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Sample records for alkaline pluton kola

  1. Davinciite, Na12K3Ca6Fe{3/2+}Zr3(Si26O73OH)Cl2, a New K,Na-Ordered mineral of the eudialyte group from the Khibiny Alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a description of a new zirconosilicate of the eudialyte group, which was named davinciite in honor of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), a famous Italian scientist, painter, sculptor and architect. The new mineral has been found in hyperagpaitic pegmatite at the Rasvumchorr Mountain, Khibiny Pluton, Kola Peninsula, as relict inclusions, up to 1-2 mm in size in a rastsvetaevite matrix. It is associated with nepheline, sodalite, potassium feldspar, delhayelite, aegirine, shcherbakovite, villiaumite, nitrite, nacaphite, rasvumite, and djerfisherite. Davinciite is dark lavender and transparent, with a vitreous luster and white streak. The new mineral is brittle, with conchoidal fracture; the Mohs' hardness is 5. No indications of cleavage or parting were observed. The measured density is 2.82(2) g/cm3 (volumetric method); the calculated density is 2.848 g/cm3. Davinciite is optically uniaxial, positive; ω = 1.603(2), ɛ = 1.605(2). It is nonpleochroic and nonfluorescent in UV light. The new mineral slowly breaks down and gelates in 50% HCl and HNO3. It is trigonal, space group R3m. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 14.2956(2), c = 30.0228(5) Å, V=5313.6(2) Å3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are as follows: 2.981(100)(315), 2.860(96)(404), 4.309(66)(205), 3.207(63)(208), 6.415(54)(104), 3.162(43)(217). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, H2O calculated from X-ray diffraction data) is as follows, wt %: 12.69 Na2O, 3.53 K2O, 11.02 CaO, 0.98 SrO, 0.15 BaO, 5.33 FeO, 0.37 MnO, 0.07 Al2O3, 51.20 SiO2, 0.39 TiO2, 11.33 ZrO2, 0.21HfO2, 0.09 Nb2O5, 1.89 Cl, 0.93H2O, -O = Cl2 0.43; total is 99.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al + Zr + Hf + Ti + Nb = 29 ( Z = 3) is (Na1l.75Sr0.29Ba0.03)Σ12.07(K2.28Na0.72)Σ3Ca5.99(Fe2.26Mn0.16)Σ2.42(Zr2.80Ti0.15Hf0.03Nb0.02) Σ3(Si1.96Al0.04)Σ2[Si3O9]2 [Si9O27]2[(OH)1.42O0.58]Σ2[Cl1.62(H2O)0.38]Σ2 · 0.48H2O. The simplified

  2. Duration of formation of magmatic system of polyphase paleozoic alkaline complexes of the Central Kola: U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempt was made for the determination of duration of all abyssal system formation in the central part of the Kola peninsula. System of isotope methods inclosing Rb-Sr-isochronic dating, 40Ar/39Ar-age analysis of rocks as well as U-Th-Pb-dating is applied. Formation of the Khibiny-Lovozero-Kurga volcano-plutonic system is proposed to have a multiphase character. Summary scheme of the order of events is performed

  3. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  4. Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons that comprise the middle crust of the central and eastern Aleutians have distinct isotopic and elemental compositions compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas in the same region, including those from the same islands. Therefore the Holocene lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Compared to the lavas, the Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks show higher SiO2 at a given Fe/Mg ratio, and have higher εNd-εHf values and lower Pb-Sr isotope ratios. However, the plutonic rocks strongly resemble calc-alkaline Holocene volcanics with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the western Aleutians, whose composition has been attributed to significant contributions from partial melting of subducted basaltic oceanic crust. These data could reflect a temporal variation of central and eastern Aleutian magma source compositions, from predominantly calc-alkaline compositions with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the Paleogene, to tholeiitic compositions with more "enriched" isotopes more recently. Alternatively, the differences between central Aleutian plutonic and volcanic rocks may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons versus lavas. Calc-alkaline parental magmas, with higher SiO2 and high viscosity, are likely to form plutons after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. This conclusion has overarching importance because the plutonic rocks are chemically similar to bulk continental crust. Formation of similar plutonic rocks worldwide may play a key role in the genesis and evolution of continental crust.

  5. Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc

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    Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

    2014-05-01

    Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

  6. Mid-Neoproterozoic ridge subduction and magmatic evolution in the northeastern margin of the Indochina block: Evidence from geochronology and geochemistry of calc-alkaline plutons

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    Qi, Xuexiang; Santosh, M.; Zhao, Yuhao; Hu, Zhaocuo; Zhang, Chao; Ji, Fengbao; Wei, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The mid-Neoproterozoic medium- to high-K calc-alkaline magmatic rocks in the northeastern margin of the Indochina block, SW China, provide important insights into the relationship of the Indochina block with the Gondwana supercontinent. Here we report zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data from the early and late stage plutons which yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 765 Ma and 732-739 Ma suggesting mid-Neoproterozoic emplacement. The zircon εHf(t) values show a range of - 3.2 to + 2.4 (average + 0.1 ± 0.9) with TDMC of 1510 to 1870 Ma for the early plutons, and - 5.4 to + 5.1 (average + 2.1 to - 3.9) with TDMC of 1366 to 1985 Ma for late plutons. Both groups show similar geochemical characteristics including high Mg#, enrichment of LILE and LREE, slight negative Eu anomalies, and strongly negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, with all the samples falling within the continental/island arc field in tectonic discrimination diagrams. These features suggest that the early and late stage magmas were produced by the mixing of mantle-derived magma and crust-derived magma in different proportion within an active continental margin, in subduction-related continental-arc tectonic setting. The linear zoning and roughly parallel distribution of the two generations of intrusions with a hiatus of 20 Ma might suggest an episode of ridge subduction with asthenosphere upwelling through the slab window that generated the second phase of plutons.

  7. Geochemical features and age of baddeleyite from carbonatites of the Proterozoic Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic pluton, North Karelia

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    Rodionov, N. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Simakin, S. G.; Sergeev, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the local composition, baddeleyite grains that were less altered due to interaction with an alkaline melt and corresponded to the primary stage of crystallization of the intrusion were selected from the carbonatite intrusion of the Proterozoic polyphase Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic complex. The single age of carbonatite crystallization characterized of the bulk volume of the intrusion was estimated for the first time on the basis of 40 local U-Th-Pb (SHRIMP II) analyses of these grains. The overall concordant age of baddeleyite is 1994.8 ± 9.4 Ma, and the lower age limit of the polyphase complex formation is less than 1998.4 ± 3.5 Ma.

  8. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

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    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  9. High-K calc-alkaline magmatism at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary: implications for mantle metasomatism and continental crust petrogenesis. Example of the Bulai pluton (Central Limpopo Belt, South Africa)

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    Laurent, Oscar; Martin, Hervé; Doucelance, Régis; Moyen, Jean-François; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    The Neoarchaean Bulai pluton, intrusive within the supracrustal granulites of the Central Limpopo Belt (Limpopo Province, South Africa) is made up of large volumes of porphyritic granodiorites with subordinate enclaves and dykes which have monzodioritic and charno-enderbitic compositions. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on separated zircons yielded pluton emplacement ages ranging between 2.60 and 2.63 Ga, which are slightly older than previous proposed ages (~ 2.57-2.61 Ga). The whole-rock major- and trace-element composition of the Bulai pluton evidences unequivocal affinities with "high-Ti" late-Archaean sanukitoids. It belongs to a high-K calc-alkaline differentiation suite, with metaluminous affinities (0.7 affinities, such as eNd ranging between -0.5 and 0.5, and in addition, are very rich in all incompatible trace elements, which is particularly obvious in monzodioritic enclaves and enderbites where primitive mantle-normalized LILE and LREE contents are up to 300. These characteristics point to an enriched mantle source for the Bulai batholith. Chondrite normalized, REE patterns are strongly fractionated ([La/Yb]N ~ 25-80), mainly due to high LREE contents (LaN ~ 250-630), and chiefly high HFSE contents (Nb ~ 15-45 ppm ; up to 770 ppm Zr) indicate that the metasomatic agent is a silicic melt rather than a hydrous fluid. Moreover, based on high Nb/Ta, Th/Rb, La/Rb and low Sr/Nd and Ba/La, we suggest that the metasomatic agent is a granitic melt generated by melting of terrigenous sediments. Interactions of this melt with mantle peridotites implies that sediments are located under a mantle slice; geometry which is easily achieved in subduction zone settings. This conclusion is supported by the fact that Bulai trace element patterns are very similar to those of sub-actual potassic magmas generated in magmatic arc environments by interactions between mantle and terrigenous sediments (e.g. Sunda arc). Geochemical modeling indicates that the mafic facies of the Bulai

  10. The mafic dikes from the Panticosa pluton (Pyrenean Axial Zone): petrology and mineral chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tierz, Pablo; Lago San José, Marceliano; Galé, Carlos; Arranz, Enrique; Ubide, Teresa; Larrea, Patricia; Sanz, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The Panticosa pluton is one of multiple granitic plutons cropping out in the Pyrenean Axial Zone, which corresponds to the Palaeozoic core of the Pyrenees. Mafic dikes cut both the Panticosa pluton and its Devonian metasedimentary country rocks. According to their mineralogy and mineral composition, these dikes can be classified into two different groups, with little textural variations: a calc-alkaline group and an alkaline group. The calcalkaline rocks (spessartites and ca...

  11. Radioactivity Levels in Kola Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected in May 1995 from 16 locations in Kola Bay, North-west Russia, during an expedition starting from Murmansk and ending at Kildin Island in the Barents Sea. The purpose was to study the contamination level in an area with several potential sources of civilian and military radioactive pollution. 137Cs concentrations in the sediments, algae and benthic samples were low, but small particles containing 137Cs were separated from the sediment samples. All the sediments between the nuclear icebreaker base Atomflot and the open Barents Sea contained 60Co. Traces of 125Sb, 134Cs, 95Zr, 154Eu and 152Eu were also detected in some of the samples. Plutonium levels were low, but the increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio at Atomflot indicated a fresh release from the facility or from the waste storage vessels, Lepse and Imandra, lying in front of it. An increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio was also found in sediment collected in the outlet of Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. (author)

  12. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis

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    Oyelami Oyesiku A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex. The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg, Celebrex (200 mg and Ascorbic acid (100 mg. The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS. Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking. Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60 satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05. The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05. The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p 0.05. The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001. G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p G. kola

  13. Paravinogradovite, (Na,□)2 [(Ti4+, Fe3+)4 {Si2 O6}2 {Si3 Al O10} (OH)4] H2O, a new mineral species for the Khibina alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: description and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paravinogradovite is a new mineral species from Mount Kukisvumchorr, Khibina alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Paravinogradovite forms prismatic crystals elongate along [100] and up to 0.5-1.0cm long; crystals in some cases occur in fan-shaped aggregates sporadically scattered throughout a matrix of feldspar, nepheline and natrolite in a strongly mineralized nepheline-feldspar pegmatite. Associated minerals are nepheline, K-feldspar, albite, analcime, natrolite, aegirine, biotite, chlorite, zircon, ilmenite, pyrochlore, ancylite-(Ce), nordstrandite, carbonate-fluorapatite, fluorite, galena and cerussite. Crystals of paravinogradovite are colorless to white, with a white streak and a luster that varies from vitreous to pearly. The mineral is translucent to transparent, and shows weak yellow-green fluorescence under 240-400 nm ultraviolet radiation. Paravinogradovite has a perfect cleavage on {001} and an indistinct cleavage on {010}. It is brittle, has a splintery fracture and a Mohs hardness of 5. Its observed and calculated densities are 2.77(2) and 2.76 g/cm3, respectively. It is biaxial negative with α 1.707(2), β 1.741(2), γ 1.755(2), 2V(obs.) = 64(1)o, 2V(calc.) = 64o, nonpleochroic with dispersion r> v, with Z ∼ b, X Λα 30o. Paravinogradovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.2533(1), b 8.7411(3), c 12.9480(5) Angstroem, α 70.466(1), β 78.472(1), γ 89.932(1)o, V547.65(5) )Angstroem, Z = 1. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Angstroem(I)((hkl)] are: 3.182(100)(0 13,014), 5.88(65)(011,012), 11.9(58)(001), 4.35 (38)(021,102), 5.98(35)(002), 3.085(29)(123) and 2.735(21)(122). Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave SiO2 43.54, A12O3 6.12, Fe2O3 4.11, Nb2O5 0.50, TiO2 29.59, BeO 0.76, MgO 0.13, Na2O 7.77, K2O 0.87, H2O 6.23, sum 99.62 wt.%, where the amount of Be and the amount of H2O were determined by crystal-structure analysis, and the valence state of Fe was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The

  14. A comparative study of two rear-arc plutons and implications for the Fuegian Andes tectonic evolution: Mount Kranck Pluton and Jeu-Jepén Monzonite, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guillot, M.; Prezzi, C.; Acevedo, R. D.; Escayola, M.

    2012-10-01

    A petrologic, geochemical and geophysical study of two Late Cretaceous plutons of the Fuegian Andes is carried out: the Jeu-Jepén Monzonite (JJM) and the Mt. Kranck Pluton (MKP). The plutons show a wide lithological spectrum from ultramafic lithologies (clinopyroxenites and hornblendites), gabbros, diorites to late stage K-feldspar syenite veins. They represent the top of magmatic chambers exposed at or close to the roof level. Mode and chemistry indicate a monzonitic-mildly alkaline trend with high K2O content, equivalent to shoshonitic series. Trace element composition is typical of arc magmas. These features plus their high LILE content (Ba 320-1600 ppm, Sr 475-1560 ppm), high LILE/HFSE ratio (Rb/Zr 0.6-1.6) and age confirm they belong to a rear-arc, monzonitic to mildly alkaline suite (the Fuegian Potassic Magmatism). Therefore, they represent the farthest-from-the-trench plutons in the suite. The petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plutons suggest the lithological spectrum is the result of magmatic differentiation. The process involved crystal accumulation and magma mingling at the early stages, favored either by injections of fresh magma from deeper reservoirs and/or the action of convective currents within the chamber. Country rock assimilation also took part simultaneously with crystallization. The JJM and MKP lie along the trace of a Cenozoic left-lateral strike-slip fault (Magallanes-Fagnano fault system), on opposite blocks. However, lithological, chemical and geophysical subtle differences between these two plutons suggest they evolved in individual magmatic chambers and therefore the distance between them cannot be used as an estimation of total offset along the fault, as was indicated in previous studies.

  15. Definition of magmatic suites in ediacaran bodies of the NE Province Borborema (State of Rio Grande do Norte: Pitombeira, Taipu and Gameleira Plutons

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    Maria Tatiany Duarte de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pitombeira, Taipu and Gameleira plutons, located in the northeasternmost portion of the São José do Campestre Domain within the Borborema Province (NE, Brazil, are subjects of lithogeochemical studies in the present work. The Pitombeira Pluton comprises a monzo- to syenogranitic facies defined by K-feldspar phenocrysts, and a quartz-dioritic to tonalitic facies, mainly as enclaves, with laths of plagioclase showing compositional zoning and chilled rims. The Taipu Pluton is made of equigranular, locally porphyritic, monzo- to syenogranites, whereas the Gamaleira Pluton encompasses tonalitic and grano- dioritic rocks with porphyritic textures and compositionally zoned plagioclase crystals. Geochemical discriminant diagrams reveal that the rocks forming the Gameleira Pluton are metaluminous, with a calc-alkaline signature and magnesian character, contrasting with the subalkaline (high-K calc-alkaline signature and ferroan character of the Taipu and Pitombeira Plutons, where the former is highly peraluminous and the latter is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Rare Earth Elements patterns are similar to all plutons and register negative Eu anomalies and a relative enrichment of LREE over HREE, with LaN/YbN ratios between 9.38 to 16.20 (Gamaleira Pluton, 17.99 to 31.39 (granitic facies of the Pitombeira Pluton, 14.15 to 21.81 (dioritic facies of the Pitombeira Pluton and 15.17 to 175.41 (Taipu Pluton. Based on the combined investigation of structural, textural and geochemical data, a late- to post-collisional tectonic environment is suggested for the plutons here studied.

  16. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J.; Rathmann, O.; Lundsager, P. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  17. Mesoarchean Gabbroanorthosite Magmatism of the Kola Region

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    Kudryashov, N.; Mokrushin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Kola peninsula is the region marked with development of anorthosite magmatism in the NE Baltic Shield. The Archaean gabbroanorthosites intrusions - Tsaginsky, Achinsky and Medvezhe-Schucheozersky - have the age of 2.7-2.6 Ga (Bayanova, 2004). The Patchemvarek and Severny gabbroanorthosites intrusions are located in the junction zone of the Kolmozero-Voronja greenstone belt and the Murmansk domain. Age data for sedimentaryvolcanogenic rocks of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt and Murmansk domain granitoids are 2.8-2.7 Ga. The gabbroanorthosites intrusions have more calcic composition (70-85% An) of normative plagioclase, and low contents of TiO2, FeO, and Fe2O3. In terms of chemical composition, the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs are close to the rocks of the Fiskenesset Complex (Greenland) and to the anorthosites of the Vermillion Lake Complex (Canada). U-Pb zircon dating established Mesoarchean ages of 29257 and 29358 Ma for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs, respectively. It was shown that the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs have fairly low REE contents (Cen = 2.2-4.2, Ybn = 1.6-2.6) and distinct positive Eu anomaly. Comagmatic ultrabasic differentiates have practically unfractionated REE pattern, low total REE contents (Cen = 1.2, Ybn = 1.1, La/Ybn = 1.32), and no Eu anomaly. The studied samples of the Archean gabbroanorthosites are characterized by positive "Nd= + 2.68 for the gabbroanorthosites of the Severny Massif and from + 2.77 to + 1.66 for the Patchemvarek Massif. The rocks of the Severny and Patchemvarek massifs has 87Sr/86Sri = 0.702048 and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70258_8, respectively. The oldest U-Pb zircon ages for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs marking the Mesoarchean stage in the evolution of region. The differences in the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios between the Neoarchean and the Mesoarchean gabbroanorthosites suggest the existence of two mantle sources. One of them produced

  18. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  19. Zircon LA-ICPMS study and petrogenesis simulation of Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Li; Yuelong Chen; Liemeng Chen; Zhong Wang; Jinbao Liu

    2009-01-01

    Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia,is an alkaline and peraluminous granitic pluton.LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of zircons indicates that this pluton crystallized at 330±10 Myr.The pluton did not experience apparent zircon fractionation.The consistent temperatures between Zr saturation (765℃) and the average zircon-rutile Ti equilibrium (780℃),together with zircon ages and their CL images,indicated that there were no inherited zircons in this pluton.Through the simulation of the dry-system crystallization process of magma cooling at 200 MPa and 1100-709℃,the phase diagram and composition evolution tendency of different phases were obtained.The magma reached its liquidus at 1069℃.Sanidine was the first crystallized phase;at 709℃ the residual magma was less than 4%,and the range of 1069-719℃ should be the most suitable approach to the real condition.It is shown that at least some part of the pluton underwent such isobaric equilibrium crystallization processes during its crystallization.

  20. Marketingový mix firmy ALU KOLA CB

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on a marketing mix practical application in my own company ALU KOLA CB. My company sells alloy wheels and tyres for personal cars. In a literary review are introduced and explained terms marketing, marketing mix and its parts - product, price, place and promotion. In a practical part of this thesis are these terms applied on my company. The end of this part contains results and improvement suggestions.

  1. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelami Oyesiku A; Okimi Oluwakemi C; Idowu Thomas O; Adesanya Saburi A; Adegbehingbe Olayinka O; Iwalewa Ezekiel O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and ...

  2. Results of storm activity registration in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtsev A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of storm activity registration processing in the Kola Peninsula during 2013-2014 have been given. Considerable fluctuations of storm activity and unevenness of lightning discharges distribution across the region territory have been noted. It has been proposed to use a cloud-to-ground discharge density indicator taking into account their distribution in the region at an assessment of lightning protection efficiency of power generation facilities in areas with low thunder-storms intensity

  3. Origin of adakite-like plutons in southern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong-Im; Choi, Sung Hi; Yi, Keewook

    2016-10-01

    We present Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions for two adakite-like intrusions in southern Korea (Jindong and Bongnae), including major and trace element concentrations, and the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb age. Our aim is to constrain the origin and tectonomagmatic processes that gave rise to the plutons. A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 88.7 ± 0.7 Ma was obtained from a Jindong granodiorite sample. The Jindong plutons belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline series, and have an overall enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), such as K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, and a relative depletion in high field strength elements, such as Nb, Ta, and Ti, compared with the neighboring elements in the primitive mantle-normalized multi-trace element variation diagram. It was found that (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70475-0.70596, (143Nd/144Nd)i = 0.512547-0.512604, [(εNd)i = + 0.4 to 2.2], and (206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.19-18.37, which fall within the field of the arc-type Cretaceous to Tertiary Bulguksa intrusive rocks in the Sr-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic correlation diagrams. The elevated Sr/Y (17-40), but low La/Yb (3.7-8.8) ratios of the Jindong plutons, together with their coherent geochemical trends and U-shaped rare earth element (REE) patterns, indicate that they were not formed by slab melting, but by amphibole-dominated fractional crystallization of the Bulguksa-like arc magma. A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 226.5 ± 2.5 Ma was obtained from a Bongnae tonalite sample. The Bongnae plutons belong to the shoshonitic series. Their trace element patterns resemble the Jindong samples, but are characterized by significantly negative U anomalies in mafic rocks. They also have elevated MgO, Ni, Co, Cr, Rb, Ba, Sr, and low Al2O3 and Na2O contents at a given SiO2 concentration compared with the Jindong plutons, and are typified by highly radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions: [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.71096-0.71290, (143Nd/144Nd)i = 0.511641-0.511681, (εNd)i = - 13

  4. The status of nuclear cooperation with Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant; Status for atomsikkerhetssamarbeidet med Kola og Leningrad kjernekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Norway has since 1993 participated in joint projects with Russia to improve nuclear safety at the Kola and Leningrad nuclear power plant. The project have been funded under the Government's nuclear action under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has completed most of the projects. NRPA is the authority responsible for assessing the implementation of the projects. (eb)

  5. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2011-08-01

    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  6. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T.M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion

  7. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia kola Seeds in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omage Kingsley; Erifeta O. Georgina; Uhunmwangho S. Esosa; Josiah J. Sunday; Ajeigbe O. Kazeem

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seed on glucose, superoxide dismutase catalase and malondialdehyde of normal rats were investigated. Oral administration of aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight, over a period of 21 days, significantly (p

  8. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Andersson, L.

    1980-12-01

    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  9. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region

  10. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  11. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart

    1980-12-01

    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  12. User experiences using the operator support systems SCORPIO and SPDS at Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the years from 2000 to 2004 a Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and a SCORPIO-VVER system have been installed and put into operation at Kola NPP in northern Russia. The projects have been carried out in co-operation with Finnish and Russian subcontractors with IFE, Halden, as the main contractor and the project manager. Both projects have been defined within the Norwegian Assistance Programme to Nuclear Installations at the Kola Peninsula and financed by the Norwegian government. The SPDS project has also been partly financed by the Finnish government. The Kola SPDS, which is based on a system originally developed for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant in Finland, was installed and put into operation on Kola NPP units 1 and 2 in April 2000 and on Kola NPP units 3 and 4 in March 2004. The system has been licensed and approved by Russian authority (GAN) for use in the control room environment. The SCORPIO-VVER system is based on the SCORPIO-VVER framework developed for Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic and Bohunice NPP, Slovak Republic. Further, the experience gained with the SCORPIO framework developed for Western PWRs have been utilised. The SCORPIO-VVER system was installed and put into operation at Kola NPP Nuclear Safety Centre in December 2003 for core monitoring on units 3 and 4. The user experiences by introducing the SPDS and the SCORPIO-VVER system at Kola NPP are so far very positive. By introducing an SPDS at Kola NPP, the process safety status (single or combinations of signals) is presented for the operator in a centralized location (on one screen) in the control room and in a form that makes it easier to obtain a quick assessment of the process safety status. According to feedback from control room personnel the SPDS has enhanced the monitoring of the safety status of the plant. The reactor core is the most central component of a nuclear power plant and a comprehensive core monitoring system is very important for maintaining reactor

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology

  14. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  15. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala, southwestern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh

    2006-04-01

    The proper usage of modal composition and geochemical classification of granitoids is discussed for assigning a proper nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton,Kerala,southwestern India.This discussion is mainly aimed at addressing questions concerning the nomenclature of Angadimogar pluton (syenite vs. granite).Modal composition and whole-rock XRD data clearly show that the pluton exposed near Angadimogar is a quartz-syenite and its geochemistry is typical of a ferroan, metaluminous,alkali (A-type)granitoid.

  16. Petrological studies of plutonic rocks of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feldspars of many tonalitic plutonic rocks in the coastal regions and West Andean regions are zoned. This leads to the conclusion that they are relatively flat intrusions and to some extent transition rocks in the subvulcanite direction. This is in accordance with the genetic and chronological relationship between plutonites and the surrounding vulcanites of the Basic Igreous Complex (BIC). The composition of representative minerals, e.g. alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, chlorite, and amphibole has been determined as well as the age of plutonite samples by the K/Ar dating method. (DG)

  17. Kola Nut and Conflict Resolution Among the Igala People of Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Abah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined Kola nut and Conflict Resolution among the Igala people of Kogi State, Nigeria. In a world ravaged by conflicts, certain Africans have kept the fire of brotherhood, through the breaking and eating of Kola nut. Literatures exist on Conflict Resolution, but no empirical study on the topic in question. The aims are to examine (a the types of Kola nut cotyledons and its relevance in conflict resolution (b the myths about Kola nut that enhances conflict resolution, and (c its role in conflict resolution. The qualitative approach was adopted. The sources of data were primary and secondary. The Primary Sources included 20 oral interviews. Purposive sampling was adopted. Content analysis was used to analyse. The secondary sources included books and an unpublished work. The findings reveal (a two types of Kola nut, (cola acuminata 0-7 cotyledons and cola nitida 2 cotyledons, (b As regards the myth, it is used to invite and welcome the ancestors during conflict resolution, whosoever harbours grudges against a neighbour after the kola had been eaten will come under the wrath of the ancestors, and (c It is the harbinger of peace. In conclusion, peace can only be guaranteed when there is security and justice, which could be embedded in a unifying factor(s, like the kola nut. Any community that finds this generally acceptable factor will experience a considerable level of peace, especially when acculturated into every aspect of the modern conflict resolution mechanisms, putting into consideration the indigenous socio-religious conflict resolution strategies.

  18. The Precambrian/Lower Cambrian pluton from Vila Nova (Central Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, A. I. M.; Silva, M. M. V. G.; Antunes, I. M. H. R.

    2010-07-01

    The Vila Nova pluton is a small, Pre-Variscan granitic body that intruded rocks of the Central Iberian Zone near the contact with the Ossa Morena Zone and is affected by several shear zones and faults. Its contact metamorphic aureole is constituted by micaschist with porphyroblasts in the outer zone and hornfels in the inner zone. Small mainstreamed xenoliths are dispersed all over the body. The pluton has a great mineralogical heterogeneity with pronounced variations in muscovite/biotite and plagioclase/ microcline contents and is classified as granite, granodiorite or tonalite. It is a leuco granite, highly peraluminous (A/CN K = 1.31 - 1.64), magnesian and calc-alkaline to alkaline-calcic. The variation diagrams show curvilinear trends with silica. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 - 0.77 and there is a slight enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. The normalized diagrams indicated dominantly crustal granite, related to subduction. U-Pb isotopic data of zircon and monazite gives 540-542 Ma age. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Kola Seeds in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garcinia kola seed is consumed indiscriminately in Nigeria without recourse to its potential toxicity. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds on selected tissues of male rats. Methods: Thirty male rats (215.00 ± 18.58 g were assigned into four groups: A, B, C and D which received 0.5 ml of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, once daily for 7 days. Biochemical indices of organ damage and toxicity were determined using standard methods. Results: The extract significantly (P0.05 altered. Conclusion: The treatment related alterations in the present study indicates that the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused functional toxicity to the organs of the animals and thus not safe as an oral remedy.

  20. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai rocks. Age of this pluton is comparable with that of the other Cryogenian felsic alkaline plutons from Salem Block suggesting extensive rift-related magmatism at this time in the SGT.

  1. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 3D model Khibiny massif developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. This project will be organised to build background for gas pollution monitoring network. We planned to use the model to estimate local heterogeneities in the composition of the atmosphere at the emanation of greenhouse gases in the area, the construction of models of vertical distribution of the content of trace gases in the rock mass. In addition to the project GIS digital elevation model contains layers of geological and tectonic map that allows us to estimate the area of the output of certain petrographic rock groups characterized by different ratios of emitted hydrocarbons (CH4/ H2). The model allows to construct a classification of fault in the array. At first glance, there are two groups of faults - the ancient associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence, and the young - due to recent tectonic shifts. Ancient faults form a common semicircular structure of the pluton cause overall asymmetry Khibin heights with the transition to the border area between the Khibiny and Lovoozero. Modern tectonics mainly represented by radial and chord faults which are formed narrow mountain valleys and troughs. It remains an open question as to which system fault (old or young) is more productive to gas emanations? On the one hand the system characterized by a large old depth, on the other hand a young more active faults. Address these issues require further detailed observations. The essential question is to assess the possibility of maintaining a constant concentration gradient of these impurities in the atmosphere due to gas emanations of fracture zones and areas enriched occluded gases. In the simulation of these processes can be used initially set parameters: 1 the flow rate of the gas impurities 2 the value of wind flows in closed and open valley 3 Assessment of thermal diffusion coefficients determined by the temperature gradient

  2. Feasibility study on introduction of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) in nuclear examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Hong, K. P.; Song, W. S.; Min, D. K

    1999-07-01

    To be an institute officially authorized by the KOLAS, the understanding and the analysis of following contents is required.: the understanding of concept required to get the accreditation of testing, the system specifying an internationally accredited testing and examination organization, international organization in the field of laboratory accreditation, domestic laboratory accreditation organization(KOLAS), the investigation of the regulations with laboratory accreditation in Korea, the investigation of the procedures accrediting a testing and examination organization, the investigation of general requirements(ISO 17025) for a testing and examination organization. (author)

  3. A statistical approach to the volcanic-plutonic connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, B.; Keller, C.; Samperton, K. M.; Barboni, M.; Husson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The geochemical relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks - whether the two are geochemically identical, or if the choice between eruption or intrusion is correlated with magma chemistry - represents a major unanswered question in igneous petrology. In one endmember scenario, felsic to intermediate plutons represent the unerupted residue from which crystal-poor eruptible melts are extracted. At the other end of the spectrum, it is argued that a nearly the entire volume of magma is evacuated during eruption, and that the probability of eruption versus intrusion is instead largely a function of magma flux. In the first scenario, parental magmas originating at depth experience substantial fractionation during volcanic melt extraction, leading to complementary volcanic and plutonic reservoirs. In the second endmember scenario, volcanic/plutonic fractionation in the middle to upper crust is negligible, predicting no geochemical difference between volcanic and plutonic rocks. A third endmember scenario that is not exclusive from the other two predicts differences between volcanic and plutonic rocks if geochemical characteristics are correlated with the eventual eruptibility of magma. Deciphering the relative importance of each of these models is important for understanding both the long-term geochemical balance of the crust and mantle due to increased erosion and recycling of volcanic rocks and also for understanding magma transport dynamics. We have compared the geochemistry of ~500,000 volcanic and plutonic rocks from a range of tectonic settings by Monte Carlo bootstrap analysis in order to produce maximally representative average compositions. The results indicate that while volcanic and plutonic rocks in general show remarkably similar major element trends, intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks, for a given silica content, display clear enrichments in Sr and Ba and depletions in Zr, Hf, and HREEs relative to their volcanic equivalents. More subtly

  4. Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Ngondo Plutonic complex (Cameroon, west central Africa): a case of late-collisional ferro-potassic magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagne-Kamga, Gabriel

    2003-04-01

    The Ngondo complex is a late-collisional pluton, which was emplaced around 600 Ma along a N030° E strike-slip shear zone in the southwestern part of the Neoproterozoic Fold Belt of Cameroon. It comprises three successively emplaced plutonic groups of rocks: (i) mafic to felsic intrusive rocks (MFR), (ii) fine-grained granites (FGG) and (iii) coarse-grained granites (CGG). Late aplitic and pegmatite dykes were emplaced along brittle fractures in these plutons. The complex is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline to " trans-alkaline" ferro-potassic, with mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of I-type granites. The plutonic rocks are characterised by high Ba, Sr, Rb and ∑REE concentrations and low Ni and Cr contents in the mafic members. They also display chondrite-normalised REE patterns characterised by variable LREE enrichment, moderate to minor HREE fractionation with moderate to pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗: 0.6-0.9 (MFR), 0.2-0.5 (FGG), 0.3-0.7 (CGG)). Trace element distribution patterns for the three plutonic groups are similar with a distinctive depletion in Nb, Sr and Ti relative to other trace elements and a greater enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE. These plutonic groups present distinct evolutionary trends precluding their origin from differentiation of a single parental magma. The geochemical and isotopic data indicate that they derived from partial melting of heterogeneous (meta)-igneous mafic lower crustal materials, having possibly the composition of amphibolitised high-K calc-alkaline basaltic andesites and andesitic metagreywackes. Petrographic evidences such as the presence of quartz-ocelli, xenocrysts of feldspar, fragments of country rocks (migmatitic gneisses) strongly indicate that crustal contamination may have played an important role in the genesis of the plutonic rocks. This contamination process is further supported by the variation of major and trace elements together with Sr-Nd isotopic data

  5. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  6. Phenological development of introduced species Picea A. Dietr. on the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Oxana Alexandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of long-term phenologucal observations of introduced species of Picea A. Dietr. on the Kola Peninsula. The cycle of vegetative development of types of Picea corresponds to the vegetative period of a place of an introduction.

  7. Evaluation of machine-building enterprises of the Kola Peninsula for developing of the Arctic communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchaninova T. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research of engineering enterprises with a single and small-batch manufacturing of the Kola Peninsula has been carried out. The possibilities of satisfying demands for their products and services in the regional market have been determined, that is very important for understanding the prospects for the development and exploitation of the Arctic communications

  8. Geophysical modeling and structure of Ushuaia Pluton, Fuegian Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Javier Ignacio; Tassone, Alejandro Alberto; Menichetti, Marco; Cerredo, María Elena

    2009-10-01

    Within the area of Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America) the deformed Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Yahgán Formation host the Ushuaia Pluton. The intrusive body is oval in map view; it is compositionally varied with rocks ranging from the ultrabasic to the mesosiliceous realm. The emplacement time is constrained within the Albian-Cenomanian span by new amphibole K/Ar data. Meso- and microstructures of Ushuaia Pluton and its host indicate a synkinematic emplacement with a dominant extensional component. A set of transcurrent and normal faults related to the sinistral strike-slip Beagle Channel Fault System affects the pluton and its host. On the basis of aeromagnetic data combined with field information, a new model is presented for the Ushuaia Pluton. Modeling results fit well with a laccolithic body with an estimated volume of around 111 km 3. The model pluton cross-section displays a central zone with an average thickness of 2000 m which progressively thins toward the margins (˜ 500 m) and a southern root which reaches 5000 m deep. The combined structural and geophysical model supports a transtensive scenario for the Ushuaia Pluton emplacement at Early-Late Cretaceous boundary.

  9. Orogenic potassic mafic magmatism, a product of alkaline-peraluminous mixing ? Variscan 'calc-alkaline' rocks from the Central Iberian and Ossa Morena Zones, Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarrow, Jane H.; Cambeses, Aitor; Bea, Fernando; Montero, Pilar; Molina, José F.; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Orogenic magmatic rocks provide information about mantle and crust melt-generation and -interaction processes. In this context, minor potassic mafic stocks which are formed of enriched mantle and crustal components and are common as late-orogenic intrusions in granitic plutons give insight into the timing of new crust formation and crustal recycling. Potassic mafic stocks are prevalent, albeit low volume, constituents of granite batholiths all through the European Variscan (350-280 Ma). In the Central Iberia Zone, Spanish Central System, crustal-melt, S-type, granitoid plutons are intruded by minor concomitant ultramafic-intermediate appinitic-vaugneritic stocks. Notwithstanding their whole-rock calc-alkaline composition, the stocks apparently did not have a subduction-related origin. Recent studies have attributed their genesis to mixing of alkaline mantle and peraluminous crustal melts. Their primary alkaline character, as indicated by amphibole and biotite mineral chemistry data, points, rather, towards an extension-related genesis. In the Ossa Morena Zone, south of the Central Iberian Zone, the igneous rocks also have a whole-rock calc-alkaline composition which has been considered to be the result of northward subduction of the South Portuguese Zone. Nevertheless, identification of a 'sill' of significant volume of mafic magma in the middle crust, the ´IBERSEIS reflective body', in a seismic profile across the Ossa Morena and South Portuguese Zones has cast doubt upon the calc-alkaline magmatism-subduction model; leading, instead, to the magmatism being attributed to intra-orogenic extension related to a mantle plume active from 340 Ma to 330 Ma. The aim here, then, is to reinvestigate the petrogenesis and age of the calc-alkaline rocks of the Ossa Morena Zone to determine their tectonomagmatic context be it subduction-, plume- or extension-related, and establish what they may reveal about mantle-crust interactions. Focussing, initially, on the Valencia del

  10. Adakitic-like magmatism in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal): Geochemical and isotopic constraints of the Pavia pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, S. M.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Ramos, J. M. F.

    2013-02-01

    Granitic rocks are a major component of the Earth's continental crust and occur in a wide variety of tectonic settings. Their chemical and isotopic characterization is crucial to the recognition of the potential sources and mechanisms involved in their generation. In this study, we present the first whole rock chemical and isotopic (Sr-Nd-O) data for the Pavia pluton (328-317 Ma), located near the western border of the Ossa-Morena Zone (Évora Massif, Portugal). Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that the different granitic phases composing this intrusive body (enclaves, granites (s.l.) and crosscutting dikes) represent independent magma pulses and the majority is similar to TTGs and adakites. The little Sr-Nd-O isotopic variation, with (87Sr/86Sr)328 = 0.70428-0.70560, ɛNd328 ranging between - 3.4 and + 0.4 and δ18O varying from + 5.6‰ to + 8.4‰ implies an isotopically similar protolith for all phases. The most viable mechanism for the generation of the Pavia pluton adakitic-like magmatism is assimilation-fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. This mechanism was also invoked to explain the genesis of other plutons within the Évora Massif but they have a distinct chemistry (typical arc calc-alkaline rocks). The chemical differences between them and the Pavia pluton granitic rocks are interpreted as the result of lower degrees of crustal assimilation and higher degrees of contamination of mantle-derived magmas by the sinking slab (after subduction blocking and subsequent slab break-off).

  11. Petrogenesis of the Dengzhazi A-type pluton from the Taihang-Yanshan Mesozoic orogenic belts, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolu, Niu; Bin, Chen; Xu, Ma

    2011-05-01

    The voluminous Mesozoic monzonitic to monzogranitic rocks in the north China craton (NCC) mostly show high-K calc-alkaline and I-type granitoids features. The Dengzhazi granitic pluton, however, shows features typical of A-type granites. The A-type pluton was emplaced in the Taihang-Yanshan orogenic belts of the northern margin of the NCC, with zircon U-Pb ages of around 140 Ma. The Dengzhazi A-type granites are characterized by high SiO 2 (70.2-77.7 wt.%), K 2O + Na 2O, Zr, Nb, Ga, Zn, and Y contents as well as high Ga/Al ratios, and extremely low CaO, Ba, Sr. In addition, they show high zircon saturation temperatures (870-950 °C), low water and low oxygen fugacity. All these features are consistent with the A-type affinity of the pluton. In situ Hf isotopic analyses for the dated zircons show relatively small range of ɛHf( t) (-13 to -17). They also have homogeneous initial Nd isotopic compositions with ɛNd( t) ranging from -15.1 to -16.3. The Hf and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Dengzhazi A-type granites originated from a homogeneous crustal source, probably the Archean mafic-intermediate granulites. Taking into account the high temperatures, the low H 2O and fO 2 of the magma system, we believe that partial melting of the granulites should have been triggered by underplating of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the mafic lower crust in an extensional regime. The Dengzhazi A-type granite is the oldest pluton of the Taihang-Yanshan Mesozoic magma belts, signifying the commencement of extensive underplating of mafic magmas, and thus of lithospheric thinning in the northern NCC.

  12. Pilot scale trials of irradiation preservation of maize, kola nuts and dried fish, and preliminary market test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies were conducted to determine the possibility of utilizing gamma irradiation to disinfect cowpea, maize, kola nuts and smoked fish in Nigeria. The studies included the determination of radiosensitivity of important storage insect pests such as the cowpea seed beetle, 'Callosobrucus maculatus', the cigarette beetle, 'Lasioderma serricorne', the kola weevils, 'Balanogastris kolae' and 'Sophrorhinus gbanjaensis'. They also included consumer acceptance and or sensory evaluation of irradiated cowpea, maize and smoked-dried fish. The results showed that irradiation could be integrated with the traditional peasant farmers' method of storing unshelled dry cowpea in granaries; and such an integration can completely eliminate seed beetle infestation. Irradiation at a dose of 0.2-1.0KGy was quite effective in preventing development of 'L. Serricorne'. All stages of development of 'B.kolae' and 'S. gbanjaensis' were very sensitive to irradiation; and a dose of 0.1KGy-0.2KGy was found to be adequate for disinfecting kola nut of the weevils. Irradiation up to 0.2KGy also did not cause any significant change in proximate composition of kola nuts. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation tests on cowpea, maize and smoke-dried fish showed that Nigerian consumers did not have any aversion to irradiated foods. A high percentage of respondents indicated their willingness to purchase samples

  13. Crystal structure of hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Lovozero alkaline massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Shkatulka hyperagpaitic pegmatite (the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic unit-cell parameters are as follows: a = 5.4712(1) Å, b = 7.1626(1) Å, c = 14.3702(3) Å, α = 92.623(2)°, β = 95.135(1)°, γ = 90.440(1)°, sp. gr. P1, R = 3.4%. The Na+ cations and H2O molecules are ordered in sites between the packets. The water molecules are hydrogen bonded to the PO4 tetrahedra.

  14. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  15. Electromagnetic sounding of the Kola Peninsula with a powerful extremely low frequency source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Grigoriev, V. F.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Korotayev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereschenko, E. D.; Schors, Y. G.

    2011-05-01

    Experiment on electromagnetic sounding of the Kola Peninsula using unique mobile measuring complex of the low-frequency sounding was conducted, allowing to investigate a geoelectric section with a depth of several kilometers on distances up to 100 km from the stationary transmitting aerial. Excess on the order of amplitudes of the vertical component above the horizontal at all frequencies of sounding was registered in a number of points of measurements. This feature managed to be explained quantitatively by circulation of current on regional faults with the closure of current through the sea—before unknown galvanic coastal effect. Interpretation of the results of modeling and neural network solving of inverse problem essentially specifies the fault tectonics of the central part of the Kola Peninsula. Anomaly remote from the observation profile was found out—local pinch of a crustal conductive layer consisting of graphitized rocks and associated with the zone of overthrust.

  16. Science, sulphur and sustainability : environmental strategies of mining in the Russian Kola Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Salmi, Olli H

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the problem of co-aligning corporate strategy and public policy for effective environmental governance. A case study of the mining industry in the Russian Kola Peninsula shows how institutional arrangements (including public policies) affect the environmental performance of industrial organizations. The analysis emphasizes the motivations that drive people's decisions and how they are affected by culture and formal institutions both inside and outside the domain of ...

  17. Poverty Alleviation through Optimizing the Marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agbelade, A. D.; Onyekwelu, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines poverty alleviation through optimizing the marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collected using structured questionnaire. Two categories of pretested structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents (farmers and the marketers of the species). Data analysis was done using descriptive analysis, and Student t-test was used to compare the income generated by the producers and the market...

  18. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dambudzo Penduka; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells w...

  19. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  20. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  1. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope composition of granitoids of the Early Cretaceous Copiapó plutonic complex (27°30'S), Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontignie, Denis; Chiaradia, Massimo; Voldet, Pia

    2003-10-01

    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks exposed south of Copiapó form part of the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. These rocks intrude arc-derived volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and marine limestones that were deposited in the Early Cretaceous Atacama backarc basin. The Copiapó plutonic complex consists mainly of calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained diorite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzodiorite, and quartz monzonite. The plutonic rocks are subalkaline to alkaline, metaluminous, magnetite-series, volcanic arc, I-type granitoids. Batholithic magmas are a heat, potential fluid, metal, and sulphur source for the hydrothermal iron oxide-rich Cu-Au mineralization in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration affected large portions of the Copiapó complex. The least altered batholithic rocks have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.703070-0.703231; initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.512733-0.512781; and 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 18.428-18.772, 15.550-15.603, and 38.127-38.401, respectively. The δ18O values for these rocks range from +6.9 to +8.6‰. Isotope signatures and trace element distributions suggest that the magmas are mantle derived. A subduction fluid-modified mantle source may explain the geochemical characteristics of the Copiapó complex. The ascent of magmas occurred along deep-rooted structures without significant crustal contamination, though minor contamination by relatively young (e.g. Jurassic) igneous rocks during ascent is possible. Intrusive rocks with high-K to shoshonitic characteristics probably represent residual liquids of less evolved magmas. The regional geologic context suggests that the plutons of the Copiapó complex were emplaced at a relatively shallow crustal level of 2-3 km.

