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Sample records for alkaline province located

  1. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  2. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, F.E.V.L.; Di Valderano, M.H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author) [pt

  3. Millennia of magmatism recorded in crustal xenoliths from alkaline provinces in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod Earle; Nielsen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Neoproterozoic alkaline provinces in West Greenland: 1)Sarfartôq, which overlies Archean ultra-depleted SCLM and yielded ultra-deep mineral indicators, and 2)Sisimiut, where the SCLM is refertilized and deep xenoliths (>120km) are lacking. We focused on the rare and understudied crustal xenoliths, which preserve...

  4. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  5. Location Selection for Hardboard Industry in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an optimum framework for hardboard industry location selection in Mazandaran Province. Considering the existence of only two depreciated hardboard plants with very old technology in Iran, the establishment of new plants are vital. To materialize this goal, Mazandaran province enjoys priorities to other provinces based on its resources of raw lignocellulosic materials required for wood and paper industries. The model presented in this article uses AHP benefit/cost ratios. The results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ with a weight of 0.327 and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ with a weight of 0.146 have the highest priorities, and the city of Sari is the best alternative.

  6. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1997-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Unravelling the sulphur isotope systematics of an alkaline magmatic province: implications for REE mineralization and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Finch, A.; Boyce, A.; Friis, H.; Borst, A. M.; Horsburgh, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the world's best alkaline rare earth element (REE) deposits are formed in magmatic systems that are sealed (i.e., those that are autometasomatised and maintain reducing conditions). Conversely, in open systems where oxidizing fluids infiltrate, it is commonly assumed that REE are redistributed over a wider (less concentrated) zone. Sulphur isotope fractionation is sensitive to variations in temperature and redox, and, although sulphide minerals are relatively abundant in alkaline systems, there have been few attempts to test these hypotheses and develop a sulphur isotope proxy for alkaline metasomatism and formation of associated REE deposits. The Gardar Rift Province in southern Greenland was volcanically active in two periods between 1300 and 1100 Ma and is an ideal natural laboratory to explore sulphur isotope systematics because a near-complete alkaline magmatic lineage is exposed. We present new δ34S from across the province with a particular focus on three alkaline systems (Ilímaussaq, Motzfeldt and Ivigtût) that also host major REE deposits. Primitive mafic rocks from regional Gardar dykes and lavas have a restricted range of δ34S between 0 and 3 ‰ and fractional crystallization imparts no observable change in δ34S. In a few cases high-δ34S rocks (>15 ‰) occur when intrusive units have assimilated local sedimentary crust (δ34S = 25 ‰). Most δ34S variation takes place in the roof zones of alkaline intrusions during late-magmatic and hydrothermal stages, and we identify clear differences between the complexes. At Ilímaussaq, where the magmatic series is exceptionally reduced (below QFM buffer), roof zone δ34S remains narrow (0-3 ‰). At Motzfeldt, a more open oxidizing roof zone (MH buffer), δ34S ranges from -12 ‰ in late-stage fluorite veins to +12 ‰ where local crust has been assimilated. Ivigtût is intermediate between these end-members varying between -5 to +5 ‰. The δ34S variations primarily relate to temperature and

  9. The Late Cretaceous Alkaline Igneous Province in the Iberian Peninsula, and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, N. M. S.

    1982-04-01

    The Iberian Province consists of the following: the three subvolcanic, syenitic, major intrusive complexes of Monchique, Sines and Sintra in W. and SW Portugal, together with their basanitic/lamprophyric minor intrusive suites; basanitic volcanic complexes around Lisbon; at least some of a widespread suite of basanitic to theralitic minor intrusives in west central Portugal; about 80 small basanitic/lamprophyric to nepheline syenitic intrusions scattered through the Pyrenees, NE Spain, the French Corbières, and off the coast of NW Spain; and the Ormonde Seamount of the Gorringe Bank off the SW coast of Portugal. Most of these occurrences have been dated isotopically or from field evidence as Late Cretaceous. Geological and petrological details of the various occurrences are compiled and reviewed. Primary basanitic magmas were probably parental to the entire Province, and generated syenitic magmas by differentiation processes; oversaturated rocks were produced by alkali loss and perhaps also by crustal involvement. The Iberian Province is related to the opening of the N. Atlantic, specifically that of the Bay of Biscay.

  10. Crystallisation of mela-aillikites of the Narsaq region, Gardar alkaline province, south Greenland and relationships to other aillikitic carbonatitic associations in the province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, B. G. J.; Craven, J. A.; Kirstein, L. A.

    2006-11-01

    Aillikites (carbonated, melilite-free ultramafic lamprophyres grading to carbonatites) are minor components of the Gardar alkaline igneous province. They occur principally as minor intrusions and as clasts in diatremes, but more voluminous aillikitic intrusions crop out near the Ilímaussaq Complex, which they predate by a few million years. These larger intrusions were emplaced at 1160 ± 5 Ma. They are essentially carbonate-free and, consisting almost wholly of ferromagnesian silicate and oxide minerals, are mela-aillikites. Typically the mela-aillikites are fine-grained rocks composed largely of olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite and magnetite that crystallised in open systems, permitting loss of volatile-rich residues. The petrography is highly complex, involving at least 28 mineral species. Pyroxenitic veins were emplaced while the host-rocks were still at high temperatures and represent channels through which fluorinated silico-carbonatitic residual melts escaped, with exsolving CO 2 as propellant. Precipitation of Ca-rich minerals including monticellite, perovskite, vesuvianite, wollastonite and cuspidine was a result of dissociation of the calcium carbonate in the residual melts. Late-stage crystallisation was in a highly oxidising environment in which the 'common minerals' attain extreme compositions (almost pure forsterite, ferrian-diopside, highly magnesian ilmenite, Ba-Ti-rich phlogopite and Sr-rich kaersutite). Spatially associated diatremes may be vents through which CO 2-rich gases erupted. The whole-rock compositions are considered to be well removed from those of co-existing melts: compaction and expulsion of highly mobile residual melts is inferred to have left the mela-aillikites as aberrant cumulates. The mela-aillikites are a late-Gardar manifestation of the aillikitic magmatism that occurred intermittently in the province for over 120 Ma. Repetitive formation of metasomite vein systems in the deep lithospheric mantle is postulated. These

  11. Location of Road Emergency Stations in Fars Province, Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Ali; Ansarizade, Najmeh; Barati, Omid; Kavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    To locate the road emergency stations in Fars province based on using spatial multi-criteria decision making (Delphi method). In this study, the criteria affecting the location of road emergency stations have been identified through Delphi method and their importance was determined using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). With regard to the importance of the criteria and by using Geographical Information System (GIS), the appropriateness of the existing stations with the criteria and the way of their distribution has been explored, and the appropriate arenas for creating new emergency stations were determined. In order to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the stations, Moran's Index was used. The accidents (0.318), placement position (0.235), time (0.198), roads (0.160), and population (0.079) were introduced as the main criteria in location road emergency stations. The findings showed that the distribution of the existing stations was clustering (Moran's I=0.3). Three priorities were introduced for establishing new stations. Some arenas including Abade, north of Eghlid and Khoram bid, and small parts of Shiraz, Farashband, Bavanat, and Kazeroon were suggested as the first priority. GIS is a useful and applicable tool in investigating spatial distribution and geographical accessibility to the setting that provide health care, including emergency stations.

  12. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.

  13. Devonian to Early Carboniferous magmatic alkaline activity in the Tafilalt Province, Eastearn Morocco: An Eovariscan episode in the Gondwana margin, north of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, André; El Hadi, Hassan; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Benharref, Mohammed; Fekkak, Abdelilah

    2017-05-01

    To the eastern edge of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the Tafilalt Province is the repository of a Lower Palaeozoic platform and basin sedimentation constrained by a W-E and NW-SE fault network. During the mid-late Devonian, an extensional tectonic activity, demonstrated by sharp changes in sediment thickness and development of syn-sedimentary faults, was contemporaneous with a significant magmatic activity. A great number of doleritic dykes, sills, and laccoliths intruded sedimentary Silurian to Lower Visean strata. The intrusions were linked to sub-water volcanic activities with spilitic lava flows and pyroclastites during two main pulses in the Famennian-Tournaisian and in the Early Visean. The rocks consist of basaltic dolerites, lamprophyric dolerites and analcite-bearing camptonites, sharing a sodic alkaline magma composition. The magma derived from low partial melting degree of the metasome layer of the lithospheric subcontinental mantle, below the spinel-garnet transition zone. This Tafilalt tectono-magmatic activity was coeval with the Eovariscan phase in the Moroccan Meseta, which was responsible for the opening of Western Meseta basins and their transitional to alkaline volcanic activities in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time.

  14. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Malik, A.; Varik, S.; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V.K.; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially...

  15. Petrogenetic processes, crystallization conditions and nature of the Lower-Oligocene calc-alkaline spessartitic lamprophyres from Kal-e-kafi area (East of Anarak, Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossain Nazari

    2017-11-01

    geochemical features and thermobarometry of the Kal-e-kafi spessartite minerals suggest that the primary lamprophyric magma was derived from partial melting of a lithospheric mantle spinel lherzolite. Changes in values of pressure, water content, and Oxygen fugacity during magma ascending lead to oscillatory zoning minerals. Based on the mineral chemistry, it can be concluded that the Kal-e-kafi lamprophyres were formed in a subduction-related environment by a calc-alkaline magmatism. References Anderson, J.L. and Smith, D.R., 1995. The effects of temperature and Oxygen fugacity on the Al-in-hornblende barometer, American Mineralogist, 80 (5-6: 549-559. Bayat, F. and Torabi, G., 2011. Alkaline lamprophyric province of Central Iran. Island Arc, 20(3: 386 – 400. Gibson, A.S., Thompson, R.N., Dickin, A.P. and Leonardos, O.H., 1995. High-Ti and low-Ti mafic potassic magmas: key to plume-lithosphereinteractions and continental flood-basalt genesis. Earth Planetary Science Letters, 136(3: 149–165. Torabi, G.H., 2009. Late Permian lamprophyric magmatism in North-East of Isfahan Province, Iran: A mark of rifting in the Gondwanaland. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 341(1: 85–94. Torabi, G.H., 2010. Early Oligocene alkaline lamprophyric dykes from the Jandaq area (Isfahan Province, Central Iran: Evidence of Central–East Iranian microcontinent confining oceanic crust subduction. Island Arc, 19(2: 277-291. Whitney, D.L. and Evans, B.W., 2010. Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 95(1: 185-187. Woolley, A.R., Bergman, S.C., Edgar, A.D., Le Bas, M.J., Mitchell, R.H., Rock, N.M.S. and Scott-Smith, B.H., 1996. Classification of lamprophyres, lamproites, kimberlites and the kalsilite mellitic and leucitic rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist, 34(2: 175-186.

  16. Status and phosphorus solubilization potential of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from various locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, F.; Sharif, M.; Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    The soils of Pakistan are alkaline calcareous in nature and its high pH makes phosphorus (P) unavailable for plants uptake. Chemical sources of P fertilizers are a costly and detrimental practice. Therefore, investigations were conducted to determine the native status of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in three different zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. In order to select the efficient PSB strains for solubility enhancement of P from rock phosphate (RP), rhizosphere soil samples were collected from irrigated and rainfed fields of maize, sorghum, pastures and vegetables. Population density of PSB ranged from 1.7*107 to 2.7*108 CFU g-1 rhizosphere soil. The bacterial strains Coccus, Streptoccocus and Bacillus sp. were identified on the basis of their microscopic, phenotypic and morphological characters. Most of the AM fungal spores identified were belonging to Glomus mosseae and Glomus intradices. A range of 02-35 spores per 20 g air dried soil were recorded. The PSB strains such as Coccus DIM7, Streptococcus PIM6 and Bacillus sp. PIS7 solubilized more P from RP than any other strain in both of the liquid and solid medium. Results show that areas under investigations are rich in P solubilizing micro flora providing a rich source for inoculum production. Moreover, the PSB strains have the capability to solubilize P from RP that can be used as biofertilizers for optimum crop production. (author)

  17. Radon quantification in dwellings of different construction located in Pichincha Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Maria Mercedes

    1992-01-01

    The desintegration of uranium-238 yields radon-222 present in most dwellings and buildings. Radon-222 gets into them, accumulatively, through floors and walls, domestic fuel-gas and drinking water pipes. Upon inhalation radon is cancer's causes, death-rate being about 5000 deaths per year in USA. This fact evidences the necessity to quantifying radon in dwellings in Ecuador. This research involves data from dwellings built up with different types of raw materials found spread in Pichincha province. The SSNTD method using a cellulose nitrate sensible film LR-115 was used for the research. The incidence of temperature, altitude, ventilation on the concentration gas Rn 222 were also subject of a qualitative study. Eventually, the results shows that the adobe dwellings and/or poorly ventilated dwellings produce maximum concentration of Rn 222 . Some cases show that ground floors have higher rate of Rn 222 than the first or second floors, meaning that the gas is also coming up from the ground. in any case the level of Rn 222 concentration is less than accepted limit 200 Bq/m 3 by UNCEAR only places, such as Mindo and Calderon, surpass the limit

  18. [Freshwater malacofauna of medical importance located in Yaguajay municipality, Sancti Spíritus province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimia Duarte, Rigoberto; Vázquez Perera, Antonio A; Luis Rodríguez, Yuodenis; Cepero Rodriguez, Omelio; Pereira Marin, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    the study carried out in Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus province was aimed at identifying the mollusk species present in the freshwater ecocystems as well as their distribution and abundance in each reservoir. two years--2005 and 2006--were analyzed through 2 samplings per years covering the rainy and the dry season; 20 reservoirs were sampled to determine the present freshwater mollusks. Data were processed by Excelxp and the statistical analysis used SPSS version 8 processor and 4 x 4 contingency tables. ten species were detected in 2005, being Tarebia granifera the most distributed and abundant followed by Marisa cornuarietis. It was observed that the highest amount of mosquitoes was collected in the rainy season during the two years under study in addition to proving that there was significant correlation between the occurrence of mollusk species and fish in the 20 researched reservoirs. Yaguajay municipality exhibits wide freshwater mollusk fauna if one takes into account the 14 identified species of which 4 turned out to be intermediate hosts for fascioliasis, schistosomiasis and angiostrongyliasis. There is close relation between freshwater malacofauna and vegetation.

  19. Investigation Of The Natural Radioactivity In The Phuoc Dinh Area Located In The Thuan Nam District, Ninh Thuan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Van Khoi; Vo Xuan An

    2011-01-01

    It is very important that the natural radioactivity in the Phuoc Dinh area located in the Thuan Nam district, Ninh Thuan province has to be investigated. Because Phuoc Dinh is an area anticipated for constructing The 1 st Ninh Thuan Nuclear Power Plant, the data of the natural radioactivity determined before installing and operating this Nuclear Power Plant are to evaluate the dangerous ecologic effects of this industry. The soil samples were collected in the radius of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 km from the fence of this Nuclear Power Plant. The results of the natural radioactivity were measured on the low background spectrometry using the high purity germanium (HPGe) detector at the Center for Nuclear Techniques Ho Chi Minh City. (author)

  20. Planning of Agro-Tourism Development, Specific Location in Green Open Space Sarbagita Area, Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, K.; Ratna Adi, G. P.

    2018-02-01

    Tourism development has a negative impact on agricultural land in Bali, resulted in the transfer of rice field of 800 ha/year. Subak rice field area as a world cultural heritage, requires conservation strategy, increasing economic and environmental value, through integrated agriculture development with tourism. Tourism destination planning in the form of tourist destination (TD) and tourism object (TO) by raising local genius, at specific location, is expected to preserve nature and culture, as well as the economic value of the region. Research Methods: (1) identification of agrarian cultures, (2) field survey, (3) mapping of site specific TD/TO plans, and (4) compile documents of agro-tourism road map based on local genius. Seven subak areas in the green open space area have the potential to develop new TD/TO, namely: (1) Gedon2Subak in Tanah Lot area, is developed for the preservation of agriculture, the implementation of the zoning plan of the sacred, madya and nista areas, (2) the Kerdung and Penatih Subak areas, developed for urban farming in Denpasar City, (3) Cangi south Subak area, built for agro-tourism plasmanutfah banana and Cemagi Let Subak area developed agro-tourism food crops and horticulture, (4) Erjeruk Subak area, developed tourism plasmanutfah coconut.

  1. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 μM P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  3. Effect of Slope Positions on Physicochemical Properties of Soils Located on a Toposequence in Deilaman Area of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohajeri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topography is one of the most important factors of soil formation and evolution. Soil properties vary spatially and are influenced by some environmental factors such as landscape features, including topography, slope aspect and position, elevation, climate, parent material and vegetation. Variations in landscape features can influence many phenomena and ecological processes including soil nutrients and water interactions. This factor affects soil properties by changing the altitude, steepness and slope direction of lands. In spite of the importance of understanding the variability of soils for better management, few studies have been done to assess the quality of soils located on a toposequence and most of these studies include just pedological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate physical and chemical properties of soils located on different slope positions and different depths of a toposequence in Deilaman area of Gilan province, that located in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The lands on toposequence that were same in climate, parent material, vegetation and time factors but topographical factor was different, were divided into five sections including steep peak, shoulder slope, back slope, foot slope and toe slope. In order to topsoil sampling, transverse sections of this toposequence were divided into three parts lengthways, each forming one replicate or block. 10*10 square was selected and after removing a layer of undecomposed organic residues such as leaf litter, three depths of 0 to 20, 20 to 40 and 40 to60 cm soil samples were collected. physical and chemical characteristics such as soil texture, bulk density, aggregate stability, percent of organic matter, cation exchange capacity, available phosphorous and total nitrogen were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that, because of high organic matter content and fine textured soils on the lower slope positions including foot slope

  4. Geochemical features of the Cretaceous alkaline volcanics in the area of Morado hill, Jachal town, San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the alkaline volcanic rocks that crop out at the Morado hill located in the southern end of the Mogna ranges, which are part of the Eastern border of the pre mountain in the San Juan province, Argentina.The petrography and geochemistry study of the alkaline volcanics has allowed to classify them as tephrite basanite or basanite nephelinite, with strong alkaline chemical affinity, showing a characteristic composition of within plate geochemistry environment. The radimetric analysis, K-Ar data, has shown an average 90 ∓ 8 m.y. age for this rocks, (Cingolani et al. 1984) pointing out the Upper Cretaceous (lower section) stratigraphical position for the suite. The discussion of the results makes conspicuous the relationships of these alkaline rocks with others of the central and northwestern regions of the country that allowed to establish an alkaline petrographic province

  5. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phonekeo, V; Samarakoon, L; Saphangthong, T

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern

  6. Les granitoïdes hercyniens post-collisionnels du Maroc oriental : une province magmatique calco-alcaline à shoshonitiqueThe post-collisional Hercynian granitoids from eastern Morocco: a calc-alkaline to shoshonitic magmatic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Reddad, Aicha

    2003-11-01

    The post-collisional Hercynian granitoids crop out in the easternmost part of the Moroccan Hercynian belt. Petrographical and geochemical studies show a composition similarity in the various granitoids. The granitoids belong to per-aluminous and metaluminous magmatic associations. They have evolved according to a scheme similar to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic associations. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  7. Characterizing Changes of Heavy Metals in the Soils from Different Urban Location of Borujerd, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As more people live in cities and urban areas, evaluation of urban environmental quality is nowadays an unavoidable necessity. Urbanization gives off heavy metals into urban soils and threatens the human health. In this study, urban soil samples were acquired from different locations (Public parks, streets, and squares from Borujerd, Iran. The levels of Cd and Pb in the soils, along with soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and particle size distribution (texture, were analyzed. Kriging method by Surfer software was employed to create the spatial distribution maps of Cd, Pb, and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in the surface soil samples were 2.50±1.14, and 50.37±34.77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Cd was found in street soils and as for Pb in square soils. The interpolation maps illustrated the same behavior for Cd and Pb with elevated concentrations located in the southeast. The mean values of geoaccumulation index (Igeo showed that soils are moderately/strongly contaminated with Cd and moderately contaminated with Pb. In this study, traffic emission, textile industries and probably released untreated municipal wastewater into the soil are anthropogenic sources of Pb and Cd.

