sample during a standardized test, whereas the gamma number measures the resulting degree of xanthate substitution on the cellulose backbone. The gamma number was judged to be the more relevant of the two tests, since it reflects the dissolution ability of a pulp in the viscose preparation. A higher gamma number also means that the coagulation time in the spinning process is prolonged; this is beneficial, as it can be used to increase the tenacity of the viscose fibres. Measuring the reactivity according to Fock´s test, on the contrary, provides more dubious results, as the test has no undisputed correlation to the viscose preparation process.

  14. Papue New Guinea hardwoods: future source of raw material for pulping and papermaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, F.H.; Logan, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sample mixtures of tropical hardwoods from forests in Papue New Guinea were readily pulped and gave satisfactory yields by the sulphate process but not by the NSSC process. The pulping properties are described of five species that are being considered for reforestation programs viz. Eucalyptus deglupta, Terminalia brassii, Acacia auriculiformis, Gmelina arborea and Albizia falcataria. Potential problems are briefly discussed in relation to heterogeneity and defects in the mixtures, chip storage, digestor production efficiency, whole-tree utilization, vessel-picking and other surface properties of paper, and black liquor properties.

  15. Papua New Guinea hardwoods: future source of raw material for pulping and papermaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, F.H.; Logan, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sample mixtures of tropical hardwoods from forests in Papua New Guinea were readily pulped and gave satisfactory yields by the sulphate process but not by the NSSC process. The pulping properties are described of five species that are being considered for reforestation programs viz. Eucalyptus deglupta, Terminalia brassii, Acacia auriculiformis, Gmelina arborea and Albizia falcataria. Potential problems are briefly discussed in relation to heterogeneity and defects in the mixtures, chip storage, digestor production efficiency, whole-tree utilization, vessel-picking and other surface properties of paper, and black liquor properties.

  16. Stereological Analysis of the Dental Pulp in Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse effects of periodontitis on dental pulp have long been argued. The purpose of this study was to investigate stereological indices of dental pulp in patients with advanced periodontitis compared with healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 15 single-rooted permanent teeth of patients with advanced periodontal diseases and that of people with healthy periodontium, as control group, were investigated. All teeth were intact, and without filling and decay. After tissue processing, longitudinal serial sections of the tooth were prepared and stained by Masson’s trichrome. A grid containing organized points superimposed on the images of each section randomly. Then, the points hit with each subject were counted. The volume of pulp and its components in both groups were estimated, using Cavalieri’s principle. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The significance level was considered as p<0.05.Results: No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of inflammation and calcification intensity (p<0.05. Microscopic evaluations of tissue sections showed significant increase in predentin thickness in periodontitis group than control group (p<0.05. In addition, statistically significant reduction was observed in periodontitis group with respect to pulp absolute volume, volume density, odontoblastic layer absolute volume, collagen fibers absolute volume, and absolute pulp blood vessels volume, compared with control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Results showed periodontal disease affects stereological parameters of pulp. Because of reduction of pulp volume and narrowing of root canal, precise diagnostic and therapeutic considerations are recommended during treatment of those teeth.

  17. Analysis of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide reduction in the Chinese pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulp and paper production, an energy-intensive process, is among the main light industries contributing to energy saving and pollution emission reduction in China. The improvement of energy efficiency is essential for energy consumption and sustainable development. This study analyzes the negative factors in the pulp and paper sector by calculating energy efficiency from the lengthways time and investigating the gap between China and foreign countries through a horizontal comparison. Accordingly, energy efficiency has increased in the Chinese pulp and paper industry with years of efforts, but its transformation remains unclear. Furthermore, the energy-saving potential, energy cost saving, and carbon dioxide emission reduction in the pulp and paper industry are evaluated according to the Twelfth Five-year Plan (2011–2015). The results show that the pulp and paper industry has further capabilities for energy-saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction by improving energy efficiency in China, resulting in great economic benefit. In brief, new technology and energy structure adjustment are long-term strategies for energy conversation, with changes in the scale of mills expected to provide huge opportunities to improve energy efficiency in China within a short period. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry changes markedly from 1985 to 2010. • This paper will identify better opportunities for energy conservation in China. • This paper will also confirm better opportunities for CO2 emission mitigation. • The negative factors do exist in the pulp and paper sector. • Energy efficient policies are suggested, especially in short term

  18. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  19. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. PMID:26686478

  20. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent.

  1. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  2. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  3. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  4. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagenetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1993-07-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, USA) is unlike that of most marine and other lacustrine rocks. Distinctive chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides strikingly enriched in 34S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and δ 34S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in δ 34S values. Analyses that identified and quantified these characteristics include carbonate-free abundance of organic carbon (0.13-47 wt%), total iron (0.31-13 wt%), reactive iron (>70% of total iron), total sulfur (0.02-16 wt%), acid-volatile monosulfide (S Av), disulfide (S Di > 70% of total sulfur), sulfate (S SO4) and organosulfur (S Org); isotopic composition of separated sulfur phases (δ 34S Di,Av up to +49‰); and mineralogy, morphology and paragenesis of sulfide minerals. Mineralogy, morphology, δ 34S Di,Av, and δ 34S Org have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H 2S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H 2S:SO 4 ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H 2S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to δ 34S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is