  2. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and geochemistry of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Korean Peninsula: A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Seung-Ik; Lee, Changyeol; Cho, Deung-Lyong; Lee, Hong-Jin; Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sook Ju

    2016-10-01

    The Cretaceous tectonomagmatism of the Korean Peninsula was examined based on geochemical and geochronological data of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks, along with distribution of volcano-sedimentary nonmarine N- to NE-trending fault bounded sedimentary basins. We conducted sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical compositions of 21 Cretaceous plutonic rocks, together with previously published data, from the central to southern Korean Peninsula. Four age groups of plutonic rocks were identified: Group I (ca. 119-106 Ma) in the northern to central area, Group II (ca. 99-87 Ma) in the central southern area, Group III (ca. 85-82 Ma) in the central to southern area, and Group IV (ca. 76-67 Ma) in the southernmost area. These results indicate a sporadic trenchward-younging trend of the Cretaceous magmatism in the Korean Peninsula. The Group I, II, and III rocks are dominated by high-K calc-alkaline I-type rocks with rift-related A-type granitoids. In contrast, the Group IV rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type plutonic rocks with no A-type rocks. The geochemical signatures of the entire groups indicated LREEs (light rare earth elements) enrichments and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies, indicating normal arc magmatism. A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula was proposed based on temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous plutons represented by four age groups; 1) magmatic quiescence throughout the Korean Peninsula from ca. 160 to 120 Ma, 2) intrusions of the I- and A-type granitoids in the northern and central Korean Peninsula (Group I plutonic rocks from ca. 120 to 100 Ma) resulted from the partial melting of the lower continental crust due to the rollback of the Izanagi plate expressed as the conversion from flat-lying subduction to normal subduction. The Gyeongsang nonmarine sedimentary rift basin in the Korean Peninsula and adakite magmatism preserved in the present-day Japanese Islands

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  4. Experience of the chronological correlation of the Holocene sea coastal landforms in the Tuloma River valley and the Kola Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstobrov D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a continuation of studies of the Earth's crust neotectonic movements within the north-western part of the Kola region. New radiocarbon data of the lake bottom sediments in the Tuloma River valley allowed to modify diagram of the relative uplift lines of the Earth surface in the north-western part of the Kola region and to compare them with previously constructed epeirogenic spectra of coastal landforms for the study area. The dynamics and nature of the area uplift have been established and the dating of the ancient shorelines within the Tuloma River valley and the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea during the Holocene has been carried out

  5. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota): An underutilised fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Okudu, Helen O; Asumugha, Ukamaka V

    2016-02-15

    The nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola: Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota were determined. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried using solar dryer. Dried pulps were milled into flour with attrition milling machine (0.5mm sieve size). The nutrient compositions were determined using standard AOAC methods. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. There were significant (p1.0 and ⩽0.06, respectively). Monkey kola had substantial amounts of iron, zinc, and copper; the B-vitamins and vitamin C. The phytochemical contents were quiet high, the most abundant being flavonoids (415-494mg/100g). Monkey kola is a fruit that should be fully exploited for its potential health benefits. PMID:26433302

  6. Geochronology and Geochemical Characteristics of the Early Mesozoic Tangquan Pluton in Southwestern Fujian and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jianren; HU Qing; XU Naizheng; XIE Fanggui; TAO Kuiyuan

    2003-01-01

    The Tangquan granodioritic pluton in Datian County, southwestern Fujian, China, which extends in a NE direction with an exposed area of about 130 km2, used to be considered a product of Early Cretaceous magmatism. The present study suggests for the first time that the pluton was formed in the Early Jurassic by using multiple methods for isotopic dating, which give zircon U-Pb ages of 186.8 Ma and 179.0 Ma, Rb-Sr isochron age of 162.02(4.5 Ma, and biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 158.1(0.7 Ma. The cooling rate for the pluton was relatively low (4.76°C/Ma) during the early stage (183(162 Ma) because of the compressional environment. It was emplaced in a higher cooling rate (50°C/Ma) in an extensional environment during the later stage (162(158 Ma). The granodiorites are metaluminous(peraluminous, relatively enriched in Na2O and depleted in K2O, and characteristic of I-type granites of crust-mantle mixed sources. They are moderately enriched in Rb, Th, Hf and LREE, and depleted in Ti, Nb, Ta and Sr, and have geochemical features of cal-alkaline rocks of an island arc or active continental margin. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratio varies from 0.70769 to 0.70822, εNd(t) from -9.68 to -10.07 and TDM from 1.52 to 1.55 Ga. They were formed by mixing of mantle-derived mafic magma with the granitic magma resulting from partial melting of crust-derived materials in an upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle in South China during the Early Mesozoic.

  7. Petrographical and geochemical characterization and deformation conditions of the San Cristobal pluton, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina; Caracterizacion petrografica y geoquimica y condiciones de deformacion del pluton San Cristobal, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellos, L.I.; Toselli, A.J.; Rossi, J.N.; Grosse, P.; Rosa, J.D. de la; Castro, A.

    2010-07-01

    The San Cristobal pluton is a 35 km2 granitic body that outcrops at the southestern tip of the Sierra de Velasco, located west of La Rioja city, Argentina. It is formed by monzogranites and syenogranites, together with scarce granodiorites, with medium to fine-grained, equigranular to slightly porphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblage consists of quartz + microcline + plagioclase + biotite {+-} muscovite + zircon + apatite + magnetite. The granite contains dioritic to tonalitic mafic enclaves. The central and eastern parts of the granite have been deformed by the NNW-SSE trending South Mylonitic shear zone formed by mylonitic rocks. The metamorphic host-rock is represented by scarce greenschist facies xenoliths and hornfels with the high T/P assemblage K-feldspar - cordierite - biotite {+-} sillimanite. The granites are calc-alkaline, weak- to moderately peraluminous, and formed as part of a continental magmatic arc developed along the active margin of western Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The depth of emplacement of the San Cristobal pluton is estimated at {approx}12 km. (Author).

  8. The Plutón Diorítico Moat: Mildly alkaline monzonitic magmatism in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guillot, M.; Escayola, M.; Acevedo, R.; Pimentel, M.; Seraphim, G.; Proenza, J.; Schalamuk, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Plutón Diorítico Moat (Moat Dioritic Pluton, PDM) is the largest of several isolated Cretaceous plutons exposed in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina. It is made of a large variety of rock types ranging from ultramafic bodies (pyroxenites and hornblendites) to syenites. The petrological diversity is thought to have been originated by fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma combined with minor assimilation of continental crust (AFC). Its geochemical characteristics indicate a mildly-alkaline monzonitic affinity, contrasting with the typical calc-alkaline plutons of the Southern Patagonian Batholith (PB) to the south, in the Chilean archipelago. The PDM original magma is arc-related and its crystallization, as indicated by the Rb-Sr mineral isochron age of 115 ± 3 Ma, is coeval with some plutons of the PB. Therefore a similar tectonic regime is assumed for the emplacement of these plutonic bodies, both south and north of the Beagle channel. Differences in magma sources and degree of partial melting are inferred to account for the contrasting lithological and geochemical characteristics of the PB and PDM. The data suggest that the original magmas of the PDM were generated at greater depths in the mantle, by a smaller degree of partial melting, compared with the PB. The Barros Arana basalts, exposed to the north in Chile, forming a back-arc volcanic complex, display the same mildly-alkaline shoshonitic affinity, and are considered in this study as the volcanic equivalents of the PDM. All the plutons in the Argentinean Fuegian Andes display similar lithological and geochemical characteristics and are, therefore, grouped in this work under the name of Magmatismo Potásico Fueguino ( Fuegian Potassic Magmatism).

  9. Thermophysical properties of americium-containing barium plutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline specimens of americium-containing barium plutonate have been prepared by mixing the appropriate amounts of (Pu0.91Am0.09)O2 and BaCO3 powders followed by reacting and sintering at 1600 K under the flowing gas atmosphere of dry-air. The sintered specimens had a single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure and were crack-free. Elastic moduli were determined from longitudinal and shear sound velocities. Debye temperature was also determined from sound velocities and lattice parameter measurements. Thermal conductivity was calculated from measured density at room temperature, literature values of heat capacity and thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of americium-containing barium plutonate was roughly independent of temperature and registered almost the same magnitude as that of BaPuO3 and BaUO3. (author)

  10. Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nwangwa, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24) albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8) weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Gro...

  11. Indoor - soil gas radon relationshipin the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fojtíková; J. Miksová; I. Barnet

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of indoor radon measurements and radon in bedrock was studied in the granitoid Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC). The indoor data were linked to vectorised geological and radon risk maps using the coordinates of particular dwellings. For each geological unit and rock type it was possible to calculate the statistical characteristics of indoor radon measurements. A clear relationship between indoor radon values and radon in bedrock was confirmed in al...

  12. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  13. Assessing the Effect of Salinity on an Irrigated Land at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buba Apagu ANKIDAWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of salinity on an irrigated land was carried out at Kofai, Ardo-Kola Local Government of Taraba State. The study area was divided into four (4 units designated as A, B, C and D, each unit was subdivided into five (5 parts, designated as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, respectively, made up of twenty (20 soil samples that were collected within the irrigated land for the laboratory analysis of salinity. The parameters analyzed were pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Hydrogen and Aluminum concentration. The results of the soil sample analysis shows that the mean value of pH is 5.99 which indicates that the soil is slightly acidic, the mean value of electrical conductivity (EC is 0.76 ds/m, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum and Hydrogen concentration were obtained to be 11.29, 7.89, 7.98 and 16.88 mg/l respectively, while Sodium and Potassium concentration were obtained to be 0.90 and 0.67 mg/l respectively with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.25 mEq/l. From the analysis it indicates that the soil is low in salinity. Similarly for water sample analysis the pH is 7.7 which indicate that the water is slightly alkaline, EC is 0.8 ds/m, calcium and magnesium concentration were 0.48 and 0.35 mg/l, while sodium and potassium were 0.57 and 0.71 mg/l respectively, with Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR of 0.89 meq/l, which shows that the water sample were found within the safe limit for irrigation. It can be recommended that application of good quality water, choice of salt tolerant crops and gypsum be adopted in the study area.

  14. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.; Santos, J. F.; Azevedo, M. R.; Mendez, M. H.; Ribeiro, S.

    2010-07-01

    The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain). The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Influence of emissions from Cu-Ni smelters on forest ecosystems in the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukina, N. [Centre for Forest Ecology and Productivity RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Between 1991 and 1995, a monitoring network was established in the surroundings of the nickel copper (Ni-Cu) smelters and in the background forest areas of the Kola Peninsula. Several components and parameters were monitored, including chemical composition of atmospheric deposition, soil, soil waters and plants as well as tree vitality and plant species composition. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the effects of pollution originating from smelters in the Kola Peninsula on forest ecosystems. It also elaborated on the approaches to rehabilitation of forested lands. Spruce, pine and birch forests were the types of sites selected for the study. The predominant soil in these forests was podzol. Several site specific factors were considered in evaluating air pollution effects on forests, including soil forming rock, geomorphology, natural disturbances and land use history while the main accompanying factor at the monitoring plots were fires. The paper discussed the monitoring of plots and sites for the studies, precipitation composition, soil acidity, element total concentrations in the soil, and soil waters. The paper also discussed the nutritional status of soil and plants as well as approaches to rehabilitation of lands. It was concluded that the frequency of fires in the areas subjected to air pollution significantly increased because of higher amounts of combustible materials, such as dying off lichens and green mosses, dead tree branches and whole trees. 2 refs.

  16. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias - up to 6 times for the most-affected sites - for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10-20%) but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  17. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prank

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx and primary particulate matter (PM from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias – up to 6 times for the most-affected sites – for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10–20% but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  18. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  19. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  20. ISTRAŽIVANJE PRIPREMLJENOSTI UČENIKA SREDNJIH TRGOVAČKIH, EKONOMSKIH I UPRAVNIH ŠKOLA ZA NASTAVAK OBRAZOVANJA NA SRODNIM FAKULTETIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Miletić, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Cilj je rada ustvrditi jesu li polaznici četverogodišnjih strukovnih škola koji se obrazuju po programima za područje ekonomije, trgovine i poslovne administracije bolje pripremljeni za upis srodnih fakulteta, koji znače nastavak njihove obrazovne vertikale, od učenika ostalih strukovnih škola, pa i gimnazijalaca, koji se obrazuju po drugačijim programima hrvatskoga jezika. Autor je među učenicima četvrtih razreda ekonomskih i upravnih škola proveo istraživanje u obliku testa koji uključuje g...

  1. A ground-validated NDVI dataset for monitoring vegetation dynamics and mapping phenology in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.S.A.; Jonsson, P.; Hogda, K.A.; Karlsen, S.R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Eklundh, L.

    2007-01-01

    An NDVI dataset covering Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula was created for vegetation and climate studies, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 16-day maximum value composite data from 2000 to 2005. To create the dataset, (1) the influence of the polar night and snow on the NDVI val

  2. Assessment of the uncertainty and the proficiency test for accrediting KOLAS of ISO 17025 for a neutron radiography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, H.; Sim, C.M.; Lim, I.C.; Hong, K.P.; Choi, B.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    KOLAS(Korea of Lab Accreditation Scheme) is the charter member of ILAS (International Lab Accreditation Scheme) and APLAS (Asia Pacific Lab Accreditation Scheme), which originates from ISO 17025. KATS (Korea Agent of Technology Standard) governs the KOLAS. The KOLAS describes the basis of satisfying those issues related to a quality assurance and management system. The requirements specify an organization, the accommodation and environmental conditions, an uncertainty in the measurement and an inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program. The evaluation process of the requirements of certifying KOLAS for HANARO NRF has been proceeded by a neutron radiography laboratory, NRT level II course of SNT-TC-1A II is opened, with 20 persons attending for certification. An inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program is conducted through with Kyoto University in accordance with ASTM method for determining the imaging quality in direct thermal neutron radiographic testing (E545-91). In order to determine the uncertainty, dimensional measurements for the calibration fuel pin of the RISO using a profile project is performed with the ASTM practice for thermal neutron radiography of materials (E748-95) (orig.)

  3. Radioactive sources of main radiological concern in the Kola-Barents region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Baklanov, A

    1998-07-01

    This overview focuses on some major issues for risk analysis appearing in our recent study surveying radioactive sources on the Kola Peninsula, along with adjacent parts of the Arctic seas. The main issues of the parts are as follows: An introduction to the presence of radioactive sources and environmental contamination in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the current status as regards various significant studies. Radioactive contamination in man and the environment on the Kola Peninsula, as well as radioactive transfer during the last three decades from external sources to the Kola-Barents region. The main conclusion from the findings is that the contamination is generally relatively low and that neither the activity levels in samples of soil, vegetation, and the important food-chains, nor the content in man indicate any changes since 1986 that could not be explained by the combined effect of the cumulative deposition from the nuclear weapons testing and the accident in Chernobyl. The radioactive sources of main concern in the region belong to the following categories: nuclear power submarine and cruiser naval bases; civil nuclear power ice-breaker fleet; building and repairing shipyards; nuclear power plants; radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel storage facilities; sunken reactors/ships; liquid radioactive waste dumping; solid radioactive waste dumping; nuclear weapon bases; nuclear weapon tests; civil nuclear explosions; nuclear accidents; mining radioactive ore deposits and plants; new projects and others. Several case studies concerning releases in the Kola-Barents region are reviewed, and followed by consequence analyses for the categories of primary interest covering: a) airborne releases from the Kola NPP, and from submarines or spent nuclear fuel; b) releases from objects in the marine environment including submarines, dumped reactors, and various other radioactive objects and waste; c) releases from liquid and solid wastes stored on land or during

  4. Crustal thickening prior to 220 Ma in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Insights from the Late Triassic granitoids in the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Wang, Changming; Deng, Jun; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Wenliang; Qing, Min

    2014-10-01

    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) played an important role in plate tectonics, magma generation, and crustal evolution. Late Triassic granodiorites and their mafic micro-granular enclaves (MMEs) from Xiao-Nuomuhong in the EKOB were studied for geochemistry and geochronology to constrain their petrogenesis. Zircon LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the Xiao-Nuomuhong granodiorites are coeval with their MMEs (∼222 Ma). The granodiorites are high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are enriched in Rb, Th, U and LREE, and depleted in Cr, Ni and HFSE, with high Sr/Y ratios (82.2-85.3) and geochemically resemble the lower crust-derived adakites. The MMEs are also high-K calc-alkaline rocks, with high Al2O3 (16.8-18.8 wt.%), low Mg# (30-40), Nb, Zr and Hf, with weak negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu# = 0.8-0.9). We suggest the MMEs are mafic magmatic globules that were injected into the felsic host magma. The adakitic rocks from the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton were generated by partial melting of thickened crust, while the primitive compositions of the MMEs were most likely from the lithospheric mantle beneath the EKOB. The Late Triassic Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton is important evidence that crustal thickening in the EKOB occurred prior to 220 Ma. The pluton is interpreted as the result of mixing between thickened lower crust-derived melts and lithospheric mantle-derived mafic melts and the protracted magmatic response to the break-off of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic slab at ∼232 Ma.

  5. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  6. Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Reverse Zoning in the Andong Granitoid Pluton, Andong Batholith, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Koo HWANG

    2002-01-01

    The Andong pluton consists of comagmatic granitoid rocks which constitute outstanding examples of reversely zoned granitoids. The pluton has three lithofacies: hornblende biotite tonalite, biotite granodiorite and porphyritic biotite granite. The zoned pattern forms by locating a tonalite core containing high-temperature mafic assemblages in central part,granodiorite rims in marginal part, and a porphyritic granite cap containing more felsic assemblages in topside of the pluton.Mineral abundances as well as bulk compositions of the granitoids indicate that the interior is enriched in mafic minerals and that it shows higher contents of oxides than the margin and topside. The compositional gradients change gradually with continuity between the lithofacies. The regular compositional variations within the pluton support the argument that the pluton behaved as an individual petrochemical system. Model abundances of the granitoids are in agreement with the bulk compositional gradients, suggesting that no significant interaction with country rocks occurred. Remobilization (resurgence) of deeper parts of the system into the more felsic magmas of the chamber explains the reverse zoning. Fractional crystallization was of importance and probably accounts for the selective removal of the settling phases. The Andong pluton is an example of reversely zoned plutons related by remobilization of more mafic but consanguineous magmas. Large-scale upwelling occurred in the pluton leading to the present arrangement of three lithofacies. It is conceivable that remnants of the reverse zoning become more difficult to discern as the plutonic rocks reach the latest stages of their evolution. In this case, the Andong pluton represents an earlier stage in the evolution of a felsic system that is usually represented by the final stages in normally zoned plutons.

  7. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  8. Sheeted and bulbous pluton intrusion mechanisms of a small granitoid from southeastern Australia: implications for dyke-to-pluton transformation during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. J.

    1994-06-01

    The small late syn-tectonic Carboniferous Davys Creek Granite (DCG) of southeastern Australia consists of microgranitic intrusive bodies of diverse geometry and structure. These bodies include: (1) subvertical concordant sheets; (2) bulbous peneconcordant plutons with apophyses and discordant lobes; and (3) subvertical dykes and stocks. The sequence of changing intrusive style is broadly 1-2-3. Transition from 1 to 2 was probably a response to rising magma pressures or declining tectonic stresses. The λ parameter of Emerman and Marrett (1990), which discriminates between stable sheet-like and potential stock/pluton/batholith emplacement modes, adequately predicts the transitions between sheet and pluton emplacements for the DCG. Ductile dyking along actively forming foliations appears to have been an important early intrusive mechanism. A transition from sheet to bulbous pluton intrusion style is suggested to have been in response to magma pressure increases.

  9. Technology of production of high-level concentrate of rare earths from Kola apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure is described of separating rare earth elements from the Kola apatite which contains 0.7 to 1.0% oxides of rare earths. The separation takes place during the manufacture of combined fertilizer NPK-1. During the manufacture of the fertilizer the solution is neutralized with the precipitation of phosphates of rare earths. Increasing pH is accompanied by increased yield of the sum of rare earths. The yield is higher for lighter lanthanoids than for heavier lanthanoids. The phosphate concentrate is decomposed by nitric acid and rare earth elements are precipitated by oxalic acid. Following the annealing of the oxalate concentrate the obtained oxide concentrate will contain 92 to 95% oxides of rare earths. (E.S.)

  10. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  11. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Abebe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

  12. Petrochemistry and petrology of I-type granitoids in an arc setting: the composite Torul pluton, Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Abdullah; Siebel, Wolfgang; Şen, Cüneyt; Satir, Muharrem

    2008-07-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Torul pluton, located in the Eastern Pontides, is of sub-alkaline affinity and displays features typical of volcanic arc granitoids. It is a composite pluton consisting of granodiorite, biotite hornblende monzogranite, quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite and hornblende biotite monzogranite. The oldest syenogranite (77.9 ± 0.3 Ma) and the youngest quartz diorite form small stocks within the pluton. Samples from the granodiorites, biotite hornblende monzogranites, quartz monzodiorites, quartz monzonites and hornblende biotite monzogranites have SiO2 between 57 and 68 wt% and display high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous characteristics. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are fractionated (Lacn/Lucn = 6.0-14.2) with pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.59-0.84). Initial ɛNd(i) values vary between -3.1 and -4.1, initial 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7058 and 0.7072, and δ18O values between +4.4 and +7.3‰. The quartz diorites are characterized by relatively high Mg-number of 36-38, low contents of Na2O (2.3-2.5 wt%) and SiO2 (52-55 wt%) and medium-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous composition. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are relatively flat [(La/Yb)cn = 2.8-3.3; (Tb/Yb)cn = 1.2] and show small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.74-0.76). Compared to the other rock types, radiogenic isotope signatures of the quartz diorites show higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7075-0.7079) and lower ɛNd(i) (-4.5 to -5.3). The syenogranites have high SiO2 (70-74 wt%) and display high-K calc-alkaline, peraluminous characteristics. Their REE patterns are characterized by higher Lacn/Lucn (12.9) and Eu/Eu* (0.76-0.77) values compared to the quartz diorites. Isotopic signatures of these rocks [ɛNd(i) = -4.0 to -3.3; 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7034-0.7060; δ18 O = + 4.9 to + 8.2] are largely similar to the other rock types but differ from that of the quartz diorites. Fractionation of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides played an important role in the

  13. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to ~ 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  14. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  15. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  16. Magma Emplacement and Mafic-Felsic Magma Hybridisation: Structural, Microstructural and Geochemical Evidences From the Pan-African Negash Pluton, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASRAT, A.; BARBEY, P.; GLEIZES, G.; LUDDEN, J.

    2002-05-01

    The Negash pluton (50 sq. km) consists of late Pan-African, high-K, calc-alkaline granitoids intruded into low-grade metavolcanics and metasediments. This almost circular massif consists of monzogranites, granodiorites, monzodiorites, monzogabbros, and hybrid quartz monzodiorites. The rocks are enriched in LIL-elements, depleted in HFS-elements, have fractionated REE patterns, low 87Sr/86Sri (0.702344 - 0.703553) and 143Nd/144Ndi (0.512031 - 0.512133) ratios, positive ɛ Nd values (3.46 to 5.40), and Pan-African model Nd ages (0.83 to 1.08 Ga). These data, along with single zircon U-Pb dating, show that the pluton was emplaced at 608 Ma from primitive source (underplated material or juvenile island arc crust) with contamination by the country rocks. The pluton shows widespread mafic-felsic magma interactions of two types: (i) homogeneous and heterogeneous hybrid monzodiorites at the northwestern part; and (ii) mingled interfaces at the diorite-granodiorite contact zones in the Eastern and Southeastern parts. Detailed structural (using the method of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) and microstructural studies have been applied to understand how these interactions occurred with respect to pluton construction. The monzodiorites constituting the northwestern part of the pluton, which are composed of complexly zoned plagioclases or unzoned plagioclase laths, euhedral hornblende with biotite cores and acicular apatites, are characterized by abundant net veining, synplutonic dikes, microgranitoid enclaves, and juxtaposed series of discrete mafic-felsic pulses of hybrid nature with vertical syn-emplacement structures. The mingled interfaces between the diorites and granodiorites, on the other hand, are characterized by lobate contacts with interfingering of diorites into granodiorites at the decametric scale, abundant inclined to horizontal granitic pipes, breccia dykes and veins, which are strongly enriched in megacrysts of K-feldspars, and numerous swarms of

  17. Melt segregation evidence from a young pluton, Takidani Granodiorite (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Eva; Caricchi, Luca; Floess, David; Wallis, Simon; Harayama, Satoru; Chiaradia, Massimo; Kouzmanov, Kalin

    2016-04-01

    We are presenting new petrological data from one of the youngest exposed plutons in the world, the Takidani Granodiorite (Japan), which has been suggested as a source for large volume ignimbrites (> 300km3). Takidani Granodiorite (1.54 Ma ± 0.23 Ma) is located within the active Norikura Volcanic Chain in the Northen Japan Alps and has been previously linked to large andesitic (1.76 Ma ± 0.17 Ma) and rhyolitic eruptions (1.75 Ma ± 0.17 Ma). The pluton is vertically zoned and consists of granites (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2) in the lower section, granodiorites (65 to 66 wt.% SiO2) in the middle section, a chemically more evolved fine-grained porphyritic unit (67 to 71 wt.% SiO2) near the roof and a marginal granodiorite at the roof (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2). The porphyritic texture of the more evolved unit near the roof indicates rapid crystallisation, which could be the result of the late intrusion of this unit at the roof of the magmatic system. However, no sharp contact is found between the underlying granodiorite and the porphyritic unit. Instead, a gradual change in rock fabric, whole-rock chemistry and mineralogy is observed suggesting that melt was extracted from the granodiorite. Electron microprobe analyses of plagioclases show three main crystal populations (Type I, II and III) with distinct anorthite and Fe contents. Type I plagioclase (An30‑40) occurs dominantly within the marginal granodiorite at the roof. Type II plagioclase (An40‑45) are common in the granodiorite and porphyritic unit. Type III plagioclase (An45‑50) is predominantly present in the granite. All plagioclase populations share a common sodic rim (An22) across the different units. Takidani Granodiorite rocks are compared to crystallisation experiments from similar magmatic suites. Emplacement conditions of the Takidani Granodiorite are obtained from the latter as well as barometry, thermometry and hygrometry indicating that magmas were ultimately emplaced at around 200 MPa, 850° C to 875° C

  18. Magmatic arc construction: Constraints from the structure of the Coast plutonic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronicos, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Coast plutonic complex of British Columbia exposes the middle crust of a vigorous magmatic arc formed in the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. The arc is divided into two parts by the crustal scale Coast shear zone. West of the Coast shear zone between Prince Rupert and Douglas Channel plutons were emplaced at pressures between 500 and 850 MPa, are elongate with steeply dipping contacts and have tadpole shaped terminations. The steeply dipping sides of the plutons are concordant with country rock foliations that grade into mylonitic foliations in the cores of transpressive shear zones which strike NW parallel to the arc axis. Field relationships demonstrate that pluton emplacement occurred during displacement on the shear zones, folding of adjacent country rocks and pluton enhanced anatexis of host rocks. Pressure differences in single plutons and across shear zones attests to major vertical displacements during pluton construction. The data indicate that the plutons record emplacement during major transpressive deformation and crustal thickening. The tabular shape of the plutons, their steep dips and concordance with country rock fabric show that pluton emplacement and plate scale deformation were synchronous between ~120 and 85 Ma. East of plutons that intrude the Coast shear zone a sequence of upper amphibolite to granulite facies gneiss and migmatite (central gneiss complex) occurs that host gently dipping tonalite and granodiorite sills. Mineral assemblages in country rocks of the sills track uplift and exhumation from pressures of ~800 MPa to 200 MPa during sill emplacement between ~75 and 50 Ma. The gently to moderately dipping fabrics that host the sills are the result of transposition of an earlier steeply dipping foliation. Sill emplacement occurred during both contractional and extensional deformation as indicated by a reversal in shear from reverse to normal sense observed at a regional scale. The sills are concordant with host rock foliations and

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of high-K "sanukitoids" from the Bulai pluton, Central Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Implications for geodynamic changes at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Martin, Hervé; Doucelance, Régis; Moyen, Jean-François; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    The Neoarchaean Bulai pluton is a magmatic complex intrusive in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (Limpopo Province, South Africa). It is made up of large volumes of porphyritic granodiorites with subordinate enclaves and dykes of monzodioritic, enderbitic and granitic compositions. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon yield pluton-emplacement ages ranging between 2.58 and 2.61 Ga. The whole pluton underwent a high-grade thermal overprint at ~ 2.0 Ga, which did not affect the whole-rock compositions for most of the major and trace-elements, as suggested by a Sm-Nd isochron built up with 16 samples and yielding an age consistent with U-Pb dating. The whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions evidence that the Bulai pluton belongs to a high-K, calc-alkaline to shoshonitic suite, as well as unequivocal affinities with "high-Ti" sanukitoids. Monzodioritic enclaves and enderbites have both "juvenile" affinities and a strongly enriched signature in terms of incompatible trace elements (LREE, HFSE and LILE), pointing to an enriched mantle source. Based on trace-element compositions, we propose the metasomatic agent at their origin to be a melt deriving from terrigenous sediments. We therefore suggest a two-step petrogenetic model for the Bulai pluton: (1) a liquid produced by melting of subducted terrigenous sediments is consumed by reactions with mantle peridotite, producing a metasomatic assemblage; (2) low-degree melting of this metasomatized mantle gives rise to Bulai mafic magmas. Such a model is supported by geochemical modelling and is consistent with previous studies concluding that sanukitoids result from interactions between slab melts and the overlying mantle wedge. Before 2.5 Ga, melting of hydrous subducted metabasalts produced large volumes of TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite) forming most of the volume of Archaean continental crust. By constrast, our geochemical study failed in demonstrating any significant role played by melting of

  20. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday A Ajayi; David A Ofusori; Gideon B Ojo; Oladele A Ayoka; Taiwo A Abayomi; Adekilekun A Tijani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods: The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results:The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions: It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice.

  1. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Dambudzo Penduka

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zone...

  2. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Dambudzo Penduka; Omobola O. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10–19 mm for methanol extract and 8–15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the metha...

  3. Rb-Sr isochronous age of Vepor pluton granitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result are presented of geochronological investigations of the Vepor pluton granitoids by the Rb-Sr isochronous method. The results prove the Variscan age of granodiorite magmatism of the Sihla type (387±27 m.y.) and the Early Variscan age of leucocratic granitoids of the Vepor and the Ipel types (284±22 m.y.). Since the initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr in granitoids of the Sihla type is 0.7054 and of the Vepor type 0.7060, it can be assumed that during the formation of the granitoids of veporides there was an increased supply of matter from the main source affecting genesis of granitoids. The results prove a polyphase character of the Variscan granitoids of Veporicum. (author)

  4. Why are plutons dry? Outgassing mechanisms of crustal magmatic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    parmigiani, andrea; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Leclaire, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Magma bodies crystallizing to completion within the crust (i.e., forming plutons) typically undergo significant amounts of second boiling (i.e. cooling and crystallization of dominantly anhydrous minerals lead to volatile saturation and bubble nucleation/growth). The low water content ( 6 wt % H2O for evolved compositions in subduction zones), testify that outgassing from crystalline mushy reservoirs must be an efficient and widespread process. Understanding this outgassing mechanism is key to understand how volatiles are transferred from mantle depths to the surface. From the hydrodynamics point of view, the mass balance of exsolved volatiles in these plutonic bodies is controlled by the difference between the rate of degassing (formation of bubbles by 2nd boiling) and outgassing (transport of gas out of the magma body). In this study, we use pore-scale multiphase modeling to constrain these rates as function of the crystal and volatile contents in the magma. Because second boiling is a slow process, one can consider equilibrium degassing as a valid assumption. Outgassing, on the other end, is controlled by the competition between buoyancy, capillary and viscous forces. Our numerical simulations are used to determine the most efficient setting for gas to escape its magmatic trap. The high viscosity of interstitial melts and capillary forces (due to the non-wetting nature of the gas phase with most of the mineral phases in magmatic systems) strongly limits gas transport until vertically extensive gas channels are generated. We show that channels can readily form in volatile-rich coarse-grained mush zones in the upper crust, and allow efficient outgassing at crystallinities around 50-75 vol%, when millimetric bubbles can still win capillary resistive forces.

  5. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota): An underutilised fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Okudu, Helen O; Asumugha, Ukamaka V

    2016-02-15

    The nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola: Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota were determined. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried using solar dryer. Dried pulps were milled into flour with attrition milling machine (0.5mm sieve size). The nutrient compositions were determined using standard AOAC methods. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. There were significant (pcomposition of the two varieties. Most abundant minerals were calcium (195-199mg for C. parchycarpa), potassium (204-209mg/100g for C. lepidota) and β-carotene (2755-5028μg/100g for C. parchycarpa). Calcium:phosphorus and sodium:potassium ratios were adequate (>1.0 and ⩽0.06, respectively). Monkey kola had substantial amounts of iron, zinc, and copper; the B-vitamins and vitamin C. The phytochemical contents were quiet high, the most abundant being flavonoids (415-494mg/100g). Monkey kola is a fruit that should be fully exploited for its potential health benefits.

  6. Vliv stočení oběžného kola na charakteristiku čerpadla

    OpenAIRE

    Jelen, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá změnou geometrie výstupní části oběžného kola u radiálních odstředivých čerpadel a jejímu vlivu na charakteristiku čerpadla. Při použití těchto radiálních odstředivých čerpadel v praxi je možno měnit jejich parametry na základě požadavků. Toto přizpůsobení parametrů se nazývá stočení oběžného kola. Jedná se o zmenšení průměru oběžného kola, čímž dochází ke snížení průtoku, dopravní výšky a účinnosti. Existující vztahy pro výpočet změny charakteristiky po stočení oběž...

  7. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  8. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  9. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  10. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  11. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams

    1996-08-16

    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago. PMID:8688075

  12. Forceful Emplacement of Granitic Plutons in an Extensional Tectonic Setting: Syn-kinematic Plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan Metamorphic Core Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 郑亚东; 李天兵; 高永军; 马铭波

    2002-01-01

    It is generally considered that granitic plutons are forcefully emplaced in a compressional setting and permissively emplaced in an extensional setting. This paper, however, shows that syn-kinematic (extensional) elliptic granitic plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (MCC) have relatively strong forceful emplacement, which are indicated by (1) concentric distribution of the rock units, (2) a strain pattern with strong strains on the margins and low strains at the centre of a pluton, and particularly (3) syn-emplacement shortening of the host rocks within the aureole. The strain analysis for the host rocks shows that the host-rock ductile shortening, I.e. Forceful emplacement, provides about 16?24% of the emplacement space for the present plutons. All these suggest that forceful emplacement occurs not only in a compressional tectonic setting, but also in an extensional setting. This study further demonstrates the significance of the multiple emplacement of granitic plutons and provides new information about the causality between granitic magmatism and the formation of the MCC and its dynamics.

  13. Les granitoïdes néoprotérozoïques de Khzama, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc: marqueurs de l'évolution d'un magmatisme d'arc à un magmatisme alcalineNeoproterozoic granitoids from Khzama, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco: evolution markers from arc magmatism to alkaline magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khanchaoui, T.; Lahmam, M.; El-Boukhari, A.; El-Beraaouz, H.

    2001-05-01

    Petrological study and zircon typology provide important information that is related to the classification and genesis of Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Khzama area (northeast Siroua). The Pan-African granitoids show a transition from island-arc magmatism to alkaline magmatism. A space and time zonation of magmatism from the north to the south is evident. Early Pan-African granitoids were generated from various magma sources through different petrogenetic mechanisms. The first association corresponds to the low-K calc-alkaline plutons of Ait Nebdas, the second one correponds to high-K calc-alkaline post-collisional granites (Tamassirte-Tiferatine and Ifouachguel). Finally, shoshonitic magmatism (Irhiri) ends the magmatic evolution of the region. Thus, the late Pan-African granitic plutonism began with calc-alkaline associations and ended with K-alkaline magmatism in a transtensional setting, heralding the onset of the Moroccan Palæozoic cycle.

  14. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  15. Geochemistry and subsequent deformation of the Triassic Longtan pluton in South China: Implications for the origin of the Indosinian tectonomagmatic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Yan, D.; Zhou, M.; Arndt, N.; Tang, S.; Qi, L.

    2012-12-01

    The tectonic configuration of present-day Southeast Asia is the consequence of the amalgamation of microcontinents during the Triassic. The Indosinian tectonic event was recorded by Triassic angular unconformities in Vietnam and South China. Widely distributed Indosinian granitoids and the associated deformation are the key to understanding the tectonic evolution of the region. These granitoids form three tectonomagmatic belts. The Longtan pluton in the northwest belt has a zircon U-Pb age of 218±0.8 Ma, recording the termination of the extensive Indosinian magmatism. This pluton is composed of high-K calc-alkaline granodiorites and granites (64.6-71.8% SiO2 and 3.2-4.7% K2O). The rocks have high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7275-0.7468) and negative ɛNd (t) (-11.93 to -9.08), and were crustally derived by melting of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. Wide spread granitoids in the South China Block have petrological and geochemical features similar to the Longtan pluton and are also considered to have formed in a similar manner. However, there is a younging trend from the southeast belt with ages of 260-240 Ma, to the middle belt at 240-230 Ma and the northwest belt at 230-210 Ma. This younging trend is consistent with EW-trending fold axes in the intruded country rocks, and northward development during the Late Permian to Late Triassic of the assemblage of the tectonic belts and the foreland basins. Therefore, we propose a model involving partial melting of crustal materials to explain the origin of granitoids and progressive northward development of the tectonomagmatic belts. The development of the tectonomagmatic belts was probably linked with the collision between the Indochina and South China Blocks during the Triassic.

  16. Origin of the fluorine-rich highly differentiated granites from the Qianlishan composite plutons (South China) and implications for polymetallic mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ma, Xinghua; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Many composite granite plutons occur in South China, accompanied by large-scale polymetallic mineralization. Each composite pluton is composed of main-phase granite and late-stage highly differentiated granite. Traditionally, the highly differentiated granite is thought to be residual melt of the former via fractionation, and ore-forming materials and fluids are from granite magma itself. We propose a different model for the origin of the granites and related mineralization, based on petrological and geochemical studies on the Qianlishan composite plutons that host the supergiant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. The main-phase granite shows features of normal granites, while the highly differentiated granite is characterized by F-rich, water-deficient, low fO2, alkalinity, REE tetrad effect, and modified behavior of some trace elements, e.g., very high K/Ba and low K/Rb and Zr/Hf ratios. We suggest that the parent magma of the highly differentiated granite was derived from melting of dominantly lower crustal rocks, triggered by underplating of a new pulse of basaltic magmas; small amounts of basaltic magmas and volatiles such as fluorine were involved in the source of the granite. Addition of fluorine lowered the solidus temperature and viscosity of granite magma, and thus prolonged the process of magma evolution. This resulted in extreme fractional crystallization, and intense interaction between melt and circulating waters from country rocks, forming the unusual geochemical features of the granite. The high temperature circulating waters, along with metamorphic fluids released from deep crustal rocks, subsequently, extract ore-forming metals from country rocks through forming F-bearing complexation, forming the polymetallic deposits.

  17. Iron variation within a granitic pluton as determined by near-infrared reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred fifty-one previously chemically analyzed samples of tonalite from the Lakeview Mountains pluton, southern California batholith, were analyzed for their iron content using near-infrared spectrophotometry. Compared to the earlier analyses of the same sample set by X-ray fluorescence spectrography, the infrared data have higher analytical variance but clearly define patterns of compositional zonation in the pluton which are closely similar to those patterns obtained from X-ray data; petrogenetic interpretations for the pluton would be the same from either data set. Infrared spectral data can be obtained directly in the field with relatively simple instruments and field measurements can be made to average local heterogeneities that often mask significant plutonic variations.

  18. Chronology and cooling history of the Tianmenshan pluton in South Jiangxi Province and their geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qingtao; MAO Jianren; HU Qing; ZHAO Xilin; YE Haimin

    2008-01-01

    Geochronological studies on the crust-derived Tianmenshan pluton were undertaken by SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and Ar-Ar dating of biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar, giving a petrogenetic age of 167 Ma. Owing to the closure systems in different minerals, the cooling history of the pluton can be determined with an age-temperature diagram. The late hydrothermal event has been recognized, which is related probably with mineralization. In terms of the comparative geochronological and petrologic records, it is concluded that there are some constrains on tectonic evolution and that the formation of the Tianmenshan pluton proceeded in a transition period from lndosinian post-orogeny extension to strong compressive tectonics. And the timing of the hydrothermal event matches the compressive climax of the Yanshanian orogeny. The temporal gap between granite emplacement and wolframite mineralization could last 10-20 Ma owing to the low cooling rate of the pluton.

  19. Present and future risks of excess heavy metal input to terrestrial ecosystems in the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koptsik, S.; Koptsik, G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation); De Vries, W.; Groenenberg, B.J.; Voogd, J.C. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lofts, S. [CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Due to gas emissions from the nickel processing industry in the Kola Peninsula in Russia, the continued deposition of heavy metals and sulfur has caused significant damage to terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in toxic impacts on plants and microorganisms. This paper presented the results of a study that applied a recently developed methodology to calculate critical loads for heavy metals in order to evaluate ecotoxicological effects. Critical metal concentrations and critical loads of nickel, copper, cadmium and lead in the soil solid phase were calculated and compared with the present metal contents to estimate the present risks while the long-term acceptable deposition loads, or critical loads of metals, were calculated for organic and illuvial soil layers to estimate future risks. The paper presented the objects and methodology for the study are with reference to methods to calculate critical soil metal concentrations; methods to calculate critical metal loads; and input data. Results were provided in terms of present and critical soil metal concentrations and present and critical metal loads. It was concluded that critical contents for Ni and Cu were high in areas around the smelters demonstrating the need for soil remediation measures. In addition, the areas with exceeded Ni and Cu contents in organic layers were notably smaller than areas where disturbances in vegetation were observed. 23 refs., 1 tab, 3 figs.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NWANERI-CHIDOZIE V. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  1. Raman spectra of probably shock-metamorphosed zircon in structures of the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulina, Tatiana; Nerovich, Luidmila; Lialina, Luidmila; Il'chenko, Vadim; Bocharov, Vladimir; Kunakkuzin, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Zircon crystals were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy from certain structures of the Kola Peninsula, for which impact events are expected according to geological and geochemical data: circular structure in Javrozersky area of the Tanaelv belt and granophyres of Jarva-Varaka layered massif of the Monchegorsky ore district. Zircons from anorthosites of the Javrozersky area showed some features of impact zircons: wavy extinction, blurred "aurora-like" CL image and a presence of additional bands in the Raman spectrum, which may indicate the presence of ZrSiO4 with the scheelite-type structure (reidite) surrounded by zircon material. Zircon crystals of Yavra-Varaka granophyres showed variation of Raman spectra from the core part of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. There was also a transition zone between cores and marginal parts of crystals, where the Raman spectrum is "blurred". Such pattern may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, since the Jarva-Varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data is compared with the Sudbury structure, for which impact origin is assumed. The work is supported by RSF grant N 16-17-10051.

  2. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between local meteorological conditions and the surface ozone variability was studied by means of statistical modeling, using ozone and meteorological parameters measured at Lovozero (250 m a.s.l., 68.5°N, 35.0°E, Kola Peninsula for the period of 1999-2000. The regression model of daily mean ozone concentrations on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed explains up to 70% of day-to-day ozone variability in terms of meteorological condition changes, if the seasonal cycle is also considered. A regression model was created for separated time scales of the variables. Short-term, synoptical and seasonal components are separated by means of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering. The synoptical scale variations were chosen as the most informative from the point of their mutual relation with meteorological parameters. Almost 40% of surface ozone variations in time periods of 11-60 days can be explained by the regression model on separated scales that is 30% more efficient than ozone residuals usage. Quantitative and qualitative estimations of the relations between surface ozone and meteorological predictors let us preliminarily conclude that at the Lovozero site surface ozone variability is governed mainly by dynamical processes of various time scale rather than photochemistry, especially during the cold season.

  3. Community assessment for identification and prioritization health problems in Navai Kola village, Babol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attracting community participation is the most important developmental solution in various sectors of the society. In this regard, the community evaluation is the process during which researchers and community members get the right understanding of health, living concerns, and community health care system by collecting and analyzing data and determining the strengths, resources, and the needs of society. Navai Kola is a village in the Babol, Iran, in which this research has been done to identify and prioritize problems. Methods: This research is based on the model of the Northern Carolina. In this model, the process of community assessment is done in an eight-stage process that the first seven stages include: identification and classification of problems and the eighth involves drawing up operational plans for solving high priority problems. Results: In this study, a total of 40 different problems were identified in order, and the main were lack of sports facilities and entertainment, waste disposal, dangerous U-turn point in the entrance of the village, worn out power and water utilities, and youth unemployment. Conclusion: Most of the problems identified were issues not directly related to health, but had effects that differently appeared in community health.

  4. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.

    1998-10-21

    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  5. Návrh oběžného kola odstředivého čerpadla pro dané parametry

    OpenAIRE

    Moravec, Prokop

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem oběžného kola odstředivého čerpadla pro dané parametry. Tento návrh se skládá z výpočtu základních rozměrů meridiálního řezu kola, návrhu tvaru tohoto řezu a z návrhu tvaru lopatky. Kompletní návrh kola je následně simulován v CFD programu. This thesis deals with centrifugal pump impeller design for given parameters. This pump impeller design consists of the calculation of basic dimensions, the meridional flow channel design and blade design. Complete...

  6. Thermal modeling of pluton emplacement and associated contact metamorphism:Parashi stock emplacement in the Serranía de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga C. Carlos A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the northernmost portion of the Serrania de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia, low - medium grade metamorphic rocks from the Etpana Metamorphic Suite were thermally affected by emplacement of a small calc-alkaline intrusion (Parashi Stock. Detailed petrographic analysis in collected rock samples across the NE and NW plutonic contacts show occurrences of textural and mineralogical changes in the country rock fabric that evidence contact metamorphism overprinting regional metamorphism of the Etpana Suite. These changes include growth of andalusite (chiastolite, calcic clinopyroxeneand amphibole porphyroblast crosscutting Sn+1 metamorphicfoliation. Hornblende-plagioclase barometry (ca. 3.1 kbar and cooling models for the stock show maximum time temperature evolution in the country rock at the interpreted depth of intrusion (ca. 11 km and help to evaluate the behavior of the country rock with the changing local geotherm.

  7. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    most intense free gas emission. The technical possibilities that are offered by Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the geomorphological investigation of inhospitable and inaccessible mountain areas Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are valuable tools for approximation of the real world's continuous surface. They allow a visual analysis of the earth's surface morphology, quanti?cation of sediment volumes and the calculation of topographic derivatives such as the slope gradient, slope aspect and pro?le curvature that consume ?eld investigations and optimize time The project has been sponsored by programmm Presidium of RAS P44. Reference Ivanyuk G, Kalashnikov A, Mikhailova J, Konoplyova N, Goryainov P, Yakovenchuk V, Pakhomovsky Y. Self-Organization of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). In Earth Sciences, Dr. Imran Ahmad Dar(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-861-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earth-sciences/self-organization-of-the-khibiny-alkaline -massif -kolapeninsula-russia INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012, Head7, P.131-156.