  8. Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Kipawa Syenite Complex - a thrust related alkaline pluton - and adjacent rocks in the Grenville Province of western Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Breemen, O.; Currie, K.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ovanbree@nrcan.gc.ca

    2004-07-01

    The Kipawa Syenite Complex, a thin, folded sheet of amphibole syenite, quartz syenite and minor nepheline syenite, lies along a west-vergent thrust separating a lower slice comprising the Kikwissi granodiorite and biotite tonalite dated at 2717 {sub -11}{sup +15} Ma, and unconformably overlying metasedimentary rocks from an overlying slice containing the Red Pine Chute orthogneiss, an alkali granite gneiss, and the Mattawa Quartzite. The syenite complex, dated at 1033 {+-} 3 Ma, lies within the lower slice but has metasomatically altered the overlying slice. Texturally guided U-Pb spot analyses on partially metasomatised zircons from the alkali granite gneiss yield a cluster of {sup 207}G'Pb/{sup 206}Pb ages at 1389 {+-} 8 Ma, interpreted as the time of igneous crystallization and four ages overlapping the time of syenite emplacement, interpreted as in situ, metasomatic growth. The highest structural slice comprises garnet amphibolite separated from lower slices by the Allochthon Boundary Thrust. Metamorphic grade increases upward from greenschist grade in the biotite tonalite to amphibolite grade (690 {sup o}C, 9 kbar (1 kbar = 100 MPa)) at the lower boundary of the alkali granite. Emplacement of the Kipawa Syenite Complex took place after assembly of the thrust stack had begun and after emplacement of the allochthon or hot slab responsible for the inverted metamorphic gradient. Origin of the syenite is tentatively ascribed to anatexis of material metasomatized by flow of alkaline solutions along a major shear surface. Crystallization of new zircon in the margins of the syenite shows that metasomatism continued from ca. 1035 to 990 Ma, redistributing alkalies, fluorine, rare-earth elements and zirconium. (author)

  9. Seismic environment of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) and its suitability for location of new nuclear power plants in India - a few geoscientific opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; Parihar, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    India has an ambitious programme to expand the nuclear power capacity to 60 GWe by 2032 and 655 GWe by 2050. Such an exponential growth of nuclear power generation warranty identification of suitable sites for nuclear power reactors. Perhaps the 6000 km long vast coastline is the best choice for siting new NPPs because of ready availability of sea water and a quiet seismic environment. Large inland areas with adequate water resources provide additional locations to cater the power requirements of Central and Northern India. In this perspective, the potentials of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) for siting new NPPs is discussed. Five zones delineated as safer sites of nuclear power plants on Deccan Trap, are the first hand targets identified by this study. Two of them are situated to the north of Narmada-Son Lineament and have large areas. Chambal and Betwa river systems of Ganga Basin are perennial source of water along with several dams constructed on their course. The other three zones are located to the south of Narmada-Son Lineament and are small in size. The Konkan Coastal Lineament (N-S) in the west and Kurduwadi Lineament (NW-SE) in the east are major tectonic features bordering these zones. The Godavari and Krishna rivers are perennial water sources. Presence of reservoirs within the delineated zones stands advantageous considering their potential as ultimate heat sinks. All the five zones are devoid of any known major seismicity. Thick basalt cover provides good foundation conditions and engineerability for these zones. Considering above characteristics, proposed five zones could be good candidate sites for future NPPs, after their detailed geotechnical investigations. (author)

  10. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities.

  11. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of alkaline mafic rocks in the Jalal Abad area in the NW of Zarand (Kerman Province: Evidence for Paleo-Tethys rifting in the Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusef Vesali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jalal Abad region lies within the southern sector of Posht Badam block near to Jalal Abad, Najaf Abad iron deposits. In this region, several mafic intrusions and associated dyke and sills were intruded within the volcano-sedimentary unit of Rizu series and magnetite veins producing a narrow contact metamorphic aureole and overlain by Desu Series dolomites. These intrusion massives include irregular coarse- grained gabbro- diorites stocks and several NW-SE-trending basaltic dykes and sills. Petrographical and geochemical studies on the Jalal Abad mafic units reveal that they are alkaline in nature and based on the tectonic discrimination diagrams are grouped in alkaline basalts field of the intra-continental rift setting. They display LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, and significant enrichment in LILE in comparison to HFSE and HREE. Compositionally, they resemble modern OIB and the Hawaiian alkaline basalts. Magmas of these OIB-type and alkaline rock associations formed from partial melting of garnet- lherzolite facieses in the plume source, during the rift-drift and seafloor spreading evolution of the Proto-Tethys oceanic lithosphere during the Ordovician through Silurian periods.

  12. Effectiveness of different strategies to prevent from heat stress in a group of dairy farms located in the Province of Padova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during the summer season is an important factor which can impair dairy cows physiology and productivity. A survey was carried out on a sample of 30 dairy farms of the Province of Padova to assess the effectiveness of different strategies for heat stress control. All farms used a fan cooling system but in those were a sprinkler device was also operating an increased milk yield was observed (+5.0%. Cows receiving the diet in two daily distributions (morning and evening increased DM intake (+9.0% and milk yield (+15.0% in comparison to animals fed once a day. No difference, instead, were observed in farms where cows were fed once a day in the morning or in the evening. A positive milk response (+8.1% was recorded in farms equipped with wide waterers at the exit of the milking parlour.

  13. Performance, Economics and Potential Impact of Perennial Rice PR23 Relative to Annual Rice Cultivars at Multiple Locations in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grain crops hold the promise of stabilizing fragile lands, while contributing grain and grazing in mixed farming systems. Recently, perennial rice was reported to successfully survive, regrow, and yield across a diverse range of environments in Southern China and Laos, with perennial rice PR23 being identified as a prime candidate for release to farmers. This paper reports the evaluation of PR23 for release, by (1 comparing its survival, regrowth, performance, and adaptation with preferred annual rices across nine ecological regions in southern Yunnan Province of China; (2 examining the economic costs and benefits of perennial versus annual rice there; and (3 discussing the evidence for the release of PR23 as a broadly adapted and acceptable cultivar for farmers. Overall, the grain yield of PR23 was similar to those of the preferred annual rice cultivars RD23 and HXR7, but the economic analysis indicated substantial labour savings for farmers by growing the perennial instead of the annual. PR23 was comparable to the annuals in phenology, plant height, grain yield, and grain size, and was acceptable in grain and cooking quality. Farmers were keen to grow it because of reduced costs and especially savings in labour. PR23 is proposed for release to farmers because of its comparable grain yields to annual rices, its acceptable grain and milling quality, its cost and labour savings, and the likely benefits to soil stability and ecological sustainability, along with more flexible farming systems.

  14. Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were α-pinene, α-thujene, sabinene, δ-cadinene, δ-cadinol, trans-β-guaiene, and τ-muurolol, while α-pinene, α-thujene, β-pinene, γ-cadinene, τ-cadinol, δ-cadinene, τ-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 μg/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 μg/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Determination and evaluation of effective criteria to location selection the optimal for establishing fluting paper mills from agricultural residues of Mazandaran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah barimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Location selection for factory competitiveness in the market place plays an important role and should be chosen so that will leads achievement of the strategic advantages compared with other competitors. The objective of this study was determination of the effective criteria for decision making to select the most suitable location for establishing a fluting paper mills from agricultural residues. For this purpose, effective criteria were divided into five major groups: Material and Product, Facilities and limitations of regional (infrastructure, Technical and Human, Economical, Rules & Regulations as well as 33 sub-criteria, after preliminary investigation, preparatory observation, and an interview with some of the paper producers and relevant experts. A hierarchy was designed based on five major groups of criteria and then the priority rates of obtained criteria and sub-criteria were determined by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP after compiling expert's opinions via questionnaire. Results have shown that among 33 determined effective criteria in location selection of fluting paper mills from agricultural residues , the sub-criteria of Supply residual amount, Ensure the supply of residual, Cost purchasing of raw material, Cost of transporting raw material have the highest priorities, respectively

  16. Assessing the Importance of Woodland Landscape Locations for Both Local Communities and Conservation in Gorongosa and Muanza Districts, Sofala Province, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with two communities living in, and on the edge of, Gorongosa National Park (GNP, Mozambique, we researched the importance of different landscape units to these communities and used the information to develop a management plan for GNP. We conceived the importance of a landscape to local people as a ratio of the benefits they derive from it and the costs of accessing or using those benefits. To test this expectation, we developed Bayesian belief models, for which the parameters were the relative preference weightings derived from community members (the relative preferences for benefits and relative expectations of costs. We then collected field data to confront the models for each of the two sites. In a parallel process, we conducted a vegetation survey to generate a map of the vegetation types, as well as an index of biodiversity importance for each vegetation type of the two 20-km2 sites. For each site, we simplified and converted the benefit:cost model into a local community importance surface, or map, and then overlaid a conservation importance surface on it in order to identify locations that were of high importance to both conservation groups and the local community. Such areas would require careful management attention. This paper discusses the implications of the research for the planning of GNP, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  17. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-08-01

    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  19. Contemporaneous alkaline and calc-alkaline series in Central Anatolia (Turkey): Spatio-temporal evolution of a post-collisional Quaternary basaltic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan-Kulahci, Gullu Deniz; Temel, Abidin; Gourgaud, Alain; Varol, Elif; Guillou, Hervé; Deniel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses on spatio-temporal evolution of basaltic volcanism in the Central Anatolian post-collisional Quaternary magmatic province which developed along a NE-SW orientation in Turkey. This magmatic province consists of the stratovolcanoes Erciyes (ES) and Hasandag (HS), and the basaltic volcanic fields of Obruk-Zengen (OZ) and Karapınar (KA). The investigated samples range between basic to intermediate in composition (48-56 wt% SiO2), and exhibit calc-alkaline affinity at ES whereas HS, OZ and KA are alkaline in composition. Based on new Ksbnd Ar ages and major element data, the oldest basaltic rock of ES is 1700 ± 40 ka old and exhibits alkaline character, whereas the youngest basaltic trachyandesite is 12 ± 5 ka old and calc-alkaline in composition. Most ES basaltic rocks are younger than 350 ka. All samples dated from HS are alkaline basalts, ranging from 543 ± 12 ka to 2 ± 7 ka old. With the exception of one basalt, all HS basalts are 100 ka or younger in age. Ksbnd Ar ages range from 797 ± 20 ka to 66 ± 7 ka from OZ. All the basalt samples are alkaline in character and are older than the HS alkaline basalts, with the exception of the youngest samples. The oldest and youngest basaltic samples from KA are 280 ± 7 ka and 163 ± 10 ka, respectively, and are calc-alkaline in character. Based on thermobarometric estimates samples from OZ exhibit the highest cpx-liqidus temperature and pressure. For all centers the calculated crystallization depths are between 11 and 28 km and increase from NE to SW. Multistage crystallization in magma chamber(s) located at different depths can explain this range in pressure. Harker variation diagrams coupled with least-squares mass balance calculations support fractional crystallization for ES and, to lesser extend for HS, OZ and KA. All basaltic volcanic rocks of this study are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE). The lack of negative anomalies for high field

  20. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  1. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  2. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  3. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham Khamesipour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The shapes of spectra are also changed with varying alkaline earth ions content. ... of manganese ion and electrical properties of glass contain- ing mobile ions like .... octahedral crystal field are located above the ground 6S state. Figure 2.

  5. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  6. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  7. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  8. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  9. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  10. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  11. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  12. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Degrees of sustainable location of railway stations : Integrating space syntax and node place value model on railway sations in the province of North Holland's strategic plan for 2010-2040

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Stolk, E.

    2012-01-01

    Mobility on rails is acknowledged to be one of the most sustainable means of transportation between cities and towns. Therefore, a railway station’s location in a built environment and its degree of accessibility is essential to reach as many travellers as possible. Even though there exist several

  14. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  15. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  16. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  17. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  18. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  19. Sample preparation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Santos, Mirian C.; Sousa, Rafael A. de; Cadore, Solange; Barnes, Ramon M.; Tatro, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tertiary amines and strongly alkaline reagents for sample treatment involving extraction and digestion procedures is discussed in this review. The preparation of slurries is also discussed. Based on literature data, alkaline media offer a good alternative for sample preparation involving an appreciable group of analytes in different types of samples. These reagents are also successfully employed in tailored speciation procedures wherein there is a critical dependence on maintenance of chemical forms. The effects of these reagents on measurements performed using spectroanalytical techniques are discussed. Several undesirable effects on transport and atomization processes necessitate use of the method of standard additions to obtain accurate results. It is also evident that alkaline media can improve the performance of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and accessories, such as autosamplers coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers

  20. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  1. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  2. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKALINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    There was no clear decrease in the yield seen in the bands and the loss of enzyme was not observed with the gel analysis. It may ... The native gel results show clear distinct bands for the 3 alkaline phosphotase isoenzymes ..... British Medical.

  3. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  4. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  5. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  6. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  7. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  8. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  9. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Systematic review of the association between dietary acid load, alkaline water and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Tanis R; Huang, Tian

    2016-06-13

    To evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship between dietary acid/alkaline and alkaline water for the aetiology and treatment of cancer. A systematic review was conducted on published and grey literature separately for randomised intervention and observational studies with either varying acid-base dietary intakes and/or alkaline water with any cancer outcome or for cancer treatment. Incidence of cancer and outcomes of cancer treatment. 8278 citations were identified, and 252 abstracts were reviewed; 1 study met the inclusion criteria and was included in this systematic review. No randomised trials were located. No studies were located that examined dietary acid or alkaline or alkaline water for cancer treatment. The included study was a cohort study with a low risk of bias. This study revealed no association between the diet acid load with bladder cancer (OR=1.15: 95% CI 0.86 to 1.55, p=0.36). No association was found even among long-term smokers (OR=1.72: 95% CI 0.96 to 3.10, p=0.08). Despite the promotion of the alkaline diet and alkaline water by the media and salespeople, there is almost no actual research to either support or disprove these ideas. This systematic review of the literature revealed a lack of evidence for or against diet acid load and/or alkaline water for the initiation or treatment of cancer. Promotion of alkaline diet and alkaline water to the public for cancer prevention or treatment is not justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  12. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  13. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella

    2014-08-06

    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  14. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  15. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  16. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  17. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  18. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  19. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  20. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  1. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The stability of a novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMPfor GLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caihong; Wang, Chenwei; Niu, Xinhuan; Wang, Yan; Tian, Shengjun; Jiang, Zichao; Liu, Yuling

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the important machining procedures of multilayered copper interconnection for GLSI, meanwhile polishing slurry is a critical factor for realizing the high polishing performance such as high planarization efficiency, low surface roughness. The effect of slurry components such as abrasive (colloidal silica), complexing agent (glycine), inhibitor (BTA) and oxidizing agent (H2O2) on the stability of the novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMP for GLSI was investigated in this paper. First, the synergistic and competitive relationship of them in a peroxide-based weakly alkaline slurry during the copper CMP process was studied and the stability mechanism was put forward. Then 1 wt% colloidal silica, 2.5 wt% glycine, 200 ppm BTA, 20 mL/L H2O2 had been selected as the appropriate concentration to prepare copper slurry, and using such slurry the copper blanket wafer was polished. From the variations of copper removal rate, root-mean square roughness (Sq) value with the setting time, it indicates that the working-life of the novel weakly alkaline slurry can reach more than 7 days, which satisfies the requirement of microelectronics further development. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2016ZX02301003-004-007), the Professional Degree Teaching Case Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. KCJSZ2017008), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. F2015202267), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (No. 16JCYBJC16100).

  3. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and h...

  4. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  5. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  6. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  7. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations [af

  8. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Eduardo de Mesquita; Sardinha, Alex Souza; Barbosa, Jaime dos Passos de Oliveira; Krimski, Robert; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ ∼ . The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  9. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  11. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  12. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Dehe Bala calc-alkaline granodiorites, south west of Boein Zahra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Gharamohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dehe Bala pluton is exposed approximately 45 km south-west of Boein Zahra town, Qazvin province. This Pluton which intruded the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic assemblage (UDMA, is mainly composed of granodiorite and produced narrow thermal metamorphic contact aureoles surrounding the intrusion. The body is characterized by SiO2 content ranging from 64.2 to 66.9 wt%, high-k calc-alkaline nature and metaluminous character (A/CNK

  13. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  14. Silica-poor, mafic alkaline lavas from ocean islands and continents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strongly silica-poor (ne-normative), mafic alkaline lavas generally represented by olivine nephelinites, nephelinites, melilitites, and olivine melilitites have erupted at various locations during Earth's history. On the basis of bulk-rock Mg#, high concentrations of Na2O, TiO2, and K2O, and trace element geochemistry, it has ...

  15. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the Northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, RA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Colophospermum mopane wood was quantified from six villages in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. One hundred and eighty individuals were interviewed from the selected villages. Three villages were located...

  16. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  17. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  18. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  19. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  20. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing the opera......Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing...

  1. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  2. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  3. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  4. The Comparative Study of the Competitive Power of the Steel Industry of Every Province in China Based on Correspondence Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibo, Ren; Kai, Liu; Wei, Wu

    This paper analyzed and compared the competitive power of steel industry of 30 provinces in our country. At first, we extracted the data containing 16 economic indicators to reflect each province's business conditions of steel industry, then used correspondence analysis method to process the data. We can get every province's level located in the domestic steel industry and its corresponding advantage. This conclusion has important reference value for every province to develop its steel industry's policy.

  5. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  6. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  7. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  8. Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi

    2012-07-01

    We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

  9. Discussion on causes and geochemical Characteristics of lamprophyre with uranium mineralization at the west of Mianning country, Sichuan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yue; Li Juchu; Ding Jun; Yao Yifeng; Xiang Jie; Wang Zhanyong

    2014-01-01

    Moyite body of middle and late period is filled with normal lamprophyre and lamprophyre of uranium mineralization along cracks of Yan Mountain at the west of Mianning country, Sichuan Province. There are significant differences between the two types of lamprophyre, such as petrological characteristics, output location and scale, radioactive anomalies and geochemical characteristics. The main types of rocks are camptonite, mica-plagioclase lamprophyre and minette. Mineralized lamprophyre belongs to potassic-ultrapotassic lamprophyre according to macro-element analysis, while normal lamprophyre belongs to lamprophyre of calc-alkaline type. The transition elements allocation model are both mantle 'W' type with LILE (K, Rb, Ba) and HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf). The rare earth elements allocation model of normal lamprophyre is Rightist LREE with δEu value of 0.73∼0.87. The rare earth elements allocation model of mineralized lamprophyre is 'M' type with δEu value of 0.28∼0.48. It indicates that lamprophyre is the result of partial melting of enriched mantle, and mineralized lamprophyre can be changed obviously by fluid flow. In the area, the type of uranium mineralization is that of vein rock, which is strictly controlled by mineralization lamprophyre, that is a new type of uranium mineralization in China. (authors)

  10. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  11. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline ph Diet Benefits Health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalfenberg, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pub med was searched looking for articles on ph, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine

  12. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  13. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  14. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING LOCAL ALKALINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the discovery of new oil producing fields and the ever increasing ... followed by water flooding is between 35 to 50% of the ... involved and lack of scale up and is considered among ... carbonate alkaline chemical reacts with certain types of ... reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the ... damage the formation.

  15. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  16. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  17. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  18. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: 40Ar–39Ar age of Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    The High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and has been suggested to include an initial tholeiitic phase (130–80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85–60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny. New 40Ar–39Ar dating...... of alkaline volcanics from Kap Kane, part of the Kap Washington Group volcanics at the northern tip of Greenland, provides an emplacement age of 71.2±0.5 Ma obtained from amphibole in lapilli tuffs, and a thermal resetting age of 49–47 Ma obtained in feldspar and whole-rocks from trachyte flows. Patch...... in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay, and to eastwards displacement of Greenland relative to North America. The alkaline suite, therefore, may be unrelated to the main tholeiitic phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. The subsequent initiation of continental rifting and ensuing seafloor spreading...

  19. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  20. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Key words: Production, alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis, animal wastes, enzyme activity. ... Generally, alkaline proteases are produced using submerged fermentation .... biopolymer concentrations were reported to have an influence ... adding nitrogenous compounds stimulate microorganism growth and ...