  5. Hemograma, bioquímica sérica e histologia da biópsia hepática de bovinos após administração de polpa cítrica Hemogram, serum biochemistry and hepatic histologic features in cattle after administration of citrus pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.F. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemogram and serum biochemistry (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamiltransferase, total protein, urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus were performed weekly in five crossbreed bovine after consumption of a diet containing citrus pulp pellets (40%, for 43 days. Percutaneous hepatic biopsy and histologic evaluation were performed in each animal before and after consumption of the citrus pulp diet. Hemogram, the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamiltransferase, urea and creatinine had normal levels at the end of the experiment. No histologic lesions were observed in liver samples before or after citrus pulp consumption. However, there was an increase of serum phosphorus and reduction of serum calcium (p<0.05, without hypercalcemia, after consumption of citrus pulp diet. There was also an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05, probably induced by bone isoenzyme.

  6. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  7. Laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and phenolic compounds: can the efficiency of an enzyme mediator for delignifying kenaf pulp be predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Terrén, Glòria; Vidal Lluciá, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In this work, kenaf pulp was delignified by using laccase in combination with various redox mediators and the efficiency of the different laccase–mediator systems assessed in terms of the changes in pulp properties after bleaching. The oxidative ability of the individual mediators used (acetosyringone, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and actovanillone) and the laccase–mediator systems was determined by monitoring the oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) during process. The results co...

  8. Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewaters from Pulp and Paper Mills : A Substantial Source for Biomethane Production in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry is the third largest exporter of pulp and paper products worldwide. It is a highly energy-demanding and water-utilising industry, which generates large volumes of wastewater rich in organic material. These organic materials are to different extents suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD) and production of energy-rich biomethane. The implementation of an AD process within the wastewater treatment plant of a mill would increase the treatment capacity and decrea...

  9. Optimization of Phenolic Antioxidant Extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) Pulp Using Random-Centroid Optimazation Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong (Bill) Yu; Hao Jing; Xia Wu

    2011-01-01

    The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield wer...

  10. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu{sup 2+} induced by non ionizing radiation; Procesos de formacion de defectos en halogenuros alcalinos contaminados con Eu{sup 2+} inducidos por radiacion no ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza M, M.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de la Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [UNISON, A.P. 1626, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers V{sub K} taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu{sup 2+}, mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f{sup 6}5d(t{sub 2g})-4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) of the ion Eu{sup 2+} characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and F{sub z} participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu{sup 2+}) and F{sub z} (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo

  11. RAT DENTAL PULP RESPONSE TO PROPOLIS AS A DIRECT PULP CAPPING AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sabir Ardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp capping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP). An occlusal cavity was prepared on the right maxillary first molar of Spraque-Dawley rats. The dental pulp was exposed and the lined with a zinc-oxide based filler as a control (group I), or with EEP (group II). Then, each cavity was filled with glass ionomer cement. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2, or 4. Biopsy samples were obtained, and these we...

  12. A New Technology for Treating Pulp Waste with Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaozhen; TIAN Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    New methods for both the treatment of pulp waste liquor called black liquor (BL) and the recovery of chemicals by using plasma,and the concentration of BL with the freezing technique were developed.The new methods aiming at the pilot plant scale are described and the experiments in a small-scale research facility for demonstration and test are presented.The energy consumption for treating waste liquid is 1 kg/kWh.Plasma processing can reduce the costs for treatment and eliminate pollution.

  13. THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

  14. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs, and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR. The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  15. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  16. A Novel Combinatorial Therapy With Pulp Stem Cells and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Total Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Takeuchi, Norio; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Ishizaka, Ryo; Utunomiya, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of pulp stem cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dog pulpectomized tooth yielded better effects than transplantation of G-CSF or pulp stem cells alone. The combinatorial trophic effects of pulp stem cells and G-CSF are of immediate utility for pulp/dentin regeneration, demonstrating the prerequisites of safety and efficacy critical for clinical applications.

  17. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  18. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  19. Effect of temperature in the transesterification of pulp oil from macauba fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Coimbra, Jane Selia dos Reis [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    An alternative to diesel from fossil fuels is the biodiesel, which is a renewable biofuel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with alcohols. The Macauba is a palm that grows in lower rainfall regimes and its fruits present two different oils, namely pulp oil and nut oil. The nut oil is rich in palmitic oil, valuable oil for cosmetic industry. The pulp oil is used mostly for soap production, and it is considered inadequate for biodiesel production mainly due to its acid value, usually higher than 1%. In this work, the pulp oil from Macauba fruit with acid value of 0.8% was evaluated for biodiesel production. The transesterification was performed using ethanol and methanol, both in a molar ratio to the oil of 6:1. The catalyst employed was the potassium hydroxide at 1 % in oil weigh. The reactions were performed at constant temperatures of 60, 50 and 40 deg C and the reaction time was 30 minutes. Past the reaction time, the mixture was neutralized using hydrochloric acid and it was settled by 24 hours. The lower phase contains glycerol, water and excess of alcohol. The excess of alcohol and water was removed and the glycerol was weighted in order to estimate conversion yield. The transesterification at 60 deg C produces emulsion not allowing phase separation. Conversion yields were 62.0 and 57,7% using methanol at 50 and 40 deg C, respectively. For ethanol, the conversion yields were only 51.1 and 9.48% at 50 and 40 deg C, respectively. The acid value in the upper phase increases with temperature. Higher acid values were verified when ethanol was used in the transesterification. Since the pulp oil from Macauba fruit presents reasonable acid value, deacidification technique should be considered for alkaline catalyst transesterification using both methanol and ethanol. (author)

  20. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Ferella; Ida De Michelis; Francesca Beolchini; Valentina Innocenzi; Francesco Vegliò

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values exp...