  8. Petrogenetic evolution of the Early Miocene Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex, northwestern Turkey: implications for the geodynamic framework of the Aegean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkül, Sibel Tatar

    2012-01-01

    Extensional-tectonic processes have generated extensive magmatic activity that produced volcanic/plutonic rocks along an E-W-trending belt across north-western Turkey; this belt includes granites and coeval volcanic rocks of the Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex. The petrogenesis of the Early Miocene Alaçamdağ granitic and volcanic rocks are here investigated by means of whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic data along with field, petrographic and whole-rock geochemical studies. Geological and geochemical data indicate two distinct granite facies having similar mineral assemblages, their major distinguishing characteristic being the presence or absence of porphyritic texture as defined by K-feldspar megacrysts. I-type Alaçamdağ granitic stocks have monzogranitic-granodioritic compositions and contain a number of mafic microgranular enclaves of monzonitic, monzodioritic/monzogabbroic composition. Volcanic rocks occur as intrusions, domes, lava flows, dykes and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks having (first episode) andesitic and dacitic-trachyandesitic, and (second episode) dacitic, rhyolitic and trachytic-trachydacitic compositions. These granitic and volcanic rocks are metaluminous, high-K, and calc-alkaline in character. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns vary only slightly such that all of the igneous rocks of the Alaçamdağ have similar REE patterns. Primitive-mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams show that these granitic and volcanic rocks are strongly enriched in LILE and LREE pattern, high (87Sr/86Sr)i and low ɛ Nd( t) ratios suggesting Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic rocks to have been derived from hybrid magma that originated mixing of co-eval lower crustal-derived more felsic magma and enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle-derived more mafic magmas during extensional processes, and the crustal material was more dominant than the mantle contribution. The Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex rocks may form by retreat of the Hellenic

  9. Analysis of ISO/IEC 17025 for establishment of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) quality assurance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides one existent accredited lab, radioactive material chemical analysis lab, five test laboratories and two calibration labs are under plan to acquire the accreditation from KOLAS. But the current Quality Manual was developed according to ISO Guide 25 that was superceded by ISO/IEC 17025. Since it is tailored to the radioactive material chemical analysis lab, a number of requirements of the Manual are not applicable to the labs other than radioactive material chemical analysis lab. Through the analysis of ISO/IEC 17025, a model of quality system was established which is not only consistent with ISO/IEC 17025 but reflective of the KAERI's situation

  10. Analysis of ISO/IEC 17025 for establishment of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) quality assurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Hee

    2000-12-01

    Besides one existent accredited lab, radioactive material chemical analysis lab, five test laboratories and two calibration labs are under plan to acquire the accreditation from KOLAS. But the current Quality Manual was developed according to ISO Guide 25 that was superceded by ISO/IEC 17025. Since it is tailored to the radioactive material chemical analysis lab, a number of requirements of the Manual are not applicable to the labs other than radioactive material chemical analysis lab. Through the analysis of ISO/IEC 17025, a model of quality system was established which is not only consistent with ISO/IEC 17025 but reflective of the KAERI's situation.

  11. Is there a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains caldera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Davidson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Results from separate volcanic and plutonic studies have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding the origins and thus links between volcanic and plutonic systems in continental arcs and the magmatic processes and time scales responsible for their compositional variations. Some have suggested that there is a geochemical and geochronological disconnect between volcanic and plutonic rocks and hence have questioned the existence of magma mush columns beneath active volcanoes. Investigating contemporary volcanic and plutonic rocks that are spatially connected is thus critical in exploring these issues. The ca. 36 Ma Organ Mountains caldera in New Mexico, USA, represents such a system exposing contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic rocks juxtaposed at the surface due to tilting during extensional tectonics along the Rio Grande Rift. Detailed geologic and structural mapping [1] and 40Ar/39Ar ages of both volcanics and plutons [2] demonstrate the spatial and temporal connection of both rock types with active magmatism over >2.5 myr. Three caldera-forming ignimbrites erupted within 600 kyr [2] from this system with a total erupted volume of 500-1,000 km3 as well as less voluminous pre- and post-caldera trachyte and andesite lavas. The ignimbrite sequence ranges from a crystal-poor, high-SiO2 rhyolite at the base to a more crystal-rich, low-SiO2 rhyolite at the top. Compositional zoning with quartz-monzonite at the base grading to syenite and alaskite at the top is also found in the Organ Needle pluton, the main intrusion, which is interpreted to be the source for the ignimbrites [1]. Other contemporaneous and slightly younger plutons have dioritic to leucogranitic compositions. We examined both volcanic and plutonic rocks with petrography and their textural variations with color cathodoluminescence, and used whole rock element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry to constrain magma compositions and origins. Electron microprobe analyses on feldspars have been completed to

  12. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  13. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  14. Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christinah T. Seanego

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0–24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04–1.25 mg/mL and 0.081–2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006–2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3, CEF 11 (F11 and CEF 12 (F12 revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials.

  15. Granite intrusion by externally induced growth and deformation of the magma reservoir, the example of the Plasenzuela pluton, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio; Fernández, Carlos

    1998-09-01

    The Plasenzuela pluton in the Central Extremadura batholith in the southern Iberian Massif, is an example of permissive emplacement in relation to the tectonic development of extensional fractures in the upper continental crust. Paradoxically, this pluton has a concordant structural pattern which is classically attributed to diapirism or ballooning. This pattern consists of the following elements: (a) nearly elliptical shape in the horizontal section; (b) conformity of the pre-existing aureole structures to the shape of the pluton contacts; and (c) development of a crenulation cleavage, parallel to the contacts, in the vicinity of the pluton walls. All these features have been interpreted in many plutons as resulting from the pushing-aside of the country rock structures due to the expansion of the pluton. However, the detailed structural relationships in the aureole do not favour a forceful emplacement mechanism. By contrast, these relationships constitute prime evidence of permissive intrusion in extensional fractures. According to this interpretation, the concordant shape of the pluton was acquired by syn-plutonic opening of a mixed tensional-shear fracture, parallel to the main foliation in the host rocks, and by folding of the fracture walls together with the previous anisotropy of the country rocks. This is a growth-deformation process that can operate at local conditions in the upper continental crust giving rise to concordant syn-tectonic plutons.

  16. Microstructure and magnetic fabric in the Shuanghe pluton: A synkinematic granite in Eastern Dabie Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Kunguang; LIU; Qiang; LIU; Yuyan; MA; Changqian; XU

    2004-01-01

    Strain analyses for the Shuanghe pluton show that the main strain planes suffered distinct deformation. The main strain value (XZ) is up to 1.59-2.18, and the value of Flinn index (K) ranges from 0.11 to 0.82. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements reveal that the orientations of the magnetic foliation and lineation gently dip SE, consistent with the macroscopic foliation of the pluton. The value of anisotropy degree (P) ranges from 1.109 to 1.639, and the shape parameter (7) from 0.079 to 0.534. These studies prove that the pluton was deformed under strong compression. Quartz c-axis textures, defined by monoclinic or triclinic asymmetry, usually developed the high maxima paralleling the b-axis, which is defined by the developed in the high-ultrahigh pressure rocks (UHP) which were captured in the pluton or country rocks. It is concluded that the Shuanghe pluton emplaced under regional compression slightly after the formation of UHP, and it is characterized by synkinematic granitic deformation.

  17. Three hydroxylated lupeol-based triterpenoid esters isolated from the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe parasitic on Kola acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Kawamura, Akira; Proksch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Column fractionation and purification of an n-hexane fraction led to the isolation of three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters from the leaves of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on a local kola nut tree, Kola acuminata. These three compounds were adequately characterised using a combination of UV/visible, IR, NMR (¹³C-NMR and ¹H-NMR), DEPT, MS and two-dimensional correlation (H-H COSY, Hetero-nuclear Single Quantum Correlation (HSQC), HMBC, NOE and NOESY) studies as 7β,15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-esters of palmitic (I), stearic (II) and eicosanoic acids (III). The characterisation of other isolated compounds is ongoing. Remarkably, this is the first report of the existence of fatty acid esters of an unusual 7β,15α-dihydroxylated lupeol in the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe. These isolated compounds might contribute in part to the numerous established bio-activities of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoes. PMID:22007932

  18. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  19. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  20. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and degradation levels on permanent field

  1. Detection of pollution-induced forest decline in the Kola Peninsula using remote sensing and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigina, Olga

    1998-07-01

    Forests on the Kola Peninsula in Northern Russia grow close to the northern tree line. They are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The Cu-Ni smelter 'Severonikel' (Lat. 67 deg 55'N; Long. 32 deg 57'E) near Monchegorsk is one of the two major sources of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals emissions on the Kola Peninsula. These emissions have caused significant deterioration of the surrounding vegetation. The thesis demonstrates how methods of Remote sensing, ground survey and mathematical modelling can be integrated for monitoring of the smelter's environmental impact on the surrounding vegetation: ground truth data are used for calibration of remote-sensed data, which further serve to verify mathematical models. The study aims were: * to estimate the scale of airborne sulphur pollution from the smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula and its effect on vegetation; * to assess spatial extent of the forest decline in the 'Severonikel' smelter impact zone; * to display dynamics of the forest damage area in spatial and temporal perspective; * to validate the Gaussian plume sector model and the IIASA forest impact model as components of the analysis of forest damage. The Regional Acidification Information and Simulation model (RAINS) was applied to calculate sulphur deposition and loads in Fennoscandia in order to assess the contribution of the Kola sources to the deposition pattern in the region. The percentage of the ecosystems where the critical load had been exceeded was calculated. For more detailed assessments, calculations based on local and meso-scale models were made. Landsat-MSS summer images from 1978, 1986 and 1992 and a Landsat -TM image from 1996 were used for change-detection analyses. The methods applied were bandwise histogram matching and subsequent differencing. An unsupervised classification of land-cover was made using the 1996 Landsat-TM image. In situ observations of vegetation type and

  2. Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brent V.; Samson, Scott D.; D'Lemos, Richard S.

    1999-10-01

    New U-Pb zircon and titanite dates from syn-tectonic plutons on the British Channel Island of Sark constrain the time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in this part of the Neoproterozoic Cadomian magmatic arc. The Tintageu leucogneiss is a mylonitic unit that was dated previously at 615.6 +4.2-2.3 Ma. The Port du Moulin quartz diorite, which intruded the Tintageu unit, contains a high-strain solid-state deformation fabric that is less intense than, but parallel to, fabrics in the leucogneiss and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 613.5 +2.3-1.5 Ma. The Little Sark quartz diorite also displays solid-state deformation fabrics in addition to relict magmatic textures, and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 611.4 +2.1-1.3 Ma. The North Sark granodiorite is largely penetratively undeformed, exhibits mainly magmatic fabrics and textures and has a U-Pb zircon date of 608.7 +1.1-1.0 Ma. Two fractions of titanite from each intrusion are essentially concordant and are identical within error, with mean dates of 606.5±0.4 Ma (Port du Moulin quartz diorite), 606.2±0.6 Ma (Little Sark quartz diorite), 606.4±0.6 Ma (North Sark granodiorite). The new U-Pb data, in combination with previous U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar data and previous field studies, confirm the syn-tectonic nature of the Sark plutons and quantify the time span (ca. 7 m.y.) required for intrusion and sufficient crystallization of each body to record incremental strain during waning deformation. Titanite U-Pb and hornblende 40Ar/ 39Ar dates mark final cooling about 2 m.y. after intrusion of the last pluton.

  3. Geochemistry, geochronology and zircon Hf isotopic study of peralkaline-alkaline intrusions along the northern margin of the North China Craton and its tectonic implication for the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei; Liao, Wen; Wang, Yanyang

    2016-09-01

    A giant Permian alkaline magmatic belt has recently been identified in southern Inner Mongolia, along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). This belt is mainly composed of syenite, quartz syenite, alkaline granite and mafic microgranular enclaves (MME)-bearing granodiorite. In order to study the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these rocks, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analysis of two Permian alkaline plutons. The first Guangxingyuan Pluton occurs in the Hexigten area and is composed of MME-bearing tonalite, K-feldspar granite and syenite. The second Durenwuliji Pluton, located in the Xianghuangqi area, comprises syenite, quartz syenite and K-feldspar granite. Zircon U-Pb dating on tonalite, K-feldspar granite, syenite and quartz syenite from the two plutons yielded a tight range of ages from 259 to 267 Ma. The peralkaline-alkaline rocks show high abundance of total alkalis (K2O + Na2O = 7.9-12.9%) and K2O contents (3.9-8.0%), enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE), and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE). The associated tonalite and MMEs display I-type granitic geochemical affinity, with less total abundance of trace elements than the peralkaline-alkaline rocks. Zircon Hf isotopic analysis of the Guangxingyuan pluton yielded a large range of εHf(t) values from - 15.5 to + 6.7 and model ages (TDMC) from 781 to 2012 Ma. By contrast, the Hf isotopic data of the Durenwuliji pluton shows a small range of εHf(t) from + 6.2 to + 8.9 and TDMC from 667 to 816 Ma. The geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics indicate that the parental magma was derived from a mixing of metasomatic mantle-derived mafic magma with different amount of crust-derived felsic magma, and followed by fractional crystallization. Considering previous tectonic studies in Inner Mongolia, a Permian post-orogenic extension was proposed to account for these peralkaline-alkaline intrusions following

  4. Petrology, geochemistry and thermobarometry of the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, Coastal Range batholith, northern Chile. A thermal approach to the emplacement processes in the Jurassic andean batholiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Natalia; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Riveros, Karl; Fuentes, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    The Flamenco pluton is part of a N-S alignment of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic intrusive belt comprising the westernmost part of the Coastal Range batholith in northern Chile. The Jurassic-Cretaceous voluminous magmatism related to subduction in the western active continental margin of Gondwana is emplaced in the predominantly metasedimentary Paleozoic host-rocks of the Las Tórtolas formation, which in the northern area of the Flamenco pluton present an intense deformation, including the Chañaral mélange. Geochemically, the Flamenco pluton shows a wide compositional variability (SiO2 between 48wt % and 67wt %). Gabbros, Qtz-diorites and tonalites, mesocratic and leucocratic granodiorites are classified as calc-alkaline, calcic, magnesian and metaluminous magmatism. Flamenco granitoids define cotectic linear evolution trends, typical of magmatic fractionation processes. Geochemical trends are consistent with magmas evolved from undersaturated and low-pressure melts, even though the absence of transitional contacts between intrusive units precludes in-situ fractionation. Although some granodioritic samples show crossed geochemical trends that point to the compositional field of metasediments, and large euhedral prismatic pinnite-biotite crystals, typical Crd pseudomorph, are observed in contact magmatic facies, geochemical assimilation processes are short range, and the occurrence of host-rocks xenoliths is limited to a few meters from the pluton contact. A thermal approach to the emplacement process has been constrained through the thermobarometric results and a 2D thermo-numerical model of the contact aureole. Some Qtz-diorites and granodiorites located in the north area of the pluton exhibit granulitic textures as Hbl-Pl-Qtz triple junctions, poikiloblastic Kfs and Qtz recrystallization. The Hbl-Pl pairs have been used for the thermobarometric study of this metamorphic process, resulting granoblastic equilibrium temperatures between 770 and 790 °C, whereas

  5. Calc-alkaline rear-arc magmatism in the Fuegian Andes: Implications for the mid-cretaceous tectonomagmatic evolution of southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Mauricio González; Escayola, Mónica; Acevedo, Rogelio

    2011-02-01

    The magmatic arc of the Fuegian Andes is composed mostly of Upper Mesozoic to Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons and subordinated lavas. To the rear arc, however, isolated mid-Cretaceous monzonitic plutons and small calc-alkaline dykes and sills crop out. This calc-alkaline unit (the Ushuaia Peninsula Andesites, UPA) includes hornblende-rich, porphyritic quartz meladiorites, granodiorites, andesites, dacites and lamprophyres. Radiometric dating and cross-cutting relationships indicate that UPA is younger than the monzonitic suite. The geochemistry of UPA is medium to high K, with high LILE (Ba 500-2000 ppm, Sr 800-1400 ppm), HFSE (Th 7-23 ppm, Nb 7-13 ppm, Ta 0.5-1.1 ppm) and LREE (La 16-51 ppm) contents, along with relatively low HREE (Yb 1.7-1.3 ppm) and Y (9-19 ppm). The similar mineralogy and geochemistry of all UPA rocks suggest they evolved from a common parental magma, by low pressure crystal fractionation, without significant crustal assimilation. A pure Rayleigh fractionation model indicates that 60-65% of crystal fractionation of 60% hornblende + 34% plagioclase + 4% clinopyroxene + 1% Fe-Ti oxide, apatite and sphene (a paragenesis similar of UPA mafic rocks) can explain evolution from lamprophyres to dacites. The UPA has higher LILE, HFSE and LREE, and lower HREE and Y than the calc-alkaline plutons and lavas of the volcanic front. The HREE and Y are lower than in the potassic plutons as well. High concentrations of Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, LREE and Ce/Pb, and low U/Th, Ba/Th ratios in UPA, even in the least differentiated samples, suggest contributions from subducted sediments to the mantle source. On the other hand, relatively low HREE and Y, high LREE/HREE (La/Yb 11-38) ratios and Nb-Ta contents can be interpreted as mantle metasomatism by partial melts of either subducted garnetiferous oceanic sediment or basalt as well. Additionally, high LILE content in UPA, similar to the potassic plutons, suggests also a mantle wedge previously metasomatized by potassic

  6. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  7. Reconstruction of mid-crustal pluton assembly and evolution using trace elements in augite: Sausfjellet pluton, Bindal batholith, north-central Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coint, Nolwenn; Barnes, Calvin; Yoshinobu, Aaron; Prestvik, Tore; Barnes, Melanie

    2013-04-01

    The Sausfjellet pluton is a 445 Ma gabbroic to monzonitic body of 7 Km in diameter emplaced in two stages at ~700 MPa pressure. Stage 1 is a coarse pyroxene hornblende gabbro. Stage 2 intrudes a steep contact between marbles on the east and pelitic migmatites on the west. Stage 2 displays a gradational transition from hornblende biotite two-pyroxene diorite to hornblende biotite three-pyroxene quartz monzonite. This transition is accompanied by a decrease in the An content of normally-zoned plagioclase from An61 to An27. Much of the pluton consists of cumulate rocks, as illustrated by the presence of anorthosite and pyroxene-rich layers. In the western part of the intrusion, hosted by metapelitic rocks, incompatible element concentrations and bulk-rock ^18O increase to levels that cannot be explained by fractional crystallization. These increases were originally explained by AFC processes, but because of the cumulative nature of the rocks, it is difficult to assess magmatic processes using bulk rock compositions. Therefore, we analyzed trace element contents and core-to-rim zoning in augite as a proxy to track changes in melt composition. Augite is normally zoned, with lower incompatible element abundances in the cores than in the rims, consistent with evolution of the melt by fractional crystallization. However, instead of plotting along a single differentiation trend, augite compositions define two trends, which is inconsistent with a closed system. The most mafic rocks define a trend with lower REE contents and smaller (negative) Eu anomalies compared to those from the more evolved part of the pluton, although the two trends overlap in Zr content. The two trends correspond to the central, more mafic zone that intrudes marble and the western, more evolved zone that intrudes metapelites. The trend associated with the western zone consists of the same samples that show bulk-rock ^18O enrichment, and is best explained as resulting from assimilation of the host

  8. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  9. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga

    2016-11-01

    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  10. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; King, H. E.; Putnis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  11. Geochronology and geochemistry of granite plutons from east Khasi hills, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discordant granite plutons at Kyrdem, Nongpoh and South Khasi intrude the basement gneisses and the overlying Shillong Group of metasediments in the Meghalaya Plateau. Porphyritic granitoids ranging in composition from quartz monazonite to granite represent the dominant component in all the three plutons. Common characteristics of these granitoids are spatial association with homblende dioritic rocks, dominantly potassic and metaluminous nature. A positive correlation of SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Rb, Rb/Sr and negative correlation of CaO, MgO, FeO(T), Sr, TiO2 with Differentiation Index in the Kyrdem pluton point to fractional crystallisation processes. Rb-Sr whole rock isochron data of the plutons yield ages in the range 480-690 Ma with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70948-0.71482. Absence of post emplacement tectonothermal event is suggested by near concordant K-Ar biotite ages. A protracted thermal event during late proterozoic-early paleozoic (500-700 Ma), possibly related to mantle upwelling, possibly triggered the generation of these granitoids. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs. , 6 tabs

  12. Tectonic rotations and internal structure of Eocene plutons in Chuquicamata, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, R.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Zaffarana, C. B.; Singer, S. E.; Puigdomenech Negre, C. G.; Raposo, M. I. B.; Dilles, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    A paleomagnetic and AMS study on Eocene plutonic complexes in the Calama area, northern Chile, reveals high-temperature, high-coercivity magnetizations of dominantly thermoremanent origin and magnetic fabrics controlled by magnetite. The paleomagnetic results indicate that ~ 43 Ma plutons underwent clockwise tectonic rotation, whereas adjacent ~ 39 Ma plutons did not undergo discernible rotation. This points to a middle Eocene age for the younger tectonic rotations associated with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern in the Chuquicamata-Calama area. The petrofabric in these rocks formed under conditions ranging from purely magmatic (i.e. before full crystallization) to low-temperature solid-state deformation. AMS and paleomagnetism suggest that the plutonic bodies were formed by progressive amalgamation of subvertical magma sheets spanning multiple magnetic polarity chrons. The parallelism between magmatic and tectonic foliations suggests that regional tectonic stress controlled ascent, emplacement and rock deformation during cooling. In this context, we suggest that magma ascent and emplacement in the upper crust likely exploited Mesozoic structures which were locally reactivated in the Eocene.

  13. The geochemistry, age, and origin of groundwater in a mafic pluton, East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is conducting geoscience investigations of several plutons in Canada's Precambrian Shield as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, to determine whether such rock masses are suitable for the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The East Bull Lake (EBL) gabbro-anorthosite layered complex is unique in this program as it is the only mafic pluton in which hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been conducted. These results can be compared with those of similar studies of granitic rocks which have been investigated more extensively. During the period, 1983-85, hydrogeological testing and hydrochemical sampling were conducted by the National Hydrology Research Institute of Environment Canada and AECL in boreholes drilled to depths of up to 850 m into the EBL pluton (Raven et al., 1987). This paper discusses the hydrogeochemistry of the pluton and identifies the major rock-water interactions controlling the chemistry. The spatial variability in chemistry will be shown to be related to the nature of the groundwater flow systems present at this site. The ages and origins of the groundwaters and their solutes are inferred from isotopic analyses

  14. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.;

    2010-01-01

    . Higher temperatures also enhanced oxidation in ilmenite. The formation of magnetite altered the bulk magnetic properties of these samples, increasing NRM intensity. This study underscores the need to consider a pluton's post-emplacement thermal history before making tectonic interpretations based...

  15. Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Marisa Farhana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment − score at the beginning mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke.

  16. Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Kun Marisa; Malueka, Rusdy Ghazali; Wibowo, Samekto; Gofir, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment - score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke. PMID:27340413

  17. Insights Into the Formation of Rhyolite From the Searchlight Pluton: Evidence from Oriented Quartz Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemming, N.; Deering, C. D.; Beane, R. J.; Bachmann, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Searchlight pluton (SLP) in the Colorado River extensional corridor of southern Nevada, is well-exposed and tilted near-vertical for exceptional cross-sectional study of magma reservoir dynamics and crystal fractionation of a mid- to upper-crustal pluton (3 to 13 km depth). The upper quartz monzonite section is dominated by minerals in apparent random orientation with a medium- to fine-grained texture due to direct contact with the cold host rock. The middle granitic section is dominated by coarse-grained quartz and feldspar, and interpreted to be a zone of extracted liquid from an intermediate magma. The lower monzonite section is composed of coarse-grained plagioclase and potassium feldspar. We used the crystallographic orientations of quartz clusters, as determined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), to test for crystal accumulation in the SLP. Clusters of quartz crystals with matched dipyramidal faces (parallel or Esterel twin orientation) may indicate a period of crystal accumulation. By analyzing representative samples from each section of the pluton, we found that the lower section (intermediate cumulate) and upper section (crystallization front) do not have quartz clusters with matched dipyramidal faces. Although plagioclase grains are aligned in the lower section, the late crystallization of quartz appears to have prevented aligned or preferred growth orientations. In contrast, the middle section has a high percentage of quartz clusters with matched dipyramidal faces - similar to that found in granite porphyry of the Vinalhaven pluton, Maine. The aligned grains may have formed by fractional crystallization, compaction and synneusis of the early forming quartz in this granitic section. We interpret the middle section of the Searchlight pluton as being similar to shallow, upper crustal plutons (3-8 km depth) such as Vinalhaven pluton. The deep vertical exposure of the SLP, shows that the middle section was formed from periodic episodes of

  18. Magnetic fabrics and their relationship with the emplacement of the Piracaia pluton, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Pressi, Leonardo Frederico; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock-magnetism studies were performed on the four units of the 578 ± 3-Ma-old Piracaia pluton (NW of São Paulo State, southern Brazil). This intrusion is roughly elliptical (~32 km2), composed of (i) coarse-grained monzodiorite (MZD-c), (ii) fine-grained monzodiorite (MZD-f), which is predominant in the pluton, (iii) monzonite heterogeneous (MZN-het), and (iv) quartz syenite (Qz-Sy). Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The two fabrics are coaxial. The parallelism between AMS and AARM tensors excludes the presence of a single domain (SD) effect on the AMS fabric of the units. Several rock-magnetism experiments performed in one specimen from each sampled units show that for all of them, the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic fabrics are carried by magnetite grains, which was also observed in the thin sections. Foliations and lineations in the units were successfully determined by applying magnetic methods. Most of the magnetic foliations are steeply dipping or vertical in all units and are roughly parallel to the foliation measured in the field and in the country rocks. In contrast, the magnetic lineations present mostly low plunges for the whole pluton. However, for eight sites, they are steep up to vertical. Thin-section analyses show that rocks from the Piracaia pluton were affected by the regional strain during and after emplacement since magmatic foliation evolves to solid-state fabric in the north of the pluton, indicating that magnetic fabrics in this area of the pluton are related to this strain. Otherwise, the lack of solid-state deformation at outcrop scale and in thin sections precludes deformation in the SW of the pluton. This evidence allows us to interpret the observed magnetic fabrics as primary in origin (magmatic) acquired when the rocks were solidified as a result of magma flow, in which steeply

  19. Study of the Emplacement Mechanism of the Fenghuangshan Granite Pluton and Related Cu-Au Mineralization in Tongling, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ganguo; ZHANG Da; LI Dongxu; ZHANG Xiangxin; SHAO Yongjun; ZANG Wenshuan; WANG Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The Fenghuangshan Pluton is located in the Tongling polymineral-cluster district in the middle-lower section of the Yangtze metallogenic belt. In tectonic terms, it is in the middle of the Guichi-Fanchang faulted fold bundle of the lower Yangtze Platform fold belt between the Dabie Orogenic Belt and the Jiangnan Massif. Analyses of the structural deformation characteristics of both the contact zone and the interior of the pluton are used to explain its emplacement mechanism. The foliation and lineation of the pluton, consisting of the oriented distribution of dark minerals and xenoliths, mainly concentrate along the margin of the pluton. Toward the center of the pluton, the foliation structure becomes weak, showing intense compression formation at the margin, and reflecting the conformable intrusion of the pluton. The relatively gentle lineation is evidence of a rotatory emplacement mechanism. Relatively steep marginal foliation reflects compression expanding. Affected by the thermal power of the pluton, the metamorphism of the contact zone has zonation. Both the strike of the axial plane of fold at the contact zone and that of the flow cleavage of the ductile shear zone are consistent with the boundary of the pluton, which reflects the speciality of conformable intrusion. The hinges of the folds are mostly inclined and erect, reflecting both the rotation of the pluton and its upward spiraling emplacement mechanism. Boudins developed in both the contact zone and the steep strata indicate the emplacement characteristic of the ballon expanding. The surrounding rock of the contact zone shortens horizontally. The average percentage of shortening is 39.7%, which further proves the mechanism of the pluton expanding, and the space occupied by the active expanding intrusion was provided by the shortening of the surrounding rock. The left-lateral shear shown by the ductile shear zone and the rheomorphic fold reveals that the pluton emplacement and the deformation of

  20. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15 at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18 at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30 at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.

  1. Central planning, market and subsistence from a tundra perspective: Field experience with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislav Sabev

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on field experience in the tundra camp of a reindeer-herding brigade with mixed ethnic background (Komi, Sami, Nenets, Russians belonging to the ex-Sovkhoz of Krasnoschelie. Its purpose is to situate the new critical issues facing the reindeer-herding collectives after the economic collapse in Russia in 1998. My main argument is that the increasing economic isolation of the tundra periphery forces the herders to redefine their relationship with both the centre(s and the other tundra actors. Reindeer herding on the Kola Peninsula is analysed in relation to its heterogeneous economic system defined by the old Sovkhoz-like management and the new Western buyer of reindeer meat. Furthermore, the social environment in the herding territories has changed since the deterioration of the central planning economy, implying new renewable resources' users. After massive loss of jobs, militaries, miners and geologists came into the tundra for substantial hunting and fishing and so became actors in the local informal economy. Finally, tundra-located herders and hunters seem to be somewhere unified by a discourse against the town-based administrative power and economic actors such as mining industry. Therefore herders have to deal with both an old administrative system in the agrocentre and new realities in the tundra. Based on a case study of herding/hunting activities in a tundra camp, the paper analyses the social relationships between the different actors in the post-Soviet Kola tundra and express their quest for solutions.

  2. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  3. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  4. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  5. Numerical modeling of forceful pluton emplacement and associated deformation at different crustal levels - instantaneous, continuous or episodic intrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Nabelek, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Papoose Flat pluton in the White-Inyo Range, California, is one of the best examples of forceful magma emplacement at mid-crustal levels that is revealed by a highly strained aureole. A thermo-rheological 2-D model of the pluton and its aureole is proposed. We explored how the frequency of magma input, from instantaneous to continuous to the bottom of the laccolith, affects the ductile width of the aureole and the crystallinity of the pluton, which has implications for eruption of magma. We modeled these aspects at mid- and upper-crustal levels. The pluton was assumed to be 5 km thick in the middle and 13 km wide. Except for instantaneous growth, pluton was assumed to grow over 5 m.y. The aureole was assumed to have power-law rheology of quartz with dependence on H2O fugacity, which was calculated using the CORK equation (Holland & Powell, 1991) Our result shows that the bottom of the Papoose Flat pluton was emplaced at the brittle-ductile transition zone of the crust. The crustal rheology profile assisted the softening of rocks around the pluton. The simulated temperature and strength profiles confirm that ductile deformation was related to thermal weakening (Saint-Blanquat et al., 2001). Results of incremental growth calculations show that the pluton remains hot and only partially crystalline for millions of years when it grows by frequent input of small batches of liquid. At the mid-crustal level, the ductile region around the pluton is much wider and exists longer than at the shallow crustal level. Brittle rheology is dominant during the late stage growth at the shallow depth. When the pluton grows instantly or by only few episodes of large batches of input, the mobile part of the pluton is thin and the ductile aureole is narrower. High-frequency incremental growth by smaller magma batches produces a large volume of mobile magma that has the potential to induce internal magmatic layering that may be reflected in aligned acquired magnetic susceptibility (AMS

  6. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2011-01-01

    and hematite, the primary paleomagnetic recorder in the Ecstall pluton. Measurements of hysteresis properties, low-temperature remanence, and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and observations from magnetic force microscopy and off-axis electron holography indicate that samples...... to an increase in coercivity and magnetization, as well as to development of mixed phase hysteresis. These results indicate that shallow paleomagnetic directions from the western Ecstall pluton are not affected by reheating and are therefore likely to record original field conditions at the time of pluton...

  7. The methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola attenuated angiotensin II- and lipopolyssacharide-inducedvascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, cardiovascular diseases are a risk factor for poor health and early death with predisposing factors to include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution. It is envisaged that herbal products that can stem this trend would be of great benefit. Garcinia kola (GK, also known as bitter kola is one of such plants. Generally used as a social snack and offered to guests in some cultural settings, bitter kola has been indicated in the treatment of laryngitis, general inflammation, bronchitis, viral infections and diabetes. In this study, the effects of methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola on the proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs in cell culture by Angiotensin II (Ang II and LPS-induced NO production were carried out. Confluent VSMCs were exposed to GK (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml before or after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (100μg/ml, and Angiotensin II (10-8-10-6M. Cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay and NO production by Griess assay. Treatment with Angiotensin II (10-8, 10-6 or LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of VSM cells while LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with GK (25, 50 & 100 μg/ml attenuated VSM cell proliferation. The results indicate that GK has potential to inhibit mitogen activated vascular cell growth and possibly inhibit inflammatory responses to LPS. Thus GK may be useful in condition that is characterized by cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses.

  8. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, R.F.; Adefemi, S.O.

    2007-01-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged f...

  9. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  10. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  11. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-01

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. PMID:27343901

  12. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant

  13. Some bioactive potentials of two biflavanols isolated from Garcinia kola on cadmium-induced alterations of raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the abilities of two flavonoids - Garcinia biflavanol-1 (GB-1) and Garcinia biflavanol-2 (GB-2) from Garcinia kola (G. kola) in reducing cadmium-induced effects on raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages. Methods: Macrophage U937 cells were incubated with cadmium followed by treatment with the flavonoids and cell viability assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form and treated with cadmium in order to activate them. The cells were later incubated with the flavonoids and finally the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the secretion of nitric oxide, catalyse activity, and the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 as indices of macrophage activation. Quercetin (a flavonol) was used as the reference flavonoid in all experiments. Results: It revealed that the flavonoids significantly increased the viability of the cells and also reduced the cadmium-induced activation of the macrophage cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The flavanols GB-1 and GB-2 possessed higher activities than quercetin in all cases (P<0.05). Garcinia biflavanol-2 possessed a higher bioactivity than GB-1 significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: In addition to corroborating the several reported importance of G. kola as a potential neutraceutical and pharmacological condiment, the study also clearly indicates the role hydroxylation especially at the 3´- position of polyphenols could play in enhancing bioactivities of flavonoids.

  14. Experimental Studies for the VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser System for Kola NPP at the Integral Test Facility BC V-213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Blinkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of Tacis Project R2.01/99, which was running from 2003 to 2005, the bubble condenser system of Kola NPP (unit 3 was qualified at the integral test facility BC V-213. Three LB LOCA tests, two MSLB tests, and one SB LOCA test were performed. The appropriate test scenarios for BC V-213 test facility, modeling accidents in the Kola NPP unit 3, were determined with pretest calculations. Analysis of test results has shown that calculated initial conditions and test scenarios were properly reproduced in the tests. The detailed posttest analysis of the tests performed at BC V-213 test facility was aimed to validate the COCOSYS code for the calculation of thermohydraulic processes in the hermetic compartments and bubble condenser. After that the validated COCOSYS code was applied to NPP calculations for Kola NPP (unit 3. Results of Tacis R2.01/99 Project confirmed the bubble condenser functionality during large and small break LOCAs and MSLB accidents. Maximum loads were reached in the LB LOCA case. No condensation oscillations were observed.

  15. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  16. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  17. Map showing the distribution and characteristics of plutonic rocks in the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonic rocks, mostly granite and granodiorite, are widely distributed in the west two-thirds of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, Nevada. These rocks were systematically studied as part of the Tonopah CUSMAP project. Studies included field mapping, petrographic and modal analyses, geochemical studies of both fresh and altered plutonic rocks and altered wallrocks, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr radiometric dating. Data collected during this study were combined with previously published data to produce a 1:250,000-scale map of the Tonopah quadrangle showing the distribution of individual plutons and an accompanying table summarizing composition, texture, age, and any noted hydrothermal alteration and mineralization effects for each pluton.

  18. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2000-01-01

    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the Δ18OQuariz-Feidspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  19. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the δ18OQuartz-Feldspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  20. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  1. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of Samchampi–Samteran differentiated alkaline complex of Mikir Hills, northeastern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; Jyotisankar Ray; Nilanjan Chaterjee

    2010-10-01

    The Samchampi –Samteran alkaline complex occurs as a plug-like pluton within the Precambrian granite gneisses of Mikir Hills,Assam,northeastern India and it is genetically related to Sylhet Traps.The intrusive complex is marked by dominant development of syenite within which ijolite – melteigite suite of rocks is emplaced with an arcuate outcrop pattern.Inliers of alkali pyroxenite and alkali gabbro occur within this ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks.The pluton is also traversed by younger intrusives of nepheline syenite and carbonatite.Development of sporadic,lumpy magnetite ore bodies is also recorded within the pluton.Petrographic details of the constituent lithomembers of the pluton have been presented following standard nomenclatorial rules.Overall pyroxene compositions range from diopside to aegirine augite while alkali feldspars are typically orthoclase and plagioclase in syenite corresponds to oligoclase species.Phase chemistry of nepheline is suggestive of Na-rich alkaline character of the complex.Biotite compositions are typically restricted to a uniform compositional range and they belong to ‘biotite ’field in the relevant classification scheme.Garnets (developed in syenite and melteigite)typically tend to be Ti-rich andradite,which on a closer scan can be further designated as melanites.Opaque minerals mostly correspond to magnetite.Use of Lindsley ’s pyroxene thermometric method suggests an equilibration temperature from ∼450°–600°C for melteigite/alkali gabbro and ∼400° C for syenite.Critical assessment of other thermometric methods reveals a temperature of equilibration of ∼700°–1350°C for ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks in contrast to a relatively lower equilibration temperature of ∼600° C for syenite. Geobarometric data based on pyroxene chemistry yield an equilibration pressure of 5.32 –7.72 kb for ijolite,melteigite,alkali pyroxenite,alkali gabbro and nepheline syenite.The dominant syenite member of the

  2. Natural radioactivity and radiation index of the major plutonic bodies in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity of the major plutonic bodies in Greece, as well as the assessment of any potential health hazard due to their usage as decorative building materials is studied. One hundred and twenty one samples from every major plutonic body in Greece, including various rock-types from gabbro to granite, have been measured for their natural radioactivity using γ-spectrometry methodology. According to the experimental results, the natural radioactivity levels were ranged up to 315 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, up to 376 Bq kg−1 for 232Th and up to 1632 Bq kg−1 for 40K, with arithmetic mean values and standard deviations of 74 (±51), 85 (±54) and 881 (±331) Bq kg−1 respectively, which are below the international representative mean values for granite stones. The excess on the effective dose received annually indoors due to granite tiles usage is estimated considering a standard room model where granite tiles with 1.5 cm in thickness cover only the floor of the room. The increment on the external γ-radiation effective dose rate shows a Gaussian distribution well dispersed below 0.3 mSv y−1, presenting a mean value of 0.14 (±0.06) mSv y−1. In case of the internal α-radiation a log-normal distribution is appeared scattering below 0.5 mSv y−1 with a mean value 0.19 (±0.13) mSv y−1, for a well-ventilated living environment. In case of a poor-ventilated room the increment on internal effective dose rate is estimated with a mean value 0.27 (±0.19) mSv y−1 scattering below 0.8 mSv y−1. The majority of the samples increase the external as well as the internal dose less than 30% of the maximum permitted limit of the effective dose rate. Therefore, at least from radiological point of view, the plutonic rocks of Greece could be safely used as decorative building materials. -- Highlights: • Data upon natural radioactivity of all the major plutons of Greece are presented. • The samples from Pelagonian zone present the lower excess of the total

  3. From Migmatites to Plutons: Power Law Relationships in the Evolution of Magmatic Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesoo, Alvar; Bons, Paul D.

    2015-07-01

    Magma is generated by partial melting from micrometre-scale droplets at the source and may accumulate to form >100 km-scale plutons. Magma accumulation thus spans well over ten orders of magnitude in scale. Here we provide measurements of migmatitic leucosomes and granitic veins in drill cores from the Estonian Proterozoic basement and outcrops at Masku in SW Finland and Montemor-o-Novo, central Portugal. Despite the differences in size and number of measured leucosomes and magmatic veins, differences in host rock types and metamorphic grades, the cumulative width distribution of the studied magmatic leucosomes/veins follows a power law with exponents usually between 0.7 and 1.8. Published maps of the SE Australian Lachlan Fold Belt were used to investigate the distribution of granitoid pluton sizes. The granites occupy ca. 22 % of the 2.6 × 105 km2 area. The cumulative pluton area distributions show good power law distributions with exponents between 0.6 and 0.8 depending on pluton area group. Using the self-affine nature of pluton shapes, it is possible to estimate the total volume of magma that was expelled from the source in the 2.6 × 105 km2 map area, giving an estimated 0.8 km3 of magma per km2. It has been suggested in the literature that magma batches in the source merge to form ever-bigger batches in a self-organized way. This leads to a power law for the cumulative distribution of magma volumes, with an exponent m V between 1 for inefficient melt extraction, and 2/3 for maximum accumulation efficiency as most of the volume resides in the largest batches that can escape from the source. If m V ≥ 1, the mass of the magma is dominated by small batches; in case m = 2/3, about 50 % of all magma in the system is placed in a single largest batch. Our observations support the model that the crust develops a self-organized critical state during magma generation. In this state, magma batches accumulate in a non-continuous, step-wise manner to form ever

  4. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  5. Development of modal layering in granites: a case study from the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsty; McCarthy, William; Hunt, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Modal layering in igneous rocks uniquely record dynamic processes operating in magma chambers and also host a large proportion of Earth's strategic mineral deposits. This research investigates the origin of biotite modal layering and primary pseudo-sedimentary structures in felsic magmas, by using a combination of Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) analysis and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) to determine the mechanisms responsible for the development of these structures in the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland. The Carna Pluton is a composite granodiorite intrusion and is one of five plutons comprising the Galway Granite Complex (425 - 380 Ma). Prominent 30 cm thick modal layers are defined by sharp basal contacts to a biotite-rich (20%) granite, which grades upward over 10 cm into biotite-poor, alkali-feldspar megacrystic granite. The layering strikes parallel to, and dips 30-60° N toward the external pluton contact. Pseudo-sedimentary structures (cross-bedding, flame structures, slumping and crystal graded bedding) are observed within these layers. Petrographic observations indicate the layers contain euhedral biotite and fresh undeformed quartz and feldspar. Throughout the pluton, alkali-feldspar phenocrysts define a foliation that is sub-parallel to the strike of biotite modal layers. Together these observations indicate that the intrusion's concentric foliation, biotite layers and associated structures formed in the magmatic state and due to a complex interaction between magma flow and crystallisation processes. Biotite CSDs (>250 crystals per sample) were determined for nine samples across three biotite-rich layers in a single unit. Preliminary CSD results suggest biotite within basal contacts accumulated via fractional crystallisation within an upward-growing crystal pile, likely reflecting the yield strength of the magma as a limiting factor to gravitational settling of biotite. This is supported by the abrupt decrease in mean biotite crystal size across

  6. Early Paleozoic subduction processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Insights from geochronology and geochemistry of Paleozoic plutons in the Alxa Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dongxing; Xu, Bing

    2016-10-01

    The Alxa Terrane is situated in a key area between the North China and Tarim cratons. Paleozoic magmatic records in this terrane place important constraints on the subduction processes of the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. New data of zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock elemental and isotopic data reveal two groups of intermediate to felsic plutons in the Alxa Terrane. One group consists of diorites and granitoids that were emplaced at ca. 460-440 Ma and characterized by lower Al2O3/TiO2 ratios and higher TiO2 contents, implying high temperature-low pressure crystallization conditions and a shallow source region. The second group is dominated by granitoids aged at ca. 420-407 Ma and displays high Sr and Ba, low Y and high rare earth elements, with very high Sr/Y ratios and mostly positive Eu anomalies. These characteristics imply low temperature-high pressure crystallization conditions and source regions at deep crustal levels where garnet is stable in the residual phase. Both of the two groups are mostly calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, K and Sr, indicative of an arc affinity most likely related to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Zircon εHf(t) and whole-rock εNd(t) values of these magmatic rocks decrease from 458 Ma to 440 Ma and increase from 417 Ma to 407 Ma, whereas whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios display an opposite trend. Such an isotopic change suggests a tectonic switch from an advancing to a retreating subduction regime at ~ 407 Ma. Synthesized data from this and previous studies suggest that the 460-400 Ma magmatic arc in the Alxa Terrane represented the western extension of the Paleozoic arc belt on the northern margin of the North China Craton.

  7. Autumn migration and wintering areas of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus nesting on the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusevich, S.A.; Maechtle, T.L.; Seegar, W.S.; Yates, M.A.; McGrady, M.J.; Fuller, M.; Schueck, L.; Dayton, J.; Henny, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four female Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus breeding on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, were fitted with satellite-received transmitters in 1994. Their breeding home ranges averaged 1175 (sd = ??714) km2, and overlapped considerably. All left their breeding grounds in September and migrated generally south-west along the Baltic Sea. The mean travel rate for three falcons was 190 km/day. Two Falcons wintered on the coasts of France and in southern Spain, which were, respectively, 2909 and 4262 km from their breeding sites. Data on migration routes suggested that Falcons took a near-direct route to the wintering areas. No prolonged stopovers were apparent. The 90% minimum convex polygon winter range of a bird that migrated to Spain encompassed 213 km2 (n = 54). The area of the 50% minimum convex polygon was 21.5 km2 (n = 29). Data from this study agree with others from North America that show that Falcons breeding in a single area do not necessarily follow the same migratory path southward and do not necessarily use the same wintering grounds.

  8. Mateřská škola v Českých Budějovicích

    OpenAIRE

    Šturma, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zpracována ve formě projektové dokumentace k provedení novostavby mateřské školy v Českých Budějovicích. Projektová dokumentace je navržena dle platných norem. Objekt je navržen v katastrálním území České Budějovice. Mateřská škola má dvě nadzemní podlaží. Budova je navržena ze systému Porotherm s kontaktním zateplovacím systémem, zastřešena jednoplášťovou vegetační plochou střechou a založena na základových pasech z prostého betonu. Stropní konstrukce je tvořena z předem p...

  9. Intrusive rocks of the Holden and Lucerne quadrangles, Washington; the relation of depth zones, composition, textures, and emplacement of plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1982-01-01

    The core of the northern Cascade Range in Washington consists of Precambrian and upper Paleozoic metamorphic rocks cut by numerous plutons, ranging in age from early Triassic to Miocene. The older plutons have been eroded to catazonal depths, whereas subvolcanic rocks are exposed in the youngest plutons. The Holden and Lucerne quadrangles span a -sizeable and representative part of this core. The oldest of the formations mapped in these quadrangles is the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, which was shown on the quadrangle maps as Cretaceous and older in age. The Swakane has yielded a middle Paleozoic metamorphic age, and also contains evidence of zircon inherited from some parent material more than 1,650 m.y. old. In this report, the Swakane is assigned an early Paleozoic or older age. It consists mostly of biotite gneiss, but interlayered with it are scattered layers and lenses of hornblende schist and gneiss, clinozoisite-epidote gneiss, and quartzite. Thickness of the Swakane is many thousands of meters, and the base is not exposed. The biotite gneiss is probably derived from a pile of siliceous volcanic rocks containing scattered sedimentary beds and basalt flows. Overlying the Swakane is a thick sequence of eugeosynclinal upper Paleozoic rocks metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. The sequence includes quartzite and thin layers of marble, hornblende schist and gneiss, graphitic schist, and smaller amounts of schist and gneiss of widely varying compositions. The layers have been tightly and complexly folded, and, in places, probably had been thrust over the overlying Swakane prior to metamorphism. Youngest of the supracrustal rocks in the area are shale, arkosic sandstone, and conglomerate of the Paleocene Swauk Formation. These rocks are preserved in the Chiwaukum graben, a major structural element of the region. Of uncertain age, but possibly as old as any of the intrusive rocks in the area, are small masses of ultramafic rocks, now almost completely altered to

  10. Consistent magmatic and magnetic anisotropy data in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile: Implications for the magma flow record in a shallow pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payacan, I.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M.