  1. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  2. Metal Oxide Decomposition In Hydrothermal Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2003-09-24

    Alkaline hydrothermal solutions of sodium orthophosphate (2.15 < Na/P < 2.75) are shown to decompose transition metal oxides into two families of sodium-metal ion-(hydroxy)phosphate compounds. Equilibria for these reactions are quantified by determining phosphate concentration-temperature thresholds for decomposition of five oxides in the series: Ti(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III, II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). By application of a computational chemistry method General Utility Lattice Program (GULP), it is demonstrated that the unique non-whole-number Na/P molar ratio of sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate is a consequence of its open-cage structure in which the H{sup +} and excess Na{sup +} ions are located.

  3. Deriving spatial patterns from a novel database of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Benbakkar, Mhammed; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) is situated within the western branch of the East-African Rift. The geochemistry and petrology of its' volcanic products has been studied extensively in a fragmented manner. They represent a unique collection of silica-undersaturated, ultra-alkaline and ultra-potassic compositions, displaying marked geochemical variations over the area occupied by the VVP. We present a novel spatially-explicit database of existing whole-rock geochemical analyses of the VVP volcanics, compiled from international publications, (post-)colonial scientific reports and PhD theses. In the database, a total of 703 geochemical analyses of whole-rock samples collected from the 1950s until recently have been characterised with a geographical location, eruption source location, analytical results and uncertainty estimates for each of these categories. Comparative box plots and Kruskal-Wallis H tests on subsets of analyses with contrasting ages or analytical methods suggest that the overall database accuracy is consistent. We demonstrate how statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and subsequent cluster analysis allow the identification of clusters of samples with similar major-element compositions. The spatial patterns represented by the contrasting clusters show that both the historically active volcanoes represent compositional clusters which can be identified based on their contrasted silica and alkali contents. Furthermore, two sample clusters are interpreted to represent the most primitive, deep magma source within the VVP, different from the shallow magma reservoirs that feed the eight dominant large volcanoes. The samples from these two clusters systematically originate from locations which 1. are distal compared to the eight large volcanoes and 2. mostly coincide with the surface expressions of rift faults or NE-SW-oriented inherited Precambrian structures which were reactivated during rifting. The lava from the Mugogo

  4. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  5. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  6. Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.H. de.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  8. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  9. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.

    2014-01-01

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  10. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  11. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., E-mail: ruiz.cs@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  12. Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA), Hamadan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDI REYAHI KHORAM; VAHID NORISHARIKABAD

    2010-01-01

    Reyahi-Khoram M, Norisharikabad V (2011) Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA), Hamadan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 12: 216-221. Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA) located in Hamadan Province in Iran, it is a mountainous and plain area and proximal to Malayer Township. In 1991, the region was known as a protected area for increasing wild animals' population. This research has been conducted during 2001 through 2009. Plant and animal species of the region were i...

  13. Location | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  14. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  15. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  16. Strategic planning for Halal tourism development in Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam KamalZade Gilani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as a necessity for economic development in many countries, therefore, in this study we intended to investigate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Halal tourism in Gilan province, by using SWOT model to introduce strategic solutions to further developments. This study is practical based on questionnaire in terms of practical objectives, in terms of data collection. The population of this study was 25 tourism experts, which according to Morgan table, 24 people were selected as sample size.To identify relationships and priority setting criteria , at first internal and external factors were identified and then multi-criteria decision-making models and AHP model was used. After that by using internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE and external (EFE final weight determined and at the end the model was design and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats were analyzed .The result of SWOT analysis in this research indicates that strategies for Gilan provinces according its environmental strengths and opportunities should be offensive strategy. Surveys show that due to the diversity of tourist attractions and geographical location of Gilan province, this province has the necessary capabilities to develop Halal tourism

  17. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  18. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  19. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  20. The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stille, L.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Wicke, B.; Singh, R.; Singh, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the

  1. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  2. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  3. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  4. An Introduction to camptonite lamprophyric dikes at Misho Mountains (Almas area - East Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen moayyed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Almas area in NW of the East Azarbaijan Province, is a part of the Soltaniye-Misho zone. The lamprophyric dikes crosscut the Kahar Formation. The principal minerals of these rocks are amphibole (amphibole phenocrysts are longer than 3 cm, biotite, pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, apatite, calcite and chlorite with porphyritic texture. According to mineralogical and geochemical evidences, the studied lamprophyres are camptonite with alkaline nature. The plotted spider diagrams indicate that the studied lamprophyres are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE and incompatible elements in comparison to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. The parent magma is probably generated from spinel lherzolite mantle with low rate partial melting.

  5. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  6. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  7. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  8. Alkaline erosion of CR 39 polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of erosion of CR 39 polymer in alkaline environments. We observed the kinetics of absorption of water and methanol into both unirradiated and γ-irradiated samples. We use a capillary model to interpret our results. We etched our samples in both KOH solutions, and KOH solutions doped with methanol. Etch rate was desensitizing to γ-irradiation when KOH concentration approached saturation, but KOH solutions doped with methanol were not desensitizing, unlike with nuclear tracks. We account for this difference

  9. Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    1NýT;7 ~~ AFAPI 4TR- 75)aI Electrochemistry of Somwý New Alkaline V CI RG, 0OTNME Dr/ David F., ’Pickett, IM Wayue ’,Hisb’q Mr. R ic ha rd A I Mid...adding ZnO to the electi-olyte (saturated) and usi .j the interc:ell conrec;tor d isr:ussed earlier ,itLh el4cc.roploated zinc ag inst. the silver fo

  10. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  11. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  12. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  13. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  14. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  15. Internet Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  16. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  17. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-01-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].nH 2 O (M=Mg 2 , Ca 2 , Sr 2 , Ba 2 , Na 2 Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2 [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].6H 2 O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2 )(CO 3 ) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90+/-0.02A.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces

  19. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  20. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  1. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  2. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  3. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  4. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  5. Tectonic significance of dykes in the Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex, Rajasthan, northwestern Deccan Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Vijayan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether swarms of preferentially oriented dykes are controlled by regional stress fields, or passively exploit basement structural fabric, is a much debated question, with support for either scenario in individual case studies. The Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex, near the northwestern limit of the Deccan Traps continental flood basalt province, contains mafic to felsic alkaline volcano-plutonic rocks and carbonatites. The complex is situated near the northern end of the 600 km long, NNW–SSE-trending Barmer-Cambay rift. Mafic enclave swarms in the syenites suggest synplutonic mafic dykes injected into a largely liquid felsic magma chamber. Later coherent dykes in the complex, of all compositions and sizes, dominantly strike NNW–SSE, parallel to the Barmer-Cambay rift. The rift formed during two distinct episodes of extension, NW–SE in the early Cretaceous and NE–SW in the late Cretaceous. Control of the southern Indian Dharwar structural fabric on the rift trend, as speculated previously, is untenable, whereas the regional Precambrian basement trends (Aravalli and Malani run NE–SW and NNE–SSW. We therefore suggest that the small-scale Sarnu-Dandali dykes and the much larger-scale Barmer-Cambay rift were not controlled by basement structure, but related to contemporaneous, late Cretaceous regional ENE–WSW extension, for which there is varied independent evidence.

  6. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Skarn Fe orebody and syenodioritic intrusive host rock in Zeber Kuh prospect area (SW Bardaskan, South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Narooie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zeber Kuh prospect area is located southwest of Bardaskan, South Khorasan province, in the northeastern Iran. Lithologically, the area includes Rizu and Soltanieh Formations metamorphosed carbonate rocks, which were intruded by syenogranitic and syenodioritic intrusions. Field observations and laboratory studies such as structural controls of orebody, metasomatic replacement and formation of low temperature H2O-bearing minerals, and the occurrence of magnetite and pyrite associated with chlorite, epidote, calcite, and quartz indicate that  the iron mineralization is low temperature skarn-type. The source of Fe mineralization is probably a younger intrusive rock at depth. Hydrothermal ore fluid was ascended within fault zone and/or contact between the intrusive rock and the  carbonate unit and generated orebody. Iron grade ranges from 54 to 65 wt.% and sulfur value is > 3 wt.%. Magnetite chemistry and Ti, V, Al, Mn, Ni, and Cr contents are similar to skarn deposit. Biotite syenodiorite host rock has hypidiomorphic granular texture and it consists of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, and apatite minerals. Chemically, this intrusive rock is K-series alkaline type, which was generated in within plate zone. This magma is characterized by strong enrichment in LREE, LILE (Rb, Cs, Ba, and K, HFSE (Nb, Zr, and Ti, and P elements. The primary magma is produced by low degree partial melting of garnet lherzolite from asthenospheric to boundary of asthenospheric-lithospheric mantle.

  8. Green facility location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velázquez Martínez, J.C.; Fransoo, J.C.; Bouchery, Y.; Corbett, C.J.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    Transportation is one of the main contributing factors of global carbon emissions, and thus, when dealing with facility location models in a distribution context, transportation emissions may be substantially higher than the emissions due to production or storage. Because facility location models

  9. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  10. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Ramiro; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al 2 O 3 and CaO contents with increasing SiO 2 suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 ± 21 Ma and 1373 ± 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T DM model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while ε Nd(1330) values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 ± 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T DM model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and ε Nd(1330) values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval plutons. The Porvenir, San Cristobal and Piso Firme plutons

  11. Characterization of yeast mutants lacking alkaline ceramidases YPC1 and YDC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voynova, Natalia S; Mallela, Shamroop K; Vazquez, Hector M

    2014-01-01

    Humans and yeast possess alkaline ceramidases located in the early secretory pathway. Single deletions of the highly homologous yeast alkaline ceramidases YPC1 and YDC1 have very little genetic interactions or phenotypes. Here, we performed chemical-genetic screens to find deletions...... reduces chronological life span. A novel finding is that, when working backwards as a ceramide synthase in vivo, Ypc1p prefers C24 and C26 fatty acids as substrates, whereas it prefers C16:0, when solubilized in detergent and working in vitro. Therefore, its physiological activity may not only concern...... the minor ceramides containing C14 and C16. Intriguingly, so far the sole discernable benefit of conserving YPC1 for yeast resides with its ability to convey relative resistance toward H2 O2 ....

  12. Hydrology and Alkalinity Regulation of Soft Florida Waters: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Robert E.; Canfield, Daniel E., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Natural waters in ridge provinces of Florida and southeast Georgia were classified geographically, by degrees of cultural disturbance, and according to the dominant hydrologic and biogeochemical processes controlling chemistry. The ionic composition of lakes, upland streams, and surficial aquifer (water table) springs in relatively undeveloped catchments reflects the geographic variations in bulk deposition corrected for evapotranspiration (Na, Cl), plus a slight gain (net watershed mobilization) of Mg, and partial to nearly complete losses (net retention) of nitrate, sulfate, Ca, and K. Recharge to the Floridan aquifer in infertile, forested, sandy ridge provinces of northern Florida contains 360-580 μmol CO2. On the basis of indirect geochemical evidence, sulfate retention appears less important in lake sediments than in the region's highly weathered, ferruginous, kaolinitic, sand soils. Silica concentrations in upland streams and water table springs closely reflect the predicted equilibrium between kaolinite and gibbsite. Along with other evidence, the Si concentrations in ridge lakes indicate that seepage inflow is much more important than assumed in Baker et al.'s (1988) regional model. Lakes and streams are acidified either by humic acids or nonmarine sulfate but rarely by both, as reflected by the significant inverse correlation between these two components. Contrary to previous reports, there is no significant difference in alkalinity for culturally undisturbed lakes in the northern Trail versus southern Highlands Ridge areas.

  13. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  14. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, S.

    1980-06-01

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na 2 CO 3 /NaHCO 3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 70 0 C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  15. Ethylenediaminetetraacetates of neodymium and alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.V.; Pechurova, L.I.; Martynenko, K.I.; Popov, K.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities have been studied of the formation of polynuclear complexonates of alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) based on neodymium derivatives EDTA of the composition NdA - . By pH-metry, electron spectroscopy, and derivatography it has been shown that the structure of complexes M 2 (NdA) 2 (where M- Ca, Sr, or Ba; A- EDTA) in the solution is not polynuclear. Hydroxopolynuclear complexes do not form under conditions studied. The data obtained agree with an assumption about polynuclear structure of the solid complex Ca(NdA) 2 x17 H 2 O and gradual weakening of the polynuclear nature upon substitution of Ca 2+ with Sr 2+ and Ba 2+

  16. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of ∼ pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu 2 O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool ( 2 available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O 2 will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl 2 - and of the reduction of O 2 . The development of anoxic conditions and an increase in pore-water sulphide concentration will

  17. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  18. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  19. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  20. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of {approx} pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool (<40 deg C), whilst there is still O{sub 2} available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O{sub 2} will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl{sub 2} - and of the reduction of O{sub 2}. The development

  1. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  2. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  3. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  4. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  5. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  6. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  7. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... After 72 h incubation in a shaker incubator ... different incubation times (0 to 72 h) were investigated. Alkaline .... of alkaline protease (75%) and 24% of total protein is precipitated. ... starches and wheat flour as carbon source on protease production .... JP 395, method of making and detergent composition.

  8. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  9. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  10. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  11. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  12. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from alkaline soil, which was able to produce extracellular alkaline ... rice and dates (Khosravi-Darani et al., 2008), protein by- products from lather ..... Pigeon pea waste as a novel ...

  13. Comparative Detection of Alkaline Protease Production in Exiguobacterium acetylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.; EI Shafey, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline protease is one of the most important enzymes in industry, medicine, and research. In the present work, a comparative detection for alkaline protease activity was established for instant detection of enzyme activity. Eight different alkalophilic bacterial isolates were compared based on the clear zone they produced on skim milk agar. One strain gave an absolute clear zone in 16 hours and was used for alkaline protease detection. The result of Phenotypic identification using Biology Microlog 3 identified the isolate as Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate under study showed slightly different characteristics from a known Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain. The isolate tolerated alkaline conditions up to ph 11, while good growth was evident at ph 7, the maximum alkaline protease activity was observed at ph 9 which reached up to 109.01 U/ml. The alkaline activity assay using alkaline protease enzyme assay were coordinating with those obtained by conductivity; there was a relevant decrease in conductivity at the maximum increase in enzyme activity, which proved the cell membrane conductivity has a close relation to alkaline protease production. This isolate has tolerated gamma radiation, the increase in dose (up to 4 Gy) gave wider clear zones in terms of diameter and this was relevant to the conductivity measurements

  14. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  15. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  16. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  17. OAS :: Our Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the Charter Organizational Charts Organizational List Authorities Our Locations Contact Us Telephone: +1 (202

  18. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  19. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  20. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  1. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  2. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  3. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  4. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  5. Characterisation and genesis of the Singhbhum uranium province, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Singhbhum Uranium province is characterised by the late Archaean predominantly granitic Singhbhum Craton and the associated Proterozoic mobile belts, the boundaries of which are marked by major crustal dislocations. The Singhbhum craton had two-phase evolution during the time range 4000-2900 million years and its stabilisation around 2900 million years was marked by the emplacement of K-rich granitoids and the early crustal enrichment of uranium. Two distinctive types of uranium mineralisation occur in the Province - (i) the early Quartz Pebble Conglomerate (QPC) type and (ii) the later economically most significant shear-controlled hydrothermal type. The QPC type is confined to the cratonic volcano-sedimentary basins, characterised by basal fluvial high-energy deposits, near-continental volcanics and banded iron formations spanning the time band of 2900-2500 million years. The shear controlled hydrothermal mineralisation is predominantly developed in a 200 km-long arcuate zone of intense and deep tectonisation, acid-(?) alkaline-basic magmatism, hydrothermal activity and metallogenesis. This shear zone represents a belt of intense crust-mantle interaction. Uranium mineralisation is polyphasic, polymetallic. The mineralogy is complex and the chemistry of the ores is greatly influenced by the lithology of the host rocks involved in the shear. Part of the shear zone grazing the Dhanjori, predominantly volcanic supra-crustals is richer in U, Cu, Ni, Mo and also contains minor Bi, Au, Ag, Te and Se, while the western trans-Dhanjori sector of the shear zone characterised by schists and quartzites with lesser volcanic component is relatively poorer in these metals. The ore bodies in the trans-Dhanjori sector are more peneconcordant, gradational, stratabound and have spherical variograms, while those in the Dhanjori sector are transgressive, sharp, highly mobilised, vein type with Dewijsian variograms. A synthesis leads to the conclusion that uranium mineralisation is

  6. AFRICOM: Does Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Decision Model,” 242-244. 26 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research...Susan Hesse & Mark S. Daskin . “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111 (1998), 423-447. Paye-Layeleh...ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  7. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop selection based on land capabilities has been used in several studies to assess the suitability of land for specific crops in order to determine the optimal cropping system. Maize, rice, wheat, barley, cotton, soybean and canola are the major crops found in the agricultural production systems of Golestan province, Iran. Soybean (Glycine max L.; Fabaceae is grown world-wide as an important staple and commercial crop. Kamkar et al., (2014 on assessment review of land suitability for cultivation of rapeseed and soybean in four basins over Golestan province, using GIS reported that only 11.82% of the total lands very suitable to rotate soybean after canola, used raster layers for them study were included climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC. The Geographical Information System (GIS offers a flexible and powerful tool as it can combine large volumes of different kinds of data into new datasets and display these new datasets in the form of informative and accessible thematic maps. The aim of this study was to perform land suitability assessments for wheat cultivation Golestan province, and to investigate the possibility of wheat cultivation. In this way, we used GIS and a comprehensive data set on wheat crop ecological requirements, agro climatological, topographic and soil data. Material and Methods Geographical Location of the Region The province of Golestan with an area of 21,500 square kilometers, is in the southeast of the Caspian Sea. This area extends from 36_440 N to 38_50 N and from 51_530 E to 56_140 E. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate. arid and semiarid areas has occupied more than 35% of Golestan province. The study area of the research, include agricultural lands and rangelands of Golestan province is present. Using 1: 50,000 maps of the national cartographic center of Iran, we created a 20 m

  8. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  9. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  11. OTEC Potential of East Nusa Tenggara Province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyartono, M.; Rahmadian, R.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world, located between Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Indonesia has more than 17000 islands with 70 per cent of the region is ocean. The Growth of the economic and population in Indonesia increasing the demand of the electricity annually, in 2015 alone electricity consumption in Indonesia reaching 200 TWh and will continue increasing every year. However, East Nusa Tenggara Province electrification ratio only around 58.64%, this is the second lowest ratio in Indonesia. This electrification ratio describes the level of availability of electrical energy for the community. Power Plant with renewable source placement in East Nusa Tenggara Province or smaller district need to be prioritise to cope with the low electrification ratio. Renewable sources for power plant have a good potential to work with, in example wind power, solar power, geothermal, or biomass. In addition, another renewable source that not yet known is from the ocean itself. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is one of the renewable source method from ocean. This paper will uncover the potential of OTEC in East Nusa Tenggara province so it will bring possibility to build an OTEC power plant in the future.

  12. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done

  13. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Analyzing Change of Seasonal Crop Water Consumption in Kayseri Province

    OpenAIRE

    YÜREKLİ, Kadri; ÜNLÜKARA, Ali; SAFİ, Sevda

    2010-01-01

    Main Purpose of this study is that the change of seasonal reference evapotranspiration (ETo) based on FAO56 Penman-Monteith relationship for k-reference periods ( k1; January-March, k2; January-June, k3; January-September, k4; January-December) is determined in Kayseri province located in Middle Anatolian Region having low annual mean rainfall. In this reason, the parametric (Unit Root) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis and Levene) tests were applied to the seasonal ETo values from meteorolo...

  15. Geophysics report of Santa Rosa place Canelones province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Section required to Geophysics Department of the DINAMIGE to carry out this report for Education and Culture Ministery, to study the feasibility of the exploration and exploitation of underground waters located in three properties zones in Santa Rosa's town, Canelones province. By means of the geoeletric methods it was possible to estimate the alluviums thickness ,sedimentary deposits or alteration mantels. The purpose of the present work has been to establish geologic and structural features through vertical electric well by means of which is been able to study the vertical variations of the resistivity .

  16. The eastern province blood transfusion service: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Geldenhuys

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the location of the nine blood banks in the Eastern Province Blood Transfusion Service. The banks were considered as the vertices of an undirected graph. The cost of collecting and distributing blood was assumed to be proportional to the distances between vertices, and to the population of each district. The 9-median of the graph was calculated and the corresponding cost compared with the cost of the actual configuration, which turned out to be about 3% higher.