  1. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  2. Strength enhancement of fiber network by carboxymethyl cellulose during oxygen delignification of kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Kontturi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC on the fiber surface was applied during oxygen delignification to enhance the strength properties of softwood kraft pulp. Unlike many previous efforts, the focus was not set on the improvement of selectivity of oxygen delignification, i.e. retaining stable viscosity vs. decreasing kappa number. Instead, without an improved selectivity, handsheets from CMC-treated fibers exhibited a 15% improvement in tensile index and 25% improvement in tear index after a full bleaching sequence in comparison to the untreated reference pulp. Since it is demonstrated that the CMC addition can be incorporated as an integral step in the fiberline process, the method offers an effortless and viable option to produce pulp resulting in stronger paper products.

  3. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  4. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  5. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro; Fernando J. B. Gomes; José N. Floriani; Renato A. P. Damásio; Iara F. Demuner; Jorge L. Colodette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be expla...

  6. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage.

  7. Economic Aspects of Raw Material Inputs for SAQ Pulp Production at the Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Nagy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today at a time of global economic and financial crisis, timber industry in Slovakia, as well as other industry, is not just trying to look inside for company reserves in production processes, but also identifies new trends in production and its competitiveness in world markets. It is obvious that the pulp and paper industry needs to keep up the competitive pressure with new trends in efficient production, which is certainly linked to investments and their expected effects (capacitance, substitution, income effect. One of the key factors of economic efficiency of production of SAQ pulp is a complex issue of ensuring the required inputs.

  8. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic...... digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m...

  9. Dentin-pulp complex regeneration: from lab to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S R J; Berdal, A; Cooper, P R; Lumley, P J; Tomson, P L; Smith, A J

    2011-07-01

    Dentistry is entering an exciting era in which many of the advances in biotechnology offer opportunities for exploitation in novel and more effective therapies. Pulp healing is complex and dependent on the extent of injury, among many other factors. Many of the molecular and cellular processes involved in these healing events recapitulate developmental processes. The regulation of odontoblast activity is clearly central to pulp healing, and an understanding of the mechanisms involved in these processes is necessary to enable laboratory studies to be translated to clinic application. Transcriptome analysis has identified changes in many odontoblast genes during the life-cycle of this cell and its responses to injurious challenge. The p38 MAPKinase pathway appears to be central to the transcriptional control of odontoblasts and may provide a key target for therapeutic intervention. The many recent advances in knowledge of pulpal stem cells and molecular signaling molecules within the tooth, now provide exciting opportunities for clinical translation to novel therapies. Such translation will require the partnership of researchers and skilled clinicians who can effectively apply advances in knowledge to appropriate clinical cases and develop novel therapies which can be realistically introduced into the clinic.

  10. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Perin-Levasseur, Z.

    2005-07-01

    This yearly report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2005 and the work planned for 2006 within the framework of the Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry project. The results of investigations made at a large pulp and paper facility in Switzerland are presented and analysed. Data models of the steam and condensate networks and of the processes involved are examined. An additional model of the sulphur loop has been also elaborated. From this analysis, a list of required measurements has been developed. Several performance indicators have also been calculated: A systematic analysis method developed to identify sections where condensate could be recovered is discussed. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process is being developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirements of the process. Evaluating this minimum energy requirement from the data available is to be used to prepare definitions of the energy savings possible.

  11. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  12. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif; Estudio geoquimico de los procesos de interaccion agua-roca sobre sistemas goetermales de aguas alcalinas en granitoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Uague, E.; Auque Sanz, L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  13. Perawatan Indirect Pulp Capping pada Gigi Tetap Muda (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for young permanent teeth with deep carious lesion that on radiographic examination close to the pulp and without symptoms and sign of pulp degeneration are indirect pulp capping. The aim of this technique is to maintain pulp vitality. Material used for this treatment must be able to stimulate reparative dentin, such as calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide eugenol, glass ionomer cement and bonding agent. This paper reported indirect pulp capping on young permanent tooth with deep carious lesion. After 7 months of observation there was no symptom and on radiographic examination showed reparative dentin.

  14. HIGH CONSISTENCY PULPING OF OLD NEWSPRINT AND ITS FLOTATION PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhui Zhang; Menghua Qin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical effect on the pulping properties of the old newsprint was studied using a FORMAX Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper, and the flotation conditions such as velocity of air flow,air pressure and flotation time were also discussed with a FORMAX Deink Cell. The results show that sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide and deinking agent are the key factors in the chemical effect, and pulping consistency is more important than pulping time and rotation speed in the mechanical effect during the high consistency pulping of the ONP. In general, the chemical effect has a greater influence on the deinked pulp properties than the mechanical effect.