    2012-12-01

    The magmatic origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is examined in comparison with magmatic anisotropy data in a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir in the upper crust. La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma granodiorite/quartz monzonite of about 250 km3 located in the southern Andes, central Chile. LGP represents a particularly simple case of a silicic intrusion which was assembled in a few pulses and cooled over a short time interval. Hornblende, biotite and minor magnetite are ubiquitous mafic phases. The AMS tensor indicates that magnetic fabric has an oblate shape (i.e. magnetic foliation is higher than magnetic lineation). Lineations are weak (values up to 1.05), have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip and represent axisymmetric convection parallel to the main pluton elongation. Foliations are more pronounced (values up to 1.14), having NW trends and dips that vary gradually from vertical at the walls, to horizontal at the center and near the roof of the chamber. We interpret this to represent shear localization near the magma locking point along solidification fronts. Magmatic anisotropy data were obtained by measuring mineral length, width and orientation in the three main planes of the AMS tensor. We define the planes Pmax, Pint, and Pmin as orthogonal to the maximum, intermediate, and minimum axes of the AMS tensor, respectively. Mineral data were collected for plagioclase and amphibole + bitotite independently. For each site, the Bingham distribution with 95% of confidence is used to determine the mean mineral orientation and their angle difference with the AMS axes. Preliminary results indicate that mean crystal orientations are well defined for Pmax and Pint for all analyzed minerals, but Pmin is only well constrained for amphibole + bitotite and poorly constrained for plagioclase. Angle differences generally decrease with magnetic anisotropy but are independent of the size and aspect ratio of the crystals. Mean values of

  11. Fabric and microstructural analysis of the Loch Borralan pluton, Northwest Highlands, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Justin

    The Loch Borralan pluton was emplaced within the Assynt Region of the Moine Thrust zone during the Scandian event (ca. 435-425 Ma) of the Caledonian Orogeny (478-425 Ma). It consists of two major magma suites, the syenitic early suite (431.1 +/- 1.2 Ma), and the quartz syenitic later suite (429.2 +/- 0.5 Ma). The region is characterized by a series of in-sequence thrust faults that strike NE-SW and dip approximately 20° to the SE, including (from lower to upper): the Sole Thrust, the Borralan Thrust (hypothesized, but not exposed), the Ben More Thrust, and the Moine Thrust. A series of imbricate thrusts between the Sole and Borralan Thrusts juxtapose repeated Cambrian and Ordovician strata. The Loch Borralan pluton intruded between the Sole and Ben More thrust faults, and may be bounded below by a hypothesized Borralan Thrust fault. Based on the overlap in pluton crystallization age and orogenic activity, the combination of macroscopic field lineation and foliation measurements, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) lineation and foliations measurements, mineral shape preferred orientation (SPO) analysis, and petrographic deformation microstructure analysis will be used to determine if the pluton expresses deformation features and fabrics corresponding to thrust fault tectonics. The dominant magnetic mineralogy as determined by thermomagnetic data and hysteresis plots was determined to be magnetite and titanomagnetite. Some paramagnetic components were seen in the early suite, and can be attributed to biotite. Both minerals contributed to the AMS signal that was used to interpret pluton fabrics. The pluton contains S>L (foliation stronger than lineation) fabrics throughout, defined by alignment of alkali feldspar grains. The foliation strike of both the early and late suites are subparallel to the thrust faults, providing evidence that the fabrics are related to deformation. The early suite is only well exposed in the southeast at the top of the Borralan

  12. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province); Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia U-Pb do Pluton Granitico Serra da Rajada: implicacoes sobre a evolucao magmatica ediacarana na porcao do Dominio Rio Piranhas-Serido (NE da Provincia Borborema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alan Pereira da; Dantas, Alexandre Ranier, E-mail: alan.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: alexandre.dantas@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio de Natal/Superintendencia Regional de Recife; Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite do; Galindo, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: marcos@geologia.ufrn.br, E-mail: galindo@geologia.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia

    2015-12-15

    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An{sub 23-24%}), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO{sub 2} , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO{sub 2} (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and ε{sub Nd} value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Nd isotope of the Guandaoshan pluton in SW Sichuan: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xianhua(李献华); LI; Zhengxiang(李正祥); ZHOU; Hanwen(周汉文); LIU; Ying(刘颖); LIANG; Xirong(梁细荣); LI; Wuxian(李武显)

    2003-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Guandaoshan pluton in the Yanbian region, SW Sichuan. This pluton is of typical I-type granite and emplaced at (857±13) Ma. Geochemical and Nd isotopic characters suggest that the pluton was generated by partial melting of pre-existing, young (late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic) low-K tholeiitic protolith within an intraplate anorogenic setting. The Guandaoshan pluton probably records the earliest magmatism induced by the proposed ca. 860-750 Ma mantle superplume beneath the supercontinent Rodinia.

  14. Microstructure and magnetic fabric in the Shuanghe pluton:A synkinematic granite in Eastern Dabie Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunguang; LIU Qiang; LIU Yuyan; MA Changqian; XU Yajun; YANG Kuifeng

    2004-01-01

    Strain analyses for the Shuanghe pluton show that the main strain planes suffered distinct deformation. The main strain value (XZ) is up to 1.59-2.18, and the value of Flinn index (K) ranges from 0.11 to 0.82. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements reveal that the orientations of the magnetic foliation and lineation gently dip SE, consistent with the macroscopic foliation of the pluton. The value of anisotropy degree (P) ranges from 1.109 to 1.639, and the shape parameter (7) from 0.079 to 0.534. These studies prove that the pluton was deformed under strong compression. Quartz c-axis textures, defined by monoclinic or triclinic asymmetry, usually developed the high maxima paralleling the b-axis, which is defined by the developed in the high-ultrahigh pressure rocks (UHP) which were captured in the pluton or country rocks. It is concluded that the Shuanghe pluton emplaced under regional compression slightly after the formation of UHP, and it is characterized by synkinematic granitic deformation.

  15. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution deals with quantitative microstructural analysis, which was performed on granodiorites of the syn-tectonic Symvolon pluton (Punturo et al., 2014) at the south-western boundary of the Rhodope Core Complex (Greece). Our purpose is the quantification of ductile strain rate achieved across the pluton, by considering its cooling gradient from the centre to the periphery, using the combination of a paleopiezometer (Shimizu, 2008) and a quartz flow law (Hirth et al., 2001). Obtained results, associated with a detailed cooling history (Dinter et al., 1995), allowed us to reconstruct the joined cooling and strain gradient evolution of the pluton from its emplacement during early Miocene (ca. 700°C at 22 Ma) to its following cooling stage (ca. 500-300°C at 15 Ma). Shearing temperature values were constrained by means of a thermodynamic approach based on the recognition of syn-shear assemblages at incremental strain; to this aim, statistical handling of mineral chemistry X-Ray maps was carried out on microdomains detected at the tails of porphyroclasts. Results indicate that the strain/cooling gradients evolve "arm in arm" across the pluton, as also testified by the progressive development of mylonitic fabric over the magmatic microstructures approaching the host rock. References • Dinter, D. A., Macfarlane, A., Hames, W., Isachsen, C., Bowring, S., and Royden, L. (1995). U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Symvolon granodiorite: Implications for the thermal and structural evolution of the Rhodope metamorphic core complex, northeastern Greece. Tectonics, 14 (4), 886-908. • Shimizu, I. (2008). Theories and applicability of grain size piezometers: The role of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Journal of Structural Geology, 30 (7), 899-917. • Hirth, G., Teyssier, C., and Dunlap, J. W. (2001). An evaluation of quartzite flow laws based on comparisons between experimentally and naturally deformed rocks. International Journal of Earth

  16. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  17. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through ...

  18. Revisiting the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis: Argon-argon geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Sarah Jo

    The controversy concerning terrane displacements in western British Columbia, otherwise known as the Baja-BC hypothesis, is revisited using paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal modeling. We studied three plutons in northwest British Columbia, the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons. The Ecstall pluton is the focus of this research as it has been the subject of considerable debate over the cause of systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction across the ˜25 km wide pluton. Hollister et al. (2004) proposed that magnetization carried by lamellar magnetism in ilmenite-hematite was variably reset during reheating by emplacement of the younger Quottoon plutonic complex on the eastern margin of the Ecstall pluton, thus causing the systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction. To test this hypothesis we conducted a number of studies on samples from the Ecstall pluton. First, a detailed mineralogic study using scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy found evidence of microstructural and mineralogic changes to the magnetic oxides of the Ecstall pluton as a function of distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Second, rock magnetic experiments on single crystals of Fe-Ti oxides confirm changes to the magnetic properties of single crystals that are related to both microstructure and distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Third, spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from hornblende and biotite were found to be consistent with reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex. In addition to reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex, thermal modeling suggests that spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages are most consistent with a thermal history that also includes northeast side up tilt of the Ecstall. The Smith Island and Butedale plutons do not show evidence for tilting in their 40Ar/39Ar cooling age trends, and paleomagnetic directions from these plutons are approximately concordant with the

  19. Source variation for Mesozoic granitoid plutons in the White-Inyo Range, California, and implications for changes in the lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammel, E.; Nabelek, P. I.; Phillips, E. H. W.; Scott, S. R.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2015-12-01

    The White-Inyo Range (WIR) of eastern California lies to the east of Owen's Valley and the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB). Over twenty recognized Mesozoic, granitic to gabbroic plutons intruded into Precambrian and Cambrian sedimentary units that were previously metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. These plutons represent intrusive equivalents of volcanics erupted during two magmatic events at ca. 180-167 Ma and 102-86 Ma (Coleman et al, 2003). The motivation of this study is to understand changes in magma sources over this time period. We propose there is a time-transgressive change in source material in the WIR. Preliminary trace element data suggest that Jurassic plutons were sourced from deep crustal material, whereas later Cretaceous plutons may have had a shallower origin. This is supported by high Sr/Y ratios in the Jurassic plutons (up to 300) and relatively lower ratios in Cretaceous plutons (down to 14). Chiaradia (2015) suggests elevated Sr/Y ratios are directly linked to increasing crustal thickness, therefore the WIR plutons may record the period of crustal thinning in this region or maturation of the crust that allowed shallower melting in the Cretaceous. The highest values also suggest possible adakitic source material. REE patterns suggest that the youngest plutons (e.g. Sage Hen Flat) are more similar to samples collected from the eastern Sierra Nevada batholith than older plutons with higher La/Yb ratios. Relatively flat patterns REE patterns of Tertiary basalts and a late diabase dike in the WIR are also similar to SNB samples. Another goal of this study is to determine the degree of mixing as a function of time during the emplacement of plutons in the range. Field and petrographic analyses suggest that older plutons represent more mafic materials and younger plutons are more granitic with mafic enclaves. We propose either (1) older plutons represent initial lower lithosphere melting, and with time, there is an increase of incorporation of

  20. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  1. Alteration of podzolized tills by acid load near Ni-Cu smelters at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räisänen, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogy and geochemistry of podzolized tills was studied in the area of dieback forest near the Ni-Cu smelters at Monchegorsk, and less extensively forest damage near by Apatity and Kirovsk in the Russian Kola Peninsula. The abundances of main elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na in the <64 μm fraction were determined by the hot aqua regia digestion method and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. The clay mineralogy of the silt plus clay fraction was examined by X-ray diffraction after selective extraction and heating treatments. At all study sites, trioctahedral mica and chlorite were totally weathered from the silt and clay fraction (<64 μm of the eluvial layer, leaving behind interstratified mica-vermiculite-smectite clays. In general, the mixed-layer clay of the eluvial layer had low levels of hydroxy interlayering. Illuviated layers were characterized by hydroxy interlayered vermiculite-chlorite. The abundance of chlorite and mica was greater, and the degree of interlayering lower, in parent tills than in the overlying illuviated layers. Regardless of differences in bedrock and till geochemistry, the weathering sequence throughout the podzolized till profile was coherent at most of the sampling sites. Exceptionally, in a few profiles sampled at the totally destroyed forest site, the swelling mixed-layer clay of the eluvial layer displayed a neochloritized structure. On the basis of XRD patterns and geochemistry of the samples, it was inferred that a short-term decomposition of plagioclase had promoted, via inputs of Al-hydroxides, the transformation of mica-vermiculite-smectite to a poorly crystalline interstratification of chlorite-aluminous montmorillonite. The accelerated weathering occurring occasionally in exposed places was probably activated by the strongly acidic load in the vicinity of the smelters and the city of Monchegorsk.

  2. Pluton accommodation at high strain rates in the upper continental crust. The example of the Central Extremadura batholith, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Carlos; Castro, Antonio

    1999-08-01

    Emplacement in the tensional bridge of a stepped dextral shear zone system is proposed for the Central Extremadura batholith (Spain). The country rocks show a pervasive anisotropy that conditioned the style of the structures developed as a consequence of the transference of displacement from the stepped shear zones to the releasing area. The kinematic evolution of the resulting megakink fold provided the volume increase necessary for the granite emplacement. Thermal and kinematic models suggest that the growth of individual plutons took place in periods of no more than several hundred to a few thousand years. Fast strain rates (10 -10-10 -11 s -1) must concentrate in local structures (e.g. initiation of kink folds) even in zones deforming as a whole under typical strain rates (10 -14±1 s -1). Granite plutons might be used as strain-rate gauges for syn-plutonic structures.

  3. Investigation of the mineral potential of the Clipper Gap, Lone Mountain-Weepah, and Pipe Spring plutons, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clipper Gap pluton, composed mostly of quartz monzonite with minor granite, granodiorite, and crosscutting alaskite dikes, intrudes Paleozoic western facies strata. A narrow zone of contact metamorphism is present at the intrusive-sediment contact. No mineral production has been recorded from Clipper Gap, but quartz veins containing gold-silver-copper mineral occurrences have been prospected there from the late 1800's to the present. Areas of the Lone Mountain-Weepah plutons that were studied are located in Esmeralda County about 14 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. At Lone Mountain, a Cretaceous intrusive cuts folded Precambrian and Cambrian sediments. Lead-zinc ores have been mined from small replacement ore bodies in the Alpine district, west of Lone Mountain. Copper and molybdenum occurrences have been found along the east flank of Lone Mountain, and altered areas were noted in intrusive outcrops around the south end of Lone Mountain. Mineral occurrences are widespread and varied with mining activity dating back to the 1860's. The Pipe Spring pluton study area is flanked by two important mining districts, Manhattan to the north and Belmont to the northeast. Mining activity at Belmont dates from 1865. Activity at Manhattan was mainly between 1907 and 1947, but the district is active at the present time (1979). Four smaller mining areas, Monarch, Spanish Springs, Baxter Spring, and Willow Springs, are within the general boundary of the area. The Pipe Spring pluton study area contains numerous prospects along the northern contact zone of the pluton. Tungsten-bearing veins occur within the pluton near Spanish Springs, with potential for gold-tungsten placer in the Ralston Valley. Nickel and associated metals occur at Willow Spring and Monarch Ranch, where prospects may be associated with the margin of the Big Ten Peak Caldera

  4. The gabbro (shoshonitic)-monzonite-granodiorite association of Khankandi pluton, Alborz Mountains, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Omran, Nematallah Rashidnejad; Emami, Mohamad Hashem; Moinvaziri, Hossien; Badrzadeh, Zahra

    2010-05-01

    The Khankandi pluton forms part of a group of gabbro-granodiorite intrusions in the Alborz Mountains of NW Iran. A petrographical and geochemical study of this plutonic association reveals the existence of several magmatic cycles with different origins and slight differences in age. The oldest cycle (C1) is represented by granodiorites. A second cycle (C2) is formed by a gabbro-monzonite association, with a clear shoshonitic affinity, that dominates most of the intrusive volume. Gabbros and monzonites form a co-magmatic association. Zircons from the monzonites were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS for U-Pb dating. An average age of 28.9 Ma, ranging from 23.7 to 33.6 Ma was obtained. Gabbros, monzonites and granodiorites share a nearly common isotopic ratio for Sr and Nd. Both initial Sr and Nd ratios are clustered within a narrow range from 0.7045 to 0.7047 for the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio and ɛNd from 1.46 to 1.89. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin by variable melting rates from a common metasomatised mantle source for gabbros and monzonites. Melting of a subducted mélange is suggested for the granodiorite magmas predating the gabbro-monzonite intrusion. The two sources, a metasomatised mantle and ascending silicic plumes, are direct consequence of subduction.

  5. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  6. Verification of the TRANSURANUS-WWER code version V1M2J00 by SOFIT and KOLA-3 data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents verification results of the TRANSURANUS computer code for fuel behavior modeling. The verification has been done by the SOFIT and Kola-3 database set upon additional information from the year 2000. A brief description of SOFIT database as a part of IFPE-OECD/IAEA-NEA database is shown including remarks concerning some errors in the database, obtained by the authors. Verification of the TRANSURANUS code by SOFIT-1.1 experimental data includes justifying of the models and performing of calculations for: burnup, fuel central temperature, fission gas release, changes in the fuel rod diameter. Verification by the SOFIT-1.3 experimental data shows results from calculations of: fuel central temperature, axial cladding elongation and axial fuel expansion. Verification by Kola-3 database also includes justifying of the models and performing of the calculations for: burnup, temperature, fission gas release, size changes (fuel elongation, diameter and gap size), internal fuel rod gas pressure. The updated results reflect more adequately the real fuel behavior, observed in the experiment. The latest TRANSURANUS-WWER version V1M2J00 reproduces very well the existing experimental data for all variables with so chosen set of models and options. Some exceptions could be seen, most of which are due to the imperfections of the experimental data

  7. Komplexní strukturální analýza kompresorového kola s využitím MKP

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá využitím MKP softwaru ANSYS při analýze skutečného lopatkového kola radiálního kompresoru, používaného v malých leteckých turbínových motorech. Kompresorové kolo bylo navrženo a vyrobeno v První brněnské strojírně Velká Bíteš, konkrétně na Divizi letecké techniky. Cílem diplomové práce je komplexní analýza kompresorového kola, která se skládá z několika dílčích částí. První část je věnována strukturální statické a elasticko-plastické pevnostní analýze, za účelem...

  8. Výroba modelu jízdního kola s využitím aditivní metody Fused Deposition Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Krobot, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na popis současného stavu problematiky navrhování výrobků, především dostupným technologiím Rapid Prototyping. Práce se zaměřuje na výrobu 3D modelu jízdního kola s využitím grafického programu Autodesk Inventor. Výroba modelu jízdního kola byla realizována na 3D tiskárně uPrint s využitím metody Fused Deposition Modeling. Součástí práce je také technicko-ekonomické zhodnocení. The thesis is focused on describing the current state of product design issues, in p...

  9. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  11. Large capacity cnergy from Geo- Plutonic formation for power plants with zero CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Kozłowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The publication presented is a realistic, one of the practicable idea for a substitute to system power plants, consisting in the construction of combined heat and power plants using renewable resources of geo-plutonic energy.Design/methodology/approach: There are various methods of obtaining geothermal energy and various uses for it. The proposed GEO-PLUTONIC ENERGY represents an endless, renewable source of energy coming from nuclear reaction in the Earth’s nucleus, where the temperature reaches 6,000 Centigrade. Mass production of electricity from the Earth’s heat, possible in Iceland due to the volcanic nature of these resources and the shallow depth at which they occur, was difficult in other countries due to the high cost of drilling to greater depths. This barrier has been overcome by us through using a special horizontal drilling technique.Findings: In order to extract and collect the accumulated energy from the area of a large thermal field, a modified shaft/drilling system (called a Super Daisy System equipped with a 3D grate of directional bore-holes called Jet-Stingers fitted with multi-functional heat exchangers is used. The emission-free concept of Geo-Plutonic Energy with the temperature of only over 250ºC, from which we can obtain about 30 MPa of pressure on the turbine. With increased the depth the temperature and heat transmissibility will be raised significantly, which can resulted the yield even to 7-10 MWe (of electricity from one deep heat exchanger.Research limitations/implications: From the rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great atomic furnace – the magma.Originality/value: We are experienced in using the appropriate hydro-thermodynamic theory and its applications which allows us to almost precisely forecast and control the quantity of heat not exceeding 20% of the 100% regeneration capability in the same time range.

  12. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the high-K Alamas calc-alkaline granitoids at the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qichao; Liu, Yan; Huang, He; Wu, Zhenhan; Zhou, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The Alamas granitoid pluton in the eastern part of the Western Kunlun Orogen, the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is composed of quartz diorite. Zircon separates from the pluton has SIMS U-Pb age of ∼446 Ma. Rocks from the pluton have a narrow range of SiO2 (56.84-62.57 wt%), MgO (1.76-2.94 wt%), and total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 5.14-9.59 wt%), and are metaluminous and high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), with (La/Yb)N = 14-25, and show weakly negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are relatively enriched in Sr (472-676 ppm) and Ba (435-2388 ppm), and depleted in Nb, Ta, Th, and Ti. Their εNd(t) values range from -6.4 to -8.4, and (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7184-0.7200. Zircons from the pluton show εHf(t) values of -1.4 to -8.8, and δ18O = 6.4-9.0‰. Geochemical data indicate that the granitoids were likely derived from the reworking of an ancient, deep crustal source, influenced by a minor mantle-derived component. Magmatic differentiation was dominated by the fractional crystallization of hornblende, biotite, and accessory minerals such as apatite, allanite, and Fe-Ti oxides. In summary, the Late Ordovician Alamas pluton is an I-type granitoid that was emplaced in a post-collisional environment, suggesting that this tectonic stage had already initiated prior to ∼445 Ma.

  13. Minerals and melt inclusions as keys to understanding magma reservoir processes during formation of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yurii; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia) attract attention of researchers because they contain ultramafic volcanic rocks - meimechites, being products of crystallization of the ultrabasic deep mantle melts (Sobolev et al., 1991, 2009, 2011; Ryabchikov et al., 2002; Vasiliev, Gora, 2014). Effusive meimechites together with intrusive dunites of the Guli massif form ancient (253-246 Ma) volcanic and plutonic association, in which also pyroxenites and alkaline rocks are situated. Conditions of formation of this association were established with the help of minerals and melt inclusions study. The cumulative structure of the Guli massif dunites consists of rather large (2-4 mm) olivine crystals and dividing them zones (0.5-0.7 mm), filled with fine grains of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals (magnetite, ilmenite and chromite). The extended forms of well faceted pyroxene crystals testify to their fast growth from melt between cumulative olivines. Thus, crystallization of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals leads to formation between olivines ore pyroxenites, which are presented in the Guli massif by independent bodies. Analysis of olivine, Cr-spinel and clinopyroxene compositions testify to similarity of conditions of the Guli massif dunites crystallization on the one hand with formation of platinum-bearing Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes and with another - show participation of meimechite magma. Major element composition of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel has shown that dunites of the Guli massif were crystallized with participation of subalkaline picrite magmatic systems, that are relative to melts, responsible of formation of platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes and meimechites. Peculiarities of trace and rare-earth elements distribution in melt inclusions in Cr-spinel of dunites are actually similar to inclusions in olivine of meimechites. Overall, data on composition of inclusions directly testify to formation of considered

  14. Batievaite-(Y), Y2Ca2Ti[Si2O7]2(OH)2(H2O)4, a new mineral from nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalina, L. M.; Zolotarev, A. A.; Selivanova, E. A.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Kadyrova, G. I.; Zozulya, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Batievaite-(Y), Y2Ca2Ti[Si2O7]2(OH)2(H2O)4, is a new mineral found in nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Sakharjok alkaline massif, Western Keivy, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The pegmatite mainly consists of nepheline, albite, alkali pyroxenes, amphiboles, biotite and zeolites. Batievaite-(Y) is a late-pegmatitic or hydrothermal mineral associated with meliphanite, fluorite, calcite, zircon, britholite-group minerals, leucophanite, gadolinite-subgroup minerals, titanite, smectites, pyrochlore-group minerals, zirkelite, cerianite-(Ce), rutile, behoite, ilmenite, apatite-group minerals, mimetite, molybdenite, and nickeline. Batievaite-(Y) is pale-cream coloured with white streak and dull, greasy or pearly luster. Its Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. No cleavage or parting was observed. The measured density is 3.45(5) g/cm3. Batievaite-(Y) is optically biaxial positive, α 1.745(5), β 1.747(5), γ 1.752(5) (λ 589 nm), 2V meas. = 60(5)°, 2V calc. = 65°. Batievaite-(Y) is triclinic, space group P-1, a 9.4024(8), b 5.5623(5), c 7.3784(6) Å, α 89.919(2), β 101.408(2), γ 96.621(2)°, V 375.65(6) Å3 and Z = 1. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d(Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 2.991(100)(11-2), 7.238(36)(00-1), 3.061(30)(300), 4.350(23)(0-1-1), 9.145(17)(100), 4.042(16)(11-1), 2.819(16)(3-10), 3.745(13)(2-10). The chemical composition determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is (wt.%): Nb2O5 2.25, TiO2 8.01, ZrO2 2.72, SiO2 29.96, Al2O3 0.56, Fe2O3 0.43, Y2O3 11.45, La2O3 0.22, Ce2O3 0.33, Nd2O3 0.02, Gd2O3 0.07, Dy2O3 0.47, Er2O3 1.07, Tm2O3 0.25, Yb2O3 2.81, Lu2O3 0.45, CaO 24.98, MnO 1.31, MgO 0.01, Na2O 1.13, K2O 0.02, F 2.88, Cl 0.19, H2O 6.75 (determined on the basis of crystal structure data), O = (F,Cl) -1.25, total 97.09 wt.%. The empirical formula based on the EPMA and single-crystal structure analyses is (Y0.81Ca0.65Mn0.15Zr0.12Yb0.11Er0.04Fe3+ 0.04Ce0.02Dy0.02Lu0.02La0.01Tm0.01)Σ2.00((H2O)0.75Ca0.70□0.55)Σ2.00Ca2.00(□0.61Na0.25( H2O

  15. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  16. Magmatic epidote, hornblende barometric estimates, and emplacement of the Conceicao das Creoulas pluton, Alto Pajeu Terrane, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasiliano-age magmatic epidote-bearing Conceicao das Creoulas batholith, in the Transversal Zone superterrane in northeastern Brazil, intruded migmatites and metagranitoids of the Riacho do Forno/Recanto Formations. This pluton is composed of porphyritic granodiorite and porphyritic monzogranite. Hornblendes in this pluton solidified between 6-7 Kbar in mafic enclaves and around 8 Kbar for porphyritic granodiorite as estimated by its Al contents. Temperatures for zircon saturation are in the 790-830 deg C range for the mafic enclaves and 800-850 deg C for the porphyritic granodiorite, whereas hornblende-plagioclase pairs yielded temperatures in the 670-690 de C range. In this pluton, epidote, undoubtedly of magmatic origin, with or without allanite cores, included in plagioclase, is rimmed by biotite or is partially resorpted by the magma. Sometimes, patches of hornblende and biotite are present inside epidote. Magmatic epidote compositions vary in the interval 20-25% mole of pistacite, and always exhibit Ti O2 < 0.20% by weight. This compositional range suggested crystallization along the NNO buffer. High initial ratio suggest a significant crustal component in the magma genesis. The magma probably was transported upward by diking and inflated outwards near or at its final site of emplacement, giving to the pluton a diapiric appearance. (author)

  17. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  18. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  19. Post-collisional adakitic biotite plagiogranites from Guangtoushan pluton (Mianxian, central China): Petrogenesis and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; LI Yongfei

    2007-01-01

    The post-collisional Guangtoushan pluton intruded into the Mianlue suture, Central China. Geochemi-cally, the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites show many close compositional similarities to high-silica adakites from the supra-subduction zone setting, but tend to have a higher concentration of K2O (3.22%-3.84%). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattems are characterized by high ratios of (La/Yb)N, concave-upward shapes of the heavy rare earth element (HREE), and a lack of significant Eu anomalies. In conjunction with high abundances of Ba and Sr, as well as low abundances of Y and HREE, these pattems suggest a feldspar-poor, garnet±amohibole-rich fractionation mineral assemblage. Coupled with previous studies, we suggest that the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites were likely to be caused by subducting slab break-off during the late orogenic stage in the West Qinling orogenic belt.

  20. Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

  1. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  2. Magma intrusion and accumulation in the southern Altiplano: Structural observations from the PLUTONS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Pritchard, M. E.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; Unsworth, M.; Minaya, E.; Sunagua, M.; McNutt, S. R.; Yu, Q.; Farrell, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The PLUTONS project is attempting to capture the process of magma intrusion and pluton formation, in situ, through multi-disciplinary study of known magmatic inflation centers. With support from the NSF Continental Dynamics program, and a sister project in the UK funded by NERC, two such centers are receiving focused study. Uturuncu volcano in the Altiplano of southern Bolivia is being investigated with combined seismics, magnetotellurics, geodesy, microgravity, geomorphology, petrology, geochemistry, historical studies and modeling. 350 km to the south, comparable investigations are targeting the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex. Field studies are ongoing into 2013. In this presentation we highlight results from Uturuncu that bear on the crustal magmatic process. Seismic tomography, gravity and magnetotellurics indicate a complex structure in the upper 20 km with some evidence for partial melt. Seismic receiver functions indicate a layer of very low velocities across the region at 15-25 km depth that is almost certainly melt-rich. High conductivities corroborate the interpretation of a partial melt component to this layer. In addition to the throughgoing melt layer, seismic velocities and attenuation indicate shallow features above the melt body extending upward toward the surface. It is not clear whether these features are associated with recent uplift or are remnants from a previous period of activity. Uturuncu is seismically active with hundreds of locatable earthquakes each year. Seismic lineations and swarm behavior suggest that the seismicity reflects regional stress patterns. While there is little evidence that these earthquakes are the direct result of magmatic intrusion, the resulting high heat flow may be hastening existing strains.

  3. U-Pb geochronology of Gangdese (Transhimalaya) plutonism in the Lhasa-Xigaze region, Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of different plutons from the Lhasa-Xigaze segment of the Gangdese (Transhimalaya) belt has been studied by high-resolution U-Pb analyses of zircon (using zircon fractions of 5-100 grains each, selected upon specific grain characteristics). For two diorites, located east of Xigaze (Dazhuka), the zircons yield concordant ages of 93.4 +- 1.0 and 94.2 +- 1.0 m.y., respectively. Also concordant ages of 41.1 +- 0.4 and 41.7 +- 0.4 m.y. have been obtained for two granodiorites, collected southwest of Lhasa (Qushui). The precision on the ages of two granites from the Xigaze and Lhasa area, is limited by two factors: the presence of inherited radiogenic lead and the occurrence of subsequent lead loss. However, some concordant zircons, detected in both granites, define approximate ages of about 67 and 53 m.y., respectively. The inherited lead components show the melting of Precambrian material was involved in magma genesis. The U-Pb ages substantiate a magmatic activity lasting from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Eocene (Lutetian) time. Such a period of plutonism at the southern margin of Eurasia, as well as the occurrence of magma generation from continental crust, suggest that the Gangdese range results from the subduction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere (Indian plate) underneath Eurasia (Eurasian plate). If this model is true, the collision of India with Eurasia (Along the Lhasa-Xigaze sector) postdates the emplacement of the 41 m.y. old Gangdese granodiorites, i.e. the collision occurred after Lutetian time. (orig.)

  4. Structural evolution of the Rieserferner Pluton: insight into the localization of deformation and regional tectonics implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The Rieserferner pluton (RFP, Eastern Alps, 32.2±0.4 Ma, Romer et al. 2003) represents a relatively deep intrusion (12-15 km; Cesare, 1994) among Periadriatic plutons. The central portion of the RFP consists of dominant tonalites and granodiorites that show a sequence of solid-state deformation structures developed during pluton cooling and exhumation. This sequence includes: (1) quartz veins, filling two set of steeply-dipping joints trending respectively E-W and NW-SE, commonly showing a millimetric grain size and associated with strike-slip displacement. (2) Quartz- and locally epidote-filled shallowly E-dipping joint set, commonly exploited as discrete derived from both the quartz veins and the host tonalite. These mylonites show a composite sense of shear with a first stage of left-lateral strike-slip followed by a top-to-E dip-slip (normal) movement. The synmylonitic assemblage includes biotite + plagioclase + white mica + epidote ± sphene ± garnet. (3) Set of N-S-trending steeply-dipping joints. These joints are concentrated in zones 1-2 m wide, separated by otherwise un-jointed domains a few tens to hundred meters wide, and are commonly exploited as brittle-ductile faults with dominant dip-slip (normal) kinematics. The mineral assemblage of fault rocks includes white mica + calcite ± chlorite ± quartz. The joints/faults are locally involved in folding. (4) Mafic dikes, dated at 26.3±3 Ma (Steenken et al., 2000), locally injecting the N-S trending set of joints. (5) Cataclasite- and pseudotachylyte-bearing faults also forming a set of steeply-dipping N-S-trending structures. These faults are commonly associated with epidote veins surrounded by bleaching haloes. (6) Zeolite-bearing faults marked by whitish cataclasites, fault gouges and mirror-like surfaces. These faults have a complex oblique- to strike-slip kinematics with an overall N-S trending lineation. As observed in other plutons (e.g. Adamello; Pennacchioni et al., 2006), the network of

  5. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic significances of the Yamansubei pluton in eastern Tianshan, Northwest China.%东天山雅满苏北岩体的年代学、地球化学及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷如雄; 吴昌志; 张遵忠; 顾连兴; 唐俊华; 黎广荣

    2013-01-01

    .Geochemically,the pluton is characterized by high silicon (SiO2 =74.27% ~ 75.99%),alkali (ALK =7.64% ~8.29%),potassium (K2O =4.37% ~4.79%) and metaluminous,whereas low titanium,calcium,iron and magnesium,which attributes to high K calc-alkaline granite.The pluton is also rich in LILE (K,Rb,Cs etc.),HFSE (Th,U,Zr,Hf etc.) and depleted in Ba,Sr,Nb,Ta and Y.Chondrite-normalised REE distribution pattern for the YB pluton displays right skewed shapes with slightly negative Eu anomalies (δEu =0.48 ~0.86),indicating fractionation of LREE,and fractionation between LREE and HREE.Zircon in-situ Hf isotopic composition analysis yields the εHf(t) and tDM2 values of the YB pluton varying + 8.60 ~+ 11.31 and 538 ~711 Ma,respectively.Integrated studies in petrography,geochemistry and Hf isotope and regional tectonic evolution indicate that the YB pluton resulted from mantle magma underpalting induced partial melting of the Neoproterozoic new-born lower crust.After comprehensive study on previous contributions,this paper suggests that the geodynamic source for Indosinian magmatism in eastern Tianshan could attribute to the influence of the Paleo-Tethys ocean tectonic regime.

  6. Intervention effects of Gotu Kola P. E on hyperlipemia mice%积雪草总苷对高脂血症小鼠的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海鹏; 李彬; 马维

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the intervention effects of Gotu Kola P. E. on hyperlipemia and fatty liver mice which were caused by high-fat diet. Methods The hyperlipemia and fatty liver mice were molded by continuously feeding high-fat diet, comparison with DBGT. TC, TG, HDL-C, ALT, AST and liver organization pathology were examined. Results Gotu Kola P. E. could obviously reduce TC, TG levels in liver, as well as LDL-C level in serum and ALT, AST activities in serum. Conclusion Gotu Kola P. E. could obviously improve the hyperlipemia and alleviate the fatty denaturation of mice. It is worthy of further research.%目的 观察积雪草总苷对高脂乳剂诱导的高脂血症小鼠的血脂及肝脏调节作用.方法 以高脂肪乳剂连续灌胃制作小鼠高脂血症模型,给予不同剂量的积雪草总苷予以干预,以复方蛋氨酸胆碱为阳性对照组,1周后检测小鼠血清以及肝组织匀浆TC、TG、HDL-C、ALT、AST含量以及小鼠肝脏组织病理变化,以评价积雪草总苷干预效果.结果 积雪草总苷能降低高脂血症小鼠血清以及肝脏组织匀浆中TC、TG含量(P<0.05),同时降低血清LDL-C、ALT、AST含量(P<0.05).结论 积雪草总苷能够起到调节脂质代谢、保护肝脏的作用,值得深入研究以及开发利用.

  7. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  8. Open-System Alkaline Magmatism in the Caledonides of North-Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. G.; Prestvik, T.; Barnes, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Caledonian-age Hortavaer intrusion is exposed on small islands and skerries off the coast of north-central Norway. It was emplaced into a range of host rocks that includes calcitic and dolomitic marble to migmatitic gneiss to quartz-rich meta-arenite. The intrusion is unusual relative to Caledonian plutons on the mainland because of its alkaline nature and its possible circa 460-470 Ma age (based on imprecise Sr and Nd isochrones). The intrusion is broadly zoned, with central diorite and outer syenite. Dike-like bodies of monzonite and syenite are also present and are elongate in a NNE-SSW direction. Each lithologic unit is characterized by evidence for magma mingling, particularly by synplutonic dikes and enclaves. In the syenitic zone, mingled magmas ranged from monzonitic (syenitic) to dioritic. In the diorite zone, mingling was dominated by diorite-in-diorite, but composite diorite-syenite dikes are present. The contact between the syenite and diorite units is marked by an approximately 500-m-wide zone of sheeted diorite/syenite dikes that are mutually intrusive. In addition to magma mingling, the complex shows a variety of types of interaction with screens of its host rocks, which are typically subparallel to foliation in the pluton. Some screens were apparently unreactive with the surrounding magma, whereas others resulted in intense reaction and formation of garnet melasyenite, pyroxene-rich monzodiorite, and rare nepheline-bearing rocks. A trend toward Fe enrichment among the dioritic rocks, the low Mg/(Mg+Fe) and Sr contents of the evolved syenites, and curvilinear composition trends for many elements in the suite suggest fractional crystallization was a major control on magma evolution. However, low epsilon Nd (465 Ma) (-3 to -10), moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.705 to 0.710), and high delta18O (+8.3 to +14.0 %) suggest either a crustal source or intense contamination. The presence of primary calcite with delta13C typical of host carbonate rocks

  9. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  10. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in fluid phase. Fluid influence lasted after zircon crystallization, this reflected in uneven composition of the mineral and in configuration of REE spectra, typical for metasomatic zircon. Similar zircon characteristics have been noted in zircons from other gold occurrences in greenstone belts in the Kola region

  12. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts ofGarcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C.maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5%~100% and 70% ~100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively,from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.

  13. Verification of the transuranus-WWER code version V1M2J00 by SOFIT and Kola-3 data bases: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study is standard WWER-440 fuel as described in the IFPE-OECD/IAEA-NEA database. The SOFIT and Kola-3 data base have been used the purpose, each one described in a separate paper, referred to as Part I and Part II. It has been shown that the latest modifications of the programme lead to considerable improvements of the predictions on the fuel behaviour. The calculations, made by the latest TRANSURANUS-WWER version V1M2J00, lead to the following conclusions: the fuel central temperature is reproduced very well by the code, especially in the beginning of life; the experimental value for fission gas releases in rod 12 of SOFIT-1.1 is reproduced fairly well by the standard WWER correlations; the fuel and cladding extension is reproduced excellently by the code for rod 1 and rod 3

  14. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  15. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  16. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An23-24%), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO2 , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na2O + K2O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO2 (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe2O3 t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe2O3t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and εNd value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  17. Fractionation of Zr and Hf during the differentiation of peralkaline magmatic system (Lovozero rare metal deposit, Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogarko, Liya

    2016-04-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are valuable strategic metals. We assessed principal features of the distribution of these elements in peralkaline rocks, ores and rock-forming and accessory minerals of Lovozero complex. The accumulation of these elements during the evolution of alkaline magma of Lovozero deposit up to extremely high concentrations in eudialyte ores (5-8% ZrO2 and 1200-1800 ppm Hf) has been established. These ores represent valuable complex raw material not only for Zr and Hf, but for REE as well. We evaluated partition coefficients of these elements in alkaline pyroxenes (aegirines) from porphyry-like agpaitic lujavrites of Lovozero massif which are 0.40 for zirconium and 0.58 for hafnium. We assessed variations of Zr/Hf ratio for all the rocks of Lovozero alkaline massif. The growth of this ratio in the course of the evolution of alkaline magma has been observed from 38 in the earliest magmatic phase, to 44 in the second phase and to 51-53 in the latest manifestation of alkaline magmatsm. On the basis of the obtained data and equations of equilibrium and fractional crystallization the model of the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium during the evolution of Lovozero intrusion has been constructed. We have demonstrated that the source of strongly enriched magmatic systems similar to Lovozero rare metal deposit is short-lived enriched reservoir - metasomatized and carbonatized mantle substrate. We investigated the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium in carbonatized mantle xenoliths from East Antarctica. The elevated Zr/Hf ratios (up to 125) in metasomatized xenoliths by comparison with the chondritic value have been found. The main reactions of carbonate metasomatism lead to the replacement of primary orthopyroxene by clinopyroxene 2Mg2Si2O6 + CaMg(CO3)2 = 2Mg2SiO4 + CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2 3CaMg(CO3)2 + CaMgSi2O6 = 4CaCO3 + 2Mg2SiO4 + 2CO2 The substantial expansion of the clinopyroxene crystallization field results in increase of Zr/Hf ratio in equilibrium

  18. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The intensive use of fossil fuels and industrial development in last century led to the formation of acid rain and water acidification. The problem of water acidification greatly was denoted in the middle of last century in North America and in Europe as a result of air emissions of acid gases, primarily sulfur dioxide. The process of water acidification due to the interaction of two factors: 1) the high deposition of acidifying substances, taking into account the duration of exposure; 2) the sensitivity of the natural catchment area of geological, landscape, geographic and climatic characteristics (Moiseenko, 2005). The effects of acid rains on metal migration and cycling were discussed in a number of previous studies (Jeffries, 1997; Moiseenko, 1999; Manio, 2001; Moiseenko, Gashkina, 2007). The distribution of elements in water lakes has been mixed and due to the change of geochemical cycles of elements occurring in the catchment area and in water. On the Kola Peninsula as a result of long-term operation of the copper-nickel smelter was the anthropogenic acidification and water pollution metals. Increased contents of elements due to the combined effect of three factors: 1) landscape-geochemical characteristics of watersheds; 2) dispersion with flue emissions; 3) leaching elements and bonding of metals with organic matter, especially in forested watersheds and wetlands. This region is subject to long-term effects of mining and smelting industries, and therefore difficult to find of water bodies, which can serve as a background lakes. It is proved that manmade acid rain lead to leach into the water of a large group of elements entering the water as a result of man-made streams, as well as the elements that consist of the rocks forming the watersheds. In order to identify the relationships between the components of the elemental composition of the water in the lake was made a factor analysis using a computer program «STATISTICA 10". Factor analysis revealed the

  19. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  20. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  1. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic rare metal granitoids of Gabal El-Ineigi pluton, Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.

    2016-04-01

    Gabal El-Ineigi granitoid pluton is situated in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt and is considered as one of the good examples of the fluorite bearing rare metal granites in the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). It constitutes a multiphase pluton consists of porphyritic syenogranites (SG) and coarse to medium grained highly evolved alkali-feldspar granites (AFG) intruded into the older granodiorites and metagabbro-diorite rocks. Petrographic features indicate that quartz, K-feldspar (perthite, Or97‑99), plagioclase (albite, An0‑6) and biotite are the major mineral phases of both granitic types with subordinate muscovite that is observed only in the AFG. Columbite, rutile, fluorite, zircon and thorite are the significant accessory minerals in the AFG while, allanite is exclusively encountered in the SG. Mineral chemistry study reveals that Nb-Ta-Ti-bearing oxides [columbite-group minerals (CGM)] and Nb-bearing oxides (ilmenorutile) represent the most common Nb-Ta host in the AFG. The CGM are represented mostly by complex zoned columbite-(Fe) and rarely by yttrocolumbite-(Y), with Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratios ranging from 0.17 to 0.31. Xenomorphic fluorite (F=46-51 wt%) is commonly filling the spaces between the major mineral phases and sometimes host rare metal minerals, e.g. columbite and thorite. Euhedral zoned allanite (Ce-Nd) is the common REE bearing mineral encountered in the SG. Geochemically, Gabal El-Ineigi granitoids are metaluminous (A/CNK= 0.95-0.99) related to post-collosional A2-type granites. The late phase AFG have distinctive geochemical features typical of rare-metal granites. They are highly fractionated calc-alkaline granitoids characterized by high Rb, Nb, Y, U and many HFSE contents, and extremely low Sr and Ba contents (4-35 and 13-18 ppm, respectively). Moreover, their REE patterns show pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.03 - 0.05) and tetrad effect (TE1,3=1.16 and 1.42), implying extensive fractionation via fluid-rock interaction that

  3. Fission Track Geochronology of Xiaonanchuan Pluton and the Morphotectonic Evolution of Eastern Kunlun since Late Miocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology of seven samples from the Xiaonanchuan(小南川) pluton in the Kunlun (昆仑) pass area was carried out, for the purpose of determining the timing of cooling and the relation between the exhumation and the morphotectonic processes. The AFT ages yield low denudation rates of 0.020-0.035 mm/ a during the late Miocene, which correspond to a stable geomorphic and weak tectonic uplifting environment. The low denudation rates can be considered as the approximate tectonic uplifting rates. The AFT geochronology shows paroxysmally rapid cooling since the Pliocene and an apparent material unroofing of more than 3 km in the Xiaonanchuan area. This was not the result of simple denudation. The rapid cooling was coupled with the intensive orogeny since the Pliocene, which was driven by tectonic uplifting. The accelerated relief building was accompanied by a series of faulting, which caused the basin and the valley formation and sinking. The space pattern of the AFT ages also shows differential uplifting, which decreases northwardly. This trend is supported by the regional AFT data, which indicate that the exhumation decreases northwardly in eastern Kunlun. This trend also exists in east-west orientation from the western Kunlun range to the eastern. The uplifting trend is also supported by geomorphic characteristics including the elevation and the relief differences as well as the distribution of the Late Cenozoic volcanism.