  17. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  19. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be...... possible. The practical contribution is my creation of the LBG Visions of Sara. People continue to play this game in Odense more than two years after its launch, and DJEEO uses it as a showcase, enabling the company to sell similar LBGs....

  20. Sensitivity analysis of alkaline plume modelling: influence of mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, S.; Claret, F.; Marty, N.; Burnol, A.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Munier, I.; Michau, N.; Cochepin, B.

    2010-01-01

    young alkaline-rich concrete (pH = 13.5) and aged concrete (pH = 12.5) were also tested. Simulations were run with PHREEQC 1D at 25 deg. C and at thermodynamic equilibrium. Diffusion of solutes in the pore water of the solid media was considered to be the dominant transport process. The heterogeneous hydraulic properties of both media (porosity and diffusion) are taken into account using the 'MIX' option of PHREEQC. Simulations of interactions between concrete, with either nanocrystalline or crystalline phases, and clayey materials all led to a clogging of the porosity. The clogging times, estimated without taking into account any feedback on diffusive transport parameters, are of the same order of magnitude (from 2,700 to 20,000 years). The reaction pathways and the extent of the mineralogical transformations were very slightly different when crystalline vs. nanocrystalline materials were considered within the same system (e.g. MX80 - concrete). However, the location of the porosity clogging depended on the considered nature of concrete: all simulations performed with young high pH concrete led to clogging in the concrete part of the system while simulations performed with aged concrete led to clogging in the concrete material only when nano-crystallized material was considered. Otherwise, porosity was clogged in the clay materials. Significant extents of mineralogical transformations were always limited to less than one meter. The computed extensions of the alkaline pH plumes showed almost no difference. To complete the sensitivity analysis, some calculations were performed with a retro-action law of the porosity clogging on the transport parameters (diffusion coefficients) which are presented in Claret et al., 2009, this issue. The effect of mineral dissolution/precipitation under kinetic constraints rather than local equilibrium is the subject of further investigations. (authors)

  1. Location selection of agricultural-residuals particleboard industry through group decision: The case study of northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for locating agricultural-residuals particleboard industry in the northern provinces of Iran. Particleboard industry is the only Iranian wood and paper industry with an export potential and the use of agricultural residuals as the raw material can help with increasing the production in this industry, while reducing the damage to forest resources. The northern provinces of Iran are agricultural centers with ample amounts of agricultural residues. These provinces are, therefore, preferable to other provinces as the construction sites of particleboard plants. In the location selection model presented in this paper, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used and the results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ have the highest priorities, and that Golestan province is the best alternative.

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Concrete Alkalinity on Tensile Properties of Preheated Structural GFRP Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwasung Roh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of preexposure to high temperature and alkalinity on the tensile performance of structural GFRP reinforcing bars are experimentally investigated. A total of 105 GFRP bar specimens are preexposed to high temperature between 120°C and 200°C and then immersed into pH of 12.6 alkaline solution for 100, 300, and 660 days. From the test results, the elastic modulus obtained at 300 immersion days is almost the same as those of 660 immersion days. For all alkali immersion days considered in the test, the preheated specimens provide slightly lower elastic modulus than the unpreheated specimens, showing only 8% maximum difference. The tensile strength decreases for all testing cases as the increase of the alkaline immersing time, regardless of the prehearing levels. The tensile strength of the preheated specimens is about 90% of the unpreheated specimen for 300 alkali immersion days. However, after 300 alkali immersion days the tensile strengths are almost identical to each other. Such results indicate that the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the structural GFRP reinforcing bars are closely related to alkali immersion days, not much related to the preheating levels. The specimens show a typical tensile failure around the preheated location.

  3. Assessing carbon dioxide removal through global and regional ocean alkalinization under high and low emission pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Andrew; Matear, Richard J.; Keller, David P.; Scott, Vivian; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels continue to rise, increasing the risk of severe impacts on the Earth system, and on the ecosystem services that it provides. Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) is capable of reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and surface warming and addressing ocean acidification. Here, we simulate global and regional responses to alkalinity (ALK) addition (0.25 PmolALK yr-1) over the period 2020-2100 using the CSIRO-Mk3L-COAL Earth System Model, under high (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5; RCP8.5) and low (RCP2.6) emissions. While regionally there are large changes in alkalinity associated with locations of AOA, globally we see only a very weak dependence on where and when AOA is applied. On a global scale, while we see that under RCP2.6 the carbon uptake associated with AOA is only ˜ 60 % of the total, under RCP8.5 the relative changes in temperature are larger, as are the changes in pH (140 %) and aragonite saturation state (170 %). The simulations reveal AOA is more effective under lower emissions, therefore the higher the emissions the more AOA is required to achieve the same reduction in global warming and ocean acidification. Finally, our simulated AOA for 2020-2100 in the RCP2.6 scenario is capable of offsetting warming and ameliorating ocean acidification increases at the global scale, but with highly variable regional responses.

  4. Hydrogeological and geophysics study of Conaprole industrial plant Tarariras Colonia province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, L.; Mari, C.; Massa, E.; Cicalese, H.

    1985-01-01

    To application of the National Cooperative of Producers of Milk (CONAPROLE), it proceeded to a hydro geologic and geophysical studies for the industrial plant of that Cooperative, located in Tarariras city (Colonia province) where it was determined the technical feasibility of exploration and exploitation of groundwater in one or more waterdrills to be executed in the proximities of the industrial plant .

  5. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  6. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.G.G.

    1993-01-01

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  7. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  8. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  9. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  10. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  11. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  12. Location of New Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual...

  13. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  14. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  15. Reduction of proteinuria through podocyte alkalinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Wei, Changli; Möller, Clemens C; Flesche, Jan; Li, Jing; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Gödel, Markus; Huber, Tobias B; Preston, Richard A; Jiang, Jean X; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    Podocytes are highly differentiated cells and critical elements for the filtration barrier of the kidney. Loss of their foot process (FP) architecture (FP effacement) results in urinary protein loss. Here we show a novel role for the neutral amino acid glutamine in structural and functional regulation of the kidney filtration barrier. Metabolic flux analysis of cultured podocytes using genetic, toxic, and immunologic injury models identified increased glutamine utilization pathways. We show that glutamine uptake is increased in diseased podocytes to couple nutrient support to increased demand during the disease state of FP effacement. This feature can be utilized to transport increased amounts of glutamine into damaged podocytes. The availability of glutamine determines the regulation of podocyte intracellular pH (pHi). Podocyte alkalinization reduces cytosolic cathepsin L protease activity and protects the podocyte cytoskeleton. Podocyte glutamine supplementation reduces proteinuria in LPS-treated mice, whereas acidification increases glomerular injury. In summary, our data provide a metabolic opportunity to combat urinary protein loss through modulation of podocyte amino acid utilization and pHi. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  17. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  18. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  19. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  20. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  1. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted

  2. Determination of Some Land and Soil Characteristics of Siirt Province with Geographic Information System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif ÖZYAZICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine some land and soil characteristics of Siirt province and to make database using Geographic Information System (GIS. The study area covers about 562619.5 ha. Firstly, digital elevation model was formed using topographic map of the Siirt province and after this process slope, aspect, elevation and hill shade maps were also produced. In addition to that, some data produced General Directory of Rural Services and climate data were used in this study. According to study results, west part of the Siirt province has almost flat area whereas, hilly and mountain area locate in north and east part of it. Therefore, slope degree increase from west to north and east ways. More than half of the study area’s soil types (65% is Brown forest soils. Besides, according to land use and land cover map about 44% and 31% of the study area covers by shrubbery-brush and pastures, respectively. According to erosion maps, approximately %90 of the Siirt province lands has medium, severe and very severe erosion problem. Lands that are suitable for agricultural activities are very limited in Siirt Province. Only about 9% of the total land was classified as I, II and III land capability classes. Moreover, investigated depth map of the study area about 85% of the study area has very shallow and shallow soil depth. Deep soils found on plain and valley located at west part of the study area.

  3. Relation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase to liver scintigram in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H; Harada, T; Nawata, J; Hayakawa, M; Nishioka, M; Takemoto, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M

    1982-12-01

    Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was studied in relation to liver scintigrams of 54 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The ALP activity was higher with larger tumors and in multiple tumors. Within the single tumor group, the activity was higher when the tumor was located in the hilum than in the periphery. The incidence of ALP-1 isoenzyme (bile ALP) roughly paralleled the total ALP activity. These results suggest that the variation of serum ALP seen in each individual patients with hepatocellular carcinoma reflects the volume of cholestatic liver tissue, which is changed by the number, size and localization of the tumor nodules in the liver.

  4. Oxidative dissolution of chromium from Hanford tank sludges under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, B.M.; Delegard, C.H.; Wagner, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    Alkaline oxidative leaching has been performed on caustic leached sludges from the three following Hanford waste tanks: BY-110, S-107, and SX-108. These samples were chosen because they represent types of waste where significant amounts of Cr are located and show relatively poor dissolution of Cr during standard caustic leaching. The experiments involved tests with three chemical oxidants, permanganate, ozone and oxygen, and a blank, argon. The effects of varying the hydroxide concentration of the leachate (from 0.1 M to 3 M) and of time and temperature (from room temperature to 80 degrees C) were also examined

  5. Evaluating Carbonate System Algorithms in a Nearshore System: Does Total Alkalinity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan M; Sweet, Julia; Brzezinski, Mark A; McNair, Heather M; Passow, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously. Observed relationships between sea surface salinity and total alkalinity can frequently provide a second carbonate parameter thus allowing for the calculation of the entire carbonate system. Here, we assessed the rigor of estimating total alkalinity from salinity at a depth sampling water from a pier in southern California for several carbonate system parameters. Carbonate system parameters based on measured values were compared with those based on estimated TA values. Total alkalinity was not predictable from salinity or from a combination of salinity and temperature at this site. However, dissolved inorganic carbon and the calcium carbonate saturation state of these nearshore surface waters could both be estimated within on average 5% of measured values using measured pH and salinity-derived or regionally averaged total alkalinity. Thus we find that the autonomous measurement of pH and salinity can be used to monitor trends in coastal changes in DIC and saturation state and be a useful method for high-frequency, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification.

  6. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  7. Recurrent Early Cretaceous, Indo-Madagascar (89-86 Ma) and Deccan (66 Ma) alkaline magmatism in the Sarnu-Dandali complex, Rajasthan: 40Ar/39Ar age evidence and geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Pande, Kanchan; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Cucciniello, Ciro

    2017-07-01

    The Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex in Rajasthan, northwestern India, is considered to represent early, pre-flood basalt magmatism in the Deccan Traps province, based on a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 68.57 Ma. Rhyolites found in the complex are considered to be 750 Ma Malani basement. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 88.9-86.8 Ma (for syenites, nephelinite, phonolite and rhyolite) and 66.3 ± 0.4 Ma (2σ, melanephelinite) provide clear evidence that whereas the complex has Deccan-age (66 Ma) components, it is dominantly an older (by 20 million years) alkaline complex, with rhyolites included. Basalt is also known to underlie the Early Cretaceous Sarnu Sandstone. Sarnu-Dandali is thus a periodically rejuvenated alkaline igneous centre, active twice in the Late Cretaceous and also earlier. Many such centres with recurrent continental alkaline magmatism (sometimes over hundreds of millions of years) are known worldwide. The 88.9-86.8 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages for Sarnu-Dandali rocks fully overlap with those for the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt province formed during continental breakup between India (plus Seychelles) and Madagascar. Recent 40Ar/39Ar work on the Mundwara alkaline complex in Rajasthan, 120 km southeast of Sarnu-Dandali, has also shown polychronous emplacement (over ≥ 45 million years), and 84-80 Ma ages obtained from Mundwara also arguably represent post-breakup stages of the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt volcanism. Remnants of the Indo-Madagascar province are known from several localities in southern India but hitherto unknown from northwestern India 2000 km away. Additional equivalents buried under the vast Deccan Traps are highly likely.

  8. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  9. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  10. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  11. Sm-Nd study of Precambrian crustal development in the Prieska-Copperton region, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Van Calsteren, P.; Scott, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Samples representing the major lithological units between Copperton and Prieskapoort in the Cape Province have been analysed for Sm and Nd concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions. The ∼ 3000 Ma Marydale Group is shown to extend without major chronostratigraphic breaks from slightly metamorphosed basalt and arkose west of the Doornberg Fault at Prieskapoort to highly metamorphosed gneisses east of the Brakbos Fault at Copperton. Evidence is found of plutonic alkaline igneous activity, and possibly volcanism, which occurred during the ∼ 1 900 Ma Kheis tectogenesis. Early Proterozoic material apparently dominates the lower crustal region of the eastern Namaqua Province sampled by kimberlites. Sm-Nd data for the Copperton Formation of the Namaqua Province places an upper limit of ∼ 1 514 Ma and lower limit of ∼ 1 350 Ma on its origin. Omission of basaltic samples from the isochron regression yields the younger age, which is more easily reconciled with Pb isotope data. Volcanism is envisaged from a mantle source with a history of light rare-earth depletion relative to the chondritic earth model. By analogy with modern tectonic environments, the Copperton Formation probably formed in an active continental margin or island arc environment

  12. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  13. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  14. Web cache location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffey Brian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress placed on network infrastructure by the popularity of the World Wide Web may be partially relieved by keeping multiple copies of Web documents at geographically dispersed locations. In particular, use of proxy caches and replication provide a means of storing information 'nearer to end users'. This paper concentrates on the locational aspects of Web caching giving both an overview, from an operational research point of view, of existing research and putting forward avenues for possible further research. This area of research is in its infancy and the emphasis will be on themes and trends rather than on algorithm construction. Finally, Web caching problems are briefly related to referral systems more generally.

  15. Location based services

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Cong Nam

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices (tablets, smart phones, laptops) are proving themselves to be the main means of accessing information of the future. The embodiment of Recommender Systems (RSs) into mobile environments, as a matter of fact, has come about to serve as a way to solve the nuisances of data overwhelming. RSs' main advantage is their ability to allow users to find useful information according to the users' preferences and location. Even though they are not free of shortcoming such as the limitation...

  16. Location Intelligence Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the

  17. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  18. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    , water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  19. Microbial alkaline proteases: Optimization of production parameters and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Miglani Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading proteins into small peptides and amino acids. They account for nearly 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Proteases are extensively exploited commercially, in food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industry. Given their potential use, there has been renewed interest in the discovery of proteases with novel properties and a constant thrust to optimize the enzyme production. This review summarizes a fraction of the enormous reports available on various aspects of alkaline proteases. Diverse sources for isolation of alkaline protease producing microorganisms are reported. The various nutritional and environmental parameters affecting the production of alkaline proteases in submerged and solid state fermentation are described. The enzymatic and physicochemical properties of alkaline proteases from several microorganisms are discussed which can help to identify enzymes with high activity and stability over extreme pH and temperature, so that they can be developed for industrial applications.

  20. Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic activity from the ... nitrogen sources and sodium chloride concentration for protease production by the ... exploited to assist in protein degradation in various industrial processes.

  1. Guest–host interactions in the alkaline bleaching of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cyclodextrin on the bleaching rates of triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet (CV), malachite green (MG) and rosaniline. (RA) have been investigated in alkaline medium with a view to understand the guest–host interaction in these system. 2.

  2. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  3. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  4. Basic study of alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, A.; Kashiwase, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayashida, T.; Kato, A.; Hirao, K.; Shimomura, I.; Nagashima, I.

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize future hydrogen society, hydrogen production systems must meet the large demand of hydrogen usage. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) would be one of the candidate technologies to produce hydrogen on a large scale from renewable energy. We have conducted basic research into AWE, trying to reveal technical issues under zero gap system in new cell technology. The zero gap system contributes lower cell voltage without causing any major operating problems compared with conventional finite gap cell. However, it was observed that Ni base electrodes showed corrosion phenomena in a number of test trials including steady operating conditions and several shut-downs. Activated Raney Ni alloy coating for anode material had an advantage for oxygen overvoltage. It showed a saving of around 100 mV at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ) against Ni bare anodes. In the Chlor–Alkali (C/A) industry, thermal decomposition coating of mixed noble metal on Ni substrate is commonly used for advanced activated cathodes. It showed very low hydrogen over-potential of around 100 mV in AWE. To achieve better cell performance, separator selection is very important. We evaluated several separators including ion exchange membrane (IEM) to understand the basic function in AWE. IEM for C/A electrolysis showed high cell voltage (over 2.2 V) but low O 2 impurity in H 2 gas. Hydrogen purity was over 99.95%. Porous separators made of polypropylene showed 1.76 V at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ), 80 °C. But there was a weakness on the durability for continuous operation. Proper selection of separator is important in an actual plant for effective and safe cell operation. The concept of safety operation is referred to by diffusion coefficient of hydrogen

  5. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  6. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  7. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm, E-mail: w.kuckshinrichs@fz-juelich.de; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Juelich (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  8. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  9. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  10. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  11. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    temperature fuel cells including proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) and alkaline fuel cell (AFC) with operation temperature usually lower than 120...advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) resulting in the popularity of AFCs in the US space program.[8-11] The primary benefit AFC...offered over PEMFC is better electrochemical kinetics on the anode and cathode under the alkaline environment, which results in the ability to use

  12. Geochemical aspects of alkaline massif of Banhadao, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C.B.; Dutra, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    The alkaline massif of Banhadao, located near Cerro Azul, State of Parana, southern Brazil, occupies an area of about 8 Km 2 and is constituted by three magnetic associations: a group of mesocratic to leucocratic coarse nepheline syenites (NeS) (melanite NeS, NeS I, and light reddish and grey varieties of NeS II); a second group of medium to fine-grained ultrabasic to basic rocks (phlogopite melteigites and petrologically related malignites and feldspar-melanite ijolites); and a group of fine-grained to aphanitic phonolotic dikes, cutting NeS. The rocks of the complex are miaskitic, showing low concentrations of trace elements (V, Th and mainly REE), lack of rare metal silicates, and relative abundance of apatite and sphene. NeS are distinguished by a differentiation trend in which highly differentiated end members are enriched in alkalis and Al 2 O 3 , with decrease in MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 . The less differentiated melanite-rich rocks show higher concentrations in Zr, Nb, Y and V. Phlogopite melteigites and associated rocks show the highest contents of MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 , and the lowest concentration of alkalis and Al 2 O 3 ; they are significantly enriched in Ba and are the only rocks with detectable amounts of Ni, Cu and Cr. The phonolites are chemically similar to NeS. The Banhadao rocks were probably formed during successive intrusions of two different magmas types. The source of NeS and phonolites was probably a nephelinitic magma, while phlogopite melteigites and related rocks were probably derived from an alkali-enriched ferromagnesian magna. Both parent magmas probably derived by melting of rocks of the lower crust or upper mantle. (author) [pt

  13. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  14. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  15. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  17. Eudialyte-group minerals from the Monte de Trigo alkaline suite, Brazil: composition and petrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Eduardo Enrich Rojas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Monte de Trigo alkaline suite is a SiO2-undersaturated syenite-gabbroid association from the Serra do Mar alkaline province. Eudialyte-group minerals (EGMs occur in one nepheline microsyenite dyke, associated with aegirine-augite, wöhlerite, låvenite, magnetite, zircon, titanite, britholite, and pyrochlore. Major compositional variations include Si (25.09- 25.57 apfu , Nb (0.31- 0.76 apfu , Fe (1.40-2.13 apfu , and Mn (1.36- 2.08 apfu . The EGMs also contain relatively high contents of Ca (6.13- 7.10 apfu , moderate enrichment of rare earth elements (0.38-0.67 apfu , and a relatively low Na content (11.02-12.28 apfu , which can be correlated with their transitional agpaitic assemblage. EGM compositions indicate a complex solid solution that includes eudialyte, kentbrooksite, feklichevite, zirsilite-(Ce, georgbarsanovite, and manganoeudialyte components. EGM trace element analyses show low Sr and Ba contents and a negative Eu/Eu* anomaly, which are interpreted as characteristic of the parental magma due to the previous fractionation of plagioclase and/or alkali feldspar. The EGMs from the dyke border have higher contents of Fe, Sr (2,161-2,699 ppm, Mg (1,179-3,582 ppm, and Zn (732- 852 ppm than those at the dyke center. These differences are related to the incorporation of xenoliths and xenocrysts of melatheralitic host rock into the nepheline-syenitic magma followed by crystal-melt diffusive exchange.