  15. HIGH CONSISTENCY PULPING OF OLD NEWSPRINT AND ITS FLOTATION PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunhuiZhang; MenghuaQin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical effect on the pulping properties of the old newsprint was studied using a FORMAX Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper, and the flotation conditions such as velocity of air flow, air pressure and flotation time were also discussed with a FORMAX Deink Cell The results show that sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide and deinking agent are the key factors in the chemical effect, and pulping consistency is more important than pulping time and rotation speed in the mechanical effect during the high consistency pulping of the ONP. In general, the chemical effect has a greater influence on the deinked pulp properties than the mechanical effect.

  16. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kim; Su-Jung Shin; Yunjung Song; Euiseong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review artic...

  17. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  18. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljajić Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  19. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  20. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus PULP AND NANOFIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jonoobi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone and three-stage bleaching (DEpD processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high-pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the studies showed that the isolated nanofibers from unbleached and bleached pulp had diameters between 10-90 nm, while their length was in the micrometer range. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased in the pulping process and that lignin was almost completely removed during bleaching. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that both pulp types as well as the nanofibers displayed a superior thermal stability as compared to the raw kenaf. Finally, X-ray analyses showed that the chemo-mechanical treatments altered the crystallinity of the pulp and the nanofibers: the bleached pulp had a higher crystallinity than its unbleached counterpart, and the bleached nanofibers presented the highest crystallinity of all the investigated materials.

  2. Enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation by AdShh-transfected human dental pulp cells and porous calcium phosphate cement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunguo Xia

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs and the potential of complexes with Shh gene modified hDPCs and porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC for mineralized tissue formation. hDPCs were cultured and transfected with adenoviral mediated human Shh gene (AdShh. Overexpression of Shh and cell proliferation was tested by real-time PCR analysis, western blotting analysis, and MTT analysis, respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and real-time PCR analysis on markers of Patched-1 (Ptc-1, Smoothened (Smo, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3, osteocalcin (OCN, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP. Finally, AdShh-transfected hDPCs were combined with porous CPC and placed subcutaneously in nude mice for 8 and 12 weeks, while AdEGFP-transfected and untransfected hDPCs were treated as control groups. Results indicated that Shh could promote proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, while Shh/Gli 1 signaling pathway played a key role in this process. Importantly, more mineralized tissue formation was observed in combination with AdShh transfected hDPCs and porous CPC, moreover, the mineralized tissue exhibited dentin-like features such as structures similar to dentin-pulp complex and the positive staining for DSPP protein similar to the tooth tissue. These results suggested that the constructs with AdShh-transfected hDPCs and porous CPC might be a better alternative for dental tissue regeneration.

  3. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STABILIZERS ON ALKALINE H2O2 BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeihongNiu; ShulanShi; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a new stabilizer of H2O2 bleaching and compares the stabilizing effect of the new stabilizer with that of Na2SiO3. The results show that the new stabilizer is better than the conventional Na2SiO3. The optimum conditions of the stable latterprocess bleaching of H2O2 as follow: NaOH 3%,MgSO4 0.05%, H2O2 3%, stabilizer 3%, temperature80℃, concentration 12%, time 3h.

  4. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  5. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  6. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  8. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh [NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO{sub 4} . 7H{sub 2}O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  9. Life Cycle Analysis of Tissue Paper Manufacturing From Virgin Pulp or Recycled Waste Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masternak-Janus Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of two production processes of tissue paper using virgin pulp (virgin fiber or waste paper pulp (recycled fiber. This comparison is based on the materials and energy used as well as emissions and waste resulting from the production of tissue paper. Life cycle assessment (LCA, ReCiPe method, was chosen as the analysis tool. The results of the research proved that electricity has the most considerable participation in the overall environmental impacts in both production processes, followed by either virgin pulp or heat. Consequently, these two production processes are the greatest contributors to the following midpoint environmental impact categories: human toxicity, climate change, human health and ecosystems, and fossil depletion. The analysis based on endpoint impact categories proved that the production process based on waste paper is more environmentally friendly than the one based on virgin pulp in all impact categories: human health, ecosystems, resources. This is largely because of its lower material and energy requirements in the entire life cycle. Due to the fact that the tissue paper is the final use of fiber, using recycled waste paper is strongly recommended. The obtained research results are a valuable source of management information for the decision makers at both company and national levels required to improve the environmental performance of tissue paper production.