  4. Metamorphism and plutonism in the Quetico Belt, Superior Province, N.W. Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Quetico Belt lies between the metavolcanic Wawa-Shebandowan and Wabigoon Belts. It consists of marginal metasedimentary rocks and central pelitic, gneissic and plutonic rocks. Metamorphism is Barrovian, at depths less than 10 km, and grade increases from margins to core of the belt: the outermost pelites are at chlorite-muscovite grade; inward a garnet-andalusite zone formed throughout the inner margin; and the central zone ranges form garnet-andalusite in the west and garnet-sillimanite-muscovite to garnet-sillimanite-cordierite and rare kyanite 6 to 150 km to the east. This increase is correlated with granitic intrusives. Migmatites in the core have intrusive leucosomes in the west and locally derived ones in the east. Isograd surfaces are steep where the belt is narrow and dip gently where it is wide. The Quetico Park intrusive complex of the central region of the Quetico Belt shows a zonation across it 20 to 50 km width from older, medium grained biotite composition to younger, coarse to pegmatitic granitic composition. Sediment of the Quetico basin had its source in the bordering metavolcanic belts and was deposited ca. 2.75 to 2.70 Ga ago. Boundaries of the belt dip inward, so it essentially is a graben of inter-arc or back-arc type.

  5. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  6. Chemically treated kola nut pod as low-cost natural adsorbent for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol from synthetic wastewater: batch equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic modelling studies

    OpenAIRE

    AGARRY, Samuel; OGUNLEYE, Oladipupo

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using chemically treated kola nut pod to remove 2,4-dinitrophenol from its aqueous solutions under batch mode was investigated. The results showed that biosorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol was dependent on initial concentration, contact time, pH, biosorbent particle size, biosorbent dosage, and temperature. The batch equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed by 2 two-parameter (Langmuir and Freundlich) and 2 three-parameter (Redlich--Peterson and Sips) adsorption isother...

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  9. Carboniferous magmatism in the Evora Massif (southwest Portugal, Ossa-Morena Zone): from typical arc calc-alkaline to adakitic-like magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Selma M.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ramos, Joao M. F.

    2014-05-01

    The Evora Massif is one of the subdivisions of western Ossa-Morena Zone. It is a dome-like structure mainly composed of Ediacaran, Cambrian and Ordovician country rocks, affected by medium- and high-grade metamorphism coeval with the emplacement of several mafic to felsic intrusive bodies. The last magmatic event recorded in this area (Carboniferous) consists of calc-alkaline volcanism and voluminous plutonism (mainly composed by tonalites, gabbros, diorites and late-orogenic granodiorites and granites) [1]. Detailed chemical and isotopic studies from Evora Massif plutons were performed in the last few years. Whole-rock chemical and isotopic data suggest that the Hospitais tonalite (HT), Alto de Sao Bento area (ASB) and Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (RM) resulted from fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas followed by mixing with variable proportions of crustal melts [2-4]. U-Pb ID-TIMS data indicate an age of 337-335 for the RM [4]. The Pavia pluton is a multiphase granitic body constructed incrementally by the episodic emplacement of several batches of magma (at 328 Ma, ca. 324 Ma and 319-317 Ma) [5]. The main granitic phases range from tonalite to two-mica granite that contain rare surmicaceous and fine-grained enclaves, and granitic and amphibolitic xenoliths. On the other hand, they are cut by abundant rhyodacite porphyries, microgranites (s.l.) and pegmatite dikes, predominantly oriented NE-SW and NW-SE. Although each phase seems to represent a distinct batch of magma, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest a similar and fairly homogenous source for all the constituent phases. Initial 87Sr/86Sr varies between 0.70428 and 0.7058 and ɛ Ndt ranges from -3.4 to +0.4, pointing towards a mantle or juvenile crust origin. A higher variation is observed in whole-rock δ18O (5.6-9.6 o), consistent with assimilation of crust. The PP was interpreted as the result of assimilation-fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. Substantial differences between

  10. Growth of a Large Composite Magma System: the EJB Pluton, Eastern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, D. J.; Vervoort, J.; Dufrane, A.; Hart, G.; Student, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The composite EJB pluton crops out in the White-Inyo Mountains of eastern California, and comprises the Eureka Valley monzonite (EVM), the Joshua Flat quartz monzonite (JFQM), the Beer Creek granite (BCG), and an unnamed diorite. While sometimes equivocal, field relationships suggest that the EVM was emplaced first, followed by the JFQM, and finally the BCG; the diorite predates the BCG. Sylvester and others (GSAB, 1978) reported zircon U-Pb ages of 179±2 Ma for the EVM and 174±5 Ma for the JFQM. Coleman and others (GSAB, 2003) determined a U-Pb age of 179±3 Ma (via Pb-loss trajectory) for the BCG. Because of the uncertainty in the ages and ambiguous field relations, the sequence and duration of EJB magmatism remain unclear. To understand more fully the timing of EJB magmatism, we separated zircons from 12 samples collected from each of the main EJB units. These samples were characterized using light microscopy, SEM and CL techniques. U-Pb ages were determined from individual zircons by LA-ICP-MS following the method of Chang and others (G3, 2006). For the ages reported below, the reported uncertainties are based on factors within the analysis, but do not include external factors such as sample/standard bias or other matrix effects. Overall uncertainty in LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is hard to assess, but we estimate that all ages reported below are subject to a minimum 2% uncertainty. We determined a concordant U-Pb age of 180±2 Ma for the EVM, which agrees with the results of Sylvester and others (1978). The unnamed diorite produced a concordant U-Pb age of 177±3 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 172±2, 172±3, 173±2, 174±2, and 175±2 Ma were determined for individual samples of the JFQM and agree with the age reported by Sylvester and others (1978) of 174±5 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 168±4, 168±3, 169±1, 172±2, and 172±2 Ma were determined for individual BCG samples. Within the reported error, there is no difference in age between individual samples of

  11. Multi-sensor geophysical constraints on crustal melt in the central Andes: the PLUTONS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Comeau, M. J.; West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Mcfarlin, H. L.; Farrell, A. K.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; McNutt, S. R.; Michelfelder, G.; Diez, M.; Elliott, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Keyson, L.; Delgado, F.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The central Andes is a key global location to quantify storage, transport, and volumes of magma in the Earth's crust as it is home to the world's largest zone of partial melt (the Altiplano-Puna Magma or Mush Body, APMB) as well as the more recently documented Southern Puna Magma Body (SPMB). We describe results from the recently completed international PLUTONS project that focused inter-disciplinary study on two sites of large-scale surface uplift that presumably represent ongoing magmatic intrusions in the mid to upper crust - Uturuncu, Bolivia (in the center of the APMB) and Lazufre on the Chile-Argentina border (on the edge of the SPMB). In particular, a suite of geophysical techniques (seismology, gravity, surface deformation, and electro-magnetic methods) have been used to infer the current subsurface distribution and quantity of partial melts in combination with geochemical and lab studies on samples from the area. Both Uturuncu and Lazufre show separate geophysical anomalies in the upper and mid/lower crust (e.g., low seismic velocity, low resistivity, etc.) indicating multiple distinct reservoirs of magma and/or hydrothermal fluids with different properties. The characteristics of the geophysical anomalies differ somewhat depending on the technique used - reflecting the different sensitivity of each method to subsurface melt of different compositions, connectivity, and volatile content. For example, the depth to the top of the APMB is shallower in a joint ambient noise tomography and receiver function analysis compared to a 3D magnetotelluric inversion. One possibility is that the seismic methods are detecting brines above the APMB that do not have a large electromagnetic signature. Comparison of the geophysical measurements with laboratory experiments at the APMB indicate a minimum of 4-25% melt averaged over the region is needed -- higher melt volumes are permitted by the gravity and MT data and may exist in small regions. However, bulk melt values above

  12. Geologic and hydrologic controls on the economic potential of hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Scott, Samuel; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Heat and mass transport in hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal magmatic intrusions can result in resources with large economic potential (Kesler, 1994). Active hydrothermal systems can form high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs with the possibility for renewable energy production. Fossil continental or submarine hydrothermal systems may have formed ore deposits at variable crustal depths, which can be mined near today's surface with an economic profit. In both cases, only the right combination of first-order geologic and hydrologic controls may lead to the formation of a significant resource. To foster exploration for these hydrothermal georesources, we need to improve our understanding of subsurface fluxes of mass and energy by combining numerical process modelling, observations at both active and fossil systems, as well as knowledge of fluid and rock properties and their interactions in natural systems. The presentation will highlight the role of non-linear fluid properties, phase separation, salt precipitation, fluid mixing, permeability structure, hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior as major geologic and hydrologic controls on the formation of high-enthalpy and supercritical geothermal resources (Scott et al., 2015), and magmatic-hydrothermal mineral resources, such as porphyry copper, massive sulfide and epithermal gold deposits (Lecumberri-Sanchez et al., 2015; Weis, 2015). References: Kesler, S. E., 1994: Mineral Resources, economics and the environment, New York, McMillan, 391. Lecumberri-Sanchez, P., Steele-MacInnis, M., Weis, P., Driesner, T., Bodnar, R.J. (2015): Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons. Geology, v. 43, p. 1063-1066, doi:10.1130/G37163.1 Scott, S., Driesner, T., Weis, P. (2015): Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions. Nature Communications, 6:7837 doi: 10.1038/ncomms8837 Weis, P. (2015): The

  13. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  14. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  15. 40Ar/39Ar dating of alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism of Saudi Arabia related to the early Red Sea Rifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    40Ar/39Ar plateau-ages at 27-28 Ma obtained on feeder dykes and one lava flow of the alkaline massif of Harrat Hadan are in agreement with the assumed age partly deduced from the conventional K/Ar data of the early activity of other alkaline volcanic massifs from Saudi Arabia. This magmatic activity is spatially distributed over a large area, along the western edge of the Arabian plate, and their N-S to NW-SE volcano-tectonic directions are similar to those of the future Red Sea Rift. Preliminary results obtained on tholeiitic lava flows, dykes and plutons gave 17 plateau-ages which, combined with 6 ages deduced from more disturbed age-spectra, display a main histogram peak from 24 to 21 Ma, much narrower than that obtained with conventional K/Ar ages on the same formations. Therefore, a strong tholeiitic activity affected a narrow linear area following the actual eastern Red Sea coast, over nearly 1700 km, during a brief period of time, and without showing any apparent migration. The main volcano-tectonic features of the future Red Sea are strongly outlined during this event. Such brief magmatic episodes related to continental rifts have also been documented by precise 40Ar/39Ar analyses on the British Tertiary Igneous Province, the Deccan traps and the eastern Central Atlantic. (orig.)

  16. Internal fabrics in magmatic plutons emplaced in extended brittle crust - insight from analogue models with AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Zavada, Prokop; Machek, Matej; Roxerova, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    Magma emplacement in extended brittle crust was simulated by injecting plaster of Paris (magma) into a large sandbox with central deformable rubber sheet. Analog magma is during the experiments injected through small circular inlet cut in the center of the elastic sheet. Injection force oscillation during the steadily evacuating analog magma was recorded during the experiments and regularly showed 3-4 increases followed by a quick drop. The recorded oscillation amplitude is largest for static injection without extension of the sandbox, which formed a columnar body with concentric and zonal internal fabric. Experiments including normal or oblique 20% extension resulted in along rift axis elongated oblate ellipsoidal pluton with rift parallel ridges in the top part of the pluton. Inspection of horizontal profiles show bone-shaped internal zoning patterns limited by conjugate sets of shear zones. Orientation of these internal shear zones is correlated with the sand-clock fault pattern developed in the overburden sand pack. Another set of shear zones parallel with the long axes of the plutons (rift axis) are associated with successive emplacement of distinct plaster pulses during the buildup of the entire body. The innermost lastly emplaced pulses of plaster display weak vertical magnetic fabrics with vertical lineations, while the outer shells of already emplaced plaster reveal stronger and margin parallel oblate magnetic fabrics with subhorizontal lineations. We interpret the vertical innermost fabrics as a result of active ascent of plaster from the injection inlet, while the fabrics in the outer zones likely reflect push due to inflation of the inner domain reflected in the reworking of the magnetic fabric.

  17. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.;

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  18. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  19. Structural characterization of the Misajé granitic pluton (NW Cameroon): constraints from magnetic and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozing, Eric Martial; Njanko, Théophile; Naba, Séta; Kwékam, Maurice; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Rochette, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The Misajé granitic pluton, emplaced between 569 and 560 Ma in an amphibolitic and gneissic host rock, comprises four petrographic units namely biotite-hornblende granite (BHG), granodiorite (Gd), biotite granite (BG), and leucocratic granite (LG). Four major tectonic events have been described in the studied area: a D1-early tectonic event, responsible of the E-W flat foliation which has been progressively transposed by a D2 tectonic event. A D2 event has developed heterogeneous simple shear in a dextral transpressive context with moderate to strong dipping NE-SW striking foliation; a D3 tectonic event has lead to a sinistral N-S ductile shear characterized by N- to ENE-striking foliation and E-W strike-slip shear corridors and a D4 tectonic event that developed N-S dextral ductile strike-slip deformation. The magnetic study of the pluton, based on the AMS parameters, reveals the coexistence of both paramagnetic (dominated by iron-bearing silicates; 54 % of sites) and ferromagnetic (due to the occurrence of PSD and MD grains of magnetite or other ferromagnetic minerals; 46 % of sites) behaviors. Magnetic foliation shows best poles at 55/82 for the whole pluton, 95/32 in BHG, and 273/83 in BG, and the magnetic lineation trends are mostly NNE-SSW with best lines at 210/8, 198/19, and 36/3, respectively. The trend of the magnetic lineation in BG indicates an S-shape trajectory, suggesting a sinistral sense of shear motion along discrete E-W corridors situated at the northern and southern ends. Kinematic indicators in BG point to a sinistral sense of shear, suggesting its emplacement during the D3 event. The close relationship between K 1 and K 3 points to a syn-kinematic emplacement and crystallization of the Misajé granitic pluton during the Pan-African event, and the tectonic evolution of the study area is considered to be coeval with the tectonic evolution of the trans-Saharan Pan-African belt of eastern Nigeria.

  20. The use of borehole geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize plutonic rock for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of an igneous rock body for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste will likely require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock body. Although coring of at least one hole at each Research Area will be essential, methods for making in situ geophysical and hydrological measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. A number of borehole methods have been applied to the investigation of plutonic rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada

  1. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of cocoa and kola nut mistletoe (Globimetula cupulata against ischemia/reperfusion injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protection against cardiomyocyte damage following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is highly desirable in patients with ischemic heart disease. Hydromethanol extracts of Globimetula cupulata (mistletoe growing on cocoa (CGCE and kola nut (KGCE trees were assessed for antioxidant content and cardioprotective potential against I/R. Graded concentrations (1–50 μg/mL of CGCE or KGCE were tested on Langendorff-perfused rat hearts to evaluate the effects on the flow rate, heart rate, and force of cardiac contraction, while another set of hearts were subjected to biochemical analyses. Both extracts showed good antioxidant content and activity, but KGCE (EC50: 24.8±1.8 μg/mL showed higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CGCE (70.2±4.5 μg/mL. Both extracts at 3 μg/mL reversed (p < 0.001 membrane peroxidation and the significant decrease in nitrite level, coronary flow rate, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity caused by the I/R cycle. It is concluded that G. cupulata protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat hearts via augmenting endogenous antioxidants and significant restoration of altered hemodynamic parameters.

  2. Konstrukce a výroba nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola

    OpenAIRE

    Jurka, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na konstrukci a výrobu nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola, který bude sloužit při jízdě bez cyklistických treter. Součást bude zkonstruovaná ve 3D parametrickém softwaru Autodesk Inventor. Model součásti bude vyroben pomocí metody Fused Deposition Modeling s využitím 3D tiskárny uPrint. Součástí práce je výroba silikonové formy, která bude sloužit pro odlití plastového modelu nástavce nášlapného pedálu. Práce je ukončena technicko-ekonomickým zhodnocením. ...

  3. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of an Ordovician appinitic pluton in the East Kunlun orogen: New evidence for Proto-Tethyan subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fuhao; Ma, Changqian; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Hong'an; Liu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Appinite is commonly derived from a mantle source in subduction zones and thus holds a key to constrain the tectonic evolution of ancient orogens. This study presents chronological, mineralogical and geochemical data for one appinitic pluton from the south Tethyan suture zone in the East Kunlun orogen, Northern Tibetan Plateau. The pluton is predominantly composed of hornblende-rich mafic appinites, with minor amounts of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb age of the granodiorite (466 Ma) is identical to the mafic appinites (447-450 Ma). The mafic appinites are commonly hornblende diorites, which comprise large amounts of magnesio-hornblende [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.61-0.68] and andesine (An43-54). The hornblende diorites have low contents of SiO2 (48.62-54.95 wt.%), high contents of total FeO (7.90-12.84 wt.%) and MgO (4.32-11.89 wt.%) and moderate values of Mg# [Mg# = molar 100 ∗ Mg/(Mg + Fe); 49-69]. Their geochemistry displays: slight enrichment of light rare earth elements ((La/Yb)N = 1.89-6.84) and flat heavy rare earth elements ((Ga/Yb)N = 1.49-2.22); enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements; less-enriched isotopic compositions with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70536-0.70617, εNd(t) of 0.79-3.02 and zircon εHf(t) of 8.73-12.82. The associated granodiorites comprise plagioclase (45-50 vol.%, An = 26-39), quartz (15-20 vol.%), K-feldspar (5-10 vol.%), ferrohornblende [2-5 vol.%, (Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.45-0.49] and epidote (1-5 vol.%). The epidotes have pistacite components ranging from 23 to 28. The granodiorites exhibit calc-alkaline character, and have rare earth and trace element patterns similar to the hornblende diorites. The geochemical compositions and simulations suggest that the parental magma of the mafic appinites was generated by partial melting of one depleted mantle source which was metasomatised by subducted sediment-derived felsic melts (ca. 20-25%). Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, hornblende

  4. Chronological and geochemical studies of granite and enclave in Baimashan pluton, Hunan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; WeiFeng; CHEN; PeiRong; HUANG; HongYe; DING; Xing; SUN; Tao

    2007-01-01

    Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating reveals that the Baimashan Pluton is composed mainly of late Indosinian (204.5±2.8 Ma-209.2±3.8 Ma) biotite granodiorites/monzonitic granites (LIGs) and early Yanshanian (176.7±1.7 Ma) two-micas monzonitic granites (EYGs),and the coeval (203.2±4.5 Ma-205.1±3.9 Ma) mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are generally found in the former.In addition,the ages of cores within zircons from LIGs and MMEs ranging from 221.4±4.0 Ma to 226.5±4.1Ma provide evidence of multistage magma intrusion during Indosinian in the study area.Measured 3010±20.6 Ma of inherited zircon age suggests that there may be recycling Archaean curstal material in existence in this area.LIGs and EYGs share some similar geochemical features: subalkaline and peraluminous granites,enrichment of Th,U,K,Ta,Zr,Hf and LREE but depletion of Ba,Nb,P,Ti and Eu,low εNd(t) values but high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios,and old T2DM (ca.1.9-2.0 Ga).The behaviors of incompatible elements and REE are mainly dominated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase,K-feldspar,ilmenite and apatite,but that of Sr isotope mainly controlled by EC-AFC.They are crust-sourced and derived from partial melting of paleo-Proterozoic metagreywackes and related to biotite dehydration melting.LIGs are formed in post-collisional tectonic setting as crustal local extension and thinning during late Indosinian.But EYGs may be evolved products of congeneric granitic magma with LIGs formed in late Indoinian,which were emplaced again when crust underwent extensive thinning and extension in post-orogenic tectonic setting during Yanshanian in SC after undergoing EC-AFC.MMEs should be cognate enclaves and derived from liquid immiscibility of host magma.

  5. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  6. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  7. Isotopic characteristics (Nd and Sr) of the intrusive plutonism at the northwestern Amazonian Craton, Venezuela, and implications for the Paleoproterozoic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd and Sr analyses were performed on selected granitoid plutons that intrude Archean and Paleoproterozoic domains of the Guyana shield (Venezuela). The isotopic signatures of these plutons together with the geochronologic background of the country rocks are used to constrain their magma genesis and tectonic setting within the Paleoproterozoic evolutions of mobile belts (Maroni-Itacaiunas and Ventuari-Tapajos provinces) of the Amazonian Craton. The Encrucijada Suite (2187 +- 94 Ma), which intrudes Archean rocks of the Imataca Complex, originated predominantly from partial melt of this crust, as supported by negative epsilonNd(2.1Ga) values (-2.2 to - 4.9) and TDM ages between 2.82 and 2.49 Ga. Conversely, the plutons from the Supamo Complex (2230 - 2050 Ma) and Cuchivero Group (1980 - 1830 Ma), occurring within the adjoining Paleoproterozoic provinces, are juvenile in nature (derived from roughly contemporary protoliths). These bodies display TDM ages between 2.13 and 2.22 Ga, as well as positive epsilonNd(2.1Ga) values (+0.74 to + 3.05). Isotopic correlation diagrams 143 Nd/144 Nd vs. 147 Sm/144 Nd and 143 Nd/144 Nd vs. time) plotted together with the plutonic rocks and Imataca Complex rocks were evaluated taking into account the geologic background of the NW part of the Amazonian Craton. Interpretation of these isotopic data supports the idea of tectonic juxtaposition between the Imataca Complex and the Maroni-Itacaiunas province during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.25 - 2.05 Ga). On the other hand, the Cuchivero Group plutons have a contrasting isotopic signature compared to the other Paleoproterozoic plutonic rocks. This is consistent with the existence of a tectonic boundary between the Maroni-Itacaiunas and the Ventuari-Tapajos province in the late Paleoproterozoic. (author)

  8. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Kundal area, Malani Igneous Suite, western Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Krishnakanta Singh; G Vallinayagam

    2004-12-01

    The Kundal area of Malani Igneous Suite consists of volcano-plutonic rocks. Basalt flows and gabbro intrusives are associated with rhyolite. Both the basic rocks consist of similar mineralogy of plagioclase, clinopyroxene as essential and Fe-Ti oxides as accessories. Basalt displays sub-ophitic and glomeroporphyritic textures whereas gabbro exhibits sub-ophitic, porphyritic and intergrannu- lar textures. They show comparable chemistry and are enriched in Fe, Ti and incompatible ele- ments as compared to MORB/CFB. Samples are enriched in LREE and slightly depleted HREE patterns with least significant positive Eu anomalies. Petrographical study and petrogenetic mod- eling of [Mg]-[Fe], trace and REE suggest cogenetic origin of these basic rocks and they probably derived from Fe-enriched source with higher Fe/Mg ratio than primitive mantle source. Thus, it is concluded that the basic volcano-plutonic rocks of Kundal area are the result of a low to moderate degree (> 30%) partial melting of source similar to picrite/komatiitic composition. Within plate, anorogenic setting for the basic rocks of Kundal area is suggested, which is in conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite.

  9. Modeling of the Climax Stock and Related Plutons Based on the Inversion of Magnetic Data, Southwest Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Moring, Barry C.; Roberts, Carter W.

    2004-01-01

    Two models of the Climax and Gold Meadows stocks were generated using a new method of magnetic inversion modeling based on the pseudogravity anomaly. The first model examined the shape of the two stocks and their connection at depth, concluding that the stocks are connected -4000 m below the ground surface. The second model re-examined the shape and depth of the Climax stock using a two-layer model and new magnetic data collected from drill hole ER-8-1. Existing and new magnetic data support a model of a zoned pluton with increasing magnetization with depth. A model of a zoned pluton was generated and adjusted to fit the magnetic anomaly measured over the stock. The model has an upper layer that extends to a depth of 1,700 m and is magnetized at 0.06 A/m, and a lower layer that extends to a maximum depth of 7,600 m and is magnetized at 0.17 A/m. The model matches the outcrop data, but was unable to match the intercept of the Climax stock from drill hole ER-8-1.

  10. Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi pluton, Sonbhadra district,Mahakoshal mobile belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; Anand K Srivastava; Gopendra Kumar; S B Dwivedi

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole around the Late Paleoproterozoic Jhirgadandi pluton in the eastern part of Parsoi Formation of Mahakoshal terrain, central India represents three distinct metamorphic zones, characterized by definite mineral assemblages. The contact-metamorphic event produced the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages Bt + Qtz + Alb + Sil ± Cd ± Grt ± Mus ± Kfs in the metapelites of inner aureole, Bt + Qtz + And + Mus + Kfs + Plag ± Cd ± Chl in middle aureole and Chl + Mus + Bt ± And + Alb + Qtz ± Ep + Mt ± tourmaline in the outer aureole. The estimated P–T conditions based on detailed geothermobarometric calculations in the thermal metamorphosed rocks are 690°C/3.4 kbar, 580 ± 15°C and 487 ± 30°C in inner aureole, middle aureole and outer aureole, respectively. The variation in metamorphic condition suggests that the shallow crustal level emplacement of Jhirgadandi pluton is responsible for the overprinting of contact metamorphic assemblages (M2) in the low grade metapelites (regional metamorphism M1) of Mahakoshal Group.

  11. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos

    2016-10-01

    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 < ΔFQM < +2.0). On the other hand, the RPSD plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  12. Origin of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and their host quartz monzonites from the Muchen pluton in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: Implications for magma mixing and crust-mantle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Li, Zhen

    2013-02-01

    The origin of mafic enclaves in granitoid plutons has long been a matter of debate. In this paper, we present detailed petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and Srsbnd Ndsbnd Hf isotopic data, Usbnd Pb zircon dates, and field and petrological observations, for mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and their host quartz monzonites from the Muchen pluton in Southeast China to evaluate their origins. LA-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb dating of zircon yields crystallisation ages of 112.4 ± 1.2 Ma and 112.1 ± 1.0 Ma for the MMEs and host quartz monzonites, respectively, indicating their coeval formation during the late Early Cretaceous. Field and petrological observations, such as spheroidal shapes, back-veining, double enclaves, xenocrysts, acicular apatites, and oscillatory zoning with repeated resorption surfaces in plagioclases, suggest that the MMEs are globules of a more mafic magma that was injected into and mingled with the host felsic magma. Geochemically, the host monzonites are intermediate-acidic, metaluminous, alkaline, and K-rich. In contrast, the MMEs are relatively poor in Si and K. The host monzonites are enriched in Rb, Th and U, and depleted in Sr, P, Nb, Ta and Ti, and show moderate to strong europium depletions (δEu = 0.12-0.60). These mineralogical and geochemical features classify the quartz monzonites as belonging to the I-type granitoids. The MMEs have broadly similar trace element signatures to those of the host monzonite, but are distinct in having relatively enriched Sr and P, more depleted Zr and Hf, and weak to moderate Eu depletions (δEu = 0.43-0.93). Major and trace element data plotted versus isotopic data for the MMEs and the host quartz monzonites yield covariant arrays that result from magma mixing during their petrogenesis. The MMEs and the host quartz monzonites have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (ISr) of 0.7058-0.7070 and 0.7062-0.7065, respectively, and both have high ɛNd(t) values (- 2.6 to + 0.6 for MMEs; - 3.2 to - 2.4 for quartz

  13. Growing season changes in Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula during the period 1982 to 1999 - Implications for reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Tømmervik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and particularly variations in air temperature have significant impacts on the growth rhythm of plants where these occur at the limits of their natural distribution range, especially at northern latitudes. Our study area, Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula, is characterized by large regional climatic differences from south to north, from west to east, and from lowland to mountains. Accordingly, the region is well suited for looking for evidence of climatic change and studying regional differences in the response of such change. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reports that the projected warming in northern Europe is greater than for many other regions of the world. Therefore major physical and ecological changes are expected. On land, there will be a tendency for shifts in major biomes such as tundra and boreal forest. Permafrost will decline, trees and shrubs will encroach northern tundra, and broad-leaved trees may encroach coniferous forests. Net primary productivity in ecosystems is likely to increase. The temperature level at the end of the 20th century is ca. 0.5 oC higher than in the 1930 for the Northern hemisphere (IPCC and World Meteorological Organization. Other studies show that in the period 1890-1999, the increase in temperature over Fennoscandia varies between 0.02 (Karasjok and 0.1 oC decade-1 (Helsinki, and they also showed that at several stations within the area the spring temperatures have increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Most stations experienced low spring temperatures in the beginning of the century, and rather high temperatures around 1950. At present, the winter temperature levels are considerably higher than in the rest of the period. However, at northern stations the winter temperatures were higher in the 1930s than at present. Phenological registrations have been used word-wide to look for possible effects of climate change, but within Fennoscandia the problem is that

  14. Specific Examples of Hybrid Alkaline Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Jiménez Ana; García-Lodeiro Inés; Donatello Shane; Maltseva Olga; Palomo Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are obtained by alkali-activating cementitious blends in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O system. The present paper discusses the results of activating different cementitious blends containing a low OPC clinker content ( 15MPa a 2 days) different alkaline activators were used (liquid and solid). The reaction products obtained were also characterised by XRD, SEM/EDX and 27Al and 29Si NMRMAS. The results showed that the main reaction product was a mix of cementitious gels C-A...

  15. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  16. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  17. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  18. A Fresh Plutonic Igneous Angrite Containing Grain Boundary Glass From Tamassint, Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Kuehner, S. M.; Rumble, D.

    2006-12-01

    Tamassint Angrite: A small fragmented stone found in June 2006 south of Tamassint oasis in the Morocco-Algeria border region represents a new type of angrite lithology, unlike the coarse grained metamorphic or fine grained "basaltic" to quench-textured examples known previously. This extremely fresh, fusion-crusted specimen has a coarse grained (0.6-12 mm) plutonic igneous cumulate texture, and is composed of Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene (33.4%), pure anorthite (28.6%), Ca-rich olivine (18.7%) with prominent exsolution lamellae (10-50 μm wide) of kirschsteinite, ulvöspinel (18.5%), and accessory glass, troilite and metal. Subhedral anorthite grains are partially enclosed within larger ulvöspinel grains. Mineral compositions are as follows: clinopyroxene (Fs20.8-33.3Wo53-54.9, Al2O3 = 5.7 to 9.4 wt.%, TiO2 = 0.9 to 2.9 wt.%, FeO/MnO = 85-278), olivine (Fa72.6-74.7Ln3.5-3.6, CaO = 2.1 wt.%, FeO/MnO = 70-87), kirschsteinite (Fa44.7-45.4Ln46-47.2, FeO/MnO = 73-82), ulvöspinel (TiO2 = 27.6 wt.%, Al2O3 = 5.5 wt.%). Reintegration of the kirschsteinite lamellae gives a pre-exsolution olivine composition of Fa68.1Ln12.2 with 7.3 wt.% CaO. Present along grain boundaries (notably between anorthite and ulvöspinel) are narrow (5-20 μm) curvilinear zones of glass associated with secondary kirschteinite, clinopyroxene and olivine (which show similar curvilinear morphology and truncate kirschsteinite lamellae). Glass compositions plot close to a mixing line between anorthite and ulvöspinel. Replicate oxygen isotopic analyses of acid-washed minerals by laser fluorination gave δ18O = 3.881, 3.845, δ17O = 1.967, 1.927, Δ17O = -0.0745, -0.0956 per mil (for TFL slope = 0.526). Comparison With NWA 2999: We previously showed [1] that angrite Northwest Africa 2999 is a metamorphically annealed breccia with distinctive symplectites and coronas representing forward and reverse versions of the same solid state reaction. We suggested that these disequilibrium textures required burial

  19. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline ph Diet Benefits Health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pub med was searched looking for articles on ph, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine

  20. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  1. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  2. Kolaviron, a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex, protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury: pertinent mechanistic insights from biochemical and physical evaluations in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Akinrinola, Bolanle L; Olaleye, M Tolulope; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    The pathophysiology of stroke is characterized by biochemical and physical alterations in the brain. Modulation of such aberrations by therapeutic agents affords insights into their mechanism of action. Incontrovertible evidences that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders have brought antioxidative compounds, especially plant phytochemicals, under increasing focus as potential remedies for the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was evaluated for neuroprotectivity in brains of male Wistar rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Animals were divided into six groups: sham treated, vehicle (I/R), 50 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 100 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 200 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R and quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p.) + I/R. The common carotid arteries were occluded for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relative brain weight and brain water content were determined and oxidative stress and neurochemical markers were also evaluated. I/R caused significant decreases in glutathione level and the activities of enzymic antioxidants, the sodium pump and acetylcholinesterase while significant increases were recorded in relative brain weight, brain water content, lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutamine synthetase and myeloperoxidase. There was a remarkable ablation of I/R induced oxidative stress, neurochemical aberrations and brain edema in animals pretreated with kolaviron. The results suggested that the protection afforded by kolaviron probably involved regulation of redox and electrolyte homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and antiexcitotoxic mechanisms. PMID:25638229

  3. Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in γ-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

  4. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  5. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H;

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... phosphatase activity could be demonstrated....

  6. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  7. Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) modelling of whole-rock and apatite chemistry from the Karkonosze composite pluton (Poland, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowiec, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a novel approach for analysing the magma evolution path in composite plutons, applying the so-termed Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) to whole-rock and apatite chemistry. As an example of a multiphase magmatic body the Karkonosze granitoid pluton was chosen, which formed by a combination of magma mixing and fractional crystallization of two distinct melts - granitic crust-derived and lamprophyric mantle-derived. The goal was to model end-member magma compositions recorded by apatite and to estimate to what extent these end-members interacted with each other. Although using single minerals as proxies to magma compositions is tricky, the studied apatite well reflects the compositional trends within the magma (e.g., decreasing LREE/Y ratios, varying halogen content, increasing Mn and Na concentrations). The results of PVA simulations for whole-rock geochemistry demonstrate a model similar to that constrained from previous studies. Apart from the main trend of mixing between a felsic (~ 80 wt.% SiO2) and a mafic (~ 53 wt.% SiO2) end-member (EM), an additional process has been recognized, representing most probably the continuous evolution of the mafic end-member, responsible for the compositional diversity of some rocks. One felsic (REE-poor, Mn-F-rich) and one mafic (Cl-Sr-Si-REE-rich) apatite end-members were recognized, whereas the third one represents most probably a fluid component (enriched in Si, Y, Ce and Nd), present at all magmatic stages, however, most prominent during the late stage. The widest range of EM proportions and the highest contribution of the mafic EM are displayed by apatites from the early stage. During the middle and late stages, the apatites present a narrow range of EM proportions, with almost all apatites bearing a felsic signature. This pattern reflects the progressive homogenization of the system. Although the PVA method applied to mineral chemistry poses some limitations, it may provide a more detailed image of the

  8. Constraining the magma flow record based on magmatic and magnetic data in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, F. J.; Payacán, I.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Creative Physical Petrology Team

    2013-05-01

    The magmatic origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is examined in comparison with magmatic anisotropy data in a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir in the upper crust. La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma granodiorite/quartz monzonite of about 250 km3 located in the southern Andes, central Chile. LGP represents a particularly simple case of a silicic intrusion that was assembled in only a few pulses and cooled over a short time interval. Hornblende, biotite and minor magnetite are ubiquitous mafic phases. The AMS tensor indicates that magnetic fabric has an oblate shape (i.e. magnetic foliation is higher than magnetic lineation). Lineations are weak (values up to 1.05), have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip and are interpreted to represent axisymmetric convection parallel to the main pluton elongation. Foliations are more pronounced (values up to 1.14), having NW trends and dips that vary gradually from vertical at the walls, to horizontal at the center and near the roof of the chamber. We selected 12 samples from AMS sites to obtain petrographic data (well-distributed throughout the pluton, containing samples from the walls, the center and the roof of LGP), and then, determine the magmatic fabric (anisotropy, lineation, foliation). We made 3 oriented thin sections per sample oriented with the AMS. Magmatic anisotropy data were obtained by measuring mineral length, width and orientation in photomicrographs of the three main planes of the AMS tensor, producing 3-D mineral data which were collected for plagioclase and amphibole + bitotite independently. For each site, a Bingham distribution with 95% of confidence is used to determine the mean mineral orientations and their angle difference with the AMS axes. Magmatic anisotropy tensor and rotations with respect to the AMS tensor are determined using both eigenvalues and minimization algorithms. Preliminary results indicate that crystals are coherently oriented in both mineral groups, and

  9. Time-scales of assembly and thermal history of a composite felsic pluton: constraints from the Emerald Lake area, northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Villeneuve, Mike E.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Duncan, Robert A.; Russell, James K.; Mortensen, James K.

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of the time-scales of emplacement and thermal history during assembly of composite felsic plutons in the shallow crust are critical to deciphering the processes of crustal growth and magma chamber development. Detailed petrological and chemical study of the mid-Cretaceous, composite Emerald Lake pluton, from the northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon Territory, coupled with U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, indicates that this pluton was intruded as a series of magmatic pulses. Intrusion of these pulses produced a strong petrological zonation from augite syenite, hornblende quartz syenite and monzonite, to biotite granite. Our data further indicate that multiple phases were emplaced and cooled to below the mineral closure temperatures over a time-scale on the order of the resolution of the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique (˜1 Myr), and that emplacement occurred at 94.3 Ma. Simple thermal modelling and heat conduction calculations were used to further constrain the temporal relationships within the intrusion. These calculations are consistent with the geochronology and show that emplacement and cooling were complete in less than 100 kyr and probably 70±5 kyr. These results demonstrate that production, transport and emplacement of the different phases of the Emerald Lake pluton occurred essentially simultaneously, and that these processes must also have been closely related in time and space. By analogy, these results provide insights into the assembly and petrogenesis of other complex intrusions and ultimately lead to an understanding of the processes involved in crustal development.

  10. Geochemistry and Geochronology of Eocene Plutons in Northeastern Washington: A Test of Farallon Slab Rollback as a Cause of the Challis Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, L.; Tepper, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The causes of widespread magmatism and extension that affected the Pacific Northwest during the Eocene "Challis Event" are poorly understood. Two models that have been advanced to explain this activity are passage of a slab window (e.g., Haeussler et al., 2011) and rollback of the subducting Farallon slab following accretion of Siletzia (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2011). Both scenarios would have resulted in widespread magmatism but with different temporal patterns. Based on reconstructed plate motion vectors magmatism related to a slab window should produce a younging-to-the-NW pattern whereas magmatism associated with slab rollback should young to the S or SW. Existing dates on Eocene igneous units in NE Washington appear to show an overall younging to the SW, consistent with the slab rollback model. However, many of these dates (mainly K-Ar) have large uncertainties so we are conducting a U-Pb dating and geochemical survey of Eocene plutons across the region. An initial set of zircon U-Pb ages (by LA-MC-ICP-MS) from five intrusions in east-central WA range from 50.7 - 46.7 Ma and young to the SW, a trend similar to that observed among Eocene rocks in the Idaho Batholith (Gaschnig et al., 2013). To further investigate this pattern we are dating an additional ten plutonic units that define a ~100 km SW-NE transect through NE WA. From NE to SW the units in this transect are (with dates from WA DNR mapping) as follows: Sheppard granite (undated), Herron Creek intrusion (51.4 +/- 1.9 Ma), Mt. Bonaparte pluton (52.8 +/- 2.6 Ma), Daisy Trail granite (49.9 +/- 0.3 Ma), Swimptkin Creek pluton (48.2 +/- 1.2 Ma), Moses pluton (48.6 +/- 1.2 Ma), Keller Butte granite (52.9 +/- 0.4 Ma), Johnny George plutonic complex (49.9 +/- 0.45 Ma), Manilla Creek (undated), and Swawilla Basin pluton (58.8 +/- 2.2 Ma). Results of this study should lead to a better understanding of the cause(s) of Challis magmatism and specifically its relationship to the ~50-48 Ma accretion of Siletzia.

  11. Sr and Pb isotopic geochemistry of feldspars and implications for the growth of megacrysts in plutonic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnikhuis, J.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.; Mills, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Why megacrystic textures develop in silicic igneous rocks is still unknown. One hypothesis is that these crystals nucleate early in a magma chamber with a high liquid content. A supportive observation of this hypothesis is areas in plutons with high concentrations of megacrysts suggesting flow sorting. Another group of hypotheses suggest megacrystic textures form during protracted late-stage coarsening in a low-melt, interlocked matrix due to either thermal oscillations from incremental pluton emplacement, or Ostwald ripening. Isotopic analyses of large, euhedral K-feldspar megacrysts from the Cretaceous intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) provide new insight into their origin. Megacrysts from the SNB reach the decimeter scale, are Or rich (85-90%), are perthitic, and host mineral inclusions of nearly all phases in the host rock. In-situ micro-drilling of transects, from core to rim, of the alkali feldspars provides material for Sr and Pb isotopic analyses by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Preliminary 87Sr/86Sr(i) isotopic data from samples from the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite range from 0.706337 to 0.706452 (~1.6ɛSr) near the cores, whereas a sawtooth pattern with larger variability, 0.706179 to 0.706533 (~5ɛSr), occurs nears the rims. We interpret these preliminary data to indicate that the late portion of growth (i.e. crystal rim) was dominated by either cannibalism of small K-feldspar crystals with isotopic variability, or by addition of isotopically diverse late components to the magma. By comparing the Sr and Pb isotopic stratigraphy of megacrysts from a variety of rock matrices and different granitoids in the SNB isotopic trends can be evaluated to determine if crystals sizes are dependent on disequilibrium processes or grow at a steady state.

  12. PLUTON: Three-group neutronic code for burnup analysis of isotope generation and depletion in highly irradiated LWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLUTON is a three-group neutronic code analyzing, as functions of time and burnup, the change of radial profiles, together with average values, of power density, burnup, concentration of trans-uranium elements, plutonium buildup, depletion of fissile elements, and fission product generation in water reactor fuel rod with standard UO2, UO2-Gd2O3, inhomogeneous MOX, and UO2-ThO2. The PLUTON code, which has been designed to be run on Windows PC, has adopted a theoretical shape function of neutron attenuation in pellet, which enables users to perform a very fast and accurate calculation easily. The present code includes the irradiation conditions of the Halden Reactor which gives verification data for the code. The total list of trans-uranium elements included in the calculations consists of 92U233-239, 93Np237-239, 94Pu238-243, 95Am241-244 (including isomers), and 96Cm242-245. Poisoning fission products are represented by 54Xe131,133,135, 48Cd113, 62Sm149,151,152, 64Gd154-160, 63Eu153,155, 36Kr83,85, 42Mo95, 43Tc99, 45Rh103, 47Ag109, 53I127,129,131, 55Cs133, 57La139, 59Pr141, 60Nd143-150, 61Pm147. Fission gases and volatiles included in the code are 36Kr83-86, 54Xe129-136, 52Te125-130, 53I127-131, 55Cs133-137, and 56Ba135-140. Verification has been performed up to 83 GWd/tU, and a satisfactory agreement has been obtained. (author)

  13. Magmatic and solid state structures of the Abu Ziran pluton: Deciphering transition from thrusting to extension in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Harald; Loizenbauer, Jürgen; Wallbrecher, Eckart

    2014-11-01

    The 606 Ma old Abu Ziran granite of the Eastern Desert of Egypt intruded the southern margin of the Meatiq dome in a sinistral shear extensional setting. Its emplacement was enabled by a system of NW-trending sinistral shears, related Riedel shears and N-S extensional shear zones and faults. Magmatic flow was east-directed and controlled by Riedel shears that progressively rotated to an orientation favourable for extension. Strain markers that document magmatic flow show eastward decreasing strain together with strain increase from pluton centre to margins. This is explained by Newtonian flow between non-parallel plates and differences in flow velocities across the pluton. Solid state fabrics including shear fabrics, orientation of late magmatic dykes and quartz tension gashes, together with quartz C-axes distributions, document southward extensional shear within the solidified pluton and adjacent host rocks. Extensional shear is correlated with exhumation of the Meatiq dome coeval and soon after pluton solidification (585 Ma). Pressure temperature evolutionary paths, derived from fluid inclusions, show a clockwise path with exhumation by isothermal decompression in the Meatiq dome. By contrast, the overlying volcanosedimentary nappes experienced an anti-clockwise path released by temperature rise due to pluton emplacement followed by isobaric cooling. Quartz fabrics indicate high-temperature coaxial N-S flow in the northern Meatiq dome and lower-temperature, non-coaxial southward flow within the overlaying superficial nappe. This is explained by the exhumation process itself that progressively localised into simple shear domains when rocks approached higher crustal levels. Late extension at ca. 580 Ma was pure shear dominated and resulted in reversal of shear, now dextral, in the western Meatiq shear zone.

  14. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of Miocene plutons of the Tonalá shearz zone, Chiapas, Mexico: evidence of rotation of the remanence vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Geissman, John W.

    2016-04-01

    The Late Miocene plutons of coastal Chiapas are elongated parallel to the Tonalá mylonite belt, and some plutons show asymmetric outcrop patterns with sheared tails that trail behind the intrusions. Plutons were emplaced within a transpressional sinistral shear zone. Magnetic fabrics in the plutons are well-developed, and are subparallel to the structural trend of the Tonalá mylonitic belt, but locally magmatic fabrics are preserved. Magnetic fabrics in undeformed granites with igneous textures are also subparallel to the shear zone axis. Strongly deformed plutons have Ṕvalues as high as 1.7. Fabric ellipsoids are predominantly oblate, but they are triaxial in sites with igneous textures. Characteristic magnetizations reside in a cubic phase, such as low-Ti magnetite, but abundant particles in the MD range prevent isolating a stable magnetization in many of the sites. Site means are NW to NE directed, and of moderate positive inclination (or its antipodal), but locally they are very discordant in declination. The overall mean, discarding highly discordant sites is of D= 359.5 and I=41.9 (k=14.2, alpha95=8.1), which is nearly concordant with the NA reference direction indicating gentle northward tilt of less than about 10°. We explain the highly discordant directions as caused by continuing, progressive, deformation in the transpressive shear zone of a thermochemical remanence acquired during deformation. Deformation resulted in rotations, both in a clockwise and an anticlockwise sense. These results are interpreted as paleomagnetic vectors affected by distortional strain, which based on AMS exceed 40% shortening and accommodate shape and volume change in the rock.

  15. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition and geological significance of the Late Triassic Baijiazhuang and Lvjing granitic plutons in West Qinling Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meng; Niu, Yaoling; Kong, Juanjuan; Sun, Pu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuo; Li, Jiyong

    2016-09-01

    The Qinling Orogen was a consequence of continental collision of the South China Craton with the North China Craton in the Triassic and caused widespread granitoid magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial. In this paper, we choose the Baijiazhuang (BJZ) and Lvjing (LJ) plutons in the West Qinling Orogen for a combined study of the zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics. We obtained zircon crystallization ages of ~ 216 Ma and ~ 212 Ma for the BJZ and the LJ plutons, respectively. The granitoid samples from both plutons have high K2O metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Eu anomalies. The BJZ samples have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7032 to 0.7078, εNd(t) of - 10.99 to - 8.54 and εHf (t) of - 10.22 to - 6.41. The LJ granitoids have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7070 to 0.7080, εNd(t) of - 5.37 to - 4.58 and εHf(t) of - 3.64 to - 1.78. The enriched isotopic characteristics of the two plutons are consistent with their source being dominated by ancient continental crust. However, two BJZ samples show depleted Sr isotope compositions, which may infer possible involvement of mantle materials. Mantle-derived melt, which formed from partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite facilitated by dehydration of the subducted/subducting Mianlue ocean crust, provide the required heat for the crustal melting while also contributing to the compositions of these granitoids. That is, the two granitic plutons are magmatic responses to the closure of the Mianlue ocean basin and the continental collision between the Yangtze and South Qinling crustal terranes.