  18. Epidemiological distribution of rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases in the provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Esfandiari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R. norvegicus (67.3%, R. rattus (13.6%, Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%, Arvicola (1%, Mus musculus (0.3%, Nesokia indica (2.5%, Cricetulus migrates (0.7% and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%. The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of

  19. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  20. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  1. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  2. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  3. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  5. Meta-evaporite in the Carajás mineral province, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Walter; Cabral, Alexandre Raphael

    2018-05-01

    Evidence for connecting evaporite-sourced high-salinity fluids with iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the Carajás mineral province has solely been based on boron-isotope compositions of tourmaline. Presence of meta-evaporitic rocks remains unrecognised. Here, we report laminated albitite, tourmalinite and banded albite-phlogopite rock, intercepted by exploratory drilling in a clastic metasedimentary sequence. These rocks represent evaporite precursors. Their location in the copper-gold prospects Açaí and Angélica, in the westernmost part of the Carajás mineral province, indicates that (i) evaporite-sourced fluids were regional and (ii) evaporite-bearing metasedimentary sequences may have been an important source of high-salinity fluids and/or sulfur for the IOCG deposits of the Carajás mineral province.

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  7. Locating the origins of blue and white porcelains using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Miao, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Among the main sites of production of ancient Chinese blue and white porcelains can be included Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province, the Yuxi and Jianshui Kilns of Yunnan Province and the Pinghe Kiln of Fujian Province. The current work focuses on an elemental characterization of ancient porcelains according to the location of manufacture, also incorporating a similar study of the blue and white porcelains of the Qing dynasty from Wun Yiu in Hong Kong, and modern blue and white porcelains from Germany, Japan and Thailand. Non-destructive analysis of samples of porcelain using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has yielded results in terms of 13 chemical elements, namely, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr. Principal component analysis has been performed on the data, allowing representation of the first, second and third principal components of the data in 3 D scatter plots; the results reveal data clusterings which correlate to a high degree with the known sites of origin. The conclusion is that the present method is capable of determining differences in elemental concentrations of blue and white porcelains, and that these differences can be used to locate the originating site of manufacture. (Author)

  8. Locating the origins of blue and white porcelains using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. [City Univ., Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Miao, J.M. [Palace Museum, Beijing (China). Dept. of Science and Technology

    1997-07-30

    Among the main sites of production of ancient Chinese blue and white porcelains can be included Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province, the Yuxi and Jianshui Kilns of Yunnan Province and the Pinghe Kiln of Fujian Province. The current work focuses on an elemental characterization of ancient porcelains according to the location of manufacture, also incorporating a similar study of the blue and white porcelains of the Qing dynasty from Wun Yiu in Hong Kong, and modern blue and white porcelains from Germany, Japan and Thailand. Non-destructive analysis of samples of porcelain using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has yielded results in terms of 13 chemical elements, namely, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr. Principal component analysis has been performed on the data, allowing representation of the first, second and third principal components of the data in 3 D scatter plots; the results reveal data clusterings which correlate to a high degree with the known sites of origin. The conclusion is that the present method is capable of determining differences in elemental concentrations of blue and white porcelains, and that these differences can be used to locate the originating site of manufacture. (Author).

  9. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  10. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK_a_2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO_2"−) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK_a_2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10"−"4 mM"1"−"("a "+ "b") h"−"1) × [NB]"a "= "1"."3"5 "± "0"."1"0[AA]"b "= "0"."8"9 "± "0"."0"1. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  12. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  13. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  14. Survey on supply and demand of medicinal plants in Lorestan province groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Naderi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of activities related to medicinal plant industry lead to maintenance and progress (improvement of society health. Attention to situation of medicinal plants in groceries, diagnosis different species, Value of consumption and supplier regions as most important factors in medicinal plants forum can be used for programming and politics in medicinal industry in our country. So via proper scientific programming we can achieve to better culture of medicinal plants consumption and we can improve health parameters in lorestan province. Materials and methods The research was accomplished with Cross-Sectional study and questionary technique was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of 3 parts were included questions related to socioeconomic trait, number of medicinal plant and medicinal properties. All of the groceries in the lorestan province were studied as statistical society. Sampling method was availability sample and samples size was 69 groceries. Results Results showed that the numbers of medicinal plants in groceries were about 336 species, mean of sold weight Was 128.48 kg. 94.5% and 5.5% of medicinal plants were supplied from out of Lorestan and Lorestan province respectively. Conclusion Existence of special plains and mountains plentiful running water, high storage of under round water and different Climate in the lorestan province cause a considerable diversity in this province. Whereas the results of this study showed that the most important suppliers of medicinal plants were located out of this province therefore programming in the case of these valuable sources of medicinal plants will be because higher preoccupation and existence of these crops in the groceries of lorestan province, even can export these to other countries.

  15. [Spatial and temporal evolution of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Ren, Liang; Wang, Shu Jia; Liu, Yu Feng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the constructed evaluation index system of ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, accompanied by introducing the Coupling Degree Mo-del, the paper estimated the ecological environment comprehensive index, the economic comprehensive index and the coupling degree of ecological environment and economy coordinated development of Hebei Province from 2000 to 2014 and 11 cities in 4 years (2000, 2006, 2010, 2014). The results showed that during the study period, the level of the coordinated development of the eco-logical environment and economy in Hebei Province had been increasing, from the brink of a recession to the well coordinated development, which had gone through 3 evident stages. The coordinating degree of ecological environment and economy of the 11 cities increased year by year, and pre-sented significant difference in spatial distribution. Through analyzing the spatial and temporal evolution mechanism of the ecological environment and economy coordinated development in Hebei Province, the policy, economy, industry and location were the key contributing factors, accordingly, suggestions on the further coordinated development of ecological environment and economy in Hebei Province were proposed.

  16. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution In soil of Fars province (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Sina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg -1 , 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg -1 , 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg -1 and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv. (authors)

  17. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  18. Application of NURE data to the study of crystalline rocks in the Wyoming uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, S.M.; Anderson, J.R.; Bennett, J.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Wyoming uranium province study is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. The ultimate objective of the entire project is the integration of NURE and other data sources to develop a model for a uranium province centered in Wyoming. This paper presents results of the first phase of the Wyoming uranium province study, which comprises characterization of the crystalline rocks of the study area using NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment data, aerial radiometric and magnetic data, and new data generated for zircons from intrusive rocks in the study area. The results of this study indicate that the stream-sediment, aerial radiometric, aerial magnetic, and zircon data are useful in characterization of the crystalline rocks of the uranium province. The methods used in this project can be applied in two ways toward the recognition of a uranium province: (1) to locate major uranium deposits and occurrences, and (2) to generally identify different crystalline rock types, particularly those that could represent significant uranium source rocks. 14 figures, 8 tables

  19. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. PMID:28973577

  20. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  2. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  3. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  4. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  5. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  6. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  7. [Biodiversity and enzymes of culturable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria in saline-alkaline soil in Fukang, Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hongfei; Zhang, Daofeng; Chen, Jiyue; Zhang, Yuanming; Li, Wenjun

    2014-02-04

    In order to analyze the biodiversity of cultivable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria and the enzymes they produced. Total 10 soil samples were collected from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang, Xinjiang province. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Enzymes including amylase, proteinase, xylanase, and cellulase were detected. Total 116 facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacterial strains and 4 alkali-tolerant actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples, and those strains were distributed within 22 genera in 13 families and 8 orders of actinobacteria based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The ratio of non-predominant Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis strains were 53.3%. The positive rates of amylase, proteinase, xylanase and cellulase were 35.8, 37.6, 28.3 and 17.5%, respectively. Diverse facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria were discovered from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria are a potential source for enzymes. The study would facilitate the knowledge of the diversity of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria, and provide the technical basis for exploration of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria resources.

  8. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  9. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  10. The hydrothermal alteration in the context of geologic evolution from Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif, MG-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif covers 800 km 2 , a quarter of which is hydrothermally altered. Such proportion is uncommon, when compared to the know alkaline massifs of the world. The hydrothermal alteration is associated with Zr, U and Mo mineralizations which are predominantly located in the central-southern portion of the massif, in the central-eastern circular structure. The colour of the altered rock (and its soil) in that area is typically whitish beige to yellowish white and is regionally called potassic rock. The Osamu Utsumi Mine, also referred to as the uranium ore of Campo do Cercado, is located 25 Km to the south of Pocos de Caldas City and was explored, from 1977 to 1989, through the open pit method. A sequence of alteration minerals adapted to lowering temperatures should be expected; however, only illite and alkaline feldspar are observed in the hydrothermally altered portions of the massif, and their formation must have been controlled mainly by kinetic, other than thermal factors. The irrestrict circulation of relatively hotter hydrothermal fluids must have happened at the beginning of the process, diminishing immediately after the cooling of the brecciated areas (and the subjacent magmatic body), leading the system to kinetics levels that made subsequent hydrothermal alteration impossible. (author)

  11. ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL LEADING SUBSECTOR DISTRICT/CITIES IN BENGKULU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Ridho Pratama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the agricultural leading subsector in the districts/ cities in Bengkulu Province and the conditions of agricultural leading  subsectors  district/ cites status as a Main Area in Bengkulu Province before and after the expansion area. The analysis method used Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, Shift-Share analysis (SS and Overlay analysis. The study used secondary data, such as Gross Domestic Regional Bruto (PDRB of districts/cities in Bengkulu Province and Bengkulu Province from 2004 until 2014 based on constant basic price. The result of this study showed that agricultural leading subsector based on the overlay analysis (combined analysing from three analysis method are livestock subsector and plantation crops subsector, sepecially in Bengkulu City and Kaur. In South Bengkulu, before the expansion area, the fisheries subsector to be the only agricultural leading subsector. After the expansion, the agricultural leading subsectors increased to fisheries subsector and livestock subsector. In Rejang Lebong, food crops subsector remains a agricultural leading subsectors both before and after doing the expansion area. Meanwhile, in North Bengkulu, before the expansion area livestock subsector as the agricultural leading subsector. When do expansion area, position of the livestock subsector replaced by fisheries subsector.

  12. Increasing Alkalinity Export from Large Russian Arctic Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, T.; Zhulidov, A. V.; Gurtovaya, T. Y.; Spencer, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Riverine carbonate alkalinity (HCO3- and CO32-) sourced from chemical weathering of minerals on land represents a significant sink for atmospheric CO2 over geologic timescales. The flux of alkalinity from rivers in the Arctic depends on precipitation, permafrost extent and thaw, groundwater flow paths, and surface vegetation, all of which are changing under a warming climate. Here we show that over the past four decades, the export of alkalinity from the Ob' and Yenisei Rivers has more than doubled. The increase is likely due to a combination of increasing precipitation and permafrost thaw in the watersheds, which lengthens hydrologic flow paths and increases residence time in soils. These trends have broad implications for the rate of carbon sequestration on land and the delivery of buffering capacity to the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  14. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.; Fedosseev, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier

  16. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  17. Geology and petrology of Lages Alkaline District, Santa Catarina State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    A 1:100.000 geological map shows the main outcrops, covering about 50 Km 2 , of the leucocratic alkaline rocks, ultra basic alkaline rocks, carbonatites and volcanic breccias which intruded the Gondwanic sedimentary rocks within a short time interval and characterize the Alkaline District of Lages. Chemical analyses of 33 whole-rock samples confirm the petrographic classification, but the agpaitic indexes, mostly below 1.0, do not reflect the mineralogical variations of the leucocratic alkaline rocks adequately. Partial REE analyses indicate that the light as well as the heavy rare earth contents decrease from the basic to the more evolved rocks, the La/Y ratio remaining approximately constant. Eleven new K/Ar ages from porphyritic nepheline syenites porphyritic phonolites, ultra basic alkaline rocks and pipe-breccias, together with six already available ages, show a major concentration in the range 65 to 75 Ma, with a mode at ca. 70 Ma. But one Rb/Sr whole-rock reference isochron diagram gives an age of 82+-6 Ma for the agpaitic phonolites of the Serra Chapada, which are considered younger than the miaskitic porphyriric nepheline syenites. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.705-0.706 are compatible with a sub continental mantelic origin, devoid of crustal contamination. A petrogenetic model based on subtraction diagrams and taking into consideration the geologic, petrographic, mineralogic and petrochemical characteristics of the alkaline rocks of Lages consists of limited partial melting with CO 2 , contribution of the previously metasomatized upper mantle, in a region submitted to decompression. (author)

  18. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O 2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  19. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  20. A Multi-Criteria Approach to Dry Port Location in Developing Economies with Application to Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Canh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for the inclusion of multiple criteria in the evaluation of dry port location in developing countries from a multiple stakeholder perspective. We present the framework in four steps. The first step encompasses preliminary research to filter the alternative locations for dry port development. In the second step, the stakeholders are clustered in three groups: dry port users, dry port service providers and the wider community. Then, we present the sub-criteria related to dry port location including the associated measuring methods. The third step includes an explanation on the methods used for weighing these criteria and sub-criteria. A multi-criteria analysis is carried out in the final step. We apply the methodological framework to Vietnam. The location of a new dry port project in Vinh Phuc province will be evaluated against two existing inland clearance depots (ICD in Lao Cai and Phu Tho province.

  1. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  2. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  3. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  4. Geochemistry of uranium in ground waters of the Conlara river Valley, San Luis and Cordoba provinces (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, H.B.; Gamba, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geochemical characteristics of ground waters related with lixiviation, transport and precipitation of uranium in the Conlara river valley (provinces of San Luis and Cordoba (Argentina)) are studied. Anions and cations' distributions, together with hardness, specific conductivity, pH, Eh, and uranium and vanadium contents, have been studied. Those parameters characterize four hidrogeochemical facies along an E-W profile: a calcic strong bicarbonate facies, an alkaline-calcic bicarbonate facies, an alkaline sulfate facies, and a strong alkaline sulfate facies. An ''Interphase zone'' (transition from bicarbonate water to sulfate water), where changes in composition may define a geochemical environment capable of UO2 precipitation, has been determined. The chemical-Thermodynamic studies give a dominance of UDC and UTC complexs ions (even in sulfate waters), so they represent the 99% of present ions. Besides, the calculated values required for equilibrium with uraninite or carnotite resulted much greater than those obtained in the performed experiments. It means that the precipitation of those minerals requires either the presence of greate amounts of uranium or vanadium, or a reducing environment with Eh values smaller than the observed ones. Finally, the steps to be taken in future investigations are suggested in view to a drilling plan where: 1) Priority to the ''Interphase zone'' areas is given. 2) The deepest aquifers in Tertiary sediments of the basin have to be reached in order to get the convenient environmental conditions (i.e. smallest Eh values) for uranium or uranium-vanadium precipitation. (author) [es

  5. A model for Nb-Zr-REE-Ga enrichment in Lopingian altered alkaline volcanic ashes: Key evidence of H-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifeng; Nechaev, Victor P.; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu.; Zhao, Lixin; Vysotskiy, Sergei V.; Graham, Ian; Ward, Colin R.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Velivetskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhao, Lei; French, David; Hower, James C.

    2018-03-01

    Clay-altered volcanic ash with highly-elevated concentrations of Nb(Ta), Zr(Hf), rare earth elements (REE), and Ga, is a new type of critical metal deposit with high commercial prospects that has been discovered in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Previous studies showed that the volcanic ashes had been subjected to hydrothermal fluids, the nature of which, however, is not clear. Here we show that the volcanic ashes were originated from alkaline magmatism, followed by a continuous hydrothermal-weathering process. Heated meteoric waters, which were sourced from acidic rains and mixed with CO2 from degassing of the Emeishan plume, have caused partial, but widespread, acidic leaching of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga into ground water and residual enrichment of these elements, along with Al and Ti, in the deeply altered rocks. Subsequent alteration occurring under cooler, neutral or alkaline conditions, caused by water-rock interaction, resulted in precipitation of the leached critical metals in the deposit. Polymetallic mineralization of similar origin may be found in other continental regions subjected to explosive alkaline volcanism associated with deep weathering in humid conditions.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  7. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  8. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  9. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  10. Behavior of oxygem bubbles during alkaline water electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedershoven, H.M.S.; Jonge, de R.M.; Sillen, C.W.M.P.; Stralen, van S.J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Growth rate, departure radius and population of oxygen bubbles at the transparent anode during alkaline water electrolysis have been investigated experimentally. The supersaturation of dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte adjacent to the anode surface has been derived from bubble growth rates.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The intensity and frequency variations for the characteristic phosphate group vibrations have been correlated with the changes of the structural units present in these glasses. Depolymerization of the phosphate chains in all the glasses is observed with replacement of alkaline earth content by spectroscopic studies.

  12. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... amongst the most valuable commercial enzyme. Alkaline proteases hold a great potential for application in the detergent and leather industries (Kumar and Takagi,. 1999; Oberoi et al., 2001) due to the increasing trend to develop environmentally friendly technologies. Plants, animals and microbes are the ...

  13. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  14. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...

  15. Positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.P.

    1998-09-01

    This doctoral thesis is subdivided into: 1. Theory of positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms, 2. Positron collisions with helium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, 3. Intercomparison of positron scattering by all those elements. The appendix of this work gives details of the numerical calculations and expands on the wavefunctions used

  16. Production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alkaliphilic bacterium producing organic solvent-tolerant and thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from poultry litter site and identified as Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Protease production under different submerged fermentation conditions were investigated with the aim of optimizing yield of enzyme. B. coagulans ...

  17. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ashok

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... production proved high protease production than the other tested ... Crude alkaline protease was most active at 55°C, pH 9 with casein as ... 13416 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... The Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped endospore-.

  18. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  19. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  20. Potentiodynamic characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidman, S.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Arvia, A.J.; Lopes Teijelo, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potentiodynamic and ellipsometric characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions are studied. The phenomenology of both electrodes shows some common features which are interpreted in termo of a complex hydrated oxide anodic film structure resulting from simultaneous electrochemical and chemical reactions. The kinetics of film growth fits the predictions of nucleation and growth models. (C.L.B.) [pt

  1. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  2. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660...

  3. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    because of the entrance of the guest molecules between the layers, there will be a change in the interlayer distance (Alberti 1978). Although M(IV) organo-phos- phonates are well documented, the chemistry of M(II) organophosphonates especially the alkaline earth metal organophosphonates has been explored marginally ...

  4. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Malkin, S.Y.; Montserrat, F; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete

  5. Alkalinity Analysis. Training Module 5.220.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the acid-base titrimetric procedure for determining the hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity of a water sample. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. A video tape is also…

  6. A green method of graphene preparation in an alkaline environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Bludská, Jana; Ecorchard, Petra; Kormunda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, MAY (2015), s. 65-71 ISSN 1350-4177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Alkaline environment * Exfoliation * Graphene * Ultrasound Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  7. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  8. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...

  9. Kinetic characteristics of acidic and alkaline ceramidase in human epidermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.; Uchida, Y.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Paepe, K. de; Vanhaecke, T.; Holleran, W.M.; Rogiers, V.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become evident that at least five ceramidase (CDase) isoforms are present in human epidermis, and that specifically acidic CDase (aCDase) and alkaline CDase (alkCDase) activities increase during keratinocyte differentiation, and thus might play a pivotal role(s) in permeability

  10. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  11. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  12. High-level expression of alkaline protease using recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... compared with that of wild-type B. licheniformis CICIM B5102. Key word: Alkaline protease, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are one of the most important industrial enzyme groups, accounting for approximately 60% of the total enzyme sales (Beg et al., 2003).

  13. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease. Among metal salts, KNO3 and NH4Cl were found to increase protease production. The maximum enzyme production (3600 U/ml) was observed with pomegranate peels of fermentation medium in the presence of yeast ...

  14. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation and detection of sodium urate in alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical behaviour of copper oxides electrode in the presence of sodium urate was investigated. The correlation between the anodic oxidation and the amperometric detection of sodium urate in the alkaline medium on copper oxides electrode was analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical ...

  16. Alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates and their intercalation chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zima, Vítězslav; Pospíšil, M.; Kovář, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2018), s. 2867-2880 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10639S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : intercalation * layered compounds * alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  17. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  18. A Profile of the Limpopo Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality, and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Limpopo. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  19. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  20. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  1. A Profile of the Free State Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Free State. Most of the data presented are draw...