  10. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  11. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  12. Nerve Growth Factor Secretion From Pulp Fibroblasts is Modulated by Complement C5a Receptor and Implied in Neurite Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmilewsky, Fanny; Ayaz, Warda; Appiah, James; About, Imad; Chung, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of sensory innervation in tooth vitality, the identification of signals that control nerve regeneration and the cellular events they induce is essential. Previous studies demonstrated that the complement system, a major component of innate immunity and inflammation, is activated at the injured site of human carious teeth and plays an important role in dental-pulp regeneration via interaction of the active Complement C5a fragment with pulp progenitor cells. In this study, we further determined the role of the active fragment complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in dental nerve regeneration in regards to local secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) upon carious injury. Using ELISA and AXIS co-culture systems, we demonstrate that C5aR is critically implicated in the modulation of NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The NGF secretion by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts, which is negatively regulated by C5aR activation, has a role in the control of the neurite outgrowth length in our axon regeneration analysis. Our data provide a scientific step forward that can guide development of future therapeutic tools for innovative and incipient interventions targeting the dentin-pulp regeneration process by linking the neurite outgrowth to human pulp fibroblast through complement system activation. PMID:27539194

  13. The importance of monitoring the identity and quality standards in fruit pulp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Marinho de Oliveira Moura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in consumption of fruits and their derivatives, it is necessary to invest in operations aimed at their use, minimizing the pre and post-harvest losses, due to its high perishability. The fruit processing pulp is a widely used technique because much of the population seeking convenience and a healthier diet, in addition to increase the product shelf life and can provide it to distant regions and periods off season. This study evaluated physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, in three consecutive months, 17 flavors of fruit pulp of a manufacturing company in order to use the final product control as a means to identify control gaps present in the acquisition of raw materials as well as during processing steps and packaging. It was noticed that about 60% of all pulps were unfit for human consumption, with the highest percentage in the physicochemical analysis (45%, followed by microbiological (30%. In the microbiological characteristics, the large amount of molds and yeasts suggest failure through cleaning and sanitizing fruits and in the processing area. For the physicochemical analysis, pH and total soluble solids content were the most alarming, verifying the possibility of water adittion (illegal and acidulant excess, which causes the pulp loses its fruit identity. The most problematic fruits were pineapple, prune, cajá, cashew, graviola, guava and passion fruit. The control of the final product proved essential to the company's quality assurance.

  14. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE BY ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SUBTILIS ASH AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOBLEACHING OF KRAFT PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwani Sanghi; Neelam Garg; Kalika Kuhar; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Gupta, Vijay K

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports high level production of a cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran, a cost-effective substrate, under submerged fermentation by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ASH. Production of xylanase was observed even at alkaline pH up to 11.0 and temperature 60 °C, although the highest enzyme titer was recorded at neutral pH and 37 °C. The enzyme production under optimized fermentation was 1.5-fold greater than under unoptimized conditions. Pre-treatment of unbleached pulp of 10% cons...

  15. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezić, Tonči; Oros, Damir; Marković, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  16. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  17. >Effect of progesterone hormon on cell viability and stem cell activation in dental pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segah Altuntaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The vitality of the dentin structure, both during health and after injury, depends on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes that regulate the cell’s behavior. Dental pulp tissue has condensed stem cell activity. Dental pulp stem cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Several publications have stressed the importance of the expression of pluripotentiality associated markers: the transcription factors Nanog, Sox2, Oct3/4, SSEA4, CD13, Stro1 are indispensable for the stem cells to divide indefinitely without affecting their differentiation potential (self renewal capacity. Progesterone is a steroid hormone leading to menstrual cycle and gestation. There is a widespread rumor among people that pregnancy causes toothy loss. Method: So, progesterone was applied in different concentrations on human dental pulp cells in cell culture. Cell viability assay was applied 24th hour later with trypan blue. RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and Real Time PCR analysis were applied on selected transcription factors (Nanog and Oct4 (POU5F1 genes which have role on steamness of stem cells. Gene expression analyses results were correlated with the cell viability assay results. Results: Cell viability assay results were 80% viable in control, 82% viable in 7 ml progesterone application, 81% viable in 14 ml progesterone application, 83% viable in 21 ml progesterone application. Due to our findings, progesterone in different concentrations did not chance the cell viability in dental pulpa cells. On gene expression analyses, preliminary results supported that high concentrations of progesterone enhance the gene expressions of steamness genes (Nanog, and Oct4 in dental pulp cells. Conclusions: So, progesterone did not change cell viability in high concentrations. We

  18. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  19. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9. PMID:18814290

  20. 碱性蛋白酶水解红曲霉菌体的研究%Study on optimization of process conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of cell protein of monascus with alkaline protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾宗珠; 李静; 王瑶; 邓毛程; 魏瑞忠

    2012-01-01

    为了使红曲霉菌体滤渣得到高值化利用,对红曲霉菌体的酶解条件进行研究.采用碱性蛋白酶对红曲霉菌体进行酶解,通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定最佳的酶解条件:酶解pH为8.5,酶解温度为55℃,底物浓度为40 g/L,酶量为6×104 U/g·干菌体,酶解时间为20 h.该条件下,酶解率为25.28%.%To achieve more valuable utilization of cell filtered sediment of Monascus. the process conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of cell protein of Monascus with alkaline protease was studied. Using the single factor and orthogonal design experiment, respectively, the optimum conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were determined as follows; pH of 8. 5, temperature of 55 V , concentration of substrate of 40 g/L, enzyme dosage of 6X104U/g(cell amount), and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 20 hours. Under above optimum conditions, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate was 25. 28%.