  16. AMS and IRM studies in the late-variscan Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (Ossa-Morena Zone, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Gomes, Celeste; Carrilho Lopes, José; Nogueira, Pedro; Cruz, Claudia; Rocha, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC) is a calc-alkaline granitic body, with an area of 400 km2, and is located in the north of the Ossa Morena Zone of the Variscan Iberian sector, near the limit with the Central Iberian Zone. SEPC is considered late-Variscan because it cross-cuts the regional variscan structures. The host rocks are metamorphic formations from Upper Proterozoic to Lower Paleozoic. The SEPC has two main granitic facies with different compositions and textures. From the rim to the core, there is a medium-to coarse-grained pink granite (G0), which involves large elongated masses of mafic to intermediate rocks (M); and a central grey monzonitic granite (G1) which presents a dominant medium granular facies, and also a slight porphyritic texture close to G0. AMS and IRM studies were conducted to characterise these rocks, from 61 sampling sites: 29 in G0, 27 in G1 and 5 in M. The Km values range between 41.6 and 7343.7 x 10-6 SI in granitic rocks: G0, with Km > 10-3 SI (mean: 1357.4 x 10-6 SI) which supports the presence of magnetite, and G1 with Km< 10-4 SI (mean: 97.0 x 10-6 SI). In M, Km values are homogeneous with a mean of 620.9 x 10-6 SI. The magnetic anisotropy (P%) and the ellipsoid shape (T) were only determined in granites. The mean values of P% are 6.2% and 3.1% in G0 and G1, respectively. T shows the strongest oblate ellipsoids in central G1 (mean: 0.365) and slightly oblate in G0 (mean: 0.099). The magnetic foliations are subvertical ENE-WSW-striking in G0 and G1. Magnetic lineations are subvertical in G0 and moderately plunge to the SE in G1.The saturation IRM (SIRM) mean values are 9.345 A/m in G0, 0.027 A/m in G1 and 2.634 A/m in M. In G0 and M, the IRM acquisition curves show saturation between 0.3 and 0.4 T, followed by a small increase in increasing fields, suggesting that the main carrier of remanence is low magnetite or Ti-magnetite. In G1, the acquisition curves demonstrate paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic fractions, but a

  17. Specific Examples of Hybrid Alkaline Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez Ana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid alkaline cements are obtained by alkali-activating cementitious blends in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O system. The present paper discusses the results of activating different cementitious blends containing a low OPC clinker content ( 15MPa a 2 days different alkaline activators were used (liquid and solid. The reaction products obtained were also characterised by XRD, SEM/EDX and 27Al and 29Si NMRMAS. The results showed that the main reaction product was a mix of cementitious gels C-A-S-H and (N,C-A-S-H, and that their relative proportions were strongly influenced by the calcium content in the initial binder

  18. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing the...... operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... SrTiO3 was used for immobilization of aqueous KOH solutions. Electrolysis cells with this electrolyte and metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C at 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen...

  19. CARINA alkalinity data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic.

    These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these, 75 cruises report alkalinity values.

    Here we present details of the secondary QC on alkalinity for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the alkalinity values for 16 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL alkalinity data to be 3.3 μmol kg−1. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  20. Alkaline leaching of iron and steelmaking dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stafanova, Anna; Aromaa, Jari

    2012-01-01

    Steel production generates significant quantities of dust and sludge in blast furnaces (BF),basic oxygen furnaces (BOF), and electric arc furnaces (EAF). These dusts contain toxicelements, such as heavy metals, and are thus classified as harmful waste making the disposalof them expensive. In addition, direct recycling of dust back to steel production is hindered dueto the presence of zinc. In this literature survey the alkaline leaching of zinc from iron and steelmaking dusts isreviewed. T...

  1. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  2. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  3. Emplacement mechanism of the Middle-Late Jurassic Qitianling pluton and its implications on the Mesozoic tectonics of South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel; Scaillet, Bruno; Wang, Bo; Martelet, Guillaume; Huang, Fangfang; Zhu, Jinchu; Wang, Rucheng; Erdmann, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    The widespread Mesozoic magmatism that extends about 1500km along the NE-SW strike and 800km wide in the southeastern part of the South China Block is a remarkable feature that has attracted the attention of geoscientists since 1940's. Numerous studies have been carried out, and consequently, several geodynamic models related to the emplacement mechanism have been proposed, based essentially on petrology, geochronology, and (isotopic) geochemistry. Recently, a general consensus is apparently achieved within the geosciences community on the tectonic contexts of the South China Block during the Triassic (compressive) and Cretaceous (extensive) periods, however the tectonic setting of the Jurassic is still in debate, moreover the Jurassic magmatism is closely related to abundant mineralization of rare metal elements. Due to the similarities in age, rock type and major geochemical feature of Jurassic granite, the Qitianling granitic pluton, situated in the Nanling area and dated at ca. 157 Ma, was chosen as the target of this study among 41 visited plutons. Previous studies divide the Qitianling pluton into three petrographic facies, namely: i) Bt + Qtz + Fsd + Amp, ii) Bt + Qtz + Fsd + (Amp) , iii) Bt + Qtz + Fsd. Zircon U-Pb dating indicate the age peak of these different facies at 161Ma, 157-156Ma and 149Ma, respectively. The field observation shows that: 1) the granite is isotropic without visible preferred mineral orientation or deformation; 2) the contact between the granite and country rocks is sharp, with a 1-10m narrow thermal aureole, but without any visible deformation. The microscopic observation on the thin sections of wall rocks and granite doesn't show any mineral preferred orientation consisting to the field observation. Therefore, a total of 53 sampling sites and 318 oriented cores were collected from the Qitianling pluton for an Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) study. The investigation on rock magnetism shows the pseudo

  4. Magnetic anisotropy of the Redenção granite, eastern Amazonian craton (Brazil): Implications for the emplacement of A-type plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Neves, Sérgio Pacheco; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Mariano, Gorki; Correia, Paulo Barros

    2010-10-01

    A magnetic fabric study was performed on the Redenção pluton in an attempt to understand its emplacement history. The Redenção pluton is part of the 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Jamon suite that intruded 2.97-2.86 Ga-old Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil). Previous gravity survey indicates that the pluton is a 6 km-thick, tabular intrusion. It is characterized by a concentric distribution of facies, with rings of seriated and porphyritic granite that cut across the main facies of even-grained monzogranites. The whole set is intruded by leucogranites that occupy the center of the pluton. Petrographic examination, magnetic susceptibilities, coercivity-spectra and thermomagnetic curves indicate that the magnetic fabric is primarily carried by coarse-grained multidomain magnetite. This is reinforced by the coincidence of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy principal axes. The absence of solid-state deformation features and the low anisotropy degrees indicate that the magnetic fabric is magmatic in origin. The magnetic fabric displays a systematic pattern, with all facies, including the rings of porphyritic granite, being characterized by concentric, gently dipping foliations associated with gently plunging lineations. Only the central leucogranitic facies shows a slightly discordant pattern with steeply dipping fabrics at its northeastern sector. An emplacement model by vertical stacking of successive magma batches is proposed for the construction of the Redenção pluton, which reconciles the tabular shape of the intrusion, the petrographic and geochemical zoning, and the magnetic fabric pattern. Initially, two magma batches were emplaced as sills. First the even-grained monzogranite, then the seriated and porphyritic granites, which formed by mingling of a leucogranitic melt with the host biotite-monzogranitic magma as attested by geochemical data and field evidence. The

  5. Source of magma for Elet-Ozero pluton (NE Baltic Shield) - subduction or plume-related material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, Igor; Kogarko, Liya

    2016-04-01

    Eletozero pluton is located in the northeastern part of the Karelian Craton, it covers an area of about 100 km2 and cuts through Archaean granite-gneisses. The complex has a concentric zoned structure, the peripheral part being composed of a layered gabbro series; the central area is occupied by nepheline syenites. Mafic and ultramafic rocks in this intrusion often contain potassium feldspar (olivine monzonites and monzonites). Gabbroids are characterized by rhythmic layering expressed in the alternation of leucocratic layers predominantly composed of plagioclase and melanocratic layers with pyroxenes, olivine, titanomagnetite and ilmenite. The rocks of the pluton are enriched in highly incompatible elements by comparison with moderately incompatible elements: average primitive mantle normalized La/Lu ratio is 18.3. At the same time, all the rocks from Elet-Ozero massif including the most primitive ones (high Mg-numbers and high Ni contents) exhibit distinct positive Ba anomaly: mean chondrite normalized Ba/Th ratio is 15.3 (both elements have similar incompatibility-[1]). Enrichment of parent magma in Ba is also confirmed by the presence of high-Ba feldspars and micas in some samples of gabbroids. The most Ba-rich feldspar contains 75% of celsian component: K0.09Na0.04Ca0.008Sr0.04Ba0.75Al1.73Fe0.14Si2.20O8. Ba is a fluid mobile incompatible lithophile element that is probably the most sensitive indicator of subduction fluid addition to the mantle wedge. Thus, positive Ba anomaly suggests input of subduction related component into the source of Elet-Ozero magma. The presence of subduction related material in the lithosphere of Karelian craton has been proposed on the basis of Os isotope studies of mantle xenoliths from Finnish kimberlites [2]. The age of this subduction event is similar to the age of Elet-Ozero pluton. On the other hand, there are certain arguments in favor of connection of Elet-Ozero intrusive complex with mantle plume activity. In particular it

  6. Aeolus or Pluton?; Eole ou pluton?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-07-01

    In the next years the french government will have to take great decisions in matter of energy and specifically electric power. This report aims to give an estimation of wind power channel in France supposing financial possibilities equivalent to those implemented for the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) channel. After a presentation of the electric power industry in France, the two channels are compared. (A.L.B.)

  7. Ti Mobility in Quartzite from the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek Pluton (EJB) Aureole in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student, J. J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The EJB pluton intruded into Paleozoic sandstone during the Jurassic leaving a well-exposed aureole. Quartzite was collected from the contact outward to investigate the response of Ti in sedimentary quartz to varying grades of metamorphism using EPMA and CL imaging. TitaniQ and Zr in rutile thermobarometers were applied to rutile bearing quartzite at 225, 500, and 1540 meters from the contact. Comparison CL images, including those of Harkless sandstone collected 15 km away and Harkless quartzite in the aureole reveal significant Ti mobility and a general smoothing of the Ti distribution in the quartzite. The CL images also reveal that the redistribution of Ti in the quartzite was incomplete. Discounting this, TitaniQ was applied using a Ti activity of 1.0 and a pressure of 2.75 kbars based on previous studies. In an effort to establish possible peak conditions, Ti was measured in the brightest CL quartz grain interiors, and the Zr was measured in surrounding rutile grains. The temperature calculations are inconsistent. At 225 meters, the Zr in rutile resulted in a temperature range from 662-762 °C (n=31) compared to a maximum temperature of 595 °C based on Ti in quartz. At 500 meters, rutile resulted in a range from 635-720 °C (n=44) compared to quartz at 525 °C. At 1540 meters, the rutile ranged from 650-710 °C (n=55) compared to quartz at 547 °C. The thermometric results may suggest that the aureole was extensively heated to above 500 °C even at 1.5 km from the pluton contact. This is supported by previous studies using other thermometers, thermal modeling, quartz deformation fabrics, and evidence of partial melting-type textures. In all likelihood though, the thermometric results in this study reflect components of inheritance of the original grains, lack of complete Ti re-equilibration due to sluggish diffusion of Ti during metamorphism, and the varying effects of water availability as related to the formation of distinct deformation textures.

  8. Late Pleistocene pluton formation during the waning stages of the Altiplano-Puna ignimbrite flare-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, C. R.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lovera, O. M.; de Silva, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    least 600 km3 of plutons underpinning each dome. The combined intrusive volume of 3,000 km3 results in a high intrusive to extrusive ratio of 75:1. This suggests that plutonic addition to the uppermost crust can be significant during the waning stages of high-flux events, although volcanic output is diminished.

  9. Geochemical and geochronologic analysis of the plutonic basement of the Tacaná Volcano Complex, Chiapas México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul William, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Tacana Volcano Complex (TVC) is located on the border between the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. This volcanic complex has been described as the last volcano in the northwest part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). The region where the TVC was emplaced is influenced by the transpressional boundary formed by the shear movement between the North American and Caribbean Plates and the compressive stress by the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate. The most recently study about TVC was by García-Palomo et al. (2004), who summarized the chronology of the TVC from basement formation to its recent activity and report that the active TVC lies on igneous basement rocks that were formed by two magmatic processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In this work, we present the results of detailed petrographic, geochemical and geochronologic analyses obtained from plutonic rocks in the basement of the TVC zone. The results show that t this basement (granites: SiO2 of 64.64 to 65.29 wt%, granodiorites: SiO2 of 60.18 wt%, and gabbros: SiO2 of 51.67 wt%) belongs to the suite of plutonic rocks of an orogenic environment. The granites are classified as both S-type peraluminosus granites derived form partial melting of continental crust, characterized by minerals such as quartz, k-feldspar, biotite, hornblende and some Fe-Ti oxides and I-type metaluminous granites derived from subduction processes with the main mineral phases being quartz, k-feldspar, hornblende, biotite and Fe-Ti oxides. The ages thus far obtained (K- Ma to 12.65 +/- 0.08 Ma) suggest that there were at least nine periods of magmatic activity that produced granitic and mafic magmas. Reference: Garcia-Palomo, A., Macias, J.L., Arce, J.L., Mora, J.C., Hughes, S., Saucedo, R., Espindola, J.M., Escobar, R., and Layer, P., (2004). GSA Special Paper 412, p 39-57.

  10. Mid-Miocene Rhyolite Sequence, Highland Range, NV: Record of Magma Evolution and Eruption From the Searchlight Pluton Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, L. L.; Gualda, G. A.; Miller, C. F.; Faulds, J.; Miller, J.; Wooden, J.; Mazdab, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Highland Range in southern Nevada contains a ~3 km-thick sequence of pre- to synextensional volcanic rock that records both large-magnitude Miocene extension and the evolution of large magma system. The volcanic sequence and probable source pluton are both well-exposed in a steeply W-tilted fault block (Faulds et al. 2002). A km-thick sequence of rhyolite in the southeast part of the range was emplaced above a thick section of trachyandesite and trachydacite at 16.2-16.0 Ma (SHRIMP zircon U-Pb, biotite Ar/Ar; Faulds et al 2002, J Miller et al 2007, new data). The lower half of the sequence comprises low-SiO2 rhyolite lavas (plag + biotite + cpx phenocrysts), which abruptly give way to tuffs and inter-fingered lavas (qtz + san + plag + bio + cpx + sphene) that mark a transition to a more explosive period of eruption of more evolved rhyolite plus active mafic input. Throughout the rhyolite sequence, mafic enclaves are abundant, changing from brittle fragments (lithics) in the lower lavas to quenched, crenulate-bordered magmatic enclaves in upper lavas and tuffs. Xenocrysts of reacted olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase are evident in some rhyolites. The uppermost unit of the sequence is a quartz + sanidine-bearing lava that is heavily contaminated on all scales by mafic enclaves, lithics, and xenocrysts. Basaltic trachyandesite overlies this upper rhyolite. SHRIMP analysis of Ti and other trace elements in zircon from two samples near the top of the sequence documents strongly fluctuating T (720-920 C) and evolution of melt compositions; for the most part, rims grew at lower T from more evolved melt. Zr-in-sphene thermometry indicates that these phenocrysts grew at the lower temperatures recorded by the zircon rims. The rhyolite sequence appears to have erupted from the middle granite zone of the nearby Searchlight pluton, which is the same age and similarly evolved toward highly silicic compositions, records co-injection of mafic magma, and overlies slightly

  11. PLUTON: Three-group neutronic code for burnup analysis of isotope generation and depletion in highly irradiated LWR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei E; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    PLUTON is a three-group neutronic code analyzing, as functions of time and burnup, the change of radial profiles, together with average values, of power density, burnup, concentration of trans-uranium elements, plutonium buildup, depletion of fissile elements, and fission product generation in water reactor fuel rod with standard UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, inhomogeneous MOX, and UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2}. The PLUTON code, which has been designed to be run on Windows PC, has adopted a theoretical shape function of neutron attenuation in pellet, which enables users to perform a very fast and accurate calculation easily. The present code includes the irradiation conditions of the Halden Reactor which gives verification data for the code. The total list of trans-uranium elements included in the calculations consists of {sub 92}U{sup 233-239}, {sub 93}Np{sup 237-239}, {sub 94}Pu{sup 238-243}, {sub 95}Am{sup 241-244} (including isomers), and {sub 96}Cm{sup 242-245}. Poisoning fission products are represented by {sub 54}Xe{sup 131,133,135}, {sub 48}Cd{sup 113}, {sub 62}Sm{sup 149,151,152}, {sub 64}Gd{sup 154-160}, {sub 63}Eu{sup 153,155}, {sub 36}Kr{sup 83,85}, {sub 42}Mo{sup 95}, {sub 43}Tc{sup 99}, {sub 45}Rh{sup 103}, {sub 47}Ag{sup 109}, {sub 53}I{sup 127,129,131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133}, {sub 57}La{sup 139}, {sub 59}Pr{sup 141}, {sub 60}Nd{sup 143-150}, {sub 61}Pm{sup 147}. Fission gases and volatiles included in the code are {sub 36}Kr{sup 83-86}, {sub 54}Xe{sup 129-136}, {sub 52}Te{sup 125-130}, {sub 53}I{sup 127-131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133-137}, and {sub 56}Ba{sup 135-140}. Verification has been performed up to 83 GWd/tU, and a satisfactory agreement has been obtained. (author)

  12. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada`s radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1998-09-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro`s used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  13. World's youngest exposed granite pluton. ; Geological features, ages, and cooling model for Takidani granodiorite. Sekaiichi wakai roshutsu kakogan pluton. ; Takidani kako senryokugan no chishitsu nendai to reikyaku model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, S.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the Takidani granodiorite mainly on its dating results. The granodiorite is exposed over an area of 21 km[sup 2] In an axial area in the mountain range south to the Japanese North Alps. Its lithofacies changes from a granodiorite in a deep phase to a granite in an upper phase. Any of the lithofacies is very fresh not having been subjected to alterations, and bears no evidence of having been reheated. Four test pieces were sampled from this grandiorite, and were dated using the K-Ar method and the Pb-Sr method. The result showed a minimum value of 1.09 [plus minus] 0.03 Ma, and a maximum value of 1.93 [plus minus] 0.16 Ma. This granodiorite pluton age is the youngest among those having been reported from various parts of the world. The solidification age for this granodiorite at its shallow zone is estimated at 2.2 [plus minus] 0.3 Ma with reference to the age of pyroclastic flow deposits (about 2.4 Ma) which is assumed to have close spatial and chronological relation with the granodiorite in question. 46 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, Lang; Bowring, Samuel; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the

  15. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyry copper deposits in Arizona are genetically associated with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that consist of older intermediate volcanic rocks and younger intermediate to felsic intrusions. The igneous complexes and their associated porphyry copper deposits were emplaced into an Early Proterozoic basement characterized by different rocks, geologic histories, and isotopic compositions. Lead isotope compositions of the Proterozoic basement rocks define, from northwest to southeast, the Mojave, central Arizona, and southeastern Arizona provinces. Porphyry copper deposits are present in each Pb isotope province. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons, together with those of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits and of Proterozoic country rocks, place important constraints on genesis of the magmatic suites and the porphyry copper deposits themselves. The range of age-corrected Pb isotope compositions of plutons in 12 Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes is 206Pb/204Pb = 17.34 to 22.66, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.43 to 15.96, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.19 to 40.33. These Pb isotope compositions and calculated model Th/U are similar to those of the Proterozoic rocks in which the plutons were emplaced, thereby indicating that Pb in the younger rocks and ore deposits was inherited from the basement rocks and their sources. No Pb isotope differences distinguish Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that contain large economic porphyry copper deposits from less rich or smaller deposits that have not been considered economic for mining. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and sulfide minerals from 30 metallic mineral districts, furthermore, require that the southeastern Arizona Pb province be divided into two subprovinces. The northern subprovince has generally lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher model Th/U, and the southern subprovince has higher 206Pb/204Pb and

  16. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure and...... reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  17. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  18. Geophysical exploration of disseminated and stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive rock: a case study on the eastern flank of colombia’s western cordillera

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pardo Orlando; Gretta C; Alexander E; Iraida M; Pintor B

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated deposits are low-grade, large tonnage deposits which are mainly mined for gold, copper, molybdenum and tin. These deposits are normally associated with intermediate to acid plutonic intrusive rocks and all are characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration of host rocks. Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to dense vegetation, lack of rock outcrops and extensive but variable saprolytic weathering. Geo...

  19. The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP): 40Ar/ 39Ar dating on Mesozoic volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Coastal Cordillera, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Morata, Diego

    2006-10-01

    The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP), consists of about 150 000 km 3 of volcanic and plutonic units in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru and represents a major magmatic Mesozoic event in the world, for which the precise age of the thick volcanic series was unknown. Thirty 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were carried out on primary mineral phases of volcanic and plutonic rocks from northern Chile (18°30'-24°S). Reliable plateau and "mini plateau" ages were obtained on plagioclase, amphibole and biotite from volcanic and plutonic rocks, despite widespread strong alteration degree. In the Arica, Tocopilla and Antofagasta (700 km apart) regions, the ages obtained on lava flows constrain the volcanic activity between 164 and 150 Ma and no N-S migration of volcanism is observed. The uppermost lava flows of the volcanic sequence at the type locality of the La Negra Formation extruded at ca. 153-150 Ma, suggesting the end of the volcanic activity of the arc at that time. The oldest volcanic activity occurred probably at ca. 175-170 Ma in the Iquique area, although no plateau age could be obtained. The plutonic bodies of the same regions were dated between ca. 160 and 142 Ma, indicating that they were partly contemporaneous with the volcanic activity. At least one volcanic pulse around 160 Ma is evidenced over the entire investigated reach of the EAMP, according to the ages found in Arica, Tocopilla, Michilla and Mantos Blancos regions. The episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related volcanism is observed throughout the whole Andean history and particularly during the Jurassic (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). These events probably correspond to periodic extensional geodynamic episodes, as a consequence of particular subduction conditions, such as change of obliquity of the convergence, change in the subduction angle, slab roll back effect or lower convergence rate, that remain to be precisely defined.

  20. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  1. Neutron activation and other analytical data for plutonic rocks from North America and Africa. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to retrieve the elements of an analytical study of granites and associated other plutonic rocks which was begun as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A discussion of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) neutron activation analysis system is given so that a user will understand the linmitations of the data. Enough information is given so that an experienced geochemist can clean up the data set to the extent required by any project. The data are generally good as they are presented. It is intended that the data be read from a magnetic tape written to accompany this report. Microfiche tables of the data follow the text. These tables were prepared from data on the tape, and programs which will read the tape are presented in the section THE DATA TAPE. It is our intent to write a later paper which will include a thoroughly scrubbed data set and a technical discussion of results of the study. 1 figure

  2. Interaction between two contrasting magmas in the Albtal pluton (Schwarzwald, SW Germany): textural and mineral-chemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Lorenz; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2016-07-01

    The magmatic evolution of the Variscan Albtal pluton, Schwarzwald, SW Germany, is explored using detailed textural observations and the chemical composition of plagioclase and biotite in both granite and its mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). MMEs probably formed in a two-step process. First, mafic magma intruded a granitic magma chamber and created a boundary layer, which received thermal and compositional input from the mafic magma. This is indicated by corroded "granitic" quartz crystals and by large "granitic" plagioclase xenocrysts, which contain zones of higher anorthite and partly crystallized from a melt of higher Sr content. Texturally, different plagioclase types (e.g. zoned and inclusion-rich types) correspond to different degrees of overprint most likely caused by a thermal and compositional gradient in the boundary layer. The intrusion of a second mafic magma batch into the boundary layer is recorded by a thin An50 zone along plagioclase rims that crystallized from a melt enriched in Sr. Most probably, the second mafic intrusion caused disruption of the boundary layer, dispersal of the hybrid magma in the granite magma and formation of the enclaves. Rapid thermal quenching of the MMEs in the granite magma is manifested by An30 overgrowths on large plagioclase grains that contain needle apatites. Our results demonstrate the importance of microtextural investigations for the reconstruction of possible mixing end members in the formation of granites.

  3. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  4. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  5. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B

    1986-01-01

    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  6. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  7. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  8. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Growth of plutons by incremental emplacement of sheets in crystal-rich host: Evidence from Miocene intrusions of the Colorado River region, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Furbish, D.J.; Walker, B.A.; Claiborne, L.L.; Koteas, G.C.; Bleick, H.A.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the notion that plutons are constructed incrementally, commonly over long periods of time, yet field evidence for the multiple injections that seem to be required is commonly sparse or absent. Timescales of up to several million years, among other arguments, indicate that the dominant volume does not remain largely molten, yet if growing plutons are constructed from rapidly solidifying increments it is unlikely that intrusive contacts would escape notice. A model wherein magma increments are emplaced into melt-bearing but crystal-rich host, rather than either solid or crystal-poor material, provides a plausible explanation for this apparent conundrum. A partially solidified intrusion undoubtedly comprises zones with contrasting melt fraction and therefore strength. Depending on whether these zones behave elastically or ductilely in response to dike emplacement, intruding magma may spread to form sheets by either of two mechanisms. If the melt-bearing host is elastic on the relevant timescale, magma spreads rather than continuing to propagate upward, where it encounters a zone of higher rigidity (higher crystal fraction). Similarly, if the dike at first ascends through rigid, melt-poor material and then encounters a zone that is weak enough (poor enough in crystals) to respond ductilely, the ascending material will also spread because the dike tip ceases to propagate as in rigid material. We propose that ascending magma is thus in essence trapped, by either mechanism, within relatively crystal-poor zones. Contacts will commonly be obscure from the start because the contrast between intruding material (crystal-poorer magma) and host (crystal-richer material) is subtle, and they may be obscured even further by subsequent destabilization of the crystal-melt framework. Field evidence and zircon zoning stratigraphy in plutons of the Colorado River region of southern Nevada support the hypothesis that emplacement of magma replenishments into a

  10. Gravimetric, radiometric, and magnetic susceptibility study of the Paleoproterozoic Redenção and Bannach plutons, eastern Amazonian Craton, Brazil: Implications for architecture and zoning of A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Corrêa da Silva, João Batista; Costa de Almeida, José Arimatéia

    2008-02-01

    The 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Redenção and Bannach granites, representative of the Jamon suite and associated dikes, are intrusive in Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. Petrographic and geochemical aspects associated with magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray spectrometry data show that the Redenção and the northern part of Bannach plutons are normally zoned. They were formed by two magmatic pulses: (1) a first magma pulse was fractionated in situ after emplacement at shallow crustal level, generating a series of coarse, even-grained monzogranites with variable modal proportions of biotite and hornblende; and (2) a second, slightly younger magma pulse, located to the center of the plutons, was composed of a more evolved liquid from which even-grained leucogranites derived. Gravity modeling indicates that the Redenção and Bannach plutons are sheeted-like composite intrusions, approximately 6 and 2 km thick, respectively. These plutons follow the general power law for laccolith dimension and are similar in this respect to classical rapakivi granite plutons. Gravity data suggest that the growth of the northern part of the Bannach pluton resulted from the amalgamation of smaller sheeted-like plutons that intruded in sequence from northwest to southeast. The Jamon suite plutons were emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting, and the stress was oriented approximately NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW, as indicated by the occurrence of diabase and granite porphyry dyke swarms, orientated WNW-ESE to NNW-SSE and coeval with the Jamon suite. The 1.88 Ga A-type granite plutons and stocks of Carajás are disposed along a belt that follows the general trend defined by the dikes. The inferred tabular geometry of the studied plutons and the high contrast of viscosity between the granites and their Archean country rocks can be explained by magma transport via dikes.

  11. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal

  12. Hydrogen in aluminum during alkaline corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Saikat; Ai, Jiahe [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hebert, Kurt R., E-mail: krhebert@iastate.ed [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ho, K.M.; Wang, C.Z. [US DOE, Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    The thermodynamic state of hydrogen in aluminum during alkaline corrosion was investigated, using a two-compartment hydrogen permeation cell with an Al/Pd bilayer membrane. The open-circuit potential of the Pd layer in a pH 7.0 buffer solution was monitored to sense the hydrogen chemical potential, {mu}{sub H}. At pH 12.5-13.5, the measurements established a minimum {mu}{sub H} of 0.55 eV relative to the ideal gas reference, equivalent to a H{sub 2} gas pressure of 5.7 GPa. Statistical mechanics calculations show that vacancy-hydrogen defects are stable in Al at this condition. A dissolution mechanism was proposed in which H at very high {mu}{sub H} is produced by oxidation of interfacial aluminum hydride. The mechanism explains the observed rapid accumulation of H in the metal by extensive formation of vacancy-hydrogen defects.

  13. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  14. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  15. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  16. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  17. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Ghoorchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  18. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  19. Onset of Grain Boundary Migration and Drastic Weakening of Quartzite during increasing grade of Metamorphism in the Contact Aureole surrounding the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek pluton, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S. S.; Student, J. J.; Jakeway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton in eastern California is surrounded by a ~1.3 km wide intensely deformed concordant aureole of metasedimentary rocks. South of the pluton, the Harkless Quartzite can be mapped from where it is located outside the aureole, with its regional strike through the transition into the aureole and concordancy with the pluton. The transition into concordancy, which is fairly abrupt, occurs over a distance of less than 100 m. Across this transition the bedding rotates close to 90° to become subvertical. Here the metasedimentary formations in the aureole have undergone 65% shortening. A suite of Harkless Quartzite samples was collected starting at 2.3 km south of the pluton, across the transition into concordancy at 1.3 km, and to within 450m from the pluton contact. Microstructurally, the transition is defined by changes in the dominant recrystallization mechanisms. At 2.3 km from the pluton, subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR) plus grain boundary migration (GBM) operate together and many sedimentary grains (rounded grain boundaries) exist. As the pluton is approached, SGR decreases, GBM increases, and rounded grain boundaries slowly disappear. The abrupt transition into concordancy is marked by the final disappearance of SGR and rounded grain boundaries and extensive GBM. The transition is not completely smooth, and other variables such as pinning and amount of fluid inclusions seem to have a strong local affect on the dominant recrystallization mechanism. We suspect that the onset of extensive GBM allows for the diffusion of water into the crystal lattice which results in the drastic weakening and rotation of metasedimentary formations into concordancy.

  20. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1] was isolated from a λgt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed

  1. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  2. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  4. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  5. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done w

  6. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for late-stage pervasive

  7. Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Söllner, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Four of the major plutons in the vicinity of the Candelaria mine (470 Mt at 0.95% Cu, 0.22 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag) and a dike-sill system exposed in the Candelaria open pit have been dated with the U-Pb zircon method. The new geochronological data indicate that dacite magmatism around 123 Ma preceded the crystallization of hornblende diorite (Khd) at 118 ± 1 Ma, quartz-monzonite porphyry (Kqm) at 116.3 ± 0.4 Ma, monzodiorite (Kmd) at 115.5 ± 0.4 Ma, and tonalite (Kt) at 110.7 ± 0.4 Ma. The new ages of the plutons are consistent with field relationships regarding the relative timing of emplacement. Plutonism temporally overlaps with the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization (Re-Os molybdenite ages at ˜115 Ma) and silicate alteration (ages mainly from 114 to 116 and 110 to 112 Ma) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. The dated dacite porphyry and hornblende diorite intrusions preceded the ore formation. A genetic link of the metallic mineralization with the quartz-monzonite porphyry and/or the monzodiorite is likely. Both of these metaluminous, shoshonitic (high-K) intrusions could have provided energy and contributed fluids, metals, and sulfur to the hydrothermal system that caused the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization. The age of the tonalite at 110.7 Ma falls in the same range as the late alteration at 110 to 112 Ma. Tonalite emplacement may have sustained existing or driven newly developed hydrothermal cells that caused this late alteration or modified 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar systematic in some areas.

  8. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  9. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  10. Exploring Elongation-Inclination Relationships in Datasets from Plutons and Remagnetized Sediments: Examples from the North Cascades and the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic applications of paleomagnetism rely upon establishment of paleohorizontal at the time of magnetization. Paleohorizontal can be established in sedimentary rocks and volcanics, but is poorly constrained in plutonic rocks and areas that have experienced regional remagnetizations. This study will explore another latitudinal-dependent property of the geomagnetic field- elongation of elliptical distributions of directional data- to evaluate whether the combination of elongation and inclination can be used to constrain effects of tilt or other paleohorizontal uncertainties in paleomagnetic datasets. This work is inspired by the application of the E-I relationship proposed by Tauxe and Kent (2004) to evaluate effects of inclination error in sedimentary rocks. The first example is from the Blue Mountains of eastern OR. Remagnetized Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks (Hillhouse et al, 1982, Harbert et al, 1995, Housen, 2007, Kalk, 2008) have magnetizations that match those of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutons (Wilson and Cox, 1980, Housen, 2007). Directions from 64 sites of these rocks yields a mean of D = 33°, I = 64°, k= 26, α95 = 3.7°. The E-I method can be used to determine the effects of calculated paleohorizontal errors by finding an optimal paleohorizontal error that results in the best agreement between E and I for a set of data. For the Blue Mountains rocks, the optimal E-I relationship yields a corrected inclination of I = 65° (+7°/-4°), and estimated paleolatitude of 47°N (42° to 57°). The second example is from the Cretaceous Mt Stuart batholith in the North Cascades of central WA- these 95-88 Ma plutonic rocks have well defined magnetizations (Housen et al, 2003). Directions from 89 samples have a mean of D = 350°, I=44°, k=50, α95 = 2.1°. The E-I relationship suggests a corrected mean inclination of I=46° (+12°/-3°), and estimated paleolatitude of 27°N (25° to 39°). For the Blue Mountains, this comparison indicates that the

  11. Titratable Acidity and Alkalinity of Red Soil Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; HEQUN; 等

    1993-01-01

    The surfaces of red soils have an apparent amphoteric character,carrying titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity simultaneously.The titratable acidity arises from deprotonation of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces and dissociation of weak-acid functional groups of soil organic matter,while the titratable alkalinity is derived from release of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity mainly depended on the composition and content of iron and aluminum oxides in the soils.The results showed that the titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity were in significantly positive correlation not only with the content of amorphous aluminum oxide(Alo) and iron oxide(Feo) extracted with acid ammonium oxalate solution,free iron oxide(Fed) extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and clays,but also with the zero point of charge (ZPC) of the samples.Organic matter made an important contribution to the titratable acidity.the titratable alkalinity was closely correlated with the amount of fluoride ions adsorbed.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity of red soils were influenced by parent materials,being in the order of red soil derived from basalt> that from tuff> that from granite.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity ware closely related with origination of the variable charges of red soils,and to a certain extent were responsible for variable negative and positive charges of the soils.

  12. Francisella DnaK Inhibits Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Chetty, Senthilnath Lakshmana; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Leonard, Sean; Klose, Karl; Seshu, Janakiram; Cap, Andrew; Valdes, James J.; Chambers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Following pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis, we observed an unexpected but significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme normally up-regulated following inflammation. However, no reduction was observed in mice infected with a closely related Gram-negative pneumonic organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) suggesting the inhibition may be Francisella-specific. In similar fashion to in vivo observations, addition of Francisella lysate to exogenous alkaline phosphatase (tissue-nonspecific isozyme) was inhibitory. Partial purification and subsequent proteomic analysis indicated the inhibitory factor to be the heat shock protein DnaK. Incubation with increasing amounts of anti-DnaK antibody reduced the inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DnaK contains an adenosine triphosphate binding domain at its N terminus, and addition of adenosine triphosphate enhances dissociation of DnaK with its target protein, e.g. alkaline phosphatase. Addition of adenosine triphosphate resulted in decreased DnaK co-immunoprecipitated with alkaline phosphatase as well as reduction of Francisella-mediated alkaline phosphatase inhibition further supporting the binding of Francisella DnaK to alkaline phosphatase. Release of DnaK via secretion and/or bacterial cell lysis into the extracellular milieu and inhibition of plasma alkaline phosphatase could promote an orchestrated, inflammatory response advantageous to Francisella. PMID:22923614

  13. Anodic stripping voltammetry of technetium alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of direct determination of technetium in 0.1 M NaOH by anodic stripping voltametry at glassy carbon electrode has been elaborated. The peak height of anodic TcO2(OH)2 dissolution was found to be linearly dependent on preconcentration time, and the concentration of technetium in the range 5.0 * 10-8 -6 M. The detection limit for the Tc determination by ASV technique under study was found to be 5.0 * 10-8 M with standard deviation 5-7% (p2(OH)2 anodic dissolution peak current. Addition of 1.0* 10-6 M U(UI) to the sample solution was found to shift the peak of the TcO2(OH)2 100 mV towards negative direction and disturb the linearity of the calibration curve. Therefore; for a successful application of the developed ASV technique for Tc determination in the alkaline media, uranium should be removed from the analyte before determination

  14. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  15. Revisiting zinc passivation in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zinc passive films were characterised by electrochemical tests coupled with cross sectional FIB-SEM. • Passive layers at pH > 12 comprised of an outer precipitated layer and inner compact oxide. • The electrolyte pH influences the nature/stability of the outer precipitated layer and this impacts the passive state on zinc. • The precipitated layers on zinc at pH 12 support cathode reactions and catalyse oxide growth. -- Abstract: Passive films nominally consist of an inner compact oxide and the outer precipitated layer. In the case of zinc (Zn), the outer layer is mainly precipitated ZnO/Zn(OH)2. Electrolyte pH controls the stability of the outer precipitated layer. In a pH 13 solution, formation of soluble Zn(OH)3− and Zn(OH)42− phases render the precipitated layer unstable increasing zinc corrosion, whereas at pH 12, the precipitated layer (ZnO/Zn(OH)2) is more stable making it an effective anodic barrier upon zinc. These precipitated oxides formed at pH 12 support cathodic reactions on their surface which in turn catalyse further oxide growth by a cathodically driven process. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) was used to support some of the electrochemical assertions, revealing the form and morphology of the passive layers that grow upon zinc exposed to alkaline solutions

  16. Alkaline lipase of glyoxysomes is a glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In castor bean endosperm, the glyoxysomal alkaline lipase is an intrinsic membrane protein. At four days post-germination, the enzyme is also present in the endoplasmic reticulum where it accounts for approximately 15% of total activity. The active enzyme was purified by Maeshima and Beevers from isolated glyoxysomes. Specific antibodies to the 62 kD subunit were raised in rabbits. The anti-lipase has been used in preliminary experiments to determine the relationship between the lipase of the glyoxysomal membrane and the ER. Results indicate the presence of 3 cross-reacting antigens in carbonate-washed ER and glyoxysomal membranes. The 62 kD subunit, found predominantly in glyoxysomes, was eluted form Con-A Sepharose by 0.5 M α-methylglucoside. An 86kD form present in 2-d ER (but not in 4-d ER) and glyoxysomes did not bind Con-A Sepharose. This form appears to be an unglycosylated precursor or the 62 kD subunit. A 67 kD form was the only species seen in 4-d ER. In a time course experiment, the 67 kD form appeared on the glyoxysomal membrane

  17. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  18. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  19. Magic wavelengths in the alkaline earth ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B K

    2015-01-01

    We present magic wavelengths for the $nS$ - $nP_{1/2,3/2}$ and $nS$ - $mD_{3/2,5/2}$ transitions, with the respective ground and first excited $D$ states principal quantum numbers $n$ and $m$, in the Mg$^+$, Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$ and Ba$^+$ alkaline earth ions for linearly polarized lights by plotting dynamic polarizatbilities of the $nS$, $nP_{1/2,3/2}$ and $mD_{3/2,5/2}$ states of the ions. These dynamic polarizabilities are evaluated by employing a relativistic all-order perturbative method and their accuracies are ratified by comparing their static values with the available high precision experimental or other theoretical results. Moreover, some of the magic wavelengths identified by us in Ca$^+$ concurs with the recent measurements reported in [{\\bf Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 223001 (2015)}]. Knowledge of these magic wavelengths are propitious to carry out many proposed high precision measurements trapping the above ions in the electric fields with the corresponding frequencies.

  20. Crystallization and eruption ages of Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) plutonic clasts and their relation to the Campanian ignimbrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Samantha K.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Pappalardo, Lucia; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei volcanic district (Naples region, Italy) is a 12-km-wide, restless caldera system that has erupted at least six voluminous ignimbrites during the late Pleistocene, including the >300 km3 Campanian ignimbrite (CI) which originated from the largest known volcanic event of the Mediterranean region. The Breccia Museo (BM), a petrologically heterogeneous and stratigraphically complex volcanic deposit extending over 200 km2 in close proximity to Campi Flegrei, has long remained contentious regarding its age and stratigraphic relation to the CI. Here, we present crystallization and eruption ages for BM plutonic ejecta clasts that were determined via uranium decay series and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon, respectively. Despite mineralogical and textural heterogeneity of these syenitic clasts, their U-Th zircon rim crystallization ages are indistinguishable with an average age of 49.7 ± 2.5 ka (2σ errors; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.2; n = 34). A subset of these crystals was used to obtain disequilibrium-corrected (U-Th)/He zircon ages which average 41.7 ± 1.8 ka (probability of fit P = 0.54; n = 15). This age closely overlaps with published CI 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages (40.6 ± 0.1 ka) after recalibration to recently revised flux monitor ages. Concordant eruption ages for BM and CI agree with previous chemostratigraphic and paleomagnetic correlations, suggesting their origin from the same eruption. However, they are at variance with recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages which have BM postdate CI by 3 ± 1 ka. BM syenites show similar geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopical features of pre-caldera rocks erupted between 58 and 46 ka, but are distinctive from subsequent caldera-forming magmas. Energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling of Nd-Sr isotopic data suggests that pre-caldera magmas formed a carapace of BM-type intrusions in a mid-crust magma chamber (≥8 km depth) shielding the younger CI magma from contamination by

  1. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International Nuclear System Engineering, MS-K 575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C. [International Nuclear System Engineering, MS-K 575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted.

  2. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...... spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and topological features of these glasses, and hence into the mixed alkaline earth effect. We demonstrate that the mixed alkaline earth effect manifests itself as a maximum in the amount of bonded tetrahedral units and as a minimum in liquid fragility index...

  3. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  4. Emplacement age for the mafic-ultramafic plutons in the northern Dabie Mts. (Hubei): Zircon U-Pb, Sm-Nd and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jianghai

    2002-01-01

    , China, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 225-236.[11]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in Central China, Tectonics, 1995, 14: 994-1006.[12]Ge, N. J., Hou, Z. H., Li, H. M. et al., Zircon U-Pb ages of the Shacun gabbro body, Yuexi, Dabie orogen and its geological implications, Chinese Sci. Bull., 2000, 45(1): 74-79.[13]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of the Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 1-175.[14]Li, S. G., Ni, Y. H., Zheng, S. G. et al., Interaction between subducted continental crust and the mantle: I. Major and trace element geochemistry of syncollisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Dabie Mountains, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(5): 545-553.[15]Blundy, J. D., Holland, T. J. B., Calcic amphibole equilibrium and a new amphibole plagioclase geothermometer, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1990, 104: 208-224.[16]Hammartron, J. M., Zen, E. A., Aluminum in hornbole: an empirical igneous geobarometer, Amer. Mineral., 1986, 71: 1297-1313.[17]Hollister, L. S., Grisson, G. C., Peters, E. K. et al., Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calcalkaline plutons, Amer. Mineral., 1987, 72: 231-239.[18]Johnson, M. C., Rutherford, M. J., Experimental calibration of an aluminium-hornblende geobarometer applicable to calc-alkaline rocks, EOS, 1988, 69: 1511.[19]Whitney, J. A., Stormer, J. C., The distribution of NaAlSi3O8 between coexisting microcline and plagioclase and its effect on geothermometric calculations, Am. Mineral., 1977, 62: 687-691.[20]Zhang, R. Y., Cong, B. L., Mineral Thermometers and Barometers, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983, 150-173.[21]Krogh, T. E., A low-contamination method for hydrothermal decomposition of zircon and extraction of U and Pb for isotopic age determinations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1973, 48: 505-511.[22]Krogh, T. E., Vapour

  5. The role of magma mixing in the evolution of high-K calc-alkaline granitoid suites: in situ trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Slaby, Ewa; Villaros, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    The so-called "I-type", high-K calc-alkaline granitoids are often considered as "hybrid" in origin, i.e. involving both mantle and crustal components in their petrogenesis. The interactions between both components either take place (1) at mantle levels (i.e. enriched mantle source); (2) at emplacement levels (i.e. crustal contamination and/or magma mixing with crustal melts) or (3) both. Magma mixing is, in particular, frequently invoked to explain the compositional range of high-K calc-alkaline granitoid suites, especially phases of intermediate composition (SiO2 = 60-65 wt.%) such as quartz-diorites or granodiorites. We investigated the role of magma mixing in the origin of such rocks using elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Hf) chemistry of magmatic minerals (plagioclase, zircon, apatite, titanite, epidote), measured in situ by LA-(MC-)ICPMS, allowing a much greater spatial resolution than classical whole-rock geochemistry. We focused on a suite of late-Archaean (2.69 Ga-old) high-K, calc-alkaline granitoids from the Pietersburg block, northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa): the Mashashane, Matlala, Matok and Moletsi plutons. Those plutons range from diorites to monzogranites, emplaced at different crustal levels but all within a relatively short time span and showing evidence for interactions (mingling), both at the outcrop and mineral scale. Hf isotope data on zircon confirm that all rocks are cogenetic (identical ɛHf(t)), but trace element and Sr isotopes in plagioclase point to the involvement of several components in their petrogenesis, at different stages of the magma evolution. The most mafic rocks (diorites) derive from the interaction, at mantle levels, between depleted peridotite and a sedimentary component of quartzofeldspathic nature. The mineral chemistry of more felsic rocks can be explained by (1) differentiation from the diorite magmas through Amp + Plag fractionation; (2) interactions with magmas derived from melting of local crust (tonalites

  6. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of Zahedan and Shah Kuh plutons, southeast Iran: Implication for closure of the South Sistan suture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Bouilhol, Pierre; Ruh, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    We present U-Pb zircon crystallization ages combined with major and trace element analyses, Sr-Nd isotopes and zircon in-situ Hf isotope analyses of intermediate to granitic intrusions along the southern segment of the N-S trending Sistan suture zone in eastern Iran. The Zahedan and Shah-Kuh Eocene plutons consist in a series of granite-granodiorite-rhyolite with U-Pb zircon ages of 40.5-44.3 Ma and ca. 28.9-30.9 Ma. Isotope geochemistry and modeling suggest that 40.5-44.3 Ma plutons represent melts derived from the turbidites of the surrounding accretionary wedge. Melting of the wedge was induced by the intrusion of mantle magmas, with subsequent interaction between mantle- and turbiditic melts being responsible for the wide range of compositions. Most of the 28.9-30.9 Ma magmas were generated from mantle melting, with assimilation of the surrounding turbidites. The rare setting of within-wedge intrusions is attributed to mantle upwelling reaching wedge sediments at the inception of delamination processes, which signal the end of subduction-related deformational and thermal events in the Sistan suture zone.