  2. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  3. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  4. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  5. Modeling of Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Heavy Metals in the Katowice Province

    OpenAIRE

    Uliasz, M.; Olendrzynski, K.

    1996-01-01

    A large part of Poland's heavy industry, notably hard coal mining, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and power generation, is located in the Katowice province. Therefore, this heavy industrialized region, which is populated by four million people, experiences considerable problems with air pollution. In the METKAT study launched by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis we attempt to model atmospheric depositions of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) which a...

  6. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further

  7. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongjie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p  Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  9. Graphite as an indicator of contact influence of Western Keivy alkaline granite intrusion, the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina E. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex petro-mineragraphic, Raman and isotope- geochemical study of three types of graphite- bearing rocks circulated at different distances from the alkaline granites: (1 kyanite schists of Bolshiye Keivy, sampled at a considerable distance from a contact with alkaline gran ites; (2 sillimanite schists, sampled close to the contact, and (3 silexites, located in the inner part of th e alkaline granite massif Western Keivy have been presented. Five morphogenetic types of graphite have been revealed in the rocks under consideration: fine- grained Gr-1, intergranular Gr-2, nest-shaped Gr-3, vein Gr- 4 and spherulitic Gr-5. Current study demonstrates that these five types of graphite distinctly vary not only i n morphology, but also in temperature of crystallization, as determined by RSCM-Raman geothermometer, and in carbon isotop e composition. The most likely source for the anomalous "light" graphite Gr-1 and Gr-2 [δ 13 C(PDB = −43...−45 ‰] from kyanite schists is a water- methane fluid originating from sedimentary rocks with org anic compounds. The carbon of graphite Gr-5 of the silexites selected at the inner part of alkaline granite massif West ern Keivy, on the contrary, proved to be most "heavy" [δ 13 C(PDB = −8 ‰], which indicates its origin from the lower crustal or mantle carbon dioxide fluid. Thus, carbon extracted into the rocks of Keivy structure from at least two contrasting isotope sources. Graphite Gr-3, that makes up the bulk of graphite of exocontact sil limanite schists, is also isotopically light, but not anomalously [δ 13 C(PDB = −17...−28 ‰]. The crystallization temperature of the gi ven graphite (435−520 ºC, and its structural relationships with other minerals of th e rock evidence of its synmetamorphic origin. The presence of veinlets of isotopically heavy [δ 13 C(PDB = −10 ‰...−11 ‰] high-temperature (570−670 ºC graphite intersecting minerals of the metamorphic paragenesis (i

  10. OLBS: Offline location based services

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, P; Ana Aguiar; João Correia Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Most existing location-based services rely on ubiquitous connectivity to deliver location-based contents to the users. However, connectivity is not available anywhere at anytime even in urban centres. Underground, indoors, remote areas, and foreign countries are examples situations where users commonly do not have guaranteed connectivity but could profit from location-based contents. In this work, we propose an open platform for publishing, distributing and maintaining location-based contents...

  11. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chenju, E-mail: cliang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ya-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Jia-Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK{sub a2} of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK{sub a2} of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −4} mM{sup 1−(a} {sup +} {sup b)} h{sup −1}) × [NB]{sup a} {sup =} {sup 1.35} {sup ±} {sup 0.10}[AA]{sup b} {sup =} {sup 0.89} {sup ±} {sup 0.01}. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  12. LOCAT - A Data Retrieval Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    onoitode of scified location - P C RADIUS - maximum distance between specified location and C file locationsC . ’ CONNON /LOCN/ LOCLAT, LOCLNG, RADIUS...rrr’, ,r:.- r -’ - r- rJ Z. . . , . -.-. - - - - - - -- , -• .. . . FILMED 8-85 DTIC .-. ... , ,- . . . . ...: .--. :,.:. ..-..-- ,-, .-..-...

  13. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  14. La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'adrar des Iforas, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, H.; Black, R.; Benziane, B.; Diombana, D.; Hascoet-Fender, J.; Bonin, B.; Fabre, J.; Liégeois, J. P.

    The Cambrian silica-saturated alkaline province of the Iforas is composed of about 15 massifs including typical large size ring complexes (20-30 km in diameter). Its originality is that it follows closely a regime of subduction blocked by the Pan-African collision (600 Ma) and that each stage of the transition from calcalkaline to alkaline can be related to structural elements in a geodynamic setting. Several complexes are described in some detail. The Kidal-Tibeljeljeline complex starts with the intrusion of syenite porphyries forming external ring dykes, often polygonal in outline, which are truncated by a central massif 30 km in diameter which is composed of a dozen major phases. It complexity is due to the individualization of several intrusive centres and to the fact that the erosional level coincides with that of the flat roof structures. Djounhane, Takellout and Timedjelalen (20-30 km in diameter) are simpler and composed of concentric intrusions youing inwards. Other occurrences are described briefly. The emplacement of all these intrusions at shallow depth in a rigid environment under a thick rhyolitic cover of fissural origin is contemporary to movement along a tear fault system with intermittent periods of distension as shown by spectacular associated dyke swarms. The study shows the presence of both peralkaline and aluminous trends, an evolution of the minerals (pyroxenes, amphiboles and micas), and geochemical characteristics that are quite comparable to those of anorogenic provinces such as Niger and Nigeria. It is important to note, however, the absence of cassiterite and the predominance of subsovus granites in the aluminous trend of the Iforas. The striking similarity between the provinces leads the authors to envisage a common mantle origin, the difference being due rather to the influence of the country rock.

  15. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  16. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  17. Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict

  18. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  19. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  20. Portrait of a giant deep-seated magmatic conduit system: The Seiland Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rune B.; Grant, Thomas; Sørensen, Bjørn E.; Tegner, Christian; McEnroe, Suzanne; Pastore, Zeudia; Fichler, Christine; Nikolaisen, Even; Grannes, Kim R.; Church, Nathan; ter Maat, Geertje W.; Michels, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The Seiland Igneous Province (SIP), Northern Norway, contains > 5000 km2 of mafic and ultramafic intrusions with minor alkaline, carbonatite and felsic rocks that were intruded into the lower continental crust at a depth of 25 to as much as 35 km. The SIP can be geochemically and temporally correlated to numerous dyke swarms throughout Scandinavia at 560-610 Ma, and is linked to magmatic provinces in W-Greenland and NE-America that are collectively known as the Central Iapetus Magmatic Province (CIMP). Revised mapping show that the SIP exposes 85-90% layered tholeiitic- alkaline- and syeno-gabbros, 8-10% peridotitic complexes, 2-5% carbonatite, syenite and diorite that formed within a narrow (mela-gabbro over pyroxenites that grades in to an olivine-clinopyroxenite zone, which is followed by a wehrlite zone and, finally, the centre of the complexes comprises pure dunite. From pyroxenite to dunite, olivine changes from Fo72 to Fo85 and clinopyroxene from Di80 to Di92 i.e. the complexes observe a reverse fractional crystallisation sequence with time. Parental melt compositions modelled from early dykes indicate komatiitic to picritic melts with 16-22 wt% MgO, Cr of 1594 ppm and Ni of 611 ppm, which were emplaced at 1450-1500 °C. Melt compositions calculated from clinopyroxene compositions from Reinfjord are OIB-like with LREE enriched over HREE. The high abundance of carbonatites and lamproites demonstrates the volatile-rich nature of the mantle source region and is further corroborated by the unusually high abundance of magmatic sulphides (0.5-1%) and carbonated and hydrous assemblages (c. 1%) throughout the region. In Reinfjord, they are also closely associated with PGE-Cu-Ni reef deposits. Essentially, the ultramafic complexes in the SIP comprises deep-seated transient magma chambers that facilitated mixing and homogenisation of a rich diversity of fertile asthenospheric melts en route to the upper parts of the continental crust.

  1. Population-based Seroprevalence of HTLV-I Infection in Golestan Province, South East of Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavi, Khodaberdi; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 is an oncornavirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) HTLV-I-associated myelopathy⁄tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Golestan province is located in North West of Khorasan province known as an endemic area for HTLV-I in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence of HTLV-I in Golestan province. In this cross-sectional descriptive study in 2007, blood samples were collected from 2034 healthy people residing in different parts of Golestan province. Sera were assessed for HTLV-I/II-specific antibodies by ELISA method and reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Demographic and serologic data were entered in SPSS version 11.5 and statistical analysis was performed. An overall HTLV-I/II prevalence of 0.7% was observed in 15 cases by ELISA. Six out of 15 were confirmed as HTLV-I by western blot. Regional variation in the prevalence of HTLV-I was observed; 0%, 0%, 0.1%, 1.9%, 0.3%, 0%, and 2.6% tested HTLV-I-positive from west to east of Golestan Province regions, respectively. Seropositivity increased with age. No association between HTLV-I infection and sex status was detected. Highest rate of HTLV-I seroprevalence was shown in east of this region located in neighborhood with Khorasan province, the only confirmed endemic area in Iran. It seems that eastern area of our province is endemic for HTLV-I. Further comprehensive detailed epidemiological and molecular studies are recommended.

  2. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  3. Factors Influencing Mesostigmata Mites (Acari, Parasitiformes In The Alkaline Fen Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesostigmata mite fauna was investigated in soil of one alkaline fen at Apšuciems in the Maritime Lowland in Latvia in 2009. Thirty sample plots were selected in the following way: half of them were located in Brown Bog Rush, Schoenus ferrugineus and half — in Saw-Sedge, Cladium mariscus prevailing habitat. Soil samples were collected using a soil borer. Vegetation cover was described in accordance with Braun-Blanquet classes. Mites were extracted using modified Berlese funnels. In total, more than 28 species were recorded, of them Prozercon kochi and Pergamasus vagabundus were dominant species. Mean density of Mesostigmata mites ranged from 520 to 2140 ind./m2. Mite abundance and distribution between habitats depended on vegetation cover of the vascular plants, while moss cover and soil pH had no significant influence.

  4. Microbial diversity in a permanently cold and alkaline environment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Lylloff, Jeanette Eva

    2015-01-01

    The submarine ikaite columns located in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland represent a unique, permanently cold (less than 6°C) and alkaline (above pH 10) environment and are home to a microbial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial and archaeal community inhabiting...... the ikaite columns and surrounding fjord was characterised by high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the ikaite community structure revealed the presence of a diverse bacterial community, both in the column interior and at the surface, and very few archaea. A clear difference...... in overall taxonomic composition was observed between column interior and surface. Whereas the surface, and in particular newly formed ikaite material, was primarily dominated by Cyanobacteria and phototrophic Proteobacteria, the column interior was dominated by Proteobacteria and putative anaerobic...

  5. Location, Location, Location: Does Place Provide the Opportunity for Differentiation for Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Emma; Thompson-Whiteside, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The fiercely competitive HE market has led HEIs to invest significant resources in building a distinct identity. An HEI's location forms an inherent part of its identity and the uniqueness of location offers an opportunity to differentiate. However there has been limited examination of how location is used by HEIs and little consideration of how…

  6. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  7. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  8. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  9. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  10. Spatiotemporal trends and climatic factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it

  11. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  12. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  13. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  14. Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Brotzu, Pietro; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Melluso, Leone; Morbidelli, Lucio; Ruberti, Excelso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Brilli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    The Ipanema alkaline-carbonatitic complex is part of the Meso-Cenozoic alkaline magmatism located within the southeastern part of the Brazilian Platform. Drill-core and field sampling have indicated the occurrence of glimmerites, with subordinate shonkinites (mela-syenites), clinopyroxene-bearing glimmerites, diorites and syenites. The glimmerites are cross-cut by lamprophyric dykes and calciocarbonatites. Fenitization has deeply affected the country rocks, originating dioritic and syenitic rocks. The Ipanema rocks show a distinct potassic affinity. The initial Sr-Nd- isotopic composition of the Ipanema rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70661-0.70754 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51169-0.51181) is similar to that of tholeiitic and potassium-rich-alkaline rocks of the Eastern Paraguay. Stable isotope data for the Ipanema calciocarbonatite suggest interaction with fluids at temperatures typical of hydrothermal stages, as hypothesized for other carbonatite complexes from southeastern Brazil. The chemical differences between the lamprophyre, glimmerites, carbonatites, apatitites and magnetitites, and the absence of marked REE enrichment in the evolved lithologies, all indicate that fractional crystallization and accumulus of liquidus phases in a magma reservoir, likely coupled with liquid immiscibility processes, may have played an important role in the genesis of the Ipanema rocks.

  15. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  16. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  17. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ciancaglini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case

  18. Quarter Dates Location(s) Purpose Transportation and Travel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Dates. Location(s). Purpose. Transportation and Travel. Accommodation,. Meals and Other. Hospitality. Total. Expenses. Quarter 1. May 15. Ottawa, ON. Meetings. May 20 to 21. Washington DC. Conference. 11,364.93. 3,274.71. 53.50. 14,693.14. May 5 to June 5. Kenya and England. Meetings. June 18 to 21. Winnipeg, MB.

  19. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  20. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  1. Location Based Services and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Elenis Gorrita Michel; Rónier Sierra Dávila; Samuel Montejo Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Location Based Services (LBS) continue to grow in popularity, effectiveness and reliability, to the extent that applications are designed and implemented taking into account the facilities of the user location information. In this work, some of the main applications are addressed, in order to make an assessment of the current importance of the LBS, as a branch of technology in full swing. In addition, the main techniques for location estimation are studied, essential information to the LBS. B...

  2. ASGM status in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM obviously contributes to serious environmental and health issue for miners, nearby populations, and larger community when the use of mercury (Hg occurs.  Mercury amalgamation is used as a gold recovery technique by 10-12 million ASGM miners around the world and a predicted around 1000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment every year as a result of poor mining practices. Exposure to mercury can cause serious health effects for future generation, and miners and their families are vulnarable group to expose with mercury vapor and methyl mercury contaminated food in ASGM areas, resulting in increase of levels of mercury in human specimens. Thus, investigate the the effects of mercury on the environment and people health are urgently necessary for developing a better solution to eliminate further mercury contamination to environment in West Nusa Tenggara (WNT Province. A field survey had been conducted for this research in two main ASGM spots in WNT Province: Sekotong-Lombok island and Taliwang-Sumbawa island. As part of the study, an initial health survey and socio-economic of workers/miners was conducted. Volunteer participants at sampling locations across Sekotong-Lombok and Taliwang-Sumbawa (exposed; indirect exposed; non exposed groups answered a questionnaire, and allowed the sampling of hair for subsequent analysis. The ore, tailing, plants and soil samples were also collected for investigating Hg concentration on the substances. The results found that the impact of ASGM on increasing  economic activity leading to jobs, income and opportunities for social development is positive. However, there is risk of contamination in soil and plants environment through mining activity and high Hg concentration discovered in human body in a short time of ASGM activity. The environmental sustainability of mining can be better regulated within legalised areas. Environmental monitoring will define

  3. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costarrosa, L.; Calvino-Casilda, V.; Ferrera-Escudero, S.; Duran-Valle, C.J.; Martin-Aranda, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N 2 adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation

  4. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Kurosaki, Ken; Maekawa, Takuji; Matsuda, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Uno, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to contribute to safety evaluation of high burnup oxide fuels, we studied the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites known as oxide inclusions. Polycrystalline samples of alkaline-earth perovskites, BaUO 3 , BaZrO 3 , BaCeO 3 , BaMoO 3 , SrTiO 3 , SrZrO 3 , SrCeO 3 , SrMoO 3 , SrHfO 3 and SrRuO 3 , were prepared and the thermal expansion coefficient, melting temperature, elastic moduli, Debye temperature, microhardness, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity were measured. The relationship between some physical properties was studied

  5. Investigating mechanisms of alkalinization for reducing primary breast tumor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Ian F; Nesbit, Lance A

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  6. Radiolysis of actinides and technetium in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    The {gamma}-radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), Tc(IV), Tc(V), and TC(VII) was studied in the absence of additives and in the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, EDTA, formate, and other organic compounds. The radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and TC(VII) under different experimental conditions was examined in detail. The addition of EDTA, formate, and alcohols was found to considerably increase the radiation-chemical reduction yields. The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the {gamma}-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np (VI) in the presence of nitrate.

  7. Lithuanian Quarry Aggregates Concrete Effects of Alkaline Corrosion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Rutkauskas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate alkaline corrosion of cement in concrete is going to respond in sodium and potassium hydroxide (lye with active SiO2 found in some aggregates. During this reaction, the concrete has resulted in significant internal stresses which cause deformation of the concrete, cracking and disintegration. The reaction is slow and concrete signs of decomposition appear only after a few months or years. The study used two different aggregates quarries. Studies show that Lithuania gravel contaminated with reactive particles having amorphous silicon dioxide reacting with cement in sodium and potassium hydroxide and the resulting alkaline concrete corrosion. It was found that, according to AAR 2 large aggregates include Group II – potentially reactive because of their expansion after 14 days, higher than 0.1%.

  8. Oxidative degradation of Boltysh shale by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobul, I Ya; Fomina, A S

    1974-01-01

    This reaction proceeded in stages at 47 to 48/sup 0/C with a 3 percent solution of potassium permanganate in a 1 percent alkaline solution. The products were separated into groups and identified by gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of monocarboxylic acids were identified, with normal and branched chains, from acetic to lauric acid. Dicarboxylic acids were mainly of normal structure, or methyl substituted, from succinic to hexadecanedicarboxylic acid. No tricarboxylic acids were detected. For products of primary oxidation insoluble in acid media, a high content of C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ acids was characteristic, and for the final degree of oxidation C/sub 11/-C/sub 18/ acids. The organic portion of shale consists of structural units, differing in mass and in stability to alkaline permanganate.

  9. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  10. Comparison of oxidants in alkaline leaching of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Srinivas, K.; Anand Rao, K.; Manmadha Rao, M.; Venkatakrishnan, R.R.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium minerals occurring in various ore deposits consists of predominantly uranous ion (U +4 ), necessitating use of an oxidant and other lixiviants for efficient dissolution during leaching. Unlike acid leaching route, where uranium minerals dissolution could be achieved efficiently with cheaper lixiviants, processing of ores by alkaline leaching route involve expensive lixiviants and drastic leaching conditions. Alkaline leaching of uranium ores becomes economical only upon using cheaper and efficient oxidants and conservation of other reagents by their recycle. The present paper gives efficacy of various oxidants - KMnO 4 , NaOCl, Cu - NH 3 , air and oxygen, in the leaching of uranium from a low-grade dolostone hosted uranium ore of India. A comparison based on technical merits and cost of the oxidant chemicals is discussed. (author)

  11. Radium, uranium and metals in acidic or alkaline uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mill study sites have been chosen in function of their different characteristics: deposits age, treatment nature (alkaline or acid), mill origin. The realization of specific drilling allowed the simultaneous study of the interstitial water and the solid fraction of samples, cut at determined deep. A radiation imbalance between 230 Th and 226 Ra is observed in the acid treatment residues. The trace elements concentration spectrum is directly bound to the nature of the ore. Diamagnetic evolutions are observed in residues. The uranium concentrations are higher in carbonated waters than in calcic sulfated waters. The selective sequential lixiviation showed that the 226 Ra activity of the interstitial water is controlled by the Gypsum in acid treatment residues. In other hand in the alkaline treatment waters, the carbonates occur. The Ra retention is largely bound to the Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. (A.L.B.)

  12. Investigation of aluminum gate CMP in a novel alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cuiyue; Liu Yuling; Sun Ming; Zhang Wenqian; Zhang Jin; Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Beyond 45 nm, due to the superior CMP performance requirements with the metal gate of aluminum in the advanced CMOS process, a novel alkaline slurry for an aluminum gate CMP with poly-amine alkali slurry is investigated. The aluminum gate CMP under alkaline conditions has two steps: stock polishing and fine polishing. A controllable removal rate, the uniformity of aluminum gate and low corrosion are the key challenges for the alkaline polishing slurry of the aluminum gate CMP. This work utilizes the complexation-soluble function of FA/O II and the preference adsorption mechanism of FA/O I nonionic surfactant to improve the uniformity of the surface chemistry function with the electrochemical corrosion research, such as OCP-TIME curves, Tafel curves and AC impedance. The result is that the stock polishing slurry (with SiO 2 abrasive) contains 1 wt.% H 2 O 2 ,0.5 wt.% FA/O II and 1.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant. For a fine polishing process, 1.5 wt.% H 2 O 2 , 0.4 wt.% FA/O II and 2.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant are added. The polishing experiments show that the removal rates are 3000 ± 50 Å/min and 1600 ± 60 Å/min, respectively. The surface roughnesses are 2.05 ± 0.128 nm and 1.59 ± 0.081 nm, respectively. A combination of the functions of FA/O II and FA/O I nonionic surfactant obtains a controllable removal rate and a better surface roughness in alkaline solution. (paper)

  13. Paleochemistry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana, Kenya. [Alkalinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerling, T.