  1. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter; Husøy, Trine

    2015-10-01

    The food processing contaminants 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild-type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF in vivo. PMID:26270892

  2. Stability and selectivity of alkaline proteases in hydrophilic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Ritthitham, Sinthuwat; Pleissner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophilic, organic solvents can be used as co-solvents with water to produce one phase systems sustaining optimal mass transfer of substrates and products of mixed polarity in biocatalysed processes. At concentrations below 50 % hydrophilic solvents can even have a stabilising effect on alkaline...... proteases, but at higher concentrations and particularly in anhydrous systems most enzymes including alkaline proteases will denature and consequently loose activity [1]. However, partial denaturing and increased structural flexibility due to the interaction between hydrophilic solvents and alkaline...... proteases has been agued as the primary reasons for increasing activity, influencing regio-selectivity and improving the enantio-selectivity of these enzymes [2]. Alkaline proteases have been shown to be active not only on peptides, but on a wide range of renewable resources for synthesis of biologically...

  3. PULPING PROPERTIES OF KRAFT PULP OF NIGERIAN-GROWN KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Oluwafemi Oluwadare

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was centered on finding a locally sourced alternative to imported long-fibre pulp for Nigerian pulp and paper mills. Fibre characteristics, chemical composition, and paper properties of pulp handsheets at different levels of kappa number and freeness in the range of 10 oSR and 62 oSR were evaluated using air-dried bast fibre obtained from decorticated kenaf plants grown in southern guinea savanna near Jebba, Nigeria. Kenaf bast fibre compared well with softwood, with an average fibre length of 2.90 mm, a flexibility ratio of 57%, and a Runkel ratio of 0.76. Ash, lignin, and pentosan contents were 0.6%, 12.5%, and 10.6%, respectively, while the cellulose content was 55.5%. Under alkali charge of 15.0 and, sulphidity of 17.5 with constant temperature, cooking time, and liquor-to-fibre ratio of 4.5:1, the screen yield was between 48.8 to 52.8 % with kappa number 12.04 to 20.5. Unbleached pulpsheets at kappa number between 15 and18.5 and pulp freeness 55 oSR and bleached pulp freeness between 148 and 336 mLs had better quality paper in terms of overall pulpsheet strength properties.

  4. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration.

  5. Optimization of peeling processing of Kiwifruit fruit pulp by response surface methodology%响应曲面法优化猕猴桃果浆生产中去皮工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 秦晋颖; 高蓬明; 马立志

    2011-01-01

    以去皮效果为指标,通过响应曲面法(RSM)优化猕猴桃果浆生产中的去皮工艺参数。所得最佳去皮工艺条件为:配制NaOH浓度为10.80%、复合磷酸盐浓度为1.00%、温度94%、时间165s后,用清水冲洗。结果表明,使用该法果皮和果肉分离充分,绒毛全部去除,果型保持较好,与鲜果果肉色泽一致,无杂质、异味,品质较高。%Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the peeling conditions for the Kiwifruit fruit pulp preparation. The optimized parameters of peeling conditions were as follows: the concentrations of NaOH and compound phosphate were 10.80% and 1.00%, respectively;the temperature 94℃,and the peeling time 165s. Then the pretreated fruits were washed by water. The result showed that the pericarp and flesh were separated completely,the floss was eliminated and the shape of fruits was protected. Finally,the product was obtained with high-quality,which kept color as fresh fruit and without impurities and peculiar smell.

  6. Solid-state fermentation: an alternative to improve the nutritive value of coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, W; Molina, M R; Brenes, R G; Bressani, R

    1985-02-01

    Coffee pulp was subjected to a solid-state fermentation process, using Aspergillus niger. The initial moisture content of the pulp, as well as the fermentation time and temperature, had a significant effect on the increase in total amino acid content of the material. The increase in total amino acids showed a significant correlation with the dry matter recovered (r = -0.98) and the increase in pH during the process (r = 0.98). With a moisture content of 80%, a pH of 3.5, a temperature of 35 degrees C, and an aeration of 8 liters/min per kg as fermentation conditions, it was found that the maximum concentration of total amino acids was attained after 43 h. The fermented product had a higher total amino acid content and a lower cell wall constituent value (primarily cellulose and hemicellulose) than the original pulp. A growing chicken's ration containing 10% of the fermented product had a feed efficiency (2.14) similar to that of the standard ration (2.19) and was significantly better than that of the diet containing 10% of the original pulp (2.53). The difference observed in feed intake and weight gain between the standard diet and that with 10% of the fermented product is considered to be due to palatability factors which should be studied further.

  7. Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; do Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro; Menezes, Aline Galvão Tavares; Alves, José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira; Pimenta, Carlos José; Queiroz, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in Brazil. More than 50 % of the coffee fruit is not used for the production of commercial green coffee and is therefore discarded, usually ending up in the environment. The goal of this work was to select an efficient process for obtaining coffee pulp extract and to evaluate the use of this extract in bioethanol production. The effects of heat treatment and trituration on the yield and composition of the extract were investigated by measuring the amounts of reducing sugars, starch, pectin, and phenolic compounds. The extraction process was most efficient at room temperature using grinding followed by pressing. Five different fermentation media were tested: sugarcane juice or molasses diluted with water or with coffee pulp extract and a medium with only coffee pulp extract. Batch fermentations were carried out at 30 °C for 24 h, and samples were taken to obtain measurements of the total reducing sugars, cell count, and ethanol concentration. The addition of coffee pulp extract did not influence the fermentation or yeast viability, and it can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L.