  7. Origin and tectonic implications of the ∼200 Ma, collision-related Jerai pluton of the Western Granite Belt, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Azmiah; Ghani, Azman A.; Zaw, Khin; Osman, Syamir; Quek, Long Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Triassic granitoids (∼200-225 Ma) are widespread in the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The Main Range granite is the biggest batholith in the Western Belt composed of peraluminous to metaluminous granite and granodiorite and displays typical ilmenite-series characteristics. Jerai granitic pluton occurs at the northwestern part of the Main Range granite batholith. The Jerai granite can be divided into three facies: (i) biotite-muscovite granite; (ii) tourmaline granite; and (iii) pegmatite and aplopegmatite. Biotite-muscovite granite accounts for 90% of the Jerai pluton, and the rest is tourmaline granite. Geochemical data reveal that pegmatite and tourmaline granite are more differentiated than biotite-muscovite granite. Both pegmatite and tourmaline granite have a higher SiO2 content (70.95-83.94% versus 69.45-73.35%) and a more pronounced peraluminous character. The U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jerai granite gave an age ranging from 204 ± 4.3 Ma, 205 ± 4 Ma and 205 ± 2 Ma for pegmatite biotite-muscovite granite and tourmaline granite, respectively. The biotite-muscovite Jerai granites are similar to S-type Main Range granite, but the tourmaline granite has a signature of late-stage hydrothermal fluid interaction such as tourmaline quartz pods, the accumulation of large pegmatitic K-feldspar, pronounced peraluminous character, higher SiO2 content. Age evidence of these two granitic facies suggest that they are from the same magma.

  8. Geochemical evidence for contribution of ore-forming materials from peraluminous granite basement-- Taking Fucheng pluton and No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Bangtong(章邦桐); CHEN; Peirong(陈培荣); YANG; Dongsheng(杨东生); KONG; Xinggong(孔兴功)

    2003-01-01

    Using the induced fission-track method, mobile uranium leaching and lead isotope analysis, this work obtianed geochemical features of the peraluminous Fucheng granite basement and the host rock (shoshonite) of the No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province. (i) Uranium contents of the leucocratic rock-forming minerals (0.18 ?g/g for quartz, 0.36 ?g/g for feldspar) are lower than the uranium content of the whole rock (4.6 ?g/g). Biotite and some accessory mineral inclusions (zircon, monazite and uraninite) are the main uranium carriers of the Fucheng granite pluton. The fissure uranium in altered minerals (hydromica and chlorite) increased evidently. (ii) Leachable rate of mobile uranium in the biotite granite is 10.4%, while that in the altered granite increased to 31%. (iii) Caculation based on lead isotopes shows that during alteration the Fucheng granite lost uranium (?U = ?37% - ?65%), whereas the Caotaobei shoshonite gained uranium (?U = +37%- +58%). These features suggest that the ore-forming material of the No. 6722 uranium deposit was mainly derived from the altered peraluminous granite basement of Fucheng pluton.

  9. Stability and selectivity of alkaline proteases in hydrophilic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Ritthitham, Sinthuwat; Pleissner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophilic, organic solvents can be used as co-solvents with water to produce one phase systems sustaining optimal mass transfer of substrates and products of mixed polarity in biocatalysed processes. At concentrations below 50 % hydrophilic solvents can even have a stabilising effect on alkaline...... proteases, but at higher concentrations and particularly in anhydrous systems most enzymes including alkaline proteases will denature and consequently loose activity [1]. However, partial denaturing and increased structural flexibility due to the interaction between hydrophilic solvents and alkaline...... proteases has been agued as the primary reasons for increasing activity, influencing regio-selectivity and improving the enantio-selectivity of these enzymes [2]. Alkaline proteases have been shown to be active not only on peptides, but on a wide range of renewable resources for synthesis of biologically...

  10. Sulfate—Exchange Alkalinity of Ferralsol Colloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGANGYA; ZHANGXIAONIAN

    1999-01-01

    The amount of OH- replaced by sulfate,i.e.,sulfate-exchange alkalinity,from the electric double layer of ferralsol colloid was measured quantitatively in different conditions with an automatic titration equipment.The amount of OH- release increased with the amount of Na2SO4 added and decreased with raising pH in the suspension of ferralsol colloid.The exchange acidity was displayed as pH was higher than 5.6,If the negative effect of sodium ions was offset,the amount of OH- replaced by sulfate was larger than the original amount of OH- released in the pH range of lower than 5.8.The amount of OH- released decreased rapidly as pH was higher than 6.0 and dropped to zero when pH reached 6.5.In the solution of 2.0molL-1 NaClO4,the amount of OH- repleaced by sulfate from the surface of ferralsol colloid could be considered as the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction.The amount of OH- released in the solution of NaClO4 concentration below 2.0mol L-1 from which the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction was subtracted could be conidered as the OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force,The OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force decreased with increases in the concentration of NaClO4 and pH and increased almost linearly with the increasing amount of Na2SON4 added.The percentages of OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force in water and in the electrolyte solutions of 0.05 and 0.5mol L-1 NaClO4 in the total OH- released were calculated,respectively.

  11. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  12. Nordic Seas total alkalinity data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas includes the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the total alkalinity (ALK data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 21 had ALK data. The data from 6 of these were found to be of low quality and should not be used. Of the others, 3 were found to be biased low and were subject to adjustment. Thus the final CARINA data product contains ALK data from 15 cruises from the Nordic Seas, and these data appear consistent to ±3 μmol kg−1.

  13. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  14. Concentration and separation of vanadium from alkaline media by strong alkaline anion-exchange resin 717

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinwen; SU Peng; WU Wenwei; LIAO Sen; QIN Huiquan; WU Xuehang; HE Xiaohu; TAO Liujia; FAN Yanjin

    2010-01-01

    With strong alkaline anion-exchange resin 717 as the sorbent and NaOH solution as the eluent, a study on the sorption from alkaline solution and elution of vanadium(Ⅴ), silicon(Ⅳ), and aluminium(Ⅲ) was carried out. Different parameters affecting the sorption and elution process,including temperature, pH values as well as the ratio of resin to solution, were investigated. The results show that sorption degree of vanadium(Ⅴ) increases with a decrease of pH values, and V(Ⅴ) ions are easier sorbed than Si(Ⅳ) and Al(Ⅲ) ions under the same conditions. The sorption degree of V(Ⅴ), Si(Ⅳ), and Al(Ⅲ) at pH 9.14 for 15 min are 90.6%, 33.5%, and 21.6%, respectively. Si(Ⅳ), Al(Ⅲ), and V(Ⅴ) ions sorbed on 717 resin were eluted by use of 2 mol.L-1 NaOH solution; the desorption degree of V(Ⅴ), Si(Ⅳ), and Al(Ⅲ) for 5 min are 81.7 %,99.1%, and 99.3%, respectively.

  15. Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb dating in the Bandja plutonic series of Western Cameroon. Donnees geochronologiques (Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb) sur le complexe plutonique de Bandja (Centre-Ouest Cameroun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchankam, C.N. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France)); Vialette, Y. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France))

    1994-08-01

    The results of U-Pb zircon and Pb-Pb on minerals and whole rocks are reported on a charnockite syn-D1 from the Bandja series in the western Cameroon. Data are interpreted as representing a plutonic emplacement at 640 Ma. A syn- to post-tectonic pluton is dated at 557 [+-] 8 Ma (Rb-Sr whole rocks isochron). These results confirm the Pan-African age of the charnockitic intrusive body. Initial isotopic [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of charnockite (0.709) and granite (0.7089) show the importance of crustal imprint in the magma genesis. (authors).

  16. Enhanced Thermostability of a Fungal Alkaline Protease by Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh P. Nirmal; R. Seeta Laxman

    2014-01-01

    A fungal strain (Conidiobolus brefeldianus MTCC 5184) isolated from plant detritus secreted a high activity alkaline protease. Thermostability studies of the fungal alkaline protease (FAP) revealed that the protease is stable up to 50°C with 40% residual activity after one hour. Effect of various additives such as sugars, sugar alcohols, polyols, and salts, on the thermostability of FAP was evaluated. Among the additives tested, glycerol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, and trehalose were found ...

  17. Placental-type alkaline phosphatase in cervical neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, P. J.; Warne, P H; Hutchinson, G. E.; Johnson, P. M.; Tucker, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with placental-type alkaline phosphatase have formed the basis of methods for detection of this oncodevelopmental antigen in patients with pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia, with or without evidence of papilloma virus infection. Disease-related elevations of placental-type alkaline phosphatase were not observed in patients' sera. Solubilised cervical smears or biopsy material, and cervical mucus swabs, often contained substantial amounts of this isoen...

  18. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  19. Arc petrogenesis in southern Ireland and the Isle of Man: Implications for Ordovician accretionary history and constraints from Late Caledonian plutonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Peri-Laurentian and peri-Gondwanan magmatic arcs and microcontinents, and their attendant sedimentary basins were assembled during the Caledonian Orogeny (c. 490 - 400 Ma) to form the Irish and British lithosphere. Accretion of these terranes to Laurentia and subsequent closure of the Iapetus Ocean initiated the generation of widespread Late Caledonian plutons (c. 425 - 400 Ma). Petrogenetic investigation of Ordovician arc-related rocks aims to test possible terrane affinities, using geochemical data from the arcs and related rocks as well as isotopic signatures preserved within Late Caledonian granites. SIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology has provided middle to early Ordovician ages for volcanic rocks with arc affinities from Avoca (Ireland, c. 463 Ma) and a newly discovered volcanic sequence from Port-e-Vullen (Isle of Man, c. 473 Ma). Granitic rocks from Leinster (Ireland), interpreted as arc plutons, yielded late to middle Ordovician ages of c. 457 - 454 Ma (Croghan Kinshelagh) and c. 462 - 459 Ma (Graiguenamanagh), similar to the c. 457 Ma age of the Dhoon Granite (Isle of Man). Oxygen isotopic compositions of zircons from the Ordovician volcanic and plutonic rocks are close to or slightly heavier than mantle values (δ18O generally < 7 ‰). Lu-Hf zircon compositions suggest different terrane affinities: relatively juvenile ɛHfT values (c. +8.5 - +5.3) for the Avoca volcanics are similar to those of the older unit of the Croghan Kinshelagh Granite, whereas the Port-e-Vullen volcanics and the Graiguenamanagh Granite have less radiogenic ɛHfT values (c. +4.4 - +1.3). The present-day geographic distribution of these rocks and petrogenetic inferences from their North American correlatives invite comparison with the Avalonian and the Ganderian microcontinent, respectively[1]. These constraints are supported by inherited zircons and corresponding isotopic analyses. ɛHfT values (c. +11.5 - +1.5) from magmatic zircons of the Dhoon Granite and the younger unit of the

  20. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the

  1. A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masachis, Sara; Segorbe, David; Turrà, David; Leon-Ruiz, Mercedes; Fürst, Ursula; El Ghalid, Mennat; Leonard, Guy; López-Berges, Manuel S; Richards, Thomas A; Felix, Georg; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Plant infections caused by fungi are often associated with an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue(1). Extracellular alkalinization is thought to contribute to fungal pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the root-infecting fungus Fusarium oxysporum uses a functional homologue of the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)(2,3) to induce alkalinization and cause disease in plants. An upshift in extracellular pH promotes infectious growth of Fusarium by stimulating phosphorylation of a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase essential for pathogenicity(4,5). Fungal mutants lacking a functional Fusarium (F)-RALF peptide failed to induce host alkalinization and showed markedly reduced virulence in tomato plants, while eliciting a strong host immune response. Arabidopsis plants lacking the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, which mediates the RALF-triggered alkalinization response(6), displayed enhanced resistance against Fusarium. RALF homologues are found across a number of phylogenetically distant groups of fungi, many of which infect plants. We propose that fungal pathogens use functional homologues of alkalinizing peptides found in their host plants to increase their infectious potential and suppress host immunity. PMID:27572834

  2. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  3. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110 Section 420.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory... alkaline cleaning baths to remove mineral and animal fats or oils from the steel, and those...

  4. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  5. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  6. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  7. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Shihama granite pluton in northeastern Hunan province%湘东北地区石蛤蟆花岗岩体SHRIMP U—Pb年龄及地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宇军; 马铁球; 周柯军; 柏道远

    2012-01-01

    分布于湖南东北部的石蛤蟆岩体侵位于新元古代地层中。由微细粒斑状黑云母花岗闪长岩和细粒斑状黑云母二长花岗岩等两期侵入体组成。通过锆石SHRIM PU--Pb法测得岩体侵位年龄为157土2Ma(2d),MSWD=0.98,成岩时代为晚侏罗世。SiO2=68.26%~68.53%,K2O/Na2O=1.37~1.59,岩石属镁质、准铝质-微过铝质、高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列;岩石明显富集大离子亲石元素,亏损高场强元素,Rb/Sr较低(0.40~0.56);乏REE较高(171.48~183.81),Eu为弱负异常(δEu=0.86~0.93),(La/Yb)N=27.11~45.87;具较高的eNd值(-5.11)和高T2DM(1.63Ga)。综合研究表明,石蛤蟆花岗岩为混合源高钾钙碱性花岗岩类(KCG),其花岗岩浆有大量幔源物质加入。讨论认为岩体形成于构造体制转换下的地球动力学背景,是造山晚期张弛作用下的产物。%Distributed in northeastern Hunan province and intruded in Neoproterozoic strata, Shihama granite pluton is mainly composed of micro-fine-grained porphyritic biotite granodiorites of early stage and fine- grained porphyritic biotite monzonitic granites of late stage. SHRIMP zircon dating of the granites gives an age of 157±2 Ma which belongs to Late Jurassic. The granites belong to magnesian, metaluminous-weak- ly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline-shoshonite series, with SIO2=68.26% -68.53M and K2O/Na2O= 1.37 - 1.59. The rocks show enriched large-ion lithophile elements, depleted high field-strength ele- ments, low values of Rb/Sr(0.40-0.56), high values of ∑REE (171.48-183.81), with δEu=0.86-- 0. 93, (La/Yb)N=27. 11-45.87, εNd=5.11, T2DM=1. 63 Ga. Studies indicate that the Shihama gran- ites belong to high-K calc-alkaline granites (KCG) originated form the crust-mantled mixed source ivolving large amount of mantle source materials. It is believed that the granite pluton is the result of

  8. Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianren; SUN Yankun; LI Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Researches on models of remediation quickly in soda meadow alkaline soil, and dynamic variation of water-salt in saline soil of Zhaozhou County were studied systematically from 2001 to 2006. Realize the vegetation cover of those years through the artificial planting, mixed seeding lymc grass (Elymus dahuricus Turcz) and melilot in the mode of rotary tillage and deep loosening in lower and medium saline soils. The results showed that there was remarkable relationship between net evaporation (difference of precipitation and evaporation) and total salt content in the soil. The net evaporation could be used as a new method to forecast the dynamics variation of salt to ensure the pasture optimum sowing time. Realize the autumnal vegetation cover of those years through direct planting on the bourgeon layer of soda meadow alkaline soil, on the other hand, the covered pasture made the function of restraining salt and alkaline content to realize the biology reverse succession quickly. Forage seeds were seeded directly on the seeding bed of soda alkaline meadow at the end of July. In fall of the same year, a certain amount of biomass was obtained. The model, which has remarkable economical efficiency and use widely, represented the innovative model for the fast vegetation restoration on the soda alkaline meadow soil.

  9. Geochronology of plutonic rocks and their tectonic terranes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska: Chapter E in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Tellier, Kathleen E.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Nielsen, Diane C.; Smith, James G.; Sonnevil, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified six major belts and two nonbelt occurrences of plutonic rocks in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and characterized them on the basis of geologic mapping, igneous petrology, geochemistry, and isotopic dating. The six plutonic belts and two other occurrences are, from oldest to youngest: (1) Jurassic (201.6–145.5 Ma) diorite and gabbro of the Lituya belt; (2) Late Jurassic (161.0–145.5 Ma) leucotonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet; (3) Early Cretaceous (145.5–99.6 Ma) granodiorite and tonalite of the Muir-Chichagof belt; (4) Paleocene tonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet (65.5–55.8 Ma); (5) Eocene granodiorite of the Sanak-Baranof belt; (6) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) granodiorite, quartz diorite, and granite of the Muir-Fairweather felsic-intermediate belt; (7) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) layered gabbros of the Crillon-La Perouse mafic belt; and (8) Oligocene (33.9–23.0 Ma) quartz monzonite and quartz syenite of the Tkope belt. The rocks are further classified into 17 different combination age-compositional units; some younger belts are superimposed on older ones. Almost all these plutonic rocks are related to Cretaceous and Tertiary subduction events. The six major plutonic belts intrude the three southeast Alaska geographic subregions in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, from west to east: (1) the Coastal Islands, (2) the Tarr Inlet Suture Zone (which contains the Border Ranges Fault Zone), and (3) the Central Alexander Archipelago. Each subregion includes rocks assigned to one or more tectonic terranes. The various plutonic belts intrude different terranes in different subregions. In general, the Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes in the Central Alexander Archipelago subregion, and the Paleogene plutons intrude rocks of the Chugach, Alexander, and Wrangellia terranes in the Coastal Islands, Tarr Inlet Suture Zone, and Central Alexander Archipelago subregions.

  10. SHRIMP U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Tula Granite Pluton on the South Side of the Altun Fault and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Suoping; WU Cailai; WANG Meiying; CHEN Qilong; Joseph L. WOODEN

    2008-01-01

    The Tula A2-subtype granite pluton is located between the Altun fault and its branching fault.According to the geological, geochemical, REE and trace elements characteristics, it belongs to the A2 (PA) subtype granite. The SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating gives a result of 385.2+8.1 Ma, which is located between the Middle and Late Devonian in the international stratigraphic chart, and can be regarded as the crystallization age of the Tula granite. The study indicates that the Tula area was in a local extensional environment in the end of the Middle Devonian, and that environment was probably related to the synchronized strike-slip activity of the Altun fault.

  11. Geochemistry and SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Age of Post-Collisional Granites in the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt of China: Examples from the Heiyingshan and Laohutai Plutons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Lingli; GAO Jun; WANG Jingbin; QIAN Qing; XIONG Xianming; WANG Yuwang; WANG Lijuan; GAO Liming

    2008-01-01

    The Heiyingshan granite and the Laohutai granite plutons exposed in the Southwest Tianshan resemble A-type granites geochemically. Analysis shows that the both are ferron calc-alkalic peraluminous or ferron aikali-calcic peraluminous with a relatively high concentration of SiO2 (>70%), high alkali contents (Na2O + K2O = 7.14%-8.56%; K2O>N2O; A/CNK = 0.99-1.20), and pronounced negative anomales in Eu, Ba, Sr, P and Ti. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 285±4 Ma was obtained for the Heiyingshan hornblende biotite granite intrusion. The geochemical and age dating data reported in this paper indicate that these granites were formed during the post-collisional crustal extension of the Southwest Tianshan orogenic belt, in agreement with the published data for the granites in the South Tianshan.

  12. U-Pb geochronology of Permian plutonic rocks, Longwood Range, New Zealand : implications for Median Batholith-Brook Street Terrane relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon ages from gabbros and associated intrusive rocks of the Longwood Range, Southland. U-Pb zircon ages of 257.6 ± 2.5 Ma, 256.5 ± 1.8 Ma and 251.6 ± 2.0 Ma (2σm) have been obtained from the layered, platiniferous Hekeia Gabbro. These are 5-10 Ma older than cooling ages previously obtained by Ar-Ar dating of hornblendes. A revised U-Pb zircon age of 252.8 ± 2.7 Ma is reported for a sample of western Pourakino Trondhjemite [previously dated at 292 ± 8 Ma by multicrystal 207Pb/206Pb thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) methods] and a dike of the trondhjemite that cuts the Hekeia Gabbro is dated at 254.8 ± 2.6 Ma. Our new zircon ages show that the Hekeia Gabbro and Pourakino Trondhjemite were intruded within the same, relatively narrow interval from 261 to 252 Ma. This age range is substantially younger than Early Permian (c. 276-288 Ma) ages inferred from fossil evidence of major Takitimu Group volcanism in the adjacent Brook Street Terrane. We make the novel suggestion that the Hekeia and Pourakino bodies, along with plutons at Bluff and Oraka Point, constitute a new Longwood Suite of the Median Batholith that is spatially and temporally distinct from allochthonous Brook Street Terrane volcanic magmatism. A U-Pb zircon age of 232.3 ± 1.5 Ma from a western Longwood Range granodiorite is the oldest Darran Suite pluton so far recognized and represents the start of a major, isotopically more evolved, pulse of the Median Batholith. (author)

  13. The Capilla del Monte pluton, Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina: the easternmost Early Carboniferous magmatism in the pre-Andean SW Gondwana margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Pankhurst, Robert J.; Rapela, Carlos W.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Saavedra, Julio; Baldo, Edgardo G.; Murra, Juan A.; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2016-07-01

    New geochronological, geochemical, and isotopic data are reported for the Capilla del Monte two-mica granite pluton in the northeastern Sierras de Córdoba. An Early Carboniferous age is established by a U-Pb zircon concordia (336 ± 3 Ma) and a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (337 ± 2 Ma). Zircon saturation geothermometry indicates relatively high temperatures (735-800 °C). The granites have high average SiO2 (74.2 %), Na2O + K2O (7.8 %), and high field-strength elements, high K2O/Na2O (1.7) and FeO/MgO ratios (5.1), with low CaO content (0.71 %). REE patterns with marked negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.14-0.56) indicate crystal fractionation, dominantly of plagioclase and K-feldspar, from a peraluminous magma enriched in F. Isotope data (87Sr/86Srinitial = 0.7086, ɛ Nd336 = -5.5 to -4.4 with T DM = 1.5 Ga, zircon ɛ Hf336 +0.8 to -6.1; mean T DM = 1.5 Ga) suggest a Mesoproterozoic continental source, albeit with some younger or more juvenile material indicated by the Hf data. The pluton is the easternmost member of a Carboniferous A-type magmatic suite which shows an increase in juvenile input toward the west in this part of the pre-Andean margin. The petrological and geochemical data strongly suggest a similar intraplate geodynamic setting to that of the nearby but much larger, Late Devonian, Achala batholith, although Hf isotope signatures of zircon suggest a more uniformly crustal origin for the latter. Further studies are required to understand whether these bodies represent two independent magmatic episodes or more continuous activity.

  14. Mixing and mingling in the evolution of andesite dacite magmas; evidence from co-magmatic plutonic enclaves, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Gamble, J. A.; Burt, R. M.; Carroll, L. D.; Shelley, D.

    2001-10-01

    The southeastern side of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand is marked by a line of andesite/dacite/low-silica rhyolite complexes. Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves occur within the lavas of the four youngest complexes: White Island, Motuhora (Whale Island), Edgecumbe and Tauhara. The enclaves range from coarse-grained gabbros, diorites, granodiorites and a syenite to finer-grained dolerites and microdiorites. The more mafic types are generally porphyritic with large phenocrysts of plagioclase, usually with extensive sieve textures in the cores and corroded margins. Most of these enclaves, including the coarser-grained plutonic examples, contain glass and many are miarolitic. Diorites and microdiorites/dolerites predominate at White Island, Motuhora and Edgecumbe; many are porphyritic. Enclaves at Tauhara are more variable; those collected from Hipaua Dome include a range from microdiorites to quartz microdiorites and those from Rubbish Tip Dome include microdiorites, a granodiorite, and a syenite. Most enclaves show textural evidence for disequilibrium with multiple populations of plagioclase and pyroxene. They also show considerable textural variation, even within a thin section, with coarse-grained gabbros/diorites intimately mixed with finer-grained dolerites/microdiorites. Geochemically and isotopically, most enclaves have a similar composition with their host lavas, although some have lower silica contents. Enclaves at Motuhora and Tauhara are isotopically more variable, indicating multiple sources and a more complex petrogenesis. Most diorite/microdiorite enclaves are interpreted to represent parts of a crystal mush formed during fractionation of andesite/dacite magma, and entrained during later rise of magma to the surface. The granodiorite from Rubbish Tip Dome, Tauhara, probably represents part of a silicic magma chamber within the crust that fed the host low-silica rhyolite lava dome. Variability within the enclaves indicates the complexity likely to occur

  15. Metasomatized lithosphere and the origin of alkaline lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Sébastien; Baker, Michael B; Stolper, Edward M

    2008-05-16

    Recycled oceanic crust, with or without sediment, is often invoked as a source component of continental and oceanic alkaline magmas to account for their trace-element and isotopic characteristics. Alternatively, these features have been attributed to sources containing veined, metasomatized lithosphere. In melting experiments on natural amphibole-rich veins at 1.5 gigapascals, we found that partial melts of metasomatic veins can reproduce key major- and trace-element features of oceanic and continental alkaline magmas. Moreover, experiments with hornblendite plus lherzolite showed that reaction of melts of amphibole-rich veins with surrounding lherzolite can explain observed compositional trends from nephelinites to alkali olivine basalts. We conclude that melting of metasomatized lithosphere is a viable alternative to models of alkaline basalt formation by melting of recycled oceanic crust with or without sediment.

  16. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  17. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  18. Transient species produced in irradiated alkaline aqueous solutions containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra and decay kinetics of the optical absorption in the UV region and at 430nm (maximum of the ozonide ion absorption), were investigated in oxygenated neutral, slightly and strongly alkaline aqueous solutions. It is assumed that the initial absorption after the pulse in oxygenated alkaline solutions is due to the ozonide ion O3-, superoxide radical ion O2- and ozone O3. The long-living absorption in these solutions cannot be excluded as to be probably caused by the ozone O3 or some product formed from O2- or an alkaline stabilized form of this radical-ion. The advantage of applying additional non-optical measurements of the system is shown on the example of H2O2 role played in the mechanism. (author)

  19. ADVANCES IN THE MODEL OF CYLINDRICAL ALKALINE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of a systematic investigation on the modeling of cylindrical alkaline cells is presented.Initial analysis utilizes thermodynamic and kinetic information to predict alkaline cell performance under low discharge rates.Subsequent modling has taken into consideration detailed information on the chemistry of electrode reactions,mass tranport of dissolved species,physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte and solid phases,and internal geonetry of cell systems.The model is capable of predicting alkaline cell performance under a variety of dicharge conditions.The model also provides information regarding internal cell changes during discharge.The model is the basis of a rational approach for the optimal design of cells.

  20. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2005-10-04

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323K, which was about 100-200mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion{sup R}. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol>glycerol>methanol>erythritol>xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode. (author)

  1. Geology and petrology of Lages Alkaline District, Santa Catarina State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1:100.000 geological map shows the main outcrops, covering about 50 Km2, of the leucocratic alkaline rocks, ultra basic alkaline rocks, carbonatites and volcanic breccias which intruded the Gondwanic sedimentary rocks within a short time interval and characterize the Alkaline District of Lages. Chemical analyses of 33 whole-rock samples confirm the petrographic classification, but the agpaitic indexes, mostly below 1.0, do not reflect the mineralogical variations of the leucocratic alkaline rocks adequately. Partial REE analyses indicate that the light as well as the heavy rare earth contents decrease from the basic to the more evolved rocks, the La/Y ratio remaining approximately constant. Eleven new K/Ar ages from porphyritic nepheline syenites porphyritic phonolites, ultra basic alkaline rocks and pipe-breccias, together with six already available ages, show a major concentration in the range 65 to 75 Ma, with a mode at ca. 70 Ma. But one Rb/Sr whole-rock reference isochron diagram gives an age of 82+-6 Ma for the agpaitic phonolites of the Serra Chapada, which are considered younger than the miaskitic porphyriric nepheline syenites. The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of 0.705-0.706 are compatible with a sub continental mantelic origin, devoid of crustal contamination. A petrogenetic model based on subtraction diagrams and taking into consideration the geologic, petrographic, mineralogic and petrochemical characteristics of the alkaline rocks of Lages consists of limited partial melting with CO2, contribution of the previously metasomatized upper mantle, in a region submitted to decompression. (author)

  2. Evidence of differentiated near-surface plutons on Vesta in integrated Dawn color images and spectral datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.; Sunshine, J.

    2014-07-01

    these observations as indicating the presence of one or more differentiated plutons in the Bellicia/Arruntia region.

  3. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  4. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  5. Zeolites as structure formation products of alkalineous cements hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvenko, Р. V.; Runova, R. F.; Rudenko, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    The paper concerns analysis of theoretical and experimental studies, according to which, in conditions of artificial stone making for buildings purposes (cement, concrete), synthesis of alkaline aluminosilicates similar to natural minerals of zeolitic group occurs. Presence of such new formations in hydration products of standartized type alkaline cements provides their high running abilities and durability. Наведено аналіз теоретичних і експериментальних досл...

  6. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  7. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  8. Direct Promotion of Collagen Calcification by Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase promotes hydrolysis of phosphate containing substrates, causes a rise in inorganic phosphate and, therefore, enhances calcification of biological tissues. In this work, the calcification of collagen in a model serum was used as a model of collagenous tissue biomaterials to study the possible calcification promotion mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. In the enzyme concentration range of 0.10.5mg/mL, the enzyme shows a direct calcification promoting effect which is independent of the hydrolysis of its phosphate containing substrates but proportional to the enzyme concentration. Potassium pyrophosphate somewhat inhibits the calcification promotion.

  9. Surface-treatment of Alkaline Earth Sulfides Based Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chong-feng; CHU Ben-li; XU Jian; SU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A series of alkaline earth sulfides based phosphors Ca0.8Sr0.2S∶Eu2+, Tm3+ were covered with a layer of protective coating with alkaline earth fluorides by heating the mixture of phosphor and NH4HF2 at elevated temperatures. The coatings were characterized by means of XRD and SEM. The optical properties of the coated phosphors and the influences of the coating on their properties have been discussed extensively. The stabilities of the coated and uncoated phosphors have been compared.

  10. Thermal, chemical and isotopic homogenization of syn-extensional I-type plutons and mafic microgranular enclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar Erkül, Sibel; Erkül, Fuat; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-04-01

    Magma mixing and mingling processes are common phenomenon in the evolution of granitoid magmas. This study deals with examination of mineral chemical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of enclaves and enclosing syn-extensional granite bodies in western Turkey to make an attempt to solve problems regarding their origin. Mafic microgranular enclaves have granodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzonite and monzodiorite compositions, are subalkaline/calc-alkaline and high-K in character and display typical mixing/mingling textures. Mafic enclaves have partially overlapping geochemical characteristics onto their host rocks in terms of mobile elements and their isotopes while distinct immobile element patterns occur within host rocks and enclaves. Contrasting geochemistry of enclaves is mainly defined by their low SiO2 and high MgO, Mg# and high Fe2O3 contents. Chondrite-normalized spidergrams of enclaves also reveal two contrasting patterns. One is relatively enriched in rare earth element content and the other is slightly enriched and displays relatively flat pattern. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd contents of enclaves imply considerable amount of crustal input. Crustally derived felsic magma coeval with mafic magma have been chemically, thermally and mechanically exchanged with each other and resulting homogenization led to compositional and isotopic equilibration of mafic and felsic magmas. Fractional crystallization, mixing and the following crustal contamination were responsible for the final composition of syn-extensional granitoids. Such processes appear to have been widely occurred in continental extensional regime that caused melting and mixing of crustal and mantle sources at MOHO depth.

  11. The Indosinian collision-extension event between the South China Block and the Palaeo-Pacific plate: Evidence from Indosinian alkaline granitic rocks in Dashuang, eastern Zhejiang, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianren; Ye, Haimin; Liu, Kai; Li, Zilong; Takahashi, Yutaka; Zhao, Xilin; Kee, Weon-Seo

    2013-07-01

    This study reports on the first comprehensive analysis of the geology, petrology and origin of the Dashuang pluton in Jinhua, eastern Zhejiang, South China, which is predominantly composed of quartz monzonite and subordinate quartz syenite that includes variable amounts of aegirine-augite. The quartz monzonite has a porphyritic texture defined by K-feldspar phenocrysts, whereas the quartz syenite shows considerable variation in grain size and is categorised into fine- and coarse-grained types. Zircons from the quartz monzonite and fine-grained quartz syenite yield LA-MC-ICP-MS (laser ablation-multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) U-Pb ages of 231.60 ± 0.86 Ma and 231.7 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively, indicating crystallisation in the Middle Triassic. The chemistry of the quartz monzonite indicates a calc-alkaline to alkaline evolutionary trend, which may reflect partial melting of upper mantle contaminated by Proterozoic basement rocks, subjected to fractional crystallisation during ascent. Both the fine- and coarse-grained quartz syenites are alkaline and have high rare earth element (REE) concentrations, especially light rare earth elements (LREE), and are relatively enriched in large ion lithosphere elements (LILE). The Al2O3 and NaO2 contents of the quartz syenite increase proportionally with SiO2, owing to greater amounts of aegirine-augite and feldspar. The fine-grained quartz syenite has the lowest initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio and lowest Nd model age, and the highest εNd value compared with the quartz monzonite. The quartz syenite compositions are best explained by fractional crystallisation of an enriched mantle-derived alkaline magma. Slight chemical variations result from source heterogeneities, as well as the spatially variable degrees of melting, assimilation, and other factors. Our new age and geochemical data for the alkaline rocks in eastern Zhejiang, considered together with collisional granites from South Korea, support a history of

  12. On the variation of alkalinity during phytoplankton photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkalinity of the organic constituents of marine phytoplankton and their participation in the total alkalinity (TA change of seawater during photosynthesis are carefully assessed. Quantification of the contribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll, proteins and phosphorus compounds to the hydrogen ion balance of seawater in terms of total inorganic nitrogen (∆[NT] = ∆[NH4 +] + ∆[N2] + ∆[NO2 –] + ∆[NO3 –] and total inorganic phosphorus (∆[PT] changes during photosynthesis yielded that the organic components of marine phytoplankton are alkaline by –0.06 × ∆[NT] – 0.49 × ∆[PT], and that the potential total alkalinity (TAP during photosynthesis is TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.08 × [NT] + 0.23 × [PT] for unfiltered seawater samples and TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.02 × [NT] + 0.26 × [PT] for filtered seawater samples. These equations correct the traditionally used expression TAP = TA + [NO3 –]. The TAP anomalies are produced, in order of increasing importance, by N2 fixation, DMSP production and CaCO3 fixation.

  13. Curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Renhe; Wang Yanmin; Zhang Baoping

    2014-01-01

    To study the curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester, three esters were chosen to react with three systems - alkaline phenolic resin, potassium hydroxide aqueous solution containing phenol, and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The variations of pH, heat release and gel pH during the reactions were monitored and measured. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal gravity analysis (TG) techniques were used to characterize the curing reaction. It was found that organic ester is only partial y hydrolyzed and resin can be cured through organic ester hydrolysis process as wel as the reaction with redundant organic ester. The sequential curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin cured by organic ester was identified as fol ows: a portion of organic ester is firstly hydrolyzed owing to the effect of the strong alkaline; the gel is then formed after the pH decreases to about 10.8-10.88, meanwhile, the redundant organic ester (i.e. non-hydrolysis ester) starts the curing reaction with the resin. It has also been found that the curing rate depends on the hydrolysis velocity of organic ester. The faster the hydrolysis speed of the ester, the faster the curing rate of the resin.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  15. Bone alkaline phosphatase and mortality in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Drechsler; M. Verduijn; S. Pilz; R.T. Krediet; F.W. Dekker; C. Wanner; M. Ketteler; E.W. Boeschoten; V. Brandenburg

    2011-01-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) is associated with vascular calcification and mortality in hemodialysis patients, but AP derives from various tissues of origin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bone-specific AP (BAP) on morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. From a prospectiv

  16. Alkalinity and hardness: Critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total alkalinity and total hardness are familiar variables to those involved in aquatic animal production. Aquaculturists – both scientists and practitioners alike – tend to have some understanding of the two variables and of methods for adjusting their concentrations. The chemistry and the biolog...

  17. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Principle, challenges, and recent progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have been recognized as a significant power source in future energy systems based on hydrogen. The current PEMFC technology features the employment of acidic polymer electrolytes which, albeit superior to electrolyte solutions, have intrinsically limited the catalysts to noble metals, fundamentally preventing PEMFC from widespread deployment. An effective solution to this problem is to develop fuel cells based on alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEFC), which not only enable the use of non-precious metal catalysts but also avoid the carbonate-precipitate issue which has been troubling the conventional alkaline fuel cells (AFC). This feature article introduces the principle of APEFC, the challenges, and our research progress, and focuses on strategies for developing key materials, including high-performance alkaline polyelectrolytes and stable non-precious metal catalysts. For alkaline polymer electrolytes, high ionic conductivity and satisfactory mechanical property are difficult to be balanced, therefore polymer cross-linking is an ultimate strategy. For non-precious metal catalysts, it is urgent to improve the catalytic activity and stability. New materials, such as transition-metal complexes, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, and metal carbides, would become applicable in APEFC.

  18. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  19. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  20. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  1. Determination of the density of zinc powders for alkaline battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz Ares Tejero; David Guede Carnero

    2007-01-01

    The density of zinc powder for alkaline battery was determined using a pyknometer.The results showed that powders made before the end of 2003 could reach relative densities above 99% of the theoretical density.Investigating the relative volume swelling of electrolysed gels of zinc powders,no evident relation between swelling and pyknometer density was found.

  2. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.The Great Konya Basin, some 300 k

  3. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  4. A physiologic function for alkaline phosphatase : Endotoxin detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme present in many species including humans, has been studied extensively. Although the enzyme is routinely applied as a marker for liver function, its biologic relevance is poorly understood. The reason for this is obvious: the pH optimum of AP in vitro, as m

  5. Endotoxin detoxification by alkaline phosphatase in cholestatic livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, K; Bakker, WW; Hardonk, MJ; Meijer, DKF; Wisse, E; Knook, DL; Balabaud, C

    1997-01-01

    Increased expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the liver is a hallmark of cholestasis but the pathophysiological role of this is not clear. We argue that deprotonation of carboxyl groups at the active site of the enzyme may be a prerequisite for optimal AP activity. Such a creation of negative

  6. Qualitative aspects of the degradation of mitomycins in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijnen, J H; den Hartigh, J; Underberg, W J

    1985-01-01

    The major degradation product in alkaline solution of mitomycin A, mitomycin C and porfiromycin is the corresponding 7-hydroxymitosane. The isolation and the physico-chemical and analytical properties of these compounds and their derivatized analogues are discussed. Data are presented on the degradation of mitomycin C at extremely high pH values. PMID:16867711

  7. Kinetic characteristics of acidic and alkaline ceramidase in human epidermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.; Uchida, Y.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Paepe, K. de; Vanhaecke, T.; Holleran, W.M.; Rogiers, V.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become evident that at least five ceramidase (CDase) isoforms are present in human epidermis, and that specifically acidic CDase (aCDase) and alkaline CDase (alkCDase) activities increase during keratinocyte differentiation, and thus might play a pivotal role(s) in permeability barri

  8. Porous poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) membranes for alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel;

    2015-01-01

    Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) (PFSA) is one of a few polymer types that combine excellent alkali resistance with extreme hydrophilicity. It is therefore of interest as a base material in separators for alkaline water electrolyzers. In the pristine form it, however, shows high cation selectivity. T...

  9. Role of dust alkalinity in acid mobilization of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by acid gases (e.g., SO2, HNO3, N2O5, and HCl may play a key role in the transformation of insoluble iron (Fe2O3 to soluble forms (e.g., Fe(II, inorganic soluble species of Fe(III, and organic complexes of iron. However, mineral dust particles also have a potential of neutralizing the acidic species due to the alkaline buffer ability of carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3 and MgCO3. Here we demonstrate the impact of dust alkalinity on the acid mobilization of iron in a three-dimensional aerosol chemistry transport model, which is incorporated with a mineral dissolution scheme. In our model simulations, most of the alkaline dust minerals cannot be entirely consumed by inorganic acids during the transport across the North Pacific Ocean. As a result, the inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution in aerosol solution during the long-range transport. Over the North Pacific Ocean, only a small fraction (<0.2% of iron dissolves from hematite in the coarse-mode dust aerosols, when assuming internally mixed with carbonate minerals. However, if the iron-containing minerals are externally mixed with carbonate minerals, a significant amount (1–2% of iron would dissolve from the acid mobilization. It implies that the alkaline content in dust aerosols might help to explain the inverse relationship between aerosol iron solubility and particle size.

  10. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  11. On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land–Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10. Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage 2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km. Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

  12. Major discrepancies between results obtained with two different methods for evaluating DNA damage: alkaline elution and alkaline unwinding. Possible explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taningher, M; Bordone, R; Russo, P; Grilli, S; Santi, L; Parodi, S

    1987-01-01

    The fluorometric assay of DNA alkaline unwinding, developed by Birnboim and Jevcak (Cancer Res 41: 1889-1892, 1981) was applied to rat liver DNA, after treatment in vivo. N-nitrosodimethylamine, for which DNA damage in rat liver has been extensively investigated, was tested as a standard compound. The results were in complete agreement (both in terms of damage and repair) with data from the literature and with our own results obtained with other methods of detecting DNA alkaline fragmentation. Sensitivity was also of the same order of that of usual methods, with the effect of 0.3 mg/Kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine being detectable. Other DNA damaging carcinogens such as 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 2-naphthylamine and dacarbazine were also correctly detected. Compounds like nitrofurantoin, benzoin and caprolactam, which appeared clearly positive with the alkaline elution technique, but for which genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are doubtful (nitrofurantoin) or most likely negative (benzoin and caprolactam), gave negative results with this method. This is also in agreement with previous results, observed using a different approach to measuring DNA unwinding. On the basis of these and other observations, we suggest that, under certain conditions, the alkaline elution technique is perhaps not only sensitive to DNA breaks but also to changes in chromatin conformation. Unwinding methods could be more specific in the detection of DNA fragmentations. PMID:3674758

  13. Thermal effects of the Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (southern Portugal on the meta-igneous and metasedimentary host rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC is a late-Variscan granitic body located in the northern part of the Ossa Morena Zone, a inner zone of the Variscan Iberian Massif. The SEPC host rocks are composed of meta-igneous and metasedimentary units, from Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic ages, with a NW-SE structure, cross-cut by the SEPC. The SEPC host rocks, with low grade metamorphism show well preserved primary sedimentary or igneous mineralogical, textural and structural features. The thermal effect induced by the SEPC is restricted to the roof pendants. At N and NE of the SEPC, textures and paragenesis resulting from thermal metamorphism, are not related to the SEPC intrusion but to a previous magmatism, controlled by the NW-SE regional anisotropies. The restriction of the thermal effects to the pluton roof may be caused by a combination of several interrelated factors: higher volume of granitic mass, thermal effect by advection of fluids and longer period of prevalence of high thermal conditions. The geochemical study of SEPC host rocks shows the heterogeneous character and diversity of metasedimentary, igneous and meta-igneous rocks. The whole rock geochemical data indicate that all the metasedimentary lithologies derived from an upper continental crustal source and the igneous and meta-igneous rocks show no evidence of metasomatic effects by the SEPC emplacement.El Complejo Plutónico de Santa Eulalia (CPSE es un cuerpo granítico tardi-Varisco situado en la parte norte de la Zona de Ossa Morena, en la zona interior del Macizo Ibérico Varisco. Las rocas encajantes del CPSE están compuestas por unidades meta-ígneas y metasedimentarias, de edades que van desde el Proterozoico Superior hasta el Paleozoico, con una estructura de dirección NW-SE, cortada por el CPSE. Las rocas encanjantes del CPSE, con metamorfismo de bajo grado conservan estructuras, mineralogía y textura primarias. El efecto térmicoinducido por el CPSE se limita a los

  14. A hybrid origin for two Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in eastern Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Monzonites can provide important information about the nature of the mantle sources and the mechanism of crust-mantle interactions. However, details on the origin of Late Mesozoic monzonites in the Southeastern China remain poorly constrained. This paper presents whole-rock geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic and zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for two monzonitic plutons (Huangtanyang and Kanggu) in eastern Zhejiang Province, with the aim of elucidating their petrogenesis, and providing important insights into the process of crust-mantle interaction. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results imply that the Huangtanyang and Kanggu quartz monzonites were emplaced in Cretaceous (104-109 Ma). All quartz monzonites are intermediate to acidic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. They are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, Ba and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and show weakly negative or no Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.78-1.02). All quartz monzonites have homogeneous initial ISr values (0.7084-0.7090) and εNd(t) values (-7.50 to -6.84). They are characterised by highly variable zircon Hf isotopic compositions, with εHf(t) values ranging from -13.3 to -5.7. The combined geochemical evidences (such as high Mg# values, low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios, and variable zircon Hf isotopic compositions) suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of the monzonites. The existence of some zircons with unusually low εHf(t) values (low to -13.3) and Palaeoproterozoic two-stage Hf model ages from the Huangtanyang and Kanggu quartz monzonites also argues strongly for Palaeoproterozoic crustal involvement. Magma mixing played a dominated role in the genesis of these monzonites, as indicated by their wide range in zircon Hf isotopic compositions and the occurrence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). The MMEs show

  15. Sphene (Titanite) as Both Monitor and Driver of Evolution of Felsic Magma: Miocene Volcanic Plutonic and Rocks of the Colorado River Region, NV-AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. F.; Colombini, L. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.; Gualda, G. A.; Claiborne, L. E.; Ayers, J. C.