    1979-01-01

    The paleochemisry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana can be estimated by using the chemistry of lakes from the Eastern Rift of Africa as an analogue. Most modern East Africa lakes occupy closed basins; their chemistries follow an evaporation trend defined by the precipitation of certain mineral phases with increasing alkalinity. Estimates of paleoalkalinity can be used to closely estimate the chemical composition of ancient lakes. Three methods are used to estimate paleoalkalinity. Diatoms, molluscs, and fish have certain metabolic requirements that are dependent on pH, alkalinity, or calcium levels; thus fauna and flora can be used as paleoalkalinity indicators. Exchangeable cations on clay minerals can also be used because the relative concentrations of sodium and calcium in lake waters are related to alkalinity. Absence or presence of certain minerals also can serve as a paleoalkalinity indicator. Although the latter two techniques give estimates of paleoalkalinity that are averaged over several hundred or thousand years, their estimates agree with the instantaneous estimates based on biologic considerations. This study shows that the earliest lake phase was very fresh and contained until the end of the Kubi Algi Formation. The Lower Member of the Koobi Fora Formation is shown to have been a fresh- to brackish-water lake. From the beginning of Upper Member time (about 1.8 MY ago) to the present, the lake occupying the Turkana Depression has varied from a brackish lake that overflowed to a closed basin lake that fell below overflow level and whose alkalinity rose to about 200 meq/l.

  14. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  15. Management of Purex spent solvents by the alkaline hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Manohar, Smitha; Vincent, Tessy; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1995-01-01

    Various treatment processes were evaluated on a laboratory scale for the management of the spent solvent from the extraction of nuclear materials. Based on the lab scale evaluation it is proposed to adopt the alkaline hydrolysis process as the treatment mode for the spent solvent. The process has advantages over the other processes in terms of simplicity, low cost and ease of disposal of the secondary waste generated. (author)

  16. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  17. Analysis of longitudinal variations in North Pacific alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon measurements in the ocean lack the coverage of physical measurements, so approximate alkalinity is predicted where data is unavailable. Surface alkalinity in the North Pacific is poorly characterised by predictive algorithms. Understanding the processes affecting alkalinity in this area can improve the equations. We investigated the causes of regional variations in alkalinity using GLODAPv2. We tested different hypotheses for the causes of three longitudinal phenomena in surface ocean values of Alk*, a tracer of calcium carbonate cycling. These phenomena are: (a) an increase in Alk* from east to west at 50°N, (b) an increase in Alk* from west to east at 30°N, and (c) a lack of a strong increase in Alk* from west to east in the equatorial upwelling area. We found that the most likely cause of higher Alk* on the western side of the subpolar North Pacific (at 50°N) is that denser isopycnals with higher Alk* lie at shallower depths on the western side than the eastern side. At 30°N, the main cause of higher Alk* on the eastern side of the basin is upwelling along the continental shelf of southwestern North America. Along the equator, our analyses suggest that the absence of a strong east-west trend is because the more intense upwelling on the eastern side of the basin does not, under normal conditions, lead to strong elevation of Alk*. However, surface Alk* is more strongly elevated in the eastern Equatorial Pacific during negative phases of the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation, probably because the upwelled water comes from greater depth at these times.

  18. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    into five categories: proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel...SOFC and PAFC belong to high temperature fuel cell, which can be applied in stationary power generation. PEMFC and AFC belong to low temperature fuel...function of the polymer electrolyte is to serve as electrolyte to transport ions between electrodes. PEMFC uses a polymer as electrolyte and works

  19. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    1   1.1.2   Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) ......................... 3   1.1.3   Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs...160   xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1:   Schematic diagram of a PEMFC ...according to the type of electrolyte they use. Nowadays, there are six major types of fuel cells: proton-exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ), hydroxide

  20. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daochen; Zhang, Peipei; Xie, Changxiao; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong; Qian, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-21

    Background: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. Results: To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC-MS analyze was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis were carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least 2-fold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis and assembly, etc. Conclusions: GC-MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the

  1. Characterization of palm fibers modified with alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipiao, Bryan L.S.; Goulart, Shane A.G.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Souza Junior, Fernando G. de

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective of to study one inexpensive and effective technique that enables the application of natural fibers from the Australian Royal Palm as reinforcement in polymer composites. The fibers treated with alkaline solution were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and had their data compared with the fiber in nature. Data showed that the treatment made on fibers surface was effective. (author)

  2. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  3. Porous poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) membranes for alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) (PFSA) is one of a few polymer types that combine excellent alkali resistance with extreme hydrophilicity. It is therefore of interest as a base material in separators for alkaline water electrolyzers. In the pristine form it, however, shows high cation selectivity. T...... for the unmodified membrane. The technological feasibility was demonstrated by testing the membranes in an alkaline water electrolysis cell with encouraging performance.......Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) (PFSA) is one of a few polymer types that combine excellent alkali resistance with extreme hydrophilicity. It is therefore of interest as a base material in separators for alkaline water electrolyzers. In the pristine form it, however, shows high cation selectivity...... and washed out and the obtained porous materials allowed for swelling to reach water contents up to λ=85 [H2O] [−SO3K]−1. After equilibration in 22 wt% aqueous KOH, ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm−1 was recorded for this membrane type at room temperature, which is significantly higher than 0.01 S cm−1...

  4. Alkaline autoclave leaching of refractory uranium-thorium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, S. A.; Sam, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of an innovative method for processing the Oman placer ores by alkaline leaching in ball mill autoclaves, where grinding and leaching of the refractory minerals take place simultaneously. This was followed by the selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by autoclave leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions. The introduced method is based on the fact that thorium and uranium form soluble carbonate complexes with ammonium carbonate, while lanthanides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. It was found that a complete alkaline leaching of Oman placer ores (98.0 P ercent ) was attained at 150 and 175 d egree C within 2.5 and 2h, respectively. Oman placer ores leaching was intensified and accelerated in a ball mill autoclaves as a result of the grinding action of steel balls, removal of the hydroxide layer covering ores grains and the continuous contact of fresh ore grains with alkaline solution. The study of selective carbonate processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions on autoclave under pressure revealed that the complete thorium recovery (97.5 P ercent ) with uranium recovery (90.8 P ercent ) and their separation from the lanthanides were attained at 70-80 d egree C during l-2h. The extraction of lanthanides in carbonate solution was low and did not exceed 4.6 P ercent .

  5. Alkaline phosphatase as a screening test for osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Muhammad Amin; Javed, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Alamzeb; Sadruddin, Nooruddin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults in Pakistan despite adequate sunlight exposure. Diagnosis in adults is usually delayed and is made following pathological fractures that result in significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to see whether Serum Alkaline Phosphatase levels could be used as a screening test for osteomalacia. The Study was conducted at Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Gadap, Karachi, between July 2002 and June 2005. Serum calcium levels are commonly used to screen patients suspected of osteomalacia, and raised serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is considered a diagnostic finding. We used SALP to screen patients who presented with back or non-specific aches and pain of more than six months duration. Three hundred thirty-four (334) patients were screened of which 116 (35%) had raised SALP. Osteomalacia was diagnosed in 92 (79.3%) of these 116 either by plain radiographs, bone biopsy or isotope bone scan. Fifty-four (53.4%) of the 101 cases had a normal level of serum calcium. Osteomalacia is likely to be missed if only serum calcium is used to screen patients. Serum Alkaline Phosphate should be used as the preferred method for screening these patients.

  6. Evaluation of electrolytic alkaline cleaners by evaporative-rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed by which electrolytic alkaline cleaners used in large volumes in steel mills can be evaluated for their ability to clean rolling oil from steel strip without the necessity of large-scale mill trials. The method is evaporative-rate analysis, which can be used to determine the relative amount of residual oil on steel strip after cleaning. The procedure consists in placing a droplet of a solution of a volatile, radioactive, carbon-14 tagged organic compound dissolved in a more volatile solvent, on the surface of the metal, where it forms a ternary solution with any oil on the surface. The amount of oil in this ternary solution affects the rate of evaporation of the tagged compound. The rate of evaporation, monitored by a Geiger-Mueller detector, is a measure of the cleanliness of the surface. A number of commercial alkaline cleaners, both solids and liquids, were evaluated over a range of concentrations. Results indicated that the effectiveness of commercial alkaline cleaners varies greatly, and is a function of the cleaner concentration, cleaner composition, and polarity of cleaning. The presence of antifoaming agents also affects cleaning ability. The results of this study indicate that evaporative-rate analysis is a rapid and effective method for evaluating cleaners

  7. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  8. Location i det geopolitiske rum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    Hovedformålet med artiklen er at undersøge forholdet mellem genrehåndtering og location i The Night Manager. Genren er thrilleren i den spionudgave, der er kendt fra tidligere John Le Carré-filmatiseringer. Location passer perfekt til genren med valget af glamourøse steder, der har kunnet bruges i...

  9. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  10. Evolutionary economics and industry location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the outlines of an evolutionary economic geography of industry location. We discuss two evolutionary explanations of industry location, that is, one that concentrates on spin-offs, and one that focuses attention on knowledge and agglomeration economies. We claim that both

  11. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  12. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  13. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  14. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  15. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  16. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubo, H.

    2002-02-01

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  17. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  18. Production and partial characterization of alkaline protease from bacillus subtilis mutant induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.M.; Bashandy, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial isolates belonging to B.subtilis were locally isolated from soil and screened for alkaline protease production. Only one strain, the highly potent one, was selected as alkaline protease producer and subjected to further studies to optimize its production. Alkaline protease production was maximum at 35 degree C after 72 h of incubation and at ph 10.0. molasses as a carbon source and combination of peptone and yeast extract as a nitrogen source enhanced greatly alkaline protease production. The mutant strain induced by gamma radiation showed higher alkaline protease production by 1.97 fold as compared with the parent strain. The alkaline protease enzyme was active at 40 degree C and ph 10. It was compatible with many commercial detergents and showed high stability (84 %) of its original activity with Ariel detergent. Moreover, alkaline protease enhanced the washing performance, and retained 95 % of its activity in the formulated dry powder.

  19. Role of dust alkalinity in acid mobilization of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by acid gases (e.g., SO2, HNO3, N2O5, and HCl may play a key role in the transformation of insoluble iron (Fe in the oxidized or ferric (III form to soluble forms (e.g., Fe(II, inorganic soluble species of Fe(III, and organic complexes of iron. On the other hand, mineral dust particles have a potential of neutralizing the acidic species due to the alkaline buffer ability of carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3 and MgCO3. Here we demonstrate the impact of dust alkalinity on the acid mobilization of iron in a three-dimensional aerosol chemistry transport model that includes a mineral dissolution scheme. In our model simulations, most of the alkaline dust minerals cannot be entirely consumed by inorganic acids during the transport across the North Pacific Ocean. As a result, the inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during the long-range transport to the North Pacific Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2% dissolves from hematite in the coarse-mode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. On the other hand, a significant fraction of iron (1–2% dissolves in the fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model quantitatively reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Pacific Ocean. It implies that the buffering effect of alkaline content in dust aerosols might help to explain the inverse relationship between aerosol iron solubility and particle size. We also demonstrate that the iron solubility is sensitive to the chemical specification of iron-containing minerals in dust. Compared with the dust sources, soluble iron from combustion sources contributes to a relatively marginal effect for deposition of soluble iron over the North

  20. Urban Landscape Spatial Pattern Estimation of Cities in Shandong Province Using Nighttime Luminosity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; He, H.; Hu, T.; Li, G.; Gao, H.; Zhao, X.

    2017-09-01

    China's cities have been undergoing rapid and intense urbanization processes in the past few decades. Shandong is a coastal province which is located in East China with big economy and population scales, and which also plays an important role in the rapid process of China's modernization. The DMSP/OLS dataset has been widely used for the urban development assessments in long time-series and large spatial scales situations. In this paper, we used a time series of nighttime light data to estimate the landscape spatial pattern changes of cities in Shandong province from 1994 to 2012. Nine landscape metrics were calculated and analyzed to figure out the spatial patterns of urban area developments of the cities in Shandong province. The landscape metrics include the number of patches (NP), the landscape total area (TA), the aggregation index (AI), the largest patch index (LPI), the mean patch area (AREA_MN), the landscape shape index (LSI), the total edge length (TE), the edge density (ED), and the mean radius of gyration (GYRATE_MN). The experimental results reveal that, in 1994-2012, the total urban area of cities in Shandong province expanded for 1.17 times, the average urban area increased by about 93.00%, the average annual growth rate of the TE metric is 2.67 %, while the ED metric decreased about 1.44 % annually. Bigger cities in this area show relative slower urbanization development processes, such as Jinan and Qingdao. Coastal cities represented much more rapid expansion velocities than inland cities. In the middle area of Shandong province, the connectivity between developed urban areas was constantly increased.

  1. URBAN LANDSCAPE SPATIAL PATTERN ESTIMATION OF CITIES IN SHANDONG PROVINCE USING NIGHTTIME LUMINOSITY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s cities have been undergoing rapid and intense urbanization processes in the past few decades. Shandong is a coastal province which is located in East China with big economy and population scales, and which also plays an important role in the rapid process of China’s modernization. The DMSP/OLS dataset has been widely used for the urban development assessments in long time-series and large spatial scales situations. In this paper, we used a time series of nighttime light data to estimate the landscape spatial pattern changes of cities in Shandong province from 1994 to 2012. Nine landscape metrics were calculated and analyzed to figure out the spatial patterns of urban area developments of the cities in Shandong province. The landscape metrics include the number of patches (NP, the landscape total area (TA, the aggregation index (AI, the largest patch index (LPI, the mean patch area (AREA_MN, the landscape shape index (LSI, the total edge length (TE, the edge density (ED, and the mean radius of gyration (GYRATE_MN. The experimental results reveal that, in 1994–2012, the total urban area of cities in Shandong province expanded for 1.17 times, the average urban area increased by about 93.00%, the average annual growth rate of the TE metric is 2.67 %, while the ED metric decreased about 1.44 % annually. Bigger cities in this area show relative slower urbanization development processes, such as Jinan and Qingdao. Coastal cities represented much more rapid expansion velocities than inland cities. In the middle area of Shandong province, the connectivity between developed urban areas was constantly increased.

  2. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  3. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  4. Hydrology of area 52, Rocky Mountain coal province Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; Peterson, D.A.; Larson, L.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Ringen, B.H.; Mora, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 52 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes the Green River Basin upstream from the Yampa River, and the Bear River upstream from the Bear Lake - a total of 23,870 sq mi. Area 52 contains over 3 billion tons of strippable coal, most of which is located in the arid and semiarid plains. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 40 individual topics are discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: general features, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  5. Alberta opens its borders to PCB waste from other provinces for destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.

    1995-01-01

    The most recent and most significant development in the management of PCBs in Canada occurred with the announcement of the Alberta government that it would open its provincial borders to PCB and other hazardous wastes from across Canada for incineration at the province's special waste treatment facility located at Swan Hills, Alberta. The facility has an annual capacity of 15,000 tonnes of PCB waste. Alberta 's own waste products will be treated first; any excess capacity will be utilized to treat waste materials received from other provinces. It is estimated that given the Swan Hills plant capacity, it will take several years to treat and destroy all of Canada's current PCB waste inventory. Regulations concerning transportation, contracting requirements and pricing policies were briefly reviewed

  6. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  7. Social Situation Of Diyarbakir Province Throughout The Ottoman Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim YILMAZÇELİK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social Stratification can be described as “differentiation of a certain population hierarchically, namely, classes being located one after another in social terms”. As at present time, in the past periods as well, one of the most important factors that affected the social stratification was the posts of the persons, that is to say, the occupations and economic power they had. In Ottoman State, human communities living in cities were composed of different groups in general. It has been possible to arrange human groups especially with respect to their jobs or their economical situations and educational positions. As in the other Ottoman cities, in the city and the province of Diyarbakır, those groups constituted the social stratums. In this study, about social stratification in Diyarbakir city and state are given. Family and women issues form the main core of these layers are discussed in detail. Of the pillars of society throughout history and despite being one of the cornerstones of the nuclear family; this aspect of women in various cultures and periods or have been denied or ignored by hovering, has been reduced to a passive position. Islamic period, together with the woman, a former compared to a more realistic status gained Although, many Muslim states and cultures, traditions from a Ways must be, the status of women of Islam aiming at the level could be reached. In this study, which is expected to serve as an example to the status of women in the family and provincial organizations, in Diyarbakir Province were discussed between the situation of women in the social structure.Diyarbakir şeriyye sicils, social history and family gives important information about the woman. However, other resources will also be made. However, the issue constitutes the main source of şeriyye sicils. Diyarbakir when dealing with the family’s location in the social structure; first marriage and the family traditions and handled accordingly; Formation of

  8. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  9. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  10. Hull properties in location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances....

  11. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  12. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  13. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  14. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...

  15. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  16. The alkaline pre-filming process of the RWCU piping surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, D-Y.; Wen, T-J., E-mail: dahyukao@iner.gov.tw [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fong, C., E-mail: clinton@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung, Hsinchu (China); Lu, J-H., E-mail: u879864@taipower.com.tw [Taiwan Power Co., Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant, Gongliao Township, Taipei County (China)

    2010-07-01

    The radiation dose rate on a BWR can cause great damage to operators and their maintenances working quality, so it is very important to lower it. The RWCU of a BWR primary system has the highest radiation dose rate and deposition of an active corrosion product because of: continually cleaning the reactor water and the repeated, acute change of temperature. The Lungmen NPP was built as an advanced BWR (ABWR) system. All new ABWRs in Japan, such as Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP units K6 and K7, Hamaoka NPP unit H5, and Shika NPP unit2, were given in passivation treatment in the stage of nuclear heating or flow-induced vibration (FIV) testing before each plant's initial start up. The conditions of alkaline pre-filming process include: pH, dissolve oxygen (DO) and temperature. This project had been decided by the results of earlier water loop testing. Three kinds of specimens including stainless steel AISI SS316L and carbon steel SA106 GrB, SA333 Gr6 were put into the autoclave located at a bypass system during the process of passivation treatment. The materials of these specimens have been used in RWCU piping, and during the alkaline pre-filming process they were monitored by AC impedances and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP). Their surface analyses including SEM, EDS, ESCA and SIMS data were obtained from the initial test, and obtained every six months thereafter. From the SEM plot of first issue it was found that the specimens' surface of all three different materials presented excellent levels of oxidized pellets. They are almost completely packed, for both large and small granules, and the porosity is less than 40%. The deposition tests of cobalt ion were also completed. The material of stainless steel was nearly not affected through the passive process. However, carbon steel could reduce about 30% to 50% of deposited cobalt ion. This result follows the conclusion of Hatch Company. Based on the nominal cost of radiation protection, i.e. 10000 USD

  17. Recent Pilot Plant Experience on Alkaline Leaching of Low Grade Uranium Ore in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, A. K; Ghosh, S. K.; Padmanabhan, N. P.H., [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium deposits in India are low grade and are relatively smaller in extent as compared to present worldwide commercial practice. So far, the vein type deposits of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB) are being exploited for meeting the Indian requirements of uranium. The deposits are currently processed by acid leaching in the mills located at Jaduguda and Turamdih near Jamshedpur in Jharkhand State of India. The deposits at Jaduguda and Narwapahar are being mined by underground mining and are processed in Jaduguda mill using airagitated Pachucas. The deposits at Banduhurang and Turamdih are being mined by open cast and underground mining respectively and are processed at Turamdih by acid leaching in mechanically agitated reactors. The occurrences of uranium in North East and Northern part of Kadapa basin are relatively moderate in size and are expected to be processed in the near future by acid leaching. Uranium is also found to occur near Tummalapalle in granitic and limestone host rocks in Southern part of Kadapa basin (Andhra Pradesh) and in Gogi in Bhima basin (Karnataka). The deposit in Tummalapalle is relatively lower in grade (≈ 0.042% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is a reasonably large reserve, whereas that in Gogi is rich in uranium content (≈0.18% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is relatively small reserve. Laboratory tests based on alkaline leaching have been carried out on both types of deposits. Studies for Tummalapalle deposits have been extended to pilot plant level and a complete flow sheet has been established with the regeneration and recirculation of lixiviants and recovery of sodium sulphate as a by-product. The process involves alkaline leaching under oxygen pressure in batch type and/or continuous leach reactor using sodium carbonate/bicarbonate as a leaching media and uranium is recovered as sodium diuranate. Based on the techno-economic evaluation of the process, an industrial scale mill (3 000 tonnes ore/day) is being set up at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh

  18. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  19. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  20. Changes in NO2 Concentration from Major Cities and Provinces in Korea: A Case Study from 1998 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were investigated using data obtained routinely from air quality monitoring stations located in seven major cities and nine provinces in Korea for the period 1998 to 2003. The results indicate that annual trends in NO2 concentrations generally reflect changes in environmental conditions, while exhibiting cyclic and systematic patterns across seasons. Its wintertime concentrations were most prominent, with concentrations decreasing gradually across spring, fall, and summer. If concentration patterns are examined among different cities and/or provinces, the highest mean values were found from the Capital city, Seoul (34.7 ppb and the surrounding province, Gyunggi (30.2 ppb. In contrast, remarkably reduced NO2 concentrations were seen in such regions as the remote island, Jeju and Jeonnam province with mean values of 17.5 and 16.5 ppb, respectively. The overall results of our study indicate that there are strong geographical gradients in NO2 distributions to exhibit strongly polluted patterns consistently in densely populated urban areas (e.g., major city, compared to large rural areas (e.g., province.