  8. Analysis of the effect of wash water reduction on bleached pulp characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigieri, Tânia Cristina; Ventorim, Gustavo; Savi, Antônio Francisco; Favaro, Jaqueline Silveira Comelato

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse cost reduction by reducing the use of fresh water in the cellulose bleaching process and to make it easier to obtain water in a closed circuit. Eucalyptus oxygen delignified industrial pulp was used. The pulp was bleached 10 times in the D(E+P)DP sequence in the same conditions. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different wash factors: 9, 6, 3, and 0 m³ of distilled water/ton of oven dry pulp. The goal was to reach brightness of 92±0.5% ISO. The results showed that there was a chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase and brightness reversion, but the kappa number and viscosity did not change. The apparent colour was increased by increasing COD in the effluent during the cycles and by decreasing the wash water. Up to 3 m³/t of water was tolerable and even recommended to wash pulp. Nine cubic metre per tonne of fresh water is most commonly used in the industry, so water savings make the implementation of the process possible.

  9. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  10. Método de Análisis para realizar estudios de integración energética entre procesos de fabricación de Azúcar Crudo, Pulpa y Papel de Bagazo. // Method analysis for making energetic integration studies between crude sugar process and pulp of bagasse and pap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Puerta Fernández

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un método heurístico para realizar estudios de Integración Energética entre los procesos defabricación de Azúcar Crudo, Pulpa y Papel de Bagazo, que mediante el empleo de una serie de ecuaciones de regresión,especialmente desarrolladas, se pueden generar los escenarios específicos para integrar dichos procesos y satisfacer susdemandas de calor y energía eléctrica durante todo el año.Palabras Claves: Integración energética, integración de procesos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the article a heuristic method for making Energetic Integration study between crude Sugar process, pulp of bagasse andpaper process is proposed. It is possible to generate scene for the integration of the processes by using specially designatedregression equations, in the way that will satisfy demand of the electric power and heat generation the whole year.Key words: Energetic integration, process integration.

  11. Gene expression changes in bioceramic paste-treated human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Deniz; Torun, Zeynep Ö; Demirkaya, Kadriye; Sarper, Meral; Elçi, Mualla P; Avcu, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the gene expression profiles of human dental pulp cells exposed to iRoot BP using microarray after 24 and 72 h. The results were verified using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. Of the 36,000 transcripts arrayed, 21 were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated by more than two fold. The largest group of up-regulated genes included those involved in nucleobase-containing compound metabolic processes, cell communication, protein metabolic processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. The largest groups of down-regulated genes were those involved in cell communication, development, and biological regulation processes. In conclusion, iRoot BP affects the expression of genes involved in different biological processes in human dental pulp cells. (J Oral Sci 58, 307-315, 2016). PMID:27665968

  12. Dental pulp stem cells and bone regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia KAPAROU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Dental pulp, a soft tissue of mesenchymal origin, contains stem cells derived from cranial neural crest cells. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs reside into special anatomic locations of dental pulp, the so called “niches”. Stem cell niches are located predominately, but not exclusively, in the perivascular regions of the pulpal cavity. DPSCs exhibit clonogenic and high proliferative activity and are capable of differentiating into several cell types. The main function of these cells is the production of tertiary/reparative dentine following trauma or caries of dental crown. Previous studies have shown that DPSCs can differentiate into osteoblast-like cells that secrete abundant extracellular matrix and can build a woven bone in vitro. Moreover, DPSCs are capable of forming a complete and well-vascularised lamellar bone after grafting ectopically into immunocompromised rats. The in vivo transplantation of DPSCs into critical-sized bone defects in animal models has been shown to promote and/or accelerate bone regeneration. These results are clearly encouraging and stress the need of further research for the potential clinical use of DPSCs in bone tissue engineering.

  13. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Xu; Xinping Li; Meiyun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stages and the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp had been investigated, and the reason for higher kappa number of the ethanol pulp was discussed. The results preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignin could re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiber classification technology and explained the questions found during the study. Some measures were taken to reduce the kappa number, the results had shown that there was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolved and the pulp with lower kappa number could be obtained at a higher temperature; the kappa number could reduce by increasing washing time; it could enable dissolved lignin to separate out from the ethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption by blowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  14. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongjianXu; XinpingLi; MeiyunZhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stagesand the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp hadbeen investigated, and the reason for higher kappanumber of the ethanol pulp was discussed. Theresults preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignincould re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiberclassification technology and explained the questionsfound during the study. Some measures were taken toreduce the kappa number, the results had shown thatthere was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolvedand the pulp with lower kappa number could beobtained at a higher temperature; the kappa numbercould reduce by increasing washing time; it couldenable dissolved lignin to separate out fi'om theethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption byblowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  15. Histological evaluation of the rat dental pulp after indirect capping with sildenafil or L-NAME incorporated into a bioadhesive thermoresponsive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rodrigues Cupertino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the histological dental pulp state in vivo after indirect pulp capping using sildenafil or LG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME, incorporated into a new bioadhesive thermoresponsive system (BTS. Male Wistar rats were subjected to an upper and lower first molar class I cavity preparation followed by indirect pulp capping with sildenafil or L-NAME. Calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 was used as a control. The teeth and surrounding bone were properly dissected and processed for Nissl’s staining. Pulp state was evaluated considering the morphological aspects of the inflammatory response, type of inflammatory infiltrate, organization of the odontoblast layer, blood vessel condition, and presence of abscesses or necrosis. The results were expressed as average of observations. The most intense inflammatory response was observed 3 days after the cavity preparation. No identified changes were detected in the dental pulp response of the molars treated with L-NAME compared with those treated with CaOH2. A dual effect was observed in the teeth treated with sildenafil. While low sildenafil concentration (0.015% w w-1 promoted effects comparable to CaOH2, at a higher concentration (0.15% w w-1, sildenafil caused a severe inflammatory response and pulp necrosis. This pioneering suggest that NO pathway activity may be a determinant in the process of dental pulp healing.