    2009-05-01

    Sphene is commonly the most abundant accessory mineral in metaluminous to weakly peraluminous igneous rocks. Its relatively large crystals preserve a wide array of zoning patterns and inclusions - notably, abundant other accessories and melt inclusions - and it is a major host for REE, U, Th, and HFSE. Thus it is a valuable repository of information about the history of the magmas from which it forms. Recent development of a Zr-in- sphene thermometer (Hayden et al CMP 155:529 2008) and of sensitive and precise in situ trace element analysis by SHRIMP-RG (Mazdab et al GSA abst 39:6:406 2007) permit more powerful exploitation of this repository. We have initiated a study of sphene in Miocene intrusive and extrusive rocks of the Colorado River extensional corridor for which extensive field, geochemical, and geochronological data provide context. Sphene is present as a late interstitial phase in some gabbros and diorites and common in quartz monzonites and granites. Among extrusive rocks, it occurs as phenocrysts in rhyolite lavas and tuffs that are products of small to giant eruptions (Peach Spring Tuff, >600 km3). Glasses that host sphene in the rhyolites are highly evolved (>76 wt% SiO2). Applying the Zr-in-sphene thermometer (TZr), SHRIMP-RG analyses indicate crystallization T between 730 and 810 C in both plutonic and volcanic rocks. This range is narrower than T estimates for zircon growth (Ti thermometry) for the same suite, which extend to somewhat lower and considerably higher values; zircons also tend to record more events and, evidently, longer histories. Ranges of REE patterns are variable and to some extent sample-specific, but all reveal common characteristics: (1) extremely high concentrations, especially for middle REE (maximum Sm in interiors 10-40x103 x chondrite); (2) deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* ca. 0.1-0.2); (3) TZr and REE dropping toward rims - especially pronounced for MREE. Estimated Kds for REE from sphene rims and rhyolite glass or

  16. Effects of sodium nitroprusside activity of acid and alkaline invertases and alkaline phosphatase in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud Wats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjewala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of SNP, a nitric oxide donor on sucrose metabolizing enzymes, acid and alkaline invertase (EC 3.2.1.26 and 3.2.1.153 and ubiquitous alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1 in four lemongrass varieties viz., Krishna, Cauveri, Nima and Cheerharit. For the study, two 15 d lemongrass tillers were cut and immediately dipped into the test tubes containing SNP solution (5 mL of variable strength (1 to 5 mM and one without SNP (as control; kept for 4 h under mild sunlight. The results revealed that moderate SNP concentration (2 mM was most effective, caused drastic reduction (40% in protein content in var. Nima followed by Krishna (33%, Cauveri (17% and Cheerharit (12%. In contrast, SNP (1 mM has impressively enhanced protein content in all the lemongrass varieties. The SNP (2 mM markedly inhibited the activity of acid invertase by 38% in Cheerharit, 35% Nima and 28% Cauveri whereas and alkaline invertase by 21, 28 and 24% respectively in var. Cheerharit, Nima and Krishna. Similarly, SNP (5 mM severely inhibited (~ 63% the activity of the ALP in lemongrass var. Cauveri and Nima, 50% in Krishna and relatively less 23% in Cheerharit as compared to the control. However, in var. Nima, 50% loss in ALP activity had already been occurred after 2 mM SNP treatment. These results primarily suggests that NO interferes sucrose metabolism by anonymously hindering the activity of acid and alkaline invertase and ubiquitous alkaline phosphatase in lemongrasses.

  17. Origin of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite and associated dioritic dikes in the Hongqilafu pluton, northwestern Tibetan Plateau: A case for crust-mantle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiyong; Niu, Yaoling; Hu, Yan; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Meng; Sun, Pu

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed study of geochronology, mineral chemistries, bulk-rock major and trace element abundances, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions of the granodiorite and associated dioritic dikes in the Hongqilafu pluton at the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The granodiorite and dioritic dikes yielded zircon U-Pb ages of ~ 104 Ma and ~ 100 Ma, respectively. The dioritic dikes comprise varying lithologies of gabbroic diorite, diorite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry, exhibiting a compositional spectrum from intermediate to felsic rocks. Their mineral compositions display disequilibrium features such as large major element compositional variations of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole crystals. These dioritic dikes are enriched in incompatible elements (Ba, Rb, Th, U, K) and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sri: 0.7066 to 0.7071, εNd(t): - 5.3 to - 7.4, εHf(t): - 3.6 to - 6.2). We suggest that the dioritic dikes were most likely derived from partial melting of mantle wedge metasomatized by the subducted/subducting seafloor with a sediment component, followed by AFC processes with fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase and assimilation of lower continental crust. The mantle-wedge derived magma parental to the dioritic dikes underplated and induced the lower continental crust to melt, forming the felsic crustal magma parental to the granodiorite with mantle melt signatures and having more enriched isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sri: 0.7087 to 0.7125, εNd(t): - 9.5 to - 11.6, εHf(t): - 10.3 to - 14.1) than those of the dioritic dikes. The Hongqilafu pluton is thus the product of mantle-crust interaction at an active continental margin subduction setting over the period of several million years. This understanding further indicates that the closure timing of the Shyok back-arc basin and the collision between the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc and the Karakoram Terrane may have taken place later than ~ 100 Ma.

  18. Kinematic evolution of the Fodjomekwet-Fotouni Shear Zone (West-Cameroon): Implications for emplacement of the Fomopéa and Bandja plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheumenak Kouémo, Jules; Njanko, Théophile; Kwékam, Maurice; Naba, Séta; Bella Nké, Bertille E.; Yakeu Sandjo, Angeline F.; Fozing, Eric M.; Njonfang, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    The Fodjomekwet-Fotouni shear zone (FFSZ) belongs to the western part of the Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ). From the border to the core, the FFSZ is made of: (i) protomylonites, (ii) garnet-sillimanite mylonites and (iii) garnet-sillimanite ultramylonites. Structural data indicate (1) a N40°E mylonitic foliation trend (strongly dipping toward NE or SW) with strike varying between N34°E-78°NW at Fotouni and N52°E-61°SE at Fodjomekwet; (2) a stretching lineation (plunging toward NE or SW) with best line varying between 224/4 at Fotouni and 232/10 at Fodjomekwet; (3) sinistral (N-S) and dextral (NE-SW) kinematic markers, respectively correlated to the D2 and D3 of the CCSZ deformation phases. The presence of relic sinistral shear markers wrapped by dominant dextral shear markers rendered difficult the understanding of the FFSZ evolution. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in the FFSZ shows that magnetic fabrics are characterized by dominant NE-SW and locally N-S to NNE-SSW trending foliation and lineation. These directions show that mylonitisation was initiated in the N-S direction during the sinistral syn-D2 shearing, evolved and reoriented toward NNE-SSW and NE-SW between 613 and 590 Ma. The sinistral shearing event was thereafter followed by a NE-SW trend dextral syn-D3 reactivation of the N50°E fault between 580 and 552 Ma. The sinistral phase seems to have favoured the evolution of fractures in pull-apart structures. The pull-apart opening of fracture enables the upwelling of magma and the emplacement of the Fomopéa and the Bandja plutons (FBP). This synkinematic emplacement is witnessed by the elongated shape and the NE-SW trending direction of these massifs. Kinematic emplacement of FBP controlled by active shear zone is comparable to syntectonic plutonism in eastern Nigeria and NE Brazil.

  19. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation in initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of plural

  20. Mixing and melt sources in the Miocene Aztec Wash pluton (Nevada, USA) as revealed by zircon Hf and O and whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M.; Miller, J. S.; Miller, C. F.; Bromley, S.; Davies, G. R.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    The 15.6 Ma Aztec Wash Pluton (AWP) is one of several Miocene intrusions located within the northern Colorado River extensional corridor. Extensive E-W tilting of fault blocks has exposed the pluton from the roof to 5 km structural depth. Earlier field and petrologic studies subdivided the AWP into two distinct zones: (1) a Granite Zone (GZ) comprised of relatively homogeneous granite with subtle differences in textures and mineralogy; (2) a Heterogeneous Zone (HZ), which interfingers the GZ, contains evidence for mafic and felsic magma input with a wide compositional range (42-78 wt% SiO2), and abundant field evidence for hybridization. Previous whole rock geochemistry and zircon trace element analyses indicated that compositional variation was produced by multi-component mixing between mafic and felsic melts within the HZ. New whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope data from the HZ show that all rocks (including high-silica granites) formed by mixing Precambrian crust and enriched mantle, with mixtures having a large mantle fraction (≥50%). New Hf (n=189) and O (n=241) isotope analyses of zircon from samples in the HZ confirm these melt sources and provide a broader perspective on hybridization processes within the AWP. Zircon grains from all samples show heterogeneous Hf and O isotopic compositions (-5 to -18 ɛHf; 4.5-7.5% δ18O), but despite the clear signature of Precambrian crust in the whole rock data, obvious Precambrian zircons (or cores) were mostly absent; only one zircon was clearly Precambrian (ɛHf = -25). Resolvable intragrain variability is relatively limited (including the Precambrian grain, which is unzoned). Zircons from hand samples and from compositional groups also show heterogeneous ɛHf and δ18O values, although the spreads are more restricted than in the whole data set (6-10 ɛHf in granites, 5-7 ɛHf in intermediate "hybrids", 5-6 ɛHf in gabbro/diorite sheets). Oxygen isotope values for the zircons also show intra-handsample heterogeneity

  1. Tracking fluid action in Little Sark Pluton (Channel Islands, UK): a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Schwanethal, J.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Sherlock, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Little Sark pluton (Channel Islands, UK) is a weakly to moderately deformed pluton of quartz diorite composition. Zircon from Little Sark has been dated as 611.4(+2.1/-1.3) Ma [Miller et al. 1991, Tectonophysics, 312], whereas titanite has an age of 606.2±0.6 Ma. Hornblende yields an Ar-Ar age of 606.4±3.4 Ma [Dallmeyer et al., 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148]. The rocks show evidence for post-magmatic hydrous alteration including chloritisation of biotite, and sericite formation in feldspar. We investigated the alteration in order to understand its influence on the Ar-Ar system. Detailed petrographic investigations of two samples indicate different deformation levels - S1, (less deformed), and S2 (more deformed). The feldspar is andesine to oligoclase in composition, but contains K-rich areas with patchy and sometimes cleavage guided sericitization. Mafic minerals include hornblende and biotite (the latter partially chloritized). Ar-Ar investigations were carried out using high spatial resolution UV laser ablation gas release in combination with a Nu instruments Noblesse gas mass spectrometer using spots of 80 to 140 μm diameter. Mafic minerals in S1 have highly variable 38Ar/39Ar and 37Ar/39Ar ratios and unusually high atmospheric contents for such old samples, possibly reflecting the presence of fluid inclusions associated with the sericite, particularly in the feldspar. The apparent ages in their entirety range from 429 to 668 Ma. Hornblende yields homogeneous apparent ages, whereas the younger and older ages are measured in both micas and feldspars, whose apparent ages range from 245-670 Ma. The modal age for feldspar is around 400-450 Ma, but this may not have geological meaning. Sample S2 shows many of the same features as S1. Mafic minerals span a slightly smaller age range and feldspars display apparent ages of ~245-645 Ma with a mode around 480 Ma. The alteration of both samples appears to have been accompanied by the introduction of 40Ar-rich fluids

  2. Amphibole-melt trace element partitioning of fractionating calc-alkaline magmas in the lower crust: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandedkar, Rohit H.; Hürlimann, Niklaus; Ulmer, Peter; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-09-01

    Ca, and Mg#. Spoon-shaped REE patterns and subchondritic Nb/Ta ratios in tonalitic to granodioritic plutonic rocks and andesitic to rhyolitic magmas directly constrained by measured trace element compositions of coexisting liquids are consistent with hornblende gabbro fractionation in the middle to lower crust. The systematic change of the measured trace element composition of fractionating calc-alkaline liquids indicates that hornblende gabbro formation in the middle to lower crust also exerts an important control on some commonly used trace element ratios such as Sr/Y, Sr/Ba or Nb/Zr.

  3. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  4. Screening of Alkaline Protease-Producing Streptomyces diastaticus and Optimization of Enzyme Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dawoodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Alkaline proteases are used in pharmaceutical, film and photography, silk production and food, leather and detergent industries. Actinomycetes are gram positive bacteria that produce different enzymes such as proteases. The aims of this research were isolation of native alkaline protease-producing Actinomycete spp. from different soil samples as well as optimizing the conditions for enzyme production. Materials and Methods: The different soil samples were collected from different locations of the provinces of Khouzestan, Chahar Mahalo Bakhtiari and Isfahan, Iran. After determining of the best alkaline protease producing species using Lowry method, the optimization of alkaline protease was performed. Results: The alkaline protease producing Actinomycete spp. was isolated from soil. The most enzyme activity was measured in S.diastaticus. The best concentration of sucrose as the carbon source for the highest production of alkaline protease was 10 g/l. The optimum pH and temperature for the alkaline protease production by S. diastaticus were 10 and 30°C respectively. The maximum activity of alkaline protease was measured at 200 rpm as the best aeration speed. Conclusions: This is the first report of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces diastaticus in Iran. The accomplished examinations in this research confirmed the previous theories of alkaline protease production by Actinomycetes relatively. Regarding the immense applications of alkaline proteases in several industries and isolation of a native alkaline protease producing Actinomycete, The production potential of this enzyme in our country could be accessible in the near future.

  5. 40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434.40 Section 434.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9680 - Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkaline titania silica gel (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9680 Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... alkaline titania silica gel (PMN P-95-529) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  8. Controlled charge exchange between alkaline earth metals and their ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the prospects of realizing controlled charge exchange via magnetic Feshbach resonances in cold and ultracold collisions of atoms and ions. In particular, we focus on near-resonant charge exchange in heteroisotopic combinations of alkaline earth metals, such as 9Be++10 Be9 Be+10Be+ , which exhibit favorable electronic and hyperfine structure. The quantum scattering calculations are performed for a range of initial states and experimentally attainable magnetic fields in standard coupled-channel Feshbach projection formalism, where higher-order corrections such as the mass-polarization term are explicitely included. In addition, we predict a number of magnetic Feshbach resonances for different heteronuclear isotopic combinations of the listed and related alkaline earth elements. Our results imply that near-resonant charge-exchange could be used to realize atom-ion quantum gates, as well as controlled charge transfer in optically trapped cold quantum gases. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline earth atoms: ;{40}Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe

    2009-09-25

    We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of ;{40}Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground-state s-wave scattering length of ;{40}Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about 2 x 10;{4} atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less than 3 s. The condensation of an alkaline earth element opens novel opportunities for precision measurements on the narrow intercombination lines as well as investigations of molecular states at the ;{1}S-;{3}P asymptotes. PMID:19905493

  10. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions

  11. Lithuanian Quarry Aggregates Concrete Effects of Alkaline Corrosion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Rutkauskas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate alkaline corrosion of cement in concrete is going to respond in sodium and potassium hydroxide (lye with active SiO2 found in some aggregates. During this reaction, the concrete has resulted in significant internal stresses which cause deformation of the concrete, cracking and disintegration. The reaction is slow and concrete signs of decomposition appear only after a few months or years. The study used two different aggregates quarries. Studies show that Lithuania gravel contaminated with reactive particles having amorphous silicon dioxide reacting with cement in sodium and potassium hydroxide and the resulting alkaline concrete corrosion. It was found that, according to AAR 2 large aggregates include Group II – potentially reactive because of their expansion after 14 days, higher than 0.1%.

  12. Solubilisation of lignite during oxydesulphurization in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept. (Turkey)

    1997-12-31

    Some desulphurization processes such as oxydesulphurization in which dissolved oxygen is attached to coal particles are performed usually in alkaline solutions. Therefore, these processes are resulted in not only sulphur removal but also some solubilisation of the coal matrix. In this study three different Turkish lignite samples are subjected to various oxydesulphurization processes in which dilute solutions of NaOH, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}OH or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} containing dissolved oxygen under pressure were applied. The experiments were performed in a magnetically stirred and electrically heated Parr autoclave. The extent of the solubilisation is varied depending on the type and concentration of the alkaline used, the applied temperature and the rank of the lignite sample used. (orig.)

  13. Radiolysis of actinides and technetium in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    The {gamma}-radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), Tc(IV), Tc(V), and TC(VII) was studied in the absence of additives and in the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, EDTA, formate, and other organic compounds. The radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and TC(VII) under different experimental conditions was examined in detail. The addition of EDTA, formate, and alcohols was found to considerably increase the radiation-chemical reduction yields. The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the {gamma}-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np (VI) in the presence of nitrate.

  14. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costarrosa, L. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Calvino-Casilda, V. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrera-Escudero, S. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Duran-Valle, C.J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Martin-Aranda, R.M. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es

    2006-06-30

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation.

  15. A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution is reported. In PtBromate-Alkaline solution system, two different types of electrochemical oscillations (Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ) can be observed. Type Ⅰ appears before hydrogen evolution and Type Ⅱ involves periodic hydrogen evolution. Type Ⅰ relates to the adsorption/desorption of the hydrogen on platinum electrode, and Type Ⅱ with periodic oscillation stems from the coupling of electrochemical reactions (the reduction of bromate and evolution hydrogen reaction) with mass transfer (diffusion and convection). More over, under the right conditions, the two types appear in different oscillatory modes, for example,simple periodical mode and mixed one, etc,, Crossed cycle in the cyclic voltammograms, which is the basiccharacteristics for electrochemical oscillatory systems, has also been observed as expected.

  16. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  17. Methanol oxidation on Pd/Pt(poly) in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic, A.; Rakocevic, Z.; Smiljanic, M.; Nenadovic, M.; Strbac, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic electrodes prepared by Pd nanoislands spontaneously deposited on polycrystalline platinum, Pt(poly), at submonolayer coverage were explored for methanol oxidation in alkaline media. Characterization of obtained Pd/Pt(poly) nanostructures was performed ex situ by AFM imaging, spectroscopic ellipsometry and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In situ characterization of the obtained electrodes and subsequent methanol oxidation measurements were performed by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KOH. Platinum surface with 35% Pd coverage exhibited the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline media, exceeding those of bare Pt and Pd. Both synergistic and electronic effects are responsible for such enhanced catalysis. The origin of the synergistic effect and possible reaction pathways for methanol oxidation were discussed taking into account the activity of obtained bimetallic electrodes for the oxidation of CO and formaldehyde, as the most probable reaction intermediates.

  18. Alkaline Protease Production by a Strain of Marine Yeasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; CHI Zhenming; MA Chunling

    2006-01-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China.The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45 ℃.The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5 g soluble starch and 2.0 g NaNO3 in 100 mL seawater with initial pH6.0.The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5 ℃, aeration rate 8.0 L min -1 and agitation speed 150 r min-1.Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 Umg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30 h of fermentation.

  19. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...... for the topology of multicomponent melts, before accurate prediction of phase relations within boron-containing glass ceramics can be obtained....

  20. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...... are Cl- and CO-2, the rest comprising a range of water-soluble compounds, a small, Cl-free residue, and a recognizable amount of H-2....

  1. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  2. Interaction of alkali and alkaline earth ions with Ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Miklos [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Kunsagi-Mate, Sandor; Matisz, Gergely; Li, Yin; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Janos Szentagothai Research Center, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Peles-Lemli, Beata [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Koszegi, Tamas, E-mail: koszegit@freemail.hu [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary)

    2013-03-15

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the chemical equilibrium of mono- and dianionic forms of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) and their bonding onto the surface of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization techniques. Our results show that alkali metal ions shift the chemical equilibrium towards formation of dianionic form of OTA. Furthermore, the alkaline earth ions can compete with BSA for binding to OTA when these ions are present in millimolar concentrations. Our data also highlight the possibility that the 'free' fraction of OTA (not bound onto the surface of albumin) or at least a part of it is present in cation-bound form in body fluids. These observations are supported by stability constants and quantum-chemical calculations. Among the studied alkaline metal ions magnesium showed the highest affinity towards OTA under physiological conditions. Further research is required to analyze the potential significance of Mg{sup 2+}-OTA complex in cellular uptake and/or elimination of the toxin in the human body. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals cation-Ochratoxin A (OTA) interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali ions shift the equilibrium of OTA to formation of a dianionic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline earth ions directly bind to OTA in the order: Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations and logK values support our experimental data.

  3. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea. PMID:26841066

  4. Alkaline phosphatase for immunocytochemical labelling: problems with endogenous enzyme activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, A. S.; Heyderman, E

    1981-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase may be used as a label for immunocytochemistry and can be demonstrated in tissue sections using the single step naphthol phosphate method. Endogenous enzyme activity may not be destroyed by fixation in formalin, formol alcohol, Carnoy's or Baker's solutions and should be inhibited before results are assessed. Either Bouin's solution or periodic acid followed by potassium borohydride are satisfactory inhibitor and do not adversely affect immunocytochemical results.

  5. In vitro fermentation response to alkaline treated sorghum grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD PARNIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of three alkaline treatments: NaOH, NaHCO3 and wood ash on the crude protein (CP, condensed tannin (CT, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in vitro gas production kinetics and dry matter (DM digestibility of sorghum grain were determined. The NaOH (2% w/v, NaHCO3 (2% w/v and wood ash (5% w/v treatments were completed by soaking of sorghum grain with treatment solutions in the proportion of 1 L of solution to 1 kg of grain for 12 h. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h post incubation. Alkaline treatment decreased significantly the CT (P<0.001 and NDF content (P<0.05 of sorghum grain, where it had no effect on the CP content. Treated grain with wood ash extract showed the highest (P<0.05 maximum gas production (A, and NaOH treatment trended (P<0.06 to the fastest fractional fermentation rate. Fractional rate of gas production and cumulative gas production overall incubation times except of 48 h (P<0.05 were not changed by NaHCO3 and wood ash treatment. Maximum (P<0.01 in vitro DM digestibility of alkaline treatment of sorghum grain was observed by NaOH. Cumulative volatile fatty acids concentration was increased (P<0.01 at 4h for NaOH treated compared to untreated sorghum and then decreased (P<0.001 at 48 h post incubation. Alkaline treatment of sorghum grain may become attractive due to raise in nutritive values of sorghum and hide the negative effects of its tannin in the future if the costs of other processing continue to rise.

  6. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  7. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311–318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm

  8. Long range interactions between alkali and alkaline-earth atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion coefficients between the alkali metal atoms (Li-Rb) and alkaline-earth metal atoms (Be-Sr) are evaluated using matrix elements computed from frozen core configuration interaction calculations. Besides dispersion coefficients with both atoms in their respective ground states, dispersion coefficients are also given for the case where one atom is in its ground state and the other atom is in a low lying excited state.

  9. Alkaline Anion-Exchange Membranes Containing Mobile Ion Shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaolin; He, Yubin; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Ran, Jin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-05-01

    A new class of alkaline anion-exchange membranes containing mobile ion shuttles is developed. It is achieved by threading ionic linear guests into poly(crown ether) hosts via host-guest molecular interaction. The thermal- and pH-triggered shuttling of ionic linear guests remarkably increases the solvation-shell fluctuations in inactive hydrated hydroxide ion complexes (OH(-) (H2 O)4 ) and accelerates the OH(-) transport. PMID:26972938

  10. WHEAT STRAW ALKALINE LIGNIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS RETENTION AID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Beihai He; Huaiyu Zhan; Shuhui Yang; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pan; Jianhua Liu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of retention system of PEO/cofactor retention system is introduced, the cofactors used are phenol-formaldehyde resin, wheat straw alkaline lignin and its derivatives such as hydroxymethylated lignin, sulfited lignin and lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde resin. The first pass retention of newsprint slurry and the properties of handsheet are improved by using the system. The results indicate that a new application field for lignin has been exploited.

  11. Purification and characterization of alkaline protease from Lysinibacillus fusiformis

    OpenAIRE

    Suppiah S*; Sendeshkannan K; Prabakaran P; Rajkumar G; Yasothkumar N

    2012-01-01

    A novel alkaline protease producing bacterium was isolated from the gut of an estuarine fish Etroplus suratensis. The strain was identified by sequencing the fragment of their bacterial 16s rRNA and its homology was 97% closest to the Lysinibacillus fusiformis. An extracellular protease from this organism was purified by acetone precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography methods and the specific activity of the purified enzyme was found to be 20.39 U/mg, 169....

  12. Heavy metals quantification on alkaline batteries incineration emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos; Silva, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals emissions associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a point of discussion and care due to the known harmful effects of these metals on humans and environment. Batteries are appointed as one of the main contributors for those emissions, particularly for mercury, cadmium, zinc and lead. In this paper, results for heavy metals emissions from alkaline batteries obtained in a laboratorial incinerator are presented. The incineration process took place in a tubular ove...

  13. The 226Ra isotope activities in ground water samples drawn of two wells from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State; Atividades do 226Ra em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos localizados no pluton meridional, granitoides de Morungaba, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Mario Goncalves da; Bertolla, Luciana; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: brenha@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The 226Ra activities, both in solution and associated with suspended solids, were measured in ground water samples drawn from two wells drilled in a fractured granitic aquifer from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State. The 226Ra isotope activities were measured in a sequence of samples collected about one month apart between March, 2003 and April 2004. The 226Ra activities were measured by radon gas emanometry. The mean dissolved 226Ra activity concentration activities observed in the two wells were (44.9 {+-} 7.1) mBq/L and (51.6 {+-} 8.8) mBq/L. The 226Ra activity of the suspend solids in a liter of these waters varied between (0,6 {+-} 0,1) mBq and (13 {+-} 1) mBq, respectively. (author)

  14. Epithermal gold-siver deposits in the western United States: time-space products of evolving plutonic, volcanic and tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; Bonham, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The western United States has been the locus of considerable subaerial volcanic and plutonic igneous activity since the mid-Mesozoic. After the destruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc-trench system, subduction was re-established in the Late Mesozoic with low-angle underthrusting of the oceanic plate beneath western North America. This resulted in crustal shortening during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary and removal of the mantle lithosphere west of the Rocky Mountains. Commencing in the Eocene, flat subduction ceased, the volcanic arc began to re-establish itself along the continental margin, and the hingeline along the steepening subducting plate migrated from east to west. The crust east of the migrating hingeline was exposed to hot asthenosphere, and widespread tectonics and volcanic activity resulted. Hydrothermal activity accompanied the volcanism resulting in numerous epithermal gold-silver deposits. The temporal and spatial distributions of epithermal deposits in the region are therefore systematic and can be subdivided into discrete time intervals which are related to widespread changes in magmatic activity. Time intervals selected for discussion are Pre-Cenozoic, 66-55 Ma, 54-43 Ma, 42-34 Ma, 33-24 Ma, 23-17 Ma, and tectonic context of the western United States provides a unified framework in which to understand and explore for epithermal type deposits. ?? 1990.

  15. Petrological and Mineralogical Study of Enclaves in Plutons in the Typical Mining Districts of Tongling,Anhui and Its Bearing on the Process of Magmatism—Metallogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杨松

    1999-01-01

    Two types of enclaves occur in magmatic plutons in Tongling,Anhui.Enclaves of the first type are residuals of metamorphic rocks of high amphibolite facies,and those of the other type are magmatic rocks ranging from monzonitic to dioritic in composition. A combined petrological and mineralogical study has been carried out on the two types of enclaves in order to estimate their forming conditions and analyze their relations to their hosts.so as to have an insight into the material sources of magmatic rocks and associated mineral deposits and give a clue to better understanding the mechanism of magmatism-metallogeny.This leads us to propose a new metallogenic model for strats-bound skarn-type ore deposits associated with a syntectic type of magmatic rocks.The new model can be simply summarized as partial melting of old metamorphic basement rocks at depth and accumulating,differentiating and positioning of magmas to form deep-level and shallow-level magma chambers,follower by mixing of different magmas associated with their crypto-explosion,migration of gas-bearing ore fluids and precipitation of metals in fluids within the magmas.

  16. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  17. Mechanism of zinc electroplating in alkaline zincate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-jie; WANG Yun-yan

    2007-01-01

    The cathodic deposition properties and mechanism of Zn in alkaline zincate solution were studied by electrochemical techniques. The results show that Zn2+ exists in the alkaline solution in the form of Zn(OH)42-. The apparent activation energy of the electrode reaction is 38.93 kJ/mol, which indicates that the discharge of Zn(OH)42- on cathode is controlled by electrochemical polarization, and accompanied by a preceding chemical reaction. The diflusion coefficient of Zn(OH)42- is 2.452×10~cm2/s. Zn(OH)2 is the species directly discharged on the cathode surface. Based on the above results the mechanism of zinc electroplating in alkaline zincate solution was put forward.The discharged species is Zn(OH)2 formed from the preceding chemical reaction, which becomes Zn(OH)ad when gaining one electron, and then gaining the second electron to become Zn.The first electron gaining step is rate determining one.

  18. Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (E, and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg·ha−1 of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150 kg·ha−1 Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize.

  19. Mechanism of gold dissolving in alkaline thiourea solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-yuan; WANG Yun-yan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of gold dissolving in alkaline thiourea solution was studied by electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, AC impedance, linear sweep voltammetry. Apparent activation energy of anodic process of gold electrode dissolving in alkaline thiourea solution is 14.91 kJ/mol. Rate determining step is the process of gold thiourea complex diffusing away from electrode surface to solution. The results of AC impedance and chronopotentiometry indicate that thiourea adsorbs on gold electrode surface before dissolving in solution. There does not exist proceeding chemical reactions. Formamidine disulfide, the decomposed product of thiourea, does not participate the process of gold dissolution and thiourea complex. Species with electro-activity produced in the process of electrode reaction adsorbs on the electrode surface. In alkaline thiourea solution, gold dissolving mechanism undergoes the following courses: adsorption of thiourea on electrode surface; charge transfer from gold atom to thiourea molecule; Au[SC(NH2)2]ads+ receiving a thiourea molecule and forming stable Au[SC(NH2)2]2+; and then Au[SC(NH2)2]2+diffusing away from the electrode surface to solution, the last step is the rate-determining one.

  20. Activation of Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Trifluoroethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志方; 徐真; 朴龙斗; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a stable enzyme which is strongly resistant to urea, guanidine hydrochloride, acid pH, and heat. But there have been few studies on the effect of organic cosolvents on the activity and structure of alkaline phosphatase. The activity of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) is markedly increased when incubated in solutions with elevated trifluoroethanol (TFE) concentrations. The activation is a time dependent course. There is a very fast phase in the activation kinetics in the mixing dead time (30 s) using convential methods. Further activation after the very fast phase follows biphasic kinetics. The structural basis of the activation has been monitored by intrinsic fluorescence and far ultraviolet circular dichroism. TFE (0 - 60%) did not lead to any significant change in the intrinsic fluorescence emission maximum, indicating no significant change in the tertiary structure of CIAP. But TFE did significantly change the secondary structure of CIAP, especially increasing α-helix content. We conclude that the activation of ClAP is due to its secondary structural change. The time for the secondary structure change induced by TFE preceds that of the activity increase. These results suggest that a rapid conformational change of ClAP induced by TFE results in the enhancement of ClAP activity, followed by further increase of this activity because of the further slightly slower rearrangements of the activated conformation. It is concluded that the higher catalytic activity of ClAP can be attained with various secondary structures.

  1. Alkaline static feed electrolyzer based oxygen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, L. D.; Kovach, A. J.; Fortunato, F. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Grigger, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    In preparation for the future deployment of the Space Station, an R and D program was established to demonstrate integrated operation of an alkaline Water Electrolysis System and a fuel cell as an energy storage device. The program's scope was revised when the Space Station Control Board changed the energy storage baseline for the Space Station. The new scope was aimed at the development of an alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer for use in an Environmental Control/Life Support System as an oxygen generation system. As a result, the program was divided into two phases. The phase 1 effort was directed at the development of the Static Feed Electrolyzer for application in a Regenerative Fuel Cell System. During this phase, the program emphasized incorporation of the Regenerative Fuel Cell System design requirements into the Static Feed Electrolyzer electrochemical module design and the mechanical components design. The mechanical components included a Pressure Control Assembly, a Water Supply Assembly and a Thermal Control Assembly. These designs were completed through manufacturing drawing during Phase 1. The Phase 2 effort was directed at advancing the Alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer database for an oxygen generation system. This development was aimed at extending the Static Feed Electrolyzer database in areas which may be encountered from initial fabrication through transportation, storage, launch and eventual Space Station startup. During this Phase, the Program emphasized three major areas: materials evaluation, electrochemical module scaling and performance repeatability and Static Feed Electrolyzer operational definition and characterization.

  2. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

  3. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    main foliation. Both at the meso- and micro-scale few generations of syn-/inter-kinematic and static thermo-metamorphic blasteses (e.g. biotite, wollastonite, garnet, epidote etc.) are evident. Finally weak local folding and faulting affected the Monte Capanne thermo-metamorphic aureole during the uplift of the cooled pluton. Along the coast of Spartaia (north-eastern side of Monte Capanne) the meta-sedimentary upper portion of the Punta Nera Unit crops out and it is represented by alternating marbles and phyllites with rare meta-arenites. Here, the relationships between tectono-metamorphic and thermo-metamorphic structures, and intrusive magmatic bodies are particularly evident. D_1M_1: is recognizable at the meso-scale only as rare relics of intrafolial isoclinal rootless hinges and locally as a transposed foliation (S1). At the microscope a relic fine-spaced foliation, locally preserved by the following re-crystallization and parallel to the original lithological partitions, is evident. The original mineral associations is often replaced by HT/LP mimetic and syn-kinematic or static blasteses. D_2M_2 is the most evident structural fabric pre-dating the thermo-metamorphic events. It is represented by tight to isoclinal folds with N-S trending axes and easternward vergence. At the microscope the S2 foliation deformed the previously S1 and at the fold hinges a variously penetrative discrete crenulation cleavage (S2) is recognizable. M_3 is the first thermo-metamorphic event. It is associated to the intrusions of the Capo Bianco, San Martino and Portoferraio laccoliths (between ca. 8 and 7.2 Ma, Rocchi et alii, 2002) along pre-existing tectonic and lithological discontinuity. The laccoliths clearly crosscut the tectono-metamorphic fabric of the Punta Nera Unit. At this first magmatic event is associated a HT/LP blastesis of static garnet, wollastonite and epidote. Close to the contact between the magmatic intrusive bodies the country rocks are strongly re

  4. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  5. Role of dust alkalinity in acid mobilization of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by acid gases (e.g., SO2, HNO3, N2O5, and HCl may play a key role in the transformation of insoluble iron (Fe in the oxidized or ferric (III form to soluble forms (e.g., Fe(II, inorganic soluble species of Fe(III, and organic complexes of iron. On the other hand, mineral dust particles have a potential of neutralizing the acidic species due to the alkaline buffer ability of carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3 and MgCO3. Here we demonstrate the impact of dust alkalinity on the acid mobilization of iron in a three-dimensional aerosol chemistry transport model that includes a mineral dissolution scheme. In our model simulations, most of the alkaline dust minerals cannot be entirely consumed by inorganic acids during the transport across the North Pacific Ocean. As a result, the inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during the long-range transport to the North Pacific Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2% dissolves from hematite in the coarse-mode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. On the other hand, a significant fraction of iron (1–2% dissolves in the fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model quantitatively reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Pacific Ocean. It implies that the buffering effect of alkaline content in dust aerosols might help to explain the inverse relationship between aerosol iron solubility and particle size. We also demonstrate that the iron solubility is sensitive to the chemical specification of iron-containing minerals in dust. Compared with the dust sources, soluble iron from combustion sources contributes to a relatively marginal effect for deposition of soluble iron over the North

  6. Petrology and mineralogy of the La Peña igneous complex, Mendoza, Argentina: An alkaline occurrence in the Miocene magmatism of the Southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Galliski, Miguel Ángel; Márquez-Zavalía, María Florencia; Colombo, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The La Peña alkaline igneous complex (LPC) is located in the Precordillera (32°41‧34″ S - 68°59‧48″ W) of Mendoza province, Argentina, above the southern boundary of the present-day flat-slab segment. It is a 19 km2 and 5 km diameter subcircular massif emplaced during the Miocene (19 Ma) in the Silurian-Devonian Villavicencio Fm. The LPC is composed of several plutonic and subvolcanic intrusions represented by: a cumulate of clinopyroxenite intruded by mafic dikes and pegmatitic gabbroic dikes, isolated bodies of malignite, a central intrusive syenite that develops a wide magmatic breccia in the contact with clinopyroxenite, syenitic and trachytic porphyries, a system of radial and ring dikes of different compositions (trachyte, syenite, phonolite, alkaline lamprophyre, tephrite), and late mafic breccias. The main minerals that form the LPC, ordered according to their abundance, are: pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite), calcium amphibole (pargasite, ferro-pargasite, potassic-ferro-pargasite, potassic-hastingsite, magnesio-hastingsite, hastingsite, potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite), trioctahedral micas (annite-phlogopite series), plagioclase (bytownite to oligoclase), K-feldspar (sanidine and orthoclase), nepheline, sodalite, apatite group minerals (fluorapatite, hydroxylapatite), andradite, titanite, magnetite, spinel, ilmenite, and several Cu-Fe sulfides. Late hydrothermal minerals are represented by zeolites (scolecite, thomsonite-Ca), epidote, calcite and chlorite. The trace element patterns, coupled with published data on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, suggest that the primary magma of the LPC was generated in an initially depleted but later enriched lithospheric mantle formed mainly by a metasomatized spinel lherzolite, and that this magmatism has a subduction-related signature. The trace elements pattern of these alkaline rocks is similar to other Miocene calc-alkaline occurrences from the magmatic arc of the Southern Central Andes. Mineral and whole

  7. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  8. S saturation history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    ores have higher Ni and Pd tenor than the Eastern Deeps massive sulfides; this is consistent with both a higher R factor and greater degree of silicate parental magma evolution in the Ovoid than the Eastern Deeps. The disseminated sulfides surrounding the Eastern Deeps deposit have some of the highest Ni and Pd tenors at Voisey's Bay, which are indicative of not only more primitive magmas but also higher R factors than the Ovoid or the Eastern Deeps. VTT and normal-textured troctolite of the Eastern Deeps that contain trace sulfide have 0.1-3 ppb Pt and 0.1-3 ppb Pd, whereas weakly to heavily mineralized variable troctolites in the same unit have one to two orders of magnitude higher abundances of Pt and Pd. Troctolites and olivine gabbros from other parts of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion and other Nain Plutonic Suite Intrusions, including the Kiglapait, Newark Bay, Barth Island, Mushua, and Nain Bay South Intrusion, also have low platinum group element abundances. Although it is possible that this is a signature of a widespread sulfide saturation event that pre-dated ore formation at Voisey's Bay, it is more likely that platinum group element (PGE) depletion is a product of the source melting process where low degrees of melting resulted in the retention of PGE in the mantle source. If so, this indicates that PGE depletion should be used with caution as an exploration tool in the Nain Plutonic Suite.

  9. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  10. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  11. Rapid, Effective DNA Isolation from Osmanthus via Modified Alkaline Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Variability of leaf structure and presence of secondary metabolites in mature leaf tissue present a challenge for reliable DNA extraction from Osmanthus species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to develop a universal rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of DNA isolation for Osmanthus mature leaf tissue. Four different methods were used to isolate DNA from 8 cultivars of Osmanthus. Absorbance spectra, DNA concentration, appearance on agarose gel, and performance in PCR were used to analyze quality, quantity, and integrity of isolated DNA. Methods were ranked in order, based on total quantity, quality, and performance points as the following: 1) solid-phase extraction (SPE), 2) modified alkaline lysis (SDS), 3) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with chloroform (CHL), and 4) CTAB with phenol/chloroform (PHE). Total DNA, isolated via SPE, showed the least contamination but the lowest mean quantity (9.6 ± 3.4 μg) and highest cost. The highest quantity of DNA was isolated via SDS (117 ± 54.1 μg). SPE and SDS resolved the most individuals on agarose gel, whereas the 2 CTAB methods had poorly resolved gels. All methods except PHE performed well in PCR. Additions to the modified alkaline lysis method increased A260:A230 by up to 59% without affecting yield. With the use of SDS, an average of 1000 μg/g DNA was isolated from fresh leaf tissue of 18 samples in ∼1.5 h at a cost of 0.74 U.S. dollars (USD)/sample. We recommend improved alkaline lysis as a rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of isolating DNA from Osmanthus species. PMID:26816495

  12. HYDROGEN SULFIDE ADSORPTION BY ALKALINE IMPREGNATED COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI SUN CHOO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one type of renewable energy which can be burnt to produce heat and electricity. However, it cannot be burnt directly due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S which is highly corrosive to gas engine. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC was applied as a porous adsorbent for H2S removal. The effect of amount of activated carbon and flow rate of gas stream toward adsorption capacity were investigated. Then, the activated carbons were impregnated by three types of alkaline (NaOH, KOH and K2CO3 with various ratios. The effects of various types of alkaline and their impregnation ratio towards adsorption capacity were analysed. In addition, H2S influent concentration and the reaction temperature on H2S adsorption were also investigated. The result indicated that adsorption capacity increases with the amount of activated carbon and decreases with flow rate of gas stream. Alkaline impregnated activated carbons had better performance than unimpregnated activated carbon. Among all impregnated activated carbons, activated carbon impregnated by K2CO3 with ratio 2.0 gave the highest adsorption capacity. Its adsorption capacity was 25 times higher than unimpregnated activated carbon. The result also indicated that the adsorption capacity of impregnated activated carbon decreased with the increment of H2S influent concentration. Optimum temperature for H2S adsorption was found to be 50˚C. In this study, the adsorption of H2S on K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The fresh and spent K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon were characterized to study the adsorption process.

  13. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  14. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene and Oligocene plutons in southeast Iran: Implication for closure of the South Sistan Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Jean-Pierre; Mohammadi, Ali; Ruh, Jonas; Bouilhol, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The N-S trending Sistan Suture Zone in eastern Iran is a splay of the Tethys sutures. It represents an oceanic embayment that separated the Central Iran from the Afghan continental blocks. Structural, tectonic and petrological/geochemical evidence define eastward subduction beneath the Afghan continental block of the Sistan inlet of the Mesozoic Tethys Ocean. Mapping of the area allowed reaching and sampling intermediate to granitic intrusions stretched along the southern segment of this collisional suture zone. U-Pb zircon crystallization ages combined with major and trace element analyses, dated the series of granite-granodiorite-rhyolite at ca 40.5-44.3 Ma and ca 28.9-30.9 Ma. Isotopic geochemistry, including Sr-Nd isotopes and Hf isotope analyses, and petrological modelling suggest that the 40.5-44.3 Ma plutons crystallized from melts largely derived from the turbidites of the host accretionary wedge. Melting of the deep wedge was induced by the intrusion of mantle magmas interacting with the crustal turbiditic melts, which is responsible for the wide range of compositions. Most of the 28.9-30.9 Ma magmas were generated from mantle melting, with assimilation of the surrounding turbidites. The rare setting of within-wedge intrusions is attributed to mantle upwelling reaching wedge sediments at the inception of delamination processes, which sign the end of subduction-related deformational and thermal events in the Sistan Suture Zone. Numerical modelling of subduction - magma production - intrusion and melting of wedge sediments further constrains this collisional to post-collisional scenario.

  15. Geophysical exploration of disseminated and stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive rock: a case study on the eastern flank of Colombia’s western cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Pardo Orlando

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Disseminated deposits are low-grade, large tonnage deposits which are mainly mined for gold, copper, molybdenum and tin. These deposits are normally associated with intermediate to acid plutonic intrusive rocks and all are characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration of host rocks. Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to dense vegetation, lack of rock outcrops and extensive but variable saprolytic weathering. Geophysical exploration of these deposits normally includes magnetic, induced polarization and gamma ray spectrometry surveys. The largest RTP total magnetic field anomaly highs are usually associated with diorite porphyry intrusive bodies. Diorites are usually less magnetic than basaltic rocks; thus when magnetic anomaly highs are related to intrusions they can be explained by basic metals’ intensive mineralization (including magnetite associated with porphyry intrusions. Magnetic anomaly gradients regularly help delineate local discontinuities which can be interpreted as local faults and joints that can be mineralized. Gamma ray spectrometry is useful for determining anomalous potassium, uranium and thorium concentration as it can map alteration halos and linear discontinuities. Statistical analysis of the data also can determine the intermediate intrusive / extrusive nature of porphyry intrusions. Gamma ray spectrometry can help to determine elemental potassium concentration, regardless of the associated potassium mineral species, thereby enabling alteration mapping in a geological setting related to volcanic-associated massive sulphide base metal and gold deposits. An induced polarization survey is useful in outlining disseminated sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits related to chargeability anomaly highs. The results of the Quinchía project’s geophysical exploration program are discussed.

  16. Equilibrium partitioning and subsequent re-distribution of halogens among apatite-biotite-amphibole assemblages from mantle-derived plutonic rocks: Complexities revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiber, Holger; Scharrer, Manuel; Marks, Michael A. W.; Arzamastsev, Andrei A.; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    The concentration of halogens in apatite, biotite and amphibole is investigated for a large variety of mantle-derived plutonic rocks (gabbros, diorites, monzonites, olivine- and pyroxene-bearing monzonitic to granitic rocks, syenites, carbonatites and a phoscorite). In all rocks studied, apatite occurs as an early magmatic phase, whereas biotite and amphibole may occur either as a late magmatic phase or as late-stage, potentially hydrothermal product replacing precursor olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides (ilmenite and magnetite). Based on electron microprobe analyses for F and Cl and detailed textural observations, we test existing models of halogen partitioning between apatite and biotite. Bromine concentration data for apatite, biotite and amphibole are used to further refine our understanding of the geochemical similarities and differences between Cl and Br during magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Our data suggests that F and Cl contents in apatite, biotite and amphibole can indeed be useful monitors of the halogen systematics in magmas, but they may also be subject to post-magmatic changes to variable extents. The relatively small radius and compatible F cation seems to be less prone to post-magmatic alteration and is likely to best reflect the original magmatic halogen abundances - especially in apatite. However, the larger and probably more incompatible Cl anion, is more easily re-mobilized as reflected by strong redistribution of Cl in biotite and amphibole which have been clearly overprinted by hydrothermal fluids. In certain cases, the ability of halogens to re-distribute themselves after magmatic equilibrium partitioning (as emphasized by our data) suggests that observed partitioning (especially between apatite and biotite) may also be used as a very sensitive indicator for post-magmatic hydrothermal processes.

  17. Alkaline cyanide biodegradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Blasco, R; Huertas, M J; Martínez-Luque, M; Moreno-Vivián, C; Castillo, F; Roldán, M D

    2005-02-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 uses cyanide, cyanate, beta-cyanoalanine, and other cyanoderivatives as nitrogen sources under alkaline conditions, which prevents volatile HCN (pK(a) 9.2) formation. The cyanide consumed by this strain is stoichiometrically converted into ammonium. In addition, this bacterium grows with the heavy metal, cyanide-containing waste water generated by the jewellery industry, and is also a cyanide-resistant strain which induces an alternative oxidase and a siderophore-based mechanism for iron acquisition in the presence of cyanide. The detection of cyanase and beta-cyanoalanine nitrilase activities in cyanide-induced cells suggests their implication in the cyanide degradation pathway.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented

  20. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4.......4. Three enzyme peaks were eluted using low pressure chromatography with a Bio-gel column. With a HPLC gel filtration column the separation of the enamel extract resulted in only one peak with AP activity. The fractions of this peak were used to produce an antibody against bovine AP....