  1. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  2. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    -to-job transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also......I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job...

  3. Sintering-alkaline processing of borosilicate ores of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, F.A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study the processes of decomposition of boron-containing ore by sintering with NaOH, finding the optimal parameters of the decomposition process, studying the kinetics of processes and developing the technological foundations for ore processing. The processes of borosilicate ore processing were studied by sintering with NaOH. Possible mechanisms of chemical reactions of the process of sintering-alkaline decomposition of boron-containing ore are established, the results of which are substantiated by physicochemical methods of analysis. A principal technological scheme for processing of borosilicate ores by a sintering-alkaline method has been developed. In the first chapter, data on alkaline and caking processes for processing boron-containing and aluminium comprising raw materials are available in the literature. Based on this, the directions of our own research are outlined. The second chapter is devoted to the study of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of borosilicate ores and their concentrates with the help of X-ray phase and chemical analysis methods, the stoichiometric calculation of the formation of aluminum, iron, and boron salts has been carried out, and a thermodynamic analysis of the processes of sintering borosilicate ores with alkali has been considered. The third chapter presents the results of a study of sintering-alkaline method of processing of initial borosilicate ore of the Ak-Arkhar Deposit and its concentrate without calcination and after calcination. The kinetics of sintering of borosilicate ores with sodium hydroxide was studied. The optimal conditions of borosilicate ore sintering before and after the preliminary calcination with alkali were determined. Optimal parameters of the sintering process have been found: sintering temperature 800-8500 deg C, duration of the process - 60 minutes, mass ratio of NaOH to raw materials 2: 1. The conditions for sintering of borosilicate concentrate with alkali have been

  4. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  5. Blue photoluminescence in Ti-doped alkaline-earth stannates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ueda, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    Blue photoluminescence properties of Ti-doped alkaline-earth stannates, A 2 (Sn 1- x Ti x )O 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) (x=0.005-0.15), were examined at room temperature. These stannates showed intense broad emission bands peaking at 445 nm for Ca 2 SnO 4 , at 410 nm for Sr 2 SnO 4 , and at 425 nm for Ba 2 SnO 4 under UV excitation. Emission intensities were relatively insensitive to Ti concentration and no sharp concentration quenching was observed. Mixing alkaline-earth ions in the crystal structures did not increase the emission intensities in the A 2 (Sn 1- x Ti x )O 4 system. The excitation spectra of these stannates exhibited broad bands just below the fundamental absorption edges, implying that luminescence centers do not consist of the component elements in the host materials. It was suggested that the isolated TiO 6 complexes are possible luminescence centers in these materials, as previously proposed in other Ti-doped stannates such as Mg 2 SnO 4 and Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 . - Graphical abstract: Blue photoluminescence properties of Ti-doped alkaline-earth stannates, A 2 (Sn 1- x Ti x )O 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) (x=0.005-0.15), were examined at room temperature. These stannates showed intense broad emission bands peaking at 445 nm for Ca 2 SnO 4 , at 410 nm for Sr 2 SnO 4 , and at 425 nm for Ba 2 SnO 4 under UV excitation

  6. Growth of microbial mixed cultures under anaerobic, alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Cement and concrete are the most important engineered barrier materials in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste and thus represent the most significant component of the total disposal inventory. Based on the chemical composition of the concrete used in the repository and the groundwater fluxes in the modelled host rock, it is to be expected that the pH in the near vicinity of the repository could exceed a value of 10.5 for more than a million years. The groundwater in the repository environment also has a limited carbon concentration. Since microorganisms will be present in a repository and can even find suitable living conditions within the waste itself, investigations were carried out in order to establish the extent to which microbial activity is possible under the extreme conditions of the repository near-field. For the investigations, alkalophilic cultures were enriched from samples from alkaline habitats and from Valanginian Marl. Anaerobic bacteria with fermentative, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic metabolism were selected. The growth and activity of the mixed cultures were studied under alkaline conditions and the dependence on pH and carbon concentration determined. All the mixed cultures investigated are alkalophilic. The optimum growth range for the cultures is between pH 9.0 and pH 10.0. The activity limit for the fermentative mixed culture is at pH 12, for the sulfate-reducers at pH 11 and for the methanogens at pH 10.5. Given the limited supply of carbon, the mixed cultures can only grow under slightly alkaline conditions. Only the fermentative cultures are capable of surviving with limited carbon supply at pH 13. (author) 24 figs., 18 tabs., 101 refs

  7. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mannan, A.; Zubair, H.; Mirza, B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  8. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  9. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  10. Development of a pressurized bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Edgar A. de Godoi Rodrigues; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Rapelli, Rubia; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/ IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada], Email: nevesjr@unicamp.br; Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo F.P. [Hydrogen Technology (HyTron), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the actual development status of a bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer with maximum production capacity of 1 m3/h of hydrogen and controlled by a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), which also interfaces the electrolytic system with operators and other equipment, such as gas storage tanks, fuel cells and photovoltaic panels. The project also includes the construction of an electrolysis test bench to record electrical parameters (cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte potentials), the amount of produced gases and gas quality determined by gas chromatography. (author)

  11. Hyper production of alkaline protease by mutagenized bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Tanseem, F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to augment the alkaline protease production from Bacillus subtilis by using chemical mutagen (MMS) and UV mutagenesis. A number of mutants were isolated which produce high levels of extra cellular proteases. Analysis of culture supernatants of these mutants had shown that the total amounts of proteolysis activity were increased from 1 to 2 fold over the wild strain. Clones showing promote response were further characterized by analyzing different parameters; like of Temperature, pH substrate concentration and incubation period, to study the activity of protease enzyme. (author)

  12. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...... carried out at temperatures from 180-260 degree C and reaction times of 8-24 min. The chloride liberated provides information on the rate constants. Considering the measured Cl- and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values, we find hydrolysis and oxidation processes to be interdependent. The main products...

  13. Phosphotyrosine as a substrate of acid and alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoł, I; Kuciel, R; Wasylewska, E; Ostrowski, W S

    1985-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for following dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine has been described. The absorption spectra of phosphotyrosine and tyrosine were plotted over the pH range from 3 to 9. The change in absorbance accompanying the conversion of phosphotyrosine to tyrosine was the greatest at 286 nm. The difference absorption coefficients were calculated for several pH values. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine by acid phosphatases from human prostate gland, from wheat germ and potatoes obeys the Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas alkaline phosphatases calf intestine and E. coli are inhibited by excess of substrate.

  14. A double antibody radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, S.; Bagshawe, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is normally found in enzymically measurable amounts in second and third trimester pregnancy serum. Its occurrence in sera and tumours from patients with malignant disease has led to the development of methods to specifically identify and quantitate the enzyme. Recently immunological techniques have been used, employing antibodies raised to purified PLAP; these include solid phase radioimmunoassays and enzyme-immunoassay. The development of a sensitive, specific, automated double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the measurement of PLAP in serum is reported. (Auth.)

  15. Mechanistic studies of the alkaline degradation of cellulose in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.F.; Robertson, G.P.; Spindler, M.W.; Harrison, W.N.; Somers, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    The alkaline degradation of cellulose-based materials under conditions simulating those of a deep underground radioactive waste repository has been investigated. A number of key degradation products, of which 2-C-(hydroxymethyl)-3-deoxy-D-pentonic acid (isosaccharinic acid) is the most important, have been synthesised, and the solubilities of their plutonium complexes have been determined. Analysis of leachates of anaerobically degraded cellulose has shown concentrations of organic acids which are broadly consistent with the enhanced plutonium solubilities found in these leachates. Reaction mechanisms have been identified that can lead to isosaccharinic acid production by non-oxidative transformations, which may be catalysed by some divalent cations. (Author)

  16. Growth of brown trout in acid and alkaline waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R N

    1961-01-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the factors affecting the growth and maturity of brown trout in lochs in the Highlands of Scotland. Evidence has been found which supports the view that the growth rate depends more on the relation between the trout population and the food supply than on any direct influence of the chemical composition of the water. Details are given of the growth rate of trout in nine lochs with a wide range of alkalinities where spawning facilities are either very good or poor or non-existent.

  17. Expression and Characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus Alkaline Serine Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Majeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A putative protease gene (aprE from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the enzyme had optimal activity under alkaline conditions (pH 8–10. In addition, the enzyme had an elevated optimum temperature (60°C. The protease was also stable in the presence of many surfactants and oxidant. Thus, the C. proteolyticus protease has potential applications in industries such as the detergent market.

  18. Tooth enamel sample preparation using alkaline treatment in ESR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongzeng, Zhou; Jiadong, Wang; Xiaomei, Jia; Ke, Wu; Jianbo, Cong

    2002-01-01

    Tooth enamel sample preparation using alkaline treatment was studied and compared with traditional mechanical method in this paper. 20 adult teeth were used. Samples were placed into NaOH solution. This method requires 4-5 weeks and the enamel was separated from dentin. Experimental results show that 8M NaOH was appropriate for separating enamel from dentin and that there is no difference in background signal relative intensity between samples prepared by mechanical and by chemical methods. There is also no difference in radiosensitivity between samples prepared by two methods mentioned above. Dose response curve for tooth enamel samples isolated by 8M NaOH solution was obtained

  19. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4.......4. Three enzyme peaks were eluted using low pressure chromatography with a Bio-gel column. With a HPLC gel filtration column the separation of the enamel extract resulted in only one peak with AP activity. The fractions of this peak were used to produce an antibody against bovine AP....

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  1. Economic comparisons of acid and alkaline waste systems at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Porter, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Order-of-magnitude costs for a variety of options for disposal of SRP radioactive processing wastes in retrievable surface storage are given in FY 1975 dollars. The assumption is made that three-reactor operation continues at SRP through the year 2000. Two things are apparent. First, the waste disposal costs are very high, in the range of one to three billion dollars even before escalation to the expected disposal period in FY 1985-2000. Second, the alkaline waste cases are always less expensive then the corresponding acid waste cases even when so-called ideal waste streams are postulated for the acid cases. (U.S.)

  2. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  3. Role of location in the attendance and spending of Festinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Labuschagne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the determinants of spending by the visitors at Innibos, Vryfees en Kierieklapper arts festivals with special focus on the different locations, using the same questionnaire and methodology. The survey measured the attendance and spending of different arts festivals in different locations in order to determine whether any differences exist and if so what these differences are. The research was conducted by means of a visitor survey at the three arts festivals during the same year with questionnaires administered at Innibos (428, Vryfees (336 and Kierieklapper (202, respectively. A factor analysis, Tukey d test and chi-square test were performed. The results indicate that the location and size of the town is not an important factor regarding the impact an event has on the town and the region. Findings that were meaningful included that small, medium type arts festivals differ from each other and also from larger arts festivals in a number of ways. The travel motives revealed four factors, namely: Family and arts; Meet new people; Productions and uniqueness and Escape. The latter was the most significant travel motive and this information can be used in future marketing exercises of arts festivals in different locations – to escape one’s own province and immediate surroundings.

  4. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  5. Location and activity specific site-management for military locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hulst, M. van; Meuken, D.

    2009-01-01

    pace is limited in the Netherlands and military activities, that may cause nuisance or environmental hazards, should therefore be considered and evaluated during the use of military locations. The last few years TNO and Deltares have worked on a research program on environmental effects due to

  6. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  7. Isotope Hydrology Investigation of Zonguldak And Province Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erduran, B.; Toerk, K.; Oektue, G.

    2002-01-01

    The most important coal area of Turkey is situated in Zonguldak and province. The coal series occurred during Westfalien (Carboniferous) are lower-bounded by Visean aged karstic limestones and upper-bounded by Aptian-Barremian aged karstic limestones. The isotope hydrology, which consists one of the studies dealed with karst hydrogeology, was held to determine the groundwater relations between the karstic limestones adjacent to the coal layers located in the Zonguldak coal mine areas. Environmental isotope samples were collected in the basin during 1994 - 1995 period, from the surface and groundwater. Deuterium ( 2 H), Oxygen 18 ( 18 O) and Tritium ( 3 H) analysis were carried out on the samples. Recharge elevation, water origin and transit time of the groundwater system were determined with the evaluation of the analysis results. Waters encountered in the area are of marine origined rainfall, recharging at an elevation of 400-500 meters and consisting of shallow and deep circulation systems. Groundwater that intruding the coal mine galleries, have a short flow period and are recharged from recent precipitations

  8. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  9. CLEAN RIVER PROGRAM AT KALIGARANG CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harihanto Harihanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaligarang River that located n Central Java Province represents one of the rivers in Indonesia which water quality was proved very bad. Since 1989 Clean River Program has been executed in this river. Nevertheless, untul 1998 there have not yet independent evaluation towards this program. To Know wether of this program successful a survey has been conducted from November 1998 to November 1999. The success of this program investigated by: (1 reducing of pollutant loads, (2 target of pollution loads that reached, and (3 improving of river water quality. It was foujd that this program has been successfully reducing pollutant loads of waste of all factories as target froups. Nevertheless, the quality of water of Kaligarang River was still relatively bad. This condition porbably was cause by domestic waste partivularly from hospital, hotel, restaurant dan small factories that was not included as tartet group in this program. Thus it was conclude at the implementation of the Clean River Program in Kaligarang has not been succesful to im[rove water quality of this river.

  10. Workplace bullying in nursing: The case of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Ali Nasr; Shahbazi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession both in Iran and internationally. This study examined workplace bullying among a group of Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: The prevalence rate of bullying behavior among nurses was determined. Data were collected from 162 nurses who worked in four hospitals located in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Results: Results showed that only 9% of nurses who participated in this study had frequently been exposed to bullying behavior, 22% had occasionally been bullied, and 69% had never been exposed to these behaviors during the last year. The most common type of workplace bullying experienced by nurses was verbal bullying. Forty percent of the nurses reported exposure to verbal bullying behavior frequently or occasionally. Conclusions: To be able to intervene with bullying behavior in the workplace, there is a need to pay greater attention to the problem by the entire range of managers, lawyers, industrial–organizational psychologists, counselors, social workers, and local authorities. PMID:25183984

  11. Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Scott, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1

  12. Reef fish and coral assemblages at Maptaput, Rayong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravit Cheevaporn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structure of coral and fish assemblages of a group of small islands and pinnacles in the vicinity of Maptaput deep sea port, Rayong Province, Thailand during 2002. The coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and nearby pinnacle, Hin-Yai, which are located less than 1 km from the deep sea port, had changed. Living coral cover in 2002 was 8% at Hin-Yai and 4% at Saket Island which decreased from 33% and 64%, respectively in the previous report in 1992. Numbers of coral species at Saket Island decreased from 41 species to 13 species. Acropora spp. that previously dominated the area had nearly disappeared. For fishes, a total of 40 species were found in 2002 the numbers decreased to only 6 species at Saket Island and 36 species at Hin-Yai. Fishes that dominated the area are small pomacentrids. After 1997, the conditions of coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and Hin-Yai had markedly changed, whereas, the conditions found in the nearby area are much better. Sediment load from port construction was the primary cause of the degradation. This should indicate the adverse effect of sedimentation on coral and reef fish assemblages at Maptaput. Coral communities developed on rock pinnacles west of Maptaput deep-sea port are reported and described herein for the first time.

  13. Geology and petrology of alkaline Massif from Ilha de Vitoria, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Geological and petrological studies of the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, State of Sao Paulo, have been carried out by means of photo interpretation; field work, thin section studies, whole-rock chemical analysis, x-ray diffractometry, EPMA mineral analysis, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating. Radiometric dating indicates a late Cretaceous age for the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, which is concordant with the ages of other neighbouring alkaline bodies. (author)

  14. Mass spectra of alkaline earth salts with a FAB source. Complexation with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, J.

    1987-01-01

    With a liquid desorption FAB source it is possible to obtain alkaline earth metal ions complexed by a crown ether. Conditions for formation of these complexes ions are examined for selection of the complexing agent in function of cation size. Behaviour of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds are compared allowing the differentiation of ion extraction phenomena by liquid desorption ion source and solvent extraction [fr

  15. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. II. Laboratory experiments with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In waterlogged soils sulphate reduction was characterized by increases in counts of sulphate reducers, and increase in titratable alkalinity, insoluble carbonate, and soluble sulphides, and a decrease in soluble Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/. Presence of organic matter greatly enhanced sulphate reduction. A linear relationship between the amount of sulphate reduced and increases in titratable alkalinity and insoluble carbonate were apparent. The potential effects of sulphate reduction on soil fertility through the development of alkalinity are discussed.

  16. Alkaline Extraction of DNA from Pathogenic Fungi for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Mishima, Shinobu; Matsuyama, Nobuaki; 松元, 賢; 松山, 宣明

    1997-01-01

    For the preparation of DNA samples from fungal mycelia alkaline extraction method was applied and assessed its usefulness for PCR-RFLP analysis. Using alkaline treatment protocols, 18S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA) derived from fungal genomic DNA of Pyricularia oryzae, P. zingiberi, Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae were PCR-amplified and digested with Hha I, Msp I and Hae ill. RFLP analysis with HhaI showed the divergent polymorphism between genus Pyricularia and Rhizoctonia. The alkaline DNA extract...

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of tellurium (IV) by periodate in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, K.; Vani, P.; Dikshitulu, L.S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed kinetic study of the oxidation of tellurium (IV) by periodate in alkaline medium has been carried out to compare the mechanisms of oxidation in the acid and alkaline media. It is interesting to note that the rate step involves a two-electron transfer from tellurium (IV) to periodate in alkaline medium although the kinetic pattern is somewhat different from that in the acid medium. 7 refs., 1 tab

  18. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  19. Stream Insect Production as a Function of Alkalinity and Detritus Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Thomas G.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine if aquatic insect production was significantly different between high and low alkalinity mountain streams and if any differences were associated with food availability factors. The major objectives included determining: (1) if annual production differences occur between high and low alkalinity streams; (2) if processing rates of terrestrial detritus differs between high and low alkalinity streams; (3) if detrital processing rates are related to stream inse...

  20. Elevated alkalinity and sulfate adversely affect the aquatic macrophyte Lobelia dortmanna

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Cristina; Keijsers, Danny J. H.; Lucassen, E. C. H. E. T.; Pedersen, Ole; Roelofs, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in alkalinity and SO4 2- in softwater lakes can negatively affect pristine isoetid population because the increase in alkalinity and SO4 2- can stimulate sediment mineralization and consequently cause anoxia. The consequences of increased sediment mineralization depend on the ability of isoetids such as Lobelia dortmanna to oxidize the rhizosphere via radial O2 loss. To study how alkalinity and SO4 2- affect the isoetid L. dortmanna, and if neg...