  16. 制浆造纸厂废水超滤过程中木材抽出物的潜在污染及其行为评价%Evaluation of behavior and fouling potential of wood extractives in ultra ifltration of pulp and paper mill process water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申正会

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal extractives particles are potential foulants in pulp and paper mill applications. Characterization of them as foulants is a challenging task because of the complexity of these mill waters. In this study one regenerated cellulose (RC) membrane and two polyethersulphone (PES) membranes were used to study the fouling of extractives in ultraifltration (UF) of two chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulp mill process waters. The process waters originated from a pulping process using softwood and a mixture of hardwood and softwood. Extractives were analyzed by extracting them from the membranes and further analyzing them with gas chromatography and by measuring Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra for the pure, fouled, and extracted membrane samples. In this study retention of extractives was over 90% even though their molar masses are less than 1 kg/mol. Both dissolved and colloidal extractives fouled the membranes. The fouling behavior was different for the process waters used and it seems that the individual extractive groups had different fouling mechanisms. Mostly fatty and resin acids fouled the membranes, but sterols contributed to the fouling of RC membrane remarkably even though their amount in the process waters used was low.%胶体抽出物颗粒是制浆造纸厂生产过程中的潜在污染物。研究采用了一种再生纤维素(R C)膜和两种聚醚砜(P E S)膜考察两种化学热磨机械浆生产用水在超滤过程中抽出物的污染行为。实验用生产用水取自针叶木制浆流程及针叶木和阔叶木混合制浆流程。从膜上提取分析抽出物,并通过气相色谱法进一步分析,用傅立叶红外变换光谱(FTIR)法分析洁净的、被污染的及抽提过的膜样品。尽管研究中木材抽出物的摩尔质量小于1kg/mol,其在膜上的截留率仍超过90%。溶解和胶体抽出物均能污染滤膜。两种生产用水中抽出物的污染行为有所不同,似乎不同的抽出物

  17. Topical application of lithium chloride on the pulp induces dentin regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Ishimoto

    Full Text Available We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl, an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4 and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration.

  18. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m2/g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m2/g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m2/ g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m2/ g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  19. 树脂吸附-Fenton 试剂氧化法预处理炼油碱渣废水%Pretreatment of Refining Alkaline Residue Wastewater by Resin Adsorption -Fenton Reagent Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大涌; 高小青; 朱颖; 宿新泰; 甄新平; 牛春革

    2011-01-01

    采用树脂吸附-Fenton 试剂氧化组合工艺对某炼油企业炼油碱渣废水进行预处理.实验确定的最佳工艺条件为:3 种树脂串联吸附,废水流量0.33 mL/ min,H2O2加入量0.20 mol / L,n(H2O2)1 n(Fe2 +)= 12,Fenton 试剂氧化进水pH 3,Fenton 试剂氧化反应时间120 min.在此条件下,废水的COD 去除率为98.0%,BOD5 / COD 由0.09提高到0.70,可生化性有了较大的提高,为后续生化处理创造了条件.%The wastewater containing refining alkaline residue from an oil refining factory was pretreated by the resin adsorption - Fenton reagent oxidation process. The optimum process conditions are determined by experiments as follows: adsorption in series using 3 kinds of resin, wastewater flow 0. 33 mL/min, H2O2 dosage 0. 20 mol/L, n( H2O2 ): n( Fe2+ ) = 12, Fenton reagent oxidation influent pH 3, Fenton reagent oxidation time 120 min. Under these conditions, the COD removal rate is 98. 0% and BOD5/COD is increased from 0. 09 to 0. 70. The great improvement of the wastewater biodegradability creates a favorable condition for further bio-treatment.

  20. Rat as a model for direct pulp capping research

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Ekim Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the suitability of rat teeth in preclinical evaluation of medical materials for direct pulp capping. The international standard states clearly that only non-rodent mammals are suitable species for animal research in dentistry. However, in the past halve of the century many research have been published using rat teeth in order to evaluate direct pulp capping, pulpotomies and tissue reactions after pulp exposure. Numerous studies showed that the healing of